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Notes on McFarlands Organizational Analysis - Lecture 12 - Organizational Learning

First the teacher explains an example of organized anarchy applied to his own course What is an organizational learning perspective?
Focuses on adaptation
Experience Encoding past inferences Routines are enacted practices, not ostensive rules

A concern with practice


Features of practices
Collaborative Shared and understood through formalism Entail improvisation/adaptation via use

Concerns
Improvisation needs to be valuable Create collaborative practices Put knowledge into organizational memory

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Notes on McFarlands Organizational Analysis - Lecture 12 - Organizational Learning

Topics of organizational learning


Learning curves: How do you know that learning has occurred
A. Indicators Test scores Attendance Office referrals, etc B. Means of generating gains Improve personnel Routines Technology C. Problems Most learning plateaus for each indicator Use of an indicator makes learning only as good as the indicator

Organizational forgetting and memory


a. Schools are primarily forgetting organizations Knowledge gets outdated Personnel turnover Teachers work in isolation b. Where is there organizational memory in schools Curricula/technology (database) Routines Personnel and cultural features like stories and rites

Communities of practice
Effect Learning to be Adopting different identities How to create COP in schools Instill collaboration Afford training on local innovation Allow meetings that entail sense-making o Kind of garbage can meetings o Not necessary to make decisions Encourage frequent communication Think ways to remember individual and organizational practices (databases?) Problems of COP's Provides collaboration without reach Generates local maxima Susceptible to group-think (bias and uniformity that harms organization)

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Notes on McFarlands Organizational Analysis - Lecture 12 - Organizational Learning

Networks of practice and knowledge transfer


Learn about (ostensive rules) Books Inter-organizational networks How to generate an NOP? Head-hunt Train Reverse engineer outside solutions Transfer across units (people across depts and schools) Hire bridges/facilitators/consultants Problems of NOP No community More learning about, less learning to be Local adaptations less of emphasis

Exploration, exploitation & learning traps


Exploration Searching variation risk-taking experimenting play flexibility and innovating Potential for innovation Risk of failure is increased More like a network of practice Exploitation Refining choice production honing increasing efficiency getting better More like a community of practice Learning traps When there is no balance between exploration and exploitation Failure traps > negative feedback Competency traps > positive feedback

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