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POWERS

Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as a , involving two numbers, the base a and the exponent (or power) n. When n is a positive integer, exponentiation corresponds to repeated multiplication; in other words, a product of n factors of a (the product itself can also be called power):

n

The exponentiation a can be read as: a raised to the n-th power, a raised to the power [of] n, or more 2 briefly as a to the n. Some exponents have their own pronunciation: for example, a is usually read as a 3 squared and a as a cubed.

Properties of Exponents

Zero Exponent Property Negative Exponent Property Product of Powers Property Quotient of Powers Property a0 = 1, (a 0)

(ab)c = abc

A.N.L.: MATHS

Scientific notation:

Scientific notation is a way of writing numbers that accommodates values too large or small to be conveniently written in standard decimal notation. Scientific notation has a number of useful properties and is commonly used in calculators, and by scientists, mathematicians, doctors, and engineers. In scientific notation all numbers are written like this:

, where the exponent b is an integer, and the coefficient a is any real number whose integer part is at least one but less than ten. To write a number in scientific notation:

Put the decimal after the first digit and drop the zeroes.

In the number 123,000,000,000 The coefficient will be 1.23 To find the exponent count the number of places from the decimal to the end of the number. In 123,000,000,000 there are 11 places. Therefore we write 123,000,000,000 as:

The rational numbers are the numbers of arithmetic: the whole numbers, fractions, mixed numbers, and decimals; together with their negative images. An example of irrational number is ("Square root of 2"). is not a number of arithmetic. There is no whole number, no fraction, and no decimal whose square is 2. But to prove that there is no rational number whose square is 2, then suppose there were. Then we could express it as a fraction

m m m m = = 2. n n n n

since m is in lowest terms, then n

A.N.L.: MATHS

But that is impossible. Because m and n have no common divisors except 1. Therefore, m m and n n also have no common divisors -they are relatively prime -- and it will be impossible to divide n n into m m and get 2 There is no rational number whose square is 2. Therefore we call an irrational number.

RADICALS

The nth root of a number x, , is a number r which, when raised to the power of n, equals x: r = x, where n is the degree of the root. A root of degree 2 is usually called a square root and a root of degree 3, a cube root. For example: 2 is a square root of 4, since 2 = 4. 2 2 is also a square root of 4, since (2) = 4. , with denoting the square root, denoting is

2 n

the cube root, denoting the fourth root, and so on. In the expression the radical sign, and x is called the radicand.

because

n

ab = (ab )n = a n b n =

1 n

an b

( a)

n m n

= a , because

mn

( a)

n

p 1 an = an = n ap =

a =

a , because

1 1 m an = am n = m n a

A.N.L.: MATHS

Rationalizing the Denominator (with one term)

In order to rationalize the denominator, we need to get rid of all radicals that are in the denominator. Step 1: Multiply numerator and denominator by a radical that will get rid of the radical in the denominator. If the radical in the denominator is a square root, then you multiply by a square root that will give you a perfect square under the radical when multiplied by the denominator. If the radical in the denominator is a cube root, then you multiply by a cube root that will give you a perfect cube under the radical when multiplied by the denominator and so forth... Keep in mind that as long as you multiply the numerator and denominator by the exact same thing, the fractions will be equivalent. Step 2: Make sure all radicals are simplified. Step 3: Simplify the fraction if needed. Example 1: Rationalize the denominator .

Multiply

numerator

and

denominador

by

th

square

root

of

4 6 . 6 2 6 3

Again, rationalizing the denominator means to get rid of any radicals in the denominator. Because we now have two terms, we are going to have to approach it differently than when we had one term, but the goal is still the same. Step 1: Find the conjugate of the denominator. You find the conjugate of a binomial by changing the sign that is between the two terms, but keep the same order of the terms. a + b and a - b are conjugates of each other

Mara Vitudes Muoz

A.N.L.: MATHS

Step 2: Multiply the numerator and the denominator of the fraction by the conjugate found in Step 1 . Step 3: Make sure all radicals are simplified. Step 4: Simplify the fraction if needed.

Example 2: Rationalize the denominator The conjugate of the denominator is Multiply the numerator and the denominator of the fraction by the conjugate of the denominator

Simplify the fraction if needed. Since no simplifying can be done on this problem the final answer is:

Two radicals are like (or similar) radicals if they have the same index and same radicand. That is, if everything after the coefficient is exactly the same, then the radicals are like. You can only add similar radicals. Of course, in order to tell if two radicals are like, they first need to be in simplest form. Example 3

27 57 + 7 = - 2 7

Example 4

6 7-

28 +3 63 = 6 7 - 2 7 +3 3 7 = 13 7

A.N.L.: MATHS

1) Calculate the value of the following roots: a) b) c)

5

12

3 =

0'09 =

210 =

49 =

12

3

x8 =

27 =

3) Express as a root: a)

3

4 2 =

9 :3 3 =

5 =

1

2 3

b)

b)

62 =

1

c)

16 : 2 =

c)

a4 =

a)

6 2=

b) c)

600 =

b) c)

3

23 6 =

3

150 = 56 =

56 =

3 2 3 8 3 18 = 7 54 + 24 3 6 = 5 2 +3 5 +4 2 +2 5 =

A.N.L.: MATHS

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