Publications of the Department of Indian Philosophy

No.
General Editor:
S. S.

4*

v

SURYANARAYANA SASTRI

THE

SIDDHANTALESASANGRAHA
OF

APPAYYA DlKSlTA
[VOLUME
I

TRANSLATION]

THE

SIDDHANTALESASANbKAHA
OF

APPAYYA DIKSITA

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION
BY
S. S.

SURYANARAYANA SASTRI
Department of Indian Philosophy

VOLUME I
TRANSLATION

UNIVERSITY OF MADRAS
1935

CONTENTS

PAGE
Introduction
. . .
. . .

.

.

1

Analytical Table of Contents

.

.

.

.

67

Translation of Chapter

I

..

..129 ..245
.

Chapter

II

..

Chapter III
Chapter

.

.

.

331

IV

..

..387

INTRODUCTION.

A

BRIEF sketch of the life and works of Appayya Diksita has been provided in the Introduction to the

Sivadvaitanirnaya. there as 1552-1624.
to

to

The Diksita 's period was given This traditional date was subject even then and has since been subjected questioning further examination. 2 The principal arguments are

1

two, a negative and a positive ; the negative one seeks to show that the traditional horoscope is a piece of

guess-work based on subsequent calculation, and

is

a

miscalculation at that, since the day arrived at would appear to belong to the cyclic year Pramadica in tho

19th century and not in the 16th this information given to the writer of the article by the late L. D. Swamikannu
;

presumably collect in that case, we have to accept the main contention of the article and accept the antedating by thirty years as very probable. On. the
Pillai is
;

astronomical data alleged we are not qualified to pronounce; but it is unfortunate that no upholder of the traditional view has yet questioned the statement.

The

positive argument, though striking, is far from convincing. It is based on an inscription iu the temple

of Kalakanthesvara at Adayapalam. The inscription records the building of the temjple by Appayya Diksita,

who

had written the jSivarkamanitKpika as a commentary on ^rikantha's Bhasya, had been bathed in gold by Cinna Bomma, had received gifts of
in 1582 A.D.
1 2

Published by the University of Madras, 1930.

See "More about the age and life of Srlmad Appayya by Y. Mahalinga Sastri, JORM, III, 140.

S [-1

INTRODUCTION

gold and lands for teaching the said Bhasya to five hundred pupils and so on it also states that the Dlksita
;

was the author of a hundred works sueh as the Nyayaraksdmani and the Kalpatcmiparimcila. If it
can be presumed that the year mentioned is the year of the inscription, then Appayya should certainly have
attained the zenith of his glory by then; and it would be much more reasonable to suppose that he was born in

But the inscription provides no evidence as to when it was itself carved, nor even as to when the temple was built (or moi-e likely re-built). The date mentioned need relate only to Appayya *s
1522
tli

an in 1552.

teaching of the

BMsya, his writing

of the Sirarlramani-

dipika and perhaps the honour done to him at China

Bomma's

court,

The word " subsequently (adukkup-

pin)" is vague, but not devoid of significance; and it would suggest the considerable interval that must have elapsed between this early mark of royal favour and the The building finishing of his hundred and more works. or re-edification of the temple might have fallen

anywhere within

this period; even if that too be fixed

at 1582 A.D.,'it proves nothing as to the date of the

inscription itself. It

may well have been the pious work

of sons and grandsons. Not even the first signatory can be identified with Appayya, for a certainty; for he himself is referred to as Appai Diksitar, while the
first

signatory calls himself Appa Diksitar. They are variants of the same name, no doubt, and there is no uniformity about the spelling even of our
variation in the course of a

Appayya 's name; but a
few words
in one

and the same inscription may well make us pause, especially when there is no certain

DATE OF APPAYYA AND THE PRESENT WORK

3

means of dating the inscription itself.
tions

Other considera-

based

on

the

dates

of

Appayya's

known

contemporaries are by no means conclusive. All that is certain is that the best part of Appayya's work

seems to belong to the second half of the 16th century; whether he died at the close of that century or in the
first

quarter of the seventeenth

is

uncertain.

For our purpose here, it is
earliest, if

also immaterial.
is

There

can be no doubt that the Siddhantalesa
not the earliest of Appayya's.

one of the

While show-

ing undoubted mastery of the varieties of advaita
exhibits very little of his own genius, except in the discussion of sarvamukti at the end of the fourth
doctrine,
it

The prefatory remark that the author is Setting down what he learnt from his father, for the purpose of his own mental clarification, may be taken
chapter.
at its face value, as indicating the comparatively early

have not yet stage of the author's development. the vigorous polemic writer much less do we have the
;

We

syncretist

who blended with such an eminent degree

of

success the system taught by his father with the system

he expounded by royal command, infusing into both the
devotion to Siva that came through natural piety. Indeed, we have yet no trace of his Saiva leanings, but

a rather marked indication of his not having developed " " any sectarianism (if it may be so called) when he speaks of the Ganga as flowing from the toe of Vi$ruu When' his devotion to Siva develops and he tries to establish the superiority of Siva as identical with

Brahman, not Samhai-a Kudra, wo find him elaborately trying to show that there are two rivers
Saguiia

4
called

INTRODUCTION

Ganga, that one flowed out of Visnu's toe but
the side of

fell

down

Mem

straight into the sea, while that

which is worn by Siva on his head is another Ganga, whose fruitful waters course along different lands bringing joy and plenty everywhere before they finally
3 unite with the sea.

I

The tiiddhantdlesa

is

much more than

a catalogue

The author's mind has reacted on the views expounded and some evidence
of varieties of advaita dodrine.
of
it is

found in the way he arranges the views on each

topic.

The order
it

is

not

necessarily

chronological,

though

may

be so in a few cases.

topic, for instance, the first

In the very first view expounded, that study

of the Vedfmta is an apurva-vidhi, is that of the author of the Prakatartlia, while the last view, that there is no injunction at all, is that of Vacaspati; and Vacaspati

was

certainly

earlier

than

the

author

of

the

Prakatartha,

the former in vile language for his alleged slavish adoption of Mandana's views. The arrangement of the views is so made that, in most
cases, each prior

who abused

view comes in for criticism from the
is

exponent of the next; criticism

thus immanent,

though rarely out of the mouth of Appayya himself. In some cases, Appayya seerns either not to have had access to originals or relied on a defective m'emory.
3

verse about

Sec the Drahmatwkasstava, vv. 35, 36 and 37. The same prefatory the Ganga flowing from Venn's toe is found in the

Nytiy<mik$tiniwii too. This work is posterior to the &id<lhantale$a,' but prior to the &wa<lvaitaHirnay<*9 since in the discussion of sarvamukti, the

former 'work*

is

referred

to,

not

the

latter

(see

p.

192

of

the

VALUE OF THE PRESENT WORK

Thus

Brahmasiddhi are uniformly unfortunate in the matter of both commission and
his references to the

omission.

verse quoted in the fourth chapter is ascribed to the Vartika, while it really occurs in the

A

Brahmasiddhi; a view ascribed to the Brahmasiddhi, as to the nature of the removal of nescience, is not distinctive of that work, and is not found stated there in the words used by Appayya; the criticism of difference is largely based on the Tattvasuddhi, a work later than the Brahmasiddhi and expressly based on it in regard to this topic; the view that whatever is
cognised is really of one nature alone, satta, and that therefore difference has no place in valid knowledge is
4 pre-eminently Mandana's; yet it is ascribed to the author of the Tattvasuddhi, who derived it from

Mandana and did not add to it in any way. 5 But with all this Appayya is fairly reliable as a guide to the
views he summarised.
It is often said that the

Hindu

habit of writing

commentaries and sub-commentaries on given cryptic texts has not been favourable to originality or the
development of thought. A study of the Siddhantalesa will help to dispel such delusions. Bound as the writers

no doubt
4

felt

themselves to be by the doctrines of the

"mlyam&nai-'ka-rupeu na ni$edho 'vakaavan||"
Brahma&iddJii,
p. 58.

5
6

See Appendix

for quotation

from Tattvasuddhi.

Some attempts has been made to trace Appayya's quotations, and As the literature is vast and much of it is unpublished, any to make out an exhaustive list takes an unconscionable time. The attempt present editor has had to content himself for the moment with the little he
references.

has done, in the hope that his further work in post-Sankara advaita
will help

him

to complete the list

m

the fullness of time.

6

INTRODUCTION

Vedanta Sutras as interpreted by Sankara, they yet show considerable variation and originality in tackling
the various problems in detail. The questions they solve are not merely of exegetic interest, as in the consideration of the question whether there is a vidhi in
respect of Vedanta study, but of profound logical and psychological interest as well. The illusionism that they

apparently profess does not blind them to problems on
the empirical plane and the solutions suggested display considerable ingenuity, to say the least. No one who

reads the lengthy discussion of the nature and function 7 of psychoses will continue in the belief that there is no
scope for originality or progress in Hindu thought. And no one who studies the dialectic on difference 8 will

imagine that the advaita is a facile intuitionism based on alleged Scriptural declarations and mystic experience, devoid of a cogent intellectual background.
II.

Even where the discussion seems to centre round what the Sruti or !ankara said, it is not without considerable interest to the modern student. In the
early part of the third chapter, two questions are raised as to the competence of the sudra for Brahmankinowledge,

and as

to the

need for renunciation as a

preliminary to Vedanta study. The treatment of both questions shows how Hindu thought has by no means been static or custom-bound. While one view holds that
the sudra

not competent to leam the Veda, that therefore he can neither know nor practise the Vedic rites
is
7

Chapter

I,

-section 5 and. sub-sections.

Chapter

II,

section I an4 sub-sections.

REFORM MOVEMfeNTS

y

that are declared to lead to Brahman-knowledge, and that consequently he cannot have Brahman-knowledge,

according to another view, learning the Veda is onl> one of the means to Brahman-knowledge and though this is denied to the sfidra, he 'has other means open to him, such as recital of the sacred five letters
(pancaksara), the making of gifts and so on the section of the Veddnta Sutras which denies competence to the
;

sudra relates only to such Sagiuia meditations as can be
learnt

from the Vcdanta alone; knowledge of the Nirguna Brahm'an in so far as it is learnt from the Vedanta is of course excluded; but in so far as that

knowledge can be acquired otherwise, the sudra is welcome to it, and knowledge in other ways cannot be said to be impossible. We thus seem to find a liberal

movement tending

to conserve the old prohibitions, but restricting their scope as far as may be consistent with

ancient loyalties. But the liberal tendency would not appear to have flourished without check for, according
;

to another view (mentioned at the close

and possibly

favoured by Appayya), the observances for which the sudra is eligible cannot of themselves lead to the
required knowledge, but will at best endow him. in the next birth with the body of one of the twice-born castes.

The movement of reaction is almost proportional to that
of reform. 9

Similar movements
of the other question
9
10
;

may be noticed in the treatment
even am'ong the twice-born, the
III.

See Sections 1*421, and 1*422, Chapter

See Sections 2*14, 2-141, 2-142, 2-143, Chapter III. One may be strongly tempted to see a chronological development in these views as presented by Appayya; but, for this, of course, there is no justification.
10

g

INTRODUCTION
to occupy a position of vantage;

brahmin alone seems

for the sake of results both seen and unseen, renunciation is prescribed as a preliminary to study (sravana)

of the Vedanta but according to Scripture, the brahmin alone is entitled to renounce. The most liberal answer
;

to this difficulty is to take Scripture to

have used the
implying
is

word "brahmin"
a reference to

figuratively, as a synecdoche

all

twice-born castes; and this
it

the

answer according to the upholders of one view.

Others,

no

less liberal,

would have
is

that though figurative
to,

implication

may not

be justly resorted

renunciation,

which no doubt

restricted to brahmins, is not a

necessary preliminary to Vedanta study; whore the student is eligible to renoimce he should certainly do so
;

but ksatriyas and vaisyas, who arc not so eligible, may proceed to the study without renunciation; else even
renounce, since no karma is enjoined for them, would be ineligible for study. In thus exalting the ksatriya and vaisya almost to the level of
devas,

who cannot

devas, this reformer laid himself open to a flank attack the devas, it was said, have no need to renounce, since
;

they do not require its result seen or unseen; they are not bound to perform any karma; hence there is no
distinction to be secured
result, that

by samnyasa as for
;

its

unseen

must have been secured by renunciation in
;

prior existences the devas do not have to renounce, just as they do not have to learn the Veda by rote from a teacher; but their position can be of no help in deter-

mining the competence of ksatriyas and vaisyas

;

these,

like the widower, are eligible for study of a kind; that study, however, will lead not to Brahman-knowledge,

but to re-birth as a brahmin.

Reaction has set in with

SARVAMUKTI
its belief in

g

permanent hierarchies; and the belief in re-birth proves a potent weapon against reform.
III.

part of the fourth chapter deals with the conception of release. The advaitin, believing in a single reality with which he himself is identical, may be
last

The

expected to care for nothing but his

which he
their

is

eternally assured.

own salvation of Some advaitins do,

indeed, go to the extrem'e of treating everything except

of a dream, refusing to admit the existence of other jivas, released or bound; Scriptural declarations of the release of
selves as the presentations

own

certain souls are treated as analogous to the release dreamt of in respect of dream creations. But the

t

average advaitin is not a solipsist ; the world of experience is for him relatively real; other jivas exist; what Scripture says about certain souls having been
liberated in the past is not a delusion; the present bondage of other souls is as real as his own, and their

future release

is

as certain as his own.

Release being

but the manifestation of one's

nature, and nothing adventitious, cannot be denied to or withheld from any one. It is not merely the natural right of all, but a

own

1

right which, being eternally attained, is now unattained as it were. Universal salvation is more than a possibility; it is

a logical necessity. course, require a greater or

Different souls will, of less length of time in

proportion to their capacity to get rid of nescience. But the final removal of nescience is certain, since nescience
is essentially

indeterminable as real or unreal.
is

So long,

however, as there S

12

a single unreleased

soul, nescience

J()

INTRODUCTION

is

not completely destroyed and there can be no absolute release for any other soul, however far advanced on the

path of perfection.

For, so long as mirrors exist, there is the possibility of reflection, though with the removal of a particular mirror the reflection therein has merged

with the prototype; as long as there are reflecting or distorting media, we have merger, therefore, only with

what

is capable of being reflected, a bimba as contrasted with a pratibimba, but not merger in that which is above both bimba and pratibimba and is the substrate of

both these appearances. In other words, salvation is not the purely personal concern of each individual as
such; the release of his brethren is as much to his interest as his own for, until the final release of all, he
;

can attain oneness not with the Absolute Intelligence, but only with the less perfect form known as Isvara,

whose
is this

reflections in nescience are the

many

jlvas.

Nor
bliss.

merely the promise of a lesser degree of

become so many Isvaras in the matter of enjoyment. They become identical with the one Isvara and perform his functions of sustaining and governing the world. They have
It is not that the earliest released souls

thus not only the privileges but also the responsibilities of lordship. It is only when by the due exercise of these functions other souls too come to realise their
birthright that nescience is once for all destroyed. There is no possibility of further reflection ; hence there

no more distinction of bimba and pratibimba, Isvara and jiva, but an assured and final realisation of oneness with the Absolute. Such a doctrine, says Appayya, is not an invention of his own, but underlies iSankara's own teaching, as he seeks to show by a consideration of
is

DIFFICULTIES IN SARVAMUKT1

H

numerous passages from the Bhasya.
seems to be at

least as old as Vacaspati,

The conception among post-

can be no doubt that, as elaborated by Appayya Diksita, it will be eminently acceptable to monists of the present day who are

&ankara advaitins.

And there

required to reconcile their metaphysical conclusions with the insistent claims of individuality.

The notion

is

not free from

difficulties,

the most

important of which relates to the assumption that the temporal process can come to an end in time. So long as we are concerned with the release of this or that soul,

we take
happens

it

for other souls
is

for granted that the world process will go on and that for the released soul what

a psychological change
itself, is

of anything outside consciousness; there

no longer aware merged as it is in pure
;

it is

no time for
itself,

it,

since there is
is

nothing for

it

outside of
it

but time as such

not

annulled, since

bound

souls.

continues to be perceived by other It is prima facie absurd to conceive of

any time when time comes to an end. Universal salvation, however pleasing as a concept, cannot be real in the sense of what can be adualised in time. Despite
its

appeal to the populace,

it is

an

illogical

blend of

mutually exclusive concepts of time and timelessness, postulating as it does that timelessness can be achieved
in time.

Two

replies are possible.

It is not necessary for

the advaitin to say that at any particular point of time all souls will be released, though he cannot but say that
release cannot be withheld from'

any soul that seeks

it.

Ultimate release, though an inevitable metaphysical

J2

INTRODUCTION

assumption on advaita principles, need not be conceived
as actually attained at any particular time. Viewed from the finite standpoint, progress towards absolute

perfection

may

be but asymptotic, while for
is

him who
eternally

achieves the absolute view-point, perfection attained. And since all sacred teaching
it is

is

for the

surely reasonable to teach that what luirelcased, is achieved by each jiva through striving and enlightenment in time is lordship (Isvaratva), not the non-

temporal Brahmanhood.
implied only

Transcendence of time

is

when there are no more souls to be and Isvaratva automatically comes to an end. governed But this is no more than a logical possibility. The jivas
in actuality are so

numerous

arid of such different
is

grades of perfection, the path to perfection
so

beset with

difficulties and dangers, and the activities of in the acquisition and enjoyment of karma seem to souls involve so much more of backsliding than progress, that

many

the sublimation of Isvaratva into Brahman-hood can

hardly be contemplated as anything m'ore than a bare
possibility.

Such a reply is certain to provoke the rejoinder that what is questioned is not the actuality but even the
logical possibility.

If universal release

is

logically

possible, that should also

become actual at some time,

not be near enough to rouse hope or to instil fear; but at some tiirie it is bound to occur else there is no meaning iu talking of it as a possi-

however

distant.

It

may

;

does occur, what happens to time? Does not your statement conic to this that time at a particular point of it sel f annuls itself ? And is this not
bility.
it

And when

the very absurdity which

is

K'ing'criticised?

DIFFICULTIES IN SARVAMUKTI

13

Granted that
see

how

it

an absurdity, it is difficult to can be avoided on any variety of advaita
this is

soul that is released the temporal process ceases to be ; this cessation comes about in and through time ; good works are performed in time, the
doctrine.

For any

knowledge is acquired in time, and release (whether in embodiment or on the perishing of the body) is secured in time. For that a soul, then, time has ceased to be, by acts in time and at particular point of time. If this conception is contradesire to
arises in time,

know

dictory

and

unintelligible,

then advaita should be

abandoned, not merely a particular variety thereof; for all advaitins hold that the real is the timeless, that

though attained it is unattained, as it were, and that the temporal process leads to that attainment, that is to say, to its own annulment. And it is a commonplace that this doctrine of reality is based on an extensive critique of categories like space, time and cause. Turn which way he will, the advaitin of whatever shade of thought
has to say that
finite activities in

time cause the attain-

ment of the

infinite

yant to say unreleased soul,; for the question
the released soul, and if not,

a-temporal Brahman. It is irrelethat time continues to exist for the
is
it

whether

it

exists for
itself

how

came

to

annul
time.

by temporal

(processes

and at a point of

The

appeal to unreleased souls is as ineffective as the Berkcleyan appeal to other souls and to God to conserve
the reality of a world which had first been dissolved into ideas. And this is the second reply which the advocate

of universal salvation

may give
It

to his critics.
rhetorical',

But thc-ttt quoque argument, though
hardly bo "conclusive.

can

can only give room to the

J.4

INTRODUCTION
the advaitin "Despite your vaunted the categories and your insistence
tell

nott-advaitui to
criticism

of

you are in an impasse as great as any you brought us to. On your principles, we cannot see how any of you can be saved, to say nothing of all. Eternal damnation rather would seem to be the lot of all of you, for you condemn time while yet you cannot
intelligibility

on

transcend

it".

Assuming the

validity of the advaitin 's

criticism of whatever is phenomenal, including time, let us see m'ore closely what happens in release. By

constant meditation on the defective nature of the

phenomenal and on the one
is

true

Reality
identical
self

which
with
;

perfect,

infinite,

timeless

and
the

himself,

the

jiva

attains

that

supreme

this

attainment

is called release; it is
;

dawn

of perfect

unshakable realisation

it

may
it

or

may

not synchronise

with physical death; where

precedes disembodiment we speak of the jivan-inukta. But when the light has dawned, is there any distinction of time? l)oes he say,

"Yesterday I was not released, today. I ani released, tomorrow my body will perish and I shall be fully
conceivably say this, but there is no justification for calling him a released person on advaita principles. When really there
released".?
.person

A

may

attainment, the mukta does not see himself as different from others for him there can be no before}
is
;

and after he cannot preach, for there is none to preach to he cannot talk of his bondage, for that was in his ignorance, and ignorance has ceased to be, andfhe cannot
;
;

intelligently

speak of the non-existent by constant con;

templation of the true and the timeless as the substrate of the fleeting and the temporal, he has become the

DIFFICULTIES IN SARVAMUKTI
timeless; for

15

him timelessness alone is real, not the becoming; it is we who say he was released at a particular time; in his own realisation release has not come to be; it was-, is and will ever be; if the body continues he does not cognise it as such it is we who sometimes see it functioning and imagine that there is a
;

further degree of release to be secured or reseeured at its death but the attainment of release in time whether
;

at death or at a previous instant is purely a creation of

our imagination

still

released soul there is

obscured by nescience; for the no time, not because time com-

mitted suicide in time, but because for him time was not, is not and will not be. If this is the explanation of
individual salvation, it may be extended to universal salvation too. Timelessness appears illogically enougli
to be achieved in

and through time. But the appearance
nature last only so long as we stand

and

its illogical

over against it as finite spectators bound in nescience. When we are all released, the temporal process would
not appear as such at all. shall be conscious only of timelessness, not of timelessness as produced by and
in time, for the concepts of time and production would alike have been transcended. To put it in other words ;

We

the world of time coming to an end in time would arouse logical difficulties only on the assumption of a finite

mind like ours bound

in the categories of nescience ; but on the hypothesis of universal salvation there will be no such mind left when the world of time comes to an end ;

no problem calling for reconciliation the unreleased soul which has problems exists no longer since it too has been released. Whence
for the released soul there
;

is

then the difficulty?

As we

are at present situated, the

16

INTRODUCTION

concept of tHe transcendence of time presents, no doubt, 11 difficulties enough. But these are not peculiar to the

view of universal salvation.
than the
difficulties in

And

they are not greater

conceiving time to be real.

We

are forced to take time to be an appearance of the nontemporal.

How

exactly the latter appears as the
finite intelligence

former we with our
though we

are unable to say,

feel ourselves forced to stop

nowhere short of
if,

the assumption of the timeless.
resort,

But even

in the last

we

are compelled to liken the transcendence of
;

time to suicide, that does no violence to commonsense knowledge that arises in time may consume time, even
as the fire that breaks out in the

bamboo
it.

forest does not

spare the bamboos that generated

The doctrine of universal
is

salvation (sarvanmkti)

Throughout the present work, that is the only doctrine for which his personal preference is clearly indicated; and this preclearly

favoured by Appayya.

ference

is

further shown by the statement and defence
It is in the light of

of

it

in the &ivtidvaitani'rnaya.

this doctrine that

he discards certain views of the
jiva,

relation of Isvara

though he says nothing about it where he expounds those views; and, wherever possible, this may be used as a test of Appayya 's own
11

and the

In the last resort, problems like those of time are insoluble by for, the Logical concepts, which are in and of the phenomenal world, can at best indicate but not grasp the noumenal substrate^ A

mere Logic;

philosophical pursuit of Logic will, however, lead to the favouring of those concepts which by their coherence clearly Indicate their own fulfilment in

what

is

above Logic.

RELEASE WHILE EMBODIED

jy

attitude towai'ds certain advaita doctrines, Avhether they square with tfre doctrine of universal salvation/"

IV.

A word

may

be said about jlvan-nnikti before we

pass to a consideration of other topics. Consistently with the theory above sot forth, we shall have to hold that the jivan-mUkta is he who has really found release

and has consequently no longer any conceit of "I" and "mine" in the body etc.; and he who has such a conceit, however perfect he may otherwise lx*, can be treated only as on the* path to release, though release be
imminent; he

may be figuratively spoken of as already in order to hearten those who are much farther released,

removed from the goal. Such a view is maintained by Mandana Misra and mentioned as a possible v*w by Sarvnjfifitman but there is no indication oV Appayya having adopted it unless ii be the mention of it last in hie own treatment of the topic 13 and the accord of ihat view
;

12

A

writer in the Indian Vulture,

(Vol.

I,

No.

2,

pp,

243-

246)

attempts a critique of Appayya's doctrine of release without a clear understanding of that doctrine or itg antecedents. The conception of universal salvation is not specifically gaiva. There is talk of sarvamukti as early as
Vacaspati.
if

A

dilemma (on

p.

245) is supposed to clinch the argument:

the released soul feels his continuity with
is

what he was, as conditioned,
U'
lie

he

not wholly released, since, in release, there arc no upadhis;

does not feel that continuity, he cannot be omniscient and hence cannot be ISvara; hence, release must be identification wilh Pure Consciousness,

m

which
for the

case,

the above question does not arise.

But

is

it

not possible

Lord to be aware of Himself as continuous with the bound soul, May he not have the knowledge "That which appeared to be bound was Myself"? Is it not analogous to the experience of the ordinary intelligent man who says "That which appeared
without Himself being bound?
to be in the mirror

was niy face"?

The dilemma

will not hold water.

13

See sections 1-1 to 1*4, Chapter IV.

S 1-3

lg

INTRODUCTION

.

with what he says, later, that release consists in the attainment of the state of Isvara. For, tho continued
existence of the body for a while may be explained as due to the residue of prior ntonientum, on tho analogy of the potter's wheel, while the apparently intelligent
r functioning of that body may w ell be due to its control not by a jiva who has a conceit of identity therewith, but by Isvara with whom that jiva has become one by

intuitive realisation.

The main reason for formulating
reliable

jlvan-muk,ti is the need for
advaita, persons

preceptors of
certitude froni

who can speak with

experience, not from mere intellectual cognition. If the released person lives no more as one of us, he cannot

teach us ; and no one else

is qualified to

teach us

;

how

then can advaita be taught, much less realised? This difficulty disappears on the above view, since there can
be teaching through the bodily frame of the released soul, as inspired by the Lord with which that soul has

become one.

nothing repugnant to the lordship of the supreme may in in thus actuating a product of maya; and in certain theistic systems like the Saiva
is

There

Siddlianta
4

it is

the

Lord himself who

to act as the preceptor

is acknowledged whether in a divine or a human

The majority of advaitins, however, have held garb.* that in the so-called jivan-mukta there is a trace or
residuum of nescience and for this residue they have sought various explanations and analogies. They have
sought to separate the protective energy of nescience from its obscuring energy and maintained the continu-

ance of the former even when the latter
14
See,

is

removed; an
the

further,

section

X

of

the Introduction to

Bh&matl

Qatusstitri (Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, 1933).

BLISS AS POSITIVE

19

example is the continued perception of reflection so long as a mirror or other reflecting medium is present, even though the illusion that the reflection is an independent
entity has been removed.
reflection here is

the perception of the due to the presence of a limiting

But

adjunct, an upadhi, vis., the mirror; is the jlvan-mukta similarly conditioned by upadhis? If so, how can he

be said to be

" released

?"

The same
it.

difficulty applies

to all other illustrations, such as the smell of garlic in a

vessel that once contained

V.
Release
not mere
characterised as happiness or bliss; it is cessation of misery; grades of happiness are
is

admitted by the advaitin, but there can be no gradations
of mere non-existence. 15
positive is significant,

The conception

marking from nihilistic Buddhism and the Nyaya-Vaisesika. But the topic has not been treated at any length. Here again, the discussion would have greatly benefited from
a reference to the BraJimasidd'hi

of the goal as off advaita, as it does,

a work mentioned

elsewhere in this chapter without much point. Absence of misery, says Mandana, is not happiness, for the two,

misery and happiness, may be experienced together by a person half immersed in a cool tank on a hot day.
If mere absence of misery constituted any kind of happiness, he who is being tortured in one hell ought to

be happy, because, at least for the time, he is spared other tortures elsewhere. Further this alleged negative
nature
15
16

is

inconsistent with the experience of grades 01

See section 2 -42, Chapter IV. See the Uruhmakajrfa,
>.

13.

20

INTRODUCTION
1

happiness derived from different objects and through different means. If all that is sought be the cessation of a particular want, say hunger, why should there be
the search for rich or tasty food?
It

may

be said that

not everything' pleases, but only the object desired; and this causes happiness by satisfying and thus extinguish-

ing the desire that was the cause of tension and misery ; it is therefore the extinction of desire and the conse-

quent extinction of misery that constitute happiness. This might be so, Mandana replies, if enjoyment of the
desired object extinguished desire. But the reverse notoriously the case; enjoyment becomes a habit and
is is

And, on the other hand, rpljpatcdly sought after. desire may cease, not through enjoyment, but through
realising the worthlessuess of

what

is

desired.

In such

Nor

a case, absence of desire does not equate with happiness. is it true that, in all cases, happiness is

proportionate to desire and effort. Very often that which is gained with less tension and effort gives. us
greater happiness; and what is greatly desired and sought may cause misery in the end; further it is truer
to say that happiness conditions desire rather than that

desire conditions happiness; it is true that because of our station in life we desire certain things straightaway

without knowing that they will cause happiness; but this is because of our experience in a previous birth;
this is intelligible since those veiy experiences condition

our present station in life. Attachment to happiness has no doubt been condemned; but what is meant is the
seeking after the lower, impermanent and impure forms of pleasure; attachment to the Highest which is Bliss is

not raga any more than turning

away from samsara

is

is

ATTAINMENT FIGURATIVE

?

21

dvesa.

It is because the Highest is Bliss,

and because

we are
the

identical with the Highest, that even in bondage self is the object of supreme love (parama;

prema-'spada)

and

it

is

because

all

finite

things

partake, in sotrie measure, of the nature of the Supreme, that all creatures are declared to subsist on a fraction
of that Bliss,
It will easily be realised

how

far such a

notion

is

from nihilism or pessimism.
yi.

The need for constant reference

to

two planes of

thought introduces som'e confusion in the description of the attainment of release. Is it really attained or is it
only attained as
justifiable.

Both modes of speech are And thus we find different schools, some
it

were?

maintaining that attainment is figurative, while others 17 The say that the word is used in the primary sense. for the former view is that in truth release justification
is eternally attained,

that

it is

like the forgotten golden

ornament round one's own neck and that there is but realisation of what already exists. Some adherents of the latter view hold that though release is not produced (for, it would then be subject to destruction) it is legitimate to speak of it as caused by cessation of ignorance with the dawn of knowledge; for there is a causal connection between A and B, if when A exists B comes to
,

be at the very next instant, though B is essentially such that it does not derive its existence from A. Yet others

say that in the state of bondage consciousness (cit) alone is manifest, but not bliss (ananda) ; and since in release
17

Sections 3 '1, 3-2, 3 -31, 3*32, Chapter IV.

22

INTRODUCTION

there is genuine mimif estation of bliss, release may be said to be attained by knowledge. It is worth noting

that this last view

is

rejected

by Vacaspati for very
that
cit

valid

grounds. It is not 18 manifested, not ananda;
insisted
oil

true
it

alone

is

is

a commonplace of

by sruti that the self is experienced as the object of supreme love and that there is happiness, however imperfect, derived from the
experience
essential bliss of the self.

to the first view that attainment of release

Vacaspati himself inclines and abandon19

ment of transmigration are

figurative.

A fourth view
;

takes the empirical point of view that bliss, though eternal, is not immediately manifested in samsara and
since release brings about such manifestation,
it

may

be really said to be the attainment of the unattained.
recognise that we do have experience of happiness and that for all its imperfection

This view too

fails

to

it is

yet a fraction of the bliss that

is

Brahman.
is

It

may
:

be urged that from bondage to release there

a real

progress in that

we advance from

fractions to the whole

"On

earth the broken ares, in heaven the perfect round/'

But that
as a

would be

to

understand

the

Absolute

sum

of parts.

It is not that the

whole does not exist
;

or results from the addition of parts though eternal, it is manifested but partially to us in bondage. And since manifestation too is not an added virtue, but is of
the essential nature of the Absolute, we seem forced to say in the last resort that, from the absolute point of
view, attainment
18
JIO

is

but figurative.
40 (7W/).

See the

Jtfcdmrr/i, p.

UMtouifS, pp. 15&, 156

CRITICISM OF DIFFERENCE

28

ra
This "attainment as it were" and "abandonment as
it

were

'

'

are due to knowledge.

But, as Vacaspati says,

rope-cognitions cannot, indeed, alter the character of the really present snake. In the case, however, of those, which being super-imposed are

"Even a thousand

desired to be either attained or abandoned,
to attain as
intuition
it

it is

possible

were or abandon as

it

were, by the m'ere

of the truth, without dependence on any extrinsic observances. For they exist by the super20 The demonstration that the world imposition alone." of difference is but superimposed on the single absolute

self is thus of cardinal

importance and has exercised the

minds of muny advaitins, beginning at least as early as Mandana. Some of Mandana's arguments will be found summarised in the Introduction and the notes to the Bhamatt, reference to which is invited. Appayya naturally devotes some space to this topic in the early sections of the second chapter. He draws principally
on the Tattvasuddhi and the Nyayasudha. As already noted, the former draws its inspiration from the

BrahmasiddM.
real,

Difference

is

perception or by inference.
differences

not established either by Perception is of the one

being

subsequently
is

superimposed
all

thereon.

We
;

see that the pot is real, the cloth is real,

and

so

on the reality that

constant in

these is the

true content of perception. When the true content of all perception is thus one, there is no room for negation

or difference.
difference too
20

Let us assum'e for a moment that
is

perceived.

Then perception would

Bnamatl,

p.

166 (TPB).

24

INTRODUCTION

have two functions, positive and negative, the former relating to the proper nature of what is perceived, the
latter to its difference
tions,

from

others.

These two func-

and negation, cannot obviously be simultaneous; one must come first. Now negation cannot be the first, since it involves the positive knowledge of what is denied and that of which it is denied
affirmation

(thenisedha-pratiyogin andthenisedha-visaya). These

must depend on an antecedent perception, about which there arises the question whether it is primarily affirmative or negative; unless we admit the primary function to bo affirmative we seem condemned 1o an infinite Granted this primary affirmative character, regress. there is no room for negation too being a function; for cognition does not arise first and then function it arises
;

as affirming or denying; when once it has arisen as affirmative, it is idle to contend that it subsequently

denies as well, for that would be io urge that the same cognition is born twice over, affirmatively as well as negatively; that is absurd in the case of cognitions,

which are momentary;

if

negation be said to be the

function of another cognition, that again pro-supposes an affirmation and we are in the old round. Nor can

we say

that affirmation is itself negation;

For perception is of what is in sense-contact and the negative cognition cognition of everything else in the world obviously includes much that is not and cannot be in sense-contact.
Therefore, difference is not established through percepMuch less can it depend on inference, since tion.
inference is based on concomitance of the perceived;

of everything else in the world? fication for calling this perception?

negation If so what is the justi-

is it

SUPERIOR VALIDITY OF SCRIPTURE

35

where perception can establish no difference at all, inference is no more capable of it. Further, inference
proceeds on a basis of difference, that between probans

and probandum and subject, that between positive and negative instance and so on if inference were invoked to establish difference it would be a ease of pet it o principii, since it would pretend to prove what it is As for testimony, it has been shown by itself based on. 6ankara in his commentary on the samanvnya-sutra 31 that the harmonious purport of all Vedanta texts is
;

non-dualism.

VIII.

There can be no objection to the superior validity of sruti in matters like the present which are superscnsuous.
it is

It is of greater value than other pramfinay since

admittedly free from defect; and, as this cognition

arises subsequently to perception
like the cognition

and inference,

it,

not silver", occupies the position of sublater with reference to the other two. The principle of the subsequent sublatiug the earlier is
is

"This

known

as the apaccheda-nyaya. It holds where the later cannot arise except as contradicting the earlier

cognition, as in

" This

is silver

' '

and

' '

This

is

not silver.

' '

Where

the subsequent cognition can come into being even otherwise and the whole context is governed by

what comes first, then the initial cognition is predominant and overrules whatever comes later. This is the principle known as
syntactical unity with the sense of
21

VeMnta

8Htras

t

I,

i,

4,

On

the whole topic of this paragraph
II,

see I: 6 and section 1 and its sub-sections in Chapter

S 1-4

2Q

INTRODUCTION

upakrama-nyaya. In the present case, scriptural cognition of non-difference cannot come into being except as
contradicting
the
alleged

perceptual
22

cognition

of

difference ; hence the apaccheda-nyaya applies
latter is sublated

and the
the case

by the former.

Nor

is it

that the former cannot arise except in dependence on perceptual knowledge of words, sentences etc., for, even
if

we do not agree with

those

who hold

that there

is

only such perception of words etc., as is common to valid knowledge and delusion, there is no need to concede more than empirical reality to perceptual cognition ; and this reality is not inconsistent with it, being

transcended on the realisation of non-difference. 23
It is not that Scripture overrides perception in

every case.

where "
float

it

certainly do not admit its authority " stones contradicts experience saying that

We

or asks us to "cook the golden grains. In such cases we say that there is no purport in the literal sense
of sruti, as the six

"

marks of purport are not coincident

;

or even if it be difficult to deny purport we say that smti trespasses into the limited field of empirical reality which we have marked off for perception; the

heat of

the hardness of gold, the weight of stones, these are definitely within the sphere of perception, and
fire,

Scripture has no application thereto or our denial of the application of sruti may be due to our incapacity to do what we are asked to do by Scripture ; cooking in the
;

sense of softening is impossible in the case of golden grains; we therefore interpret it to mean nothing more
22
23

Sections 1*6, 2*1, 2*2 and sub-sections of 2 '3, Chapter

II.

Section

&,

3*1, 3' 2

and

3*3,

Chapter

II.

ACCOUNT OF ILLUSIONS

2?

than heating. On any one of these views may be justified our adoption of secondary implication (laksana)
for Scriptural passages that conflict with perception. When, however, perception pretends to declare the

nature of ultimate reality,
thing outside
legitimate.
its

obviously doing somescope; and its sublation of sruti is
it is

IX.

The world of perception

is illusory.

There

is

not

much

discussion of different views of illusion.

But

the view of anirvacanlyakhyati is mentioned and justified in the case of som'e delusions like reflections and

dreams.

According to
is

this view, tho content of the

delusive cognition

neither real nor unreal nor a

combination

of

both,

but

originated at the time. If it admit of empirical usage for the
;

something which is were unreal it would not
is

saitie

reason

it

cannot

some other time or place, for rib such thing can be cognised as immediate or cause practical activity if it were real, it could not be sublated; to say that it is real and unreal is to violate the law of contrabe what
is

real at

;

diction;

hence

it

is

something indeterminable arid

originated.

This view of the creation of the illusory has not been consistently adhered to by the advaitins. The

view of anyathakayati, apprehension of what is elsewhere or what is otherwise, has found favour in the
explanation rof certain illusions, which seem to be manifestly due to external circumstances, like the flower
beside the crystal in the cognition of the crystal as red. These are called instances of sopadhika-bhrarmi; in the

28

INTRODUCTION

is

explanation of these it is the quality of the upadhi that said to be apprehended erroneously in the pure
substrate.

Many
21

of

the

explanations

offered

by

Vacaspati

are of this nature, so

much

so that his
to

commentator, Amalananda,
This
is

feels called

upon

defend

him against the charge of maintaining anyathakhyati. 25
Vacaspati's explanation of the delusion that a
[perceived conch-shell is yellow: "the yellow, which resides in the bile that is in contact with the exceed-

ingly pure rays going forth from the eye, is experienced in dissociation from the bile ; the shell too is experienced (but) with the whiteness concealed by a defect (in the

sense-organ) ; the non-relation of the yellow colour to the shell is not experienced; because of similarity in respect of non-apprehension of non-relationship, the
appositional relation previously seen (in experiences) like yellow mass of gold, yellow lilva fruit' is imposed
*

on yellowness and shell-ness and one speaks of the
yellow shell."

Similar explanations are given of the delusion in dreams and in reflections. There are

-

assumed two psychoses in any such explanation, one which appreheuds the "this" (in the experience "this
is silver"),

or the colourless shell (in the experience

"the

shell is yellow"),

and the

other,

which apprehends

the silver-ness or yellowness present elsewhere. Now, in one way or another, it is the business of a psychosis- to

remove ignorance. Does the "this" perform this function?
psychosis.
24
25

first

psychosis of the If it does not, it is no

If

it floes,

then ignorance being destroyed
Sastri's edn.),

BMmatL
Bhawatl,

PP.
p.

1819
24
18

(TPH).

Kalpatoni,
P.

(Anantakn?ga

26

(TPH).

TWO PSYCHOSES
there

IN ILLUSIONS

29

is no longer the material cause of delusion ; hence there can be no illusion of silverness or yellowness.

At

least

two

al tempts
27

are

made

to conserve the

view of two psychoses.

According to one of these the "this "-psychosis does remove ignorance, but only
is

about this-ness, not about the variety of the content.

Another view says that though ignorance
in its obscuring (avarana) aspect,
it is

destroyed
that in

not destroyed
it is it

in

protective (viksepa) aspect. of the cognition of "this" as "this" spite

its

Hence

continues

to be perceived as silver or as yellow.

A modus vivendi

always interesting, but does not take us far in the present instance. The explanation would be satisfactory, if a cognition of the
bare "this" were possible at any time. We never have a perception of a bare "here" and "now", super-adding
to

by sub-division and adjustment

is

a cognition of "-thus" or "thus". From its very origination our cognition is of a "that-what", though
it

the "that" and the

"what"

fall

apart on reflection and

are found to be inadequate each to the other even in what we call true cognition. But it runs counter to experience

say that the "that" and the "what" are the contents of different psychoses. What, for instance, can be the nature of the psychosis of the shell in the delusion
to
' *

The

shell is yellow

the

first

The whole experience is visual psychosis too is obviously visual. But can
1
;

' '

there be any visual psychosis which does not apprehend

some colour?

If not, what

is

the colour apprehended?
It is

It is not white, else there would be no delusion.
27

Sections 5-151 and 5-152, Chapter

I.

3()

INTRODUCTION

not yellow, else there would be no second psychosis apprehending yellowness. It is not some other colour, as that is contrary to experience. It cannot be cognition of the colourless, as there can be no visual cognition of such a nature.

In truth, then, there is only one psychosis, whether of the form "The shell is yellow" or of the form "This
is silver".

When there

is defect, like bile

in the sense-

organ, or like desire, greed etc. in the percipient, and the sense-organ comes in contact with the object, there
is set

up an agitation in nescience, the material cause of delusion, and there results a transformation thereof.
This transformation is a "that-what", which on analysis is found to comprise a sense-element and a memoryelement, the "that" being sensed and the "what" remembered. But the "what" though supplied by

cognised not as part of another remembered object, but as part of a present content, the indeterminable transformation of nescience. If it related

memory

is

merely to what exists elsewhere, this view would be identical with anyathakhyati and would fail to explain
the practical efficiency of the cognition. Though delusions involving similarity, as in "This is silver",

m

there would seeni to be some case for admitting an initial cognition of the substrate as a mere "this", we.

have to remember the other cases of delusions where such a characterless cognition of the substrate is
obviously impossible, as in "the shell
is

yellow"; and

economy would compel us to assume as the cause of illusion what is common to all cases, not what is peculiar

REFLECTIONS AS ILLUSIONS
to one set alone.
28

31

psychological knowledge would not warrant the assumption of a psychosis cognis-

Modern

ing the characterless substrate. Further, the explanation here suggested by Kavitarkika Cakravarti Nrsimha

Bhattopadhyaya would certainly be more in conformity
with the advaitin's general tendency to explain the cognition of attributes as arrived at not by an independent psychosis, but by analysis of the indeterminable manifold given in sense-perception.

X
The indeterminable being admitted
to

be the

content of illusory cognition, the insistence on the uniform adoption of this in explaining all illusion seems

have come only from later advaitins. Thus both Vacaspati and Padmapada look on the reflection not as
to

an indeterminable creation but as

identical with the

prototype, with certain properties such as facing oneself, being located in the mirror etc., superimposed 29 thereon. As against this, the Advaitavidyacarya
28 On the whole topic see section 5*153, Chapter I; also an article by the present writer on "A Little Known Advaitin", Journal of the Madras
University, Vol. Ill, No.
1.

extensively by Appayya and, in nearly every an argument by stating the final view. It is possible in the nature of things that Appayya refers thus to his own father who was his guru and whose teachings he is trying here to set forth compeninstance, to clinch
diously.

29

This Acftrya

is cited

We

are also told by Nllakaijtha DIk?ita,

Appayya's brother's

grandson, that Appayya's father, Raftgaraja Makhin, was the author of several famous works, such as the Advaitavidytimukura, and the

Vivaranadarpana (see Natocaritran&palca of Nllakajtfha Dik^ita, Balamanoraina Series, p. 3: "tasya ca paftcamafc sttnur advaitavidy&mukurovarl").

vivara$adarpa$ady-aneka-prabhanda-nirmata gilita eva Sri raftgarajftdaSome Mss. of Nalacaritran&talca refer to the Advaitamukura, and it is under this name that a very imperfect but interesting Ms. is found

32

INTRODUCTION

maintains that the reflection
not true that there
is

is

but a creation.

It is

no cognition of the

reflection as

something other than oneself.

Children and other

unsophiscated persons look for the reflected face in or behind the mirror. When the sublating cognition
com'es, therefore, it denies the reality of the reflection
itself,

not merely the location of the original face in the mirror. The identification of the reflected face with

the original is due to a later mental process. No doubt in order that there may be a superimposition, residual

impressions of past experience are a necessary factor, No one has had in the past a direct visual experience of
one's

own forehead;

in the

absence

of

any such

experience or the impression consequent thereon, it may seem' impossible to account for the creation of a superimposed forehead in the proximity of the mirror. But
there is no rule that superimposition requires as its cause a residual impression of the experience of the

Impression from visual experience of other persons' foreheads, combined with the experience of one's own forehead through senses
very object superimposed.
other than sight, m'ay well account for the superimposition. When we create a chimaera in our

imagination, it is not because we have actually had experience of the chimaera, but because we have had
It runs only to the end or and the material therein gives no room for a positive the pariccheda Of the other work, Vivaranadarpana, an Imperfect Ms. in identification. Is to be found in the Tanjore Palace Library (see No. 7064 ot Nandin&gari

in the Oriental Manuscripts Library, Mysore.
first

is

There p. 5206). a reference to the VivaranapraMfa, as another book of Raftgaraja's in the available fragment of the AdvaitaMukura; this is probably another
for the Vivaranadarpana.

the Descriptive Catalogue by P. P. S. Sastri, Vol. XXI,

name

REFLECTIONS AS ILLUSIONS

83

experiences of the several elements which we put together in our imagination to constitute the chimaera.

The advocates of

the Vivarana view set

up a wholly

implausible theory when they say that, in reflection, rays of light proceeding from the eyes of the observer are turned back by the reflecting medium', go back to the

prototype face and apprehend rays go straight back to one's
else?

it.

Do

these reflected

own

face

and nowhere

If

so,

how

is it

that

we

see reflections of other

objects too by the side of our reflected face? If the rays be admitted to reach the other objects as well, how
is it

and

that they do not reach to one who is right behind us cause the apprehension of his face too? Again, in

looking at a clear sheet of water, how is it that some rays from the eyes are reflected back while others penetrate the water and apprehend the sandy bottom? If it be
said that som'e rays are turned back because they are exceedingly delicate, how is it that these same delicate

rays go up against the much stronger rays of the sun, reach and apprehend the solar orb, thus causing the
cognition of the reflection of the sun? Again, if the reflection is identical with the prototype, should not the

former have the properties of the latter? Yet who ever heard of a reflection of the moon being cool, as the moon is? For these and other reasons the Advaitavidyacarya has no hesitation in rejecting the teaching of the Vivarana school on this point.

The view that the reflection is an illusory creation offers some difficulties on the view that the jiva is a reflection; for then the jiva too would be illusory and there would be none to be released. Our Acarya gets
over the difficulty saying that
S
it is

peculiar only to the

15

,34

INTRODUCTION

view that holds the jiva to be a reflection and that there is no such difficulty on the avaccheda view, according to which Pure Consciousness is defined as it wsre in the
the position which he assigns and the elaborate way in which he explains it, Appayya would seem to have considerable sympathy with the view of reflection as an illusory creation. But we have seen in dealing with sarvamukti that he is forced to reject the avaccheda view, while the present view of reflection seems to go with the rejection
jiva.

form of the
it

Prom

to

in the discussion

1

1

of the view that the jiva

is

a pratlbimba.

It

is difficult,

therefore, to say whether he definitely accepts here the

theory of Advaitavidyacarya or whether he merely states it as a view worthy of consideration. What is
interesting in this view of reflection is the attempt to affirm one uniform principle in all illusion, whether due to an external adjunct (sopadhika) or otherwise. It

cannot be that in certain cases there
attributes

is

transference of
is

from elsewhere, while in others the content
worth examining whether

an illusory creation.
It is

this uniformity

cannot be secured without making out the content of the superimposition to be wholly illusory. When there is experience of nacre-silver, what is it that is created

cannot say that there is experience only of a "this," that "silverness" belonging somewhere else is brought over here and associated with
silver or silver-ness?

We

the "this"; for, we are active in regard to "this", and v not because of its "this-ness , but because of its "silverness"; the "silverness" that belongs elsewhere cannot

havB already, in discause activity here and now. cussing the Cakravarti's view, seen reason to reject the

We

AVACCHEDA VIEW AND SARVAMUKTI

35

1 hypothesis of two psychoses one relating to the "this' and another to "silver". have, then, a single psychosis of the form "this-silver", a "that-what".

We

The "that "-element of this indeterminable "that-what" need not itself be illusory; it is the "what "-element, the silverness, that is illusory. In the whole experience,
it

will be sufficient to postulate the illusory creation not

of silver but of silver-ness.
that the jiva
is

Similarly,

when

it is

said

a reflection, illusoriness follows not for

the jiva, but only for the jlvatva of Pure Consciousness. That this jlvatva is an illusory creation any advaitin

may admit
release.

without fear of denying the possibility of

It

is

by no means certain either that the avaccheda

view

is

inconsistent with sarvamukti.

As Appayya

himself has shown towards the close of his Pariniala

Vacaspati holds the avaccheda view, though, following the Sutrakara, he uses the analogy of reflection legitimately enough. The jiva is not a reflection,
I,
i,

on

4,

but he

may

exposition. believer in universal salvation, though he develops the

be likened to a reflection for purposes of And Vacaspati would appear to be a

doctrine nowhere and
it.

But it is sistency was apparent in holding together the views of avaccheda and sarvamukti. Appayya 's own criticism of the avaccheda view is not quite sound. 31 The point
30

30

makes only a casual reference to evident that to him at least no incon-

See the Bhdmati on Ved.

#.,

II,

iii,

40 (Anantakrsna Sastri's

edition, p. 617).

31 See foot-note to the translation of section 4*21, Chapter IV, also Acyuta Kpftj&nanda's comment. The latter is translated hero. "This is to be considered here: intelligence is of itself eteraaily released. For

36 of that criticism
is

INTRODUCTION

the contingence of fresh bondage for the released soul, if a multiplicity of souls be admitted,

and the
organ.

souls treated as

Pure Consciousness defined

by,

not reflected

But

in, nescience or its product, the internal as noted by the commentator, Acyuta
is

Krsnananda, the alleged contingence
It is true that even

not at

all clear.

has ceased, there Consciousness by another internal organ but with this
;

when definition by one internal organ m'ay be definition afresh of Pure

there

is

not proved fresh bondage for the jiva that was

According to Appayya, it would follow that on the a vaccheda view release of any kind is not possible,
released.

no matter whether

it

be the attainment of Isvaratva

or the merger in pure intelligence. Our author has evidently a long way to travel before he comes to a
this, as beginninglessly defined or conditioned or defined

by an adjunct,

there

is

the state of the jiva and bondage; this

is settled.

And

thus that

part of intelligence for which, as dependent on an adjunct, there was bondage prior to release, not for that can fresh bondage be brought about.
For, through the removal of that adjunct at the time of release, there is

removal

(also)

of

the

former locus
For, even

of

bondage, dependent on that
for that there is attainment

(adjunct).

Nor

is it possible to

bring about that (fresh bondage) to the

released pure intelligence.

when

of the status of another jiva

other bound jiva,

on the conjunction of the adjunct of some since there is no contingence of bondage for turn who
released, the statement 'because of tho coni

was formerly bound and then
tingence of fresh bondage'
intelligence there
is.

not possible.

Further,

when

for the released

through conjunction of another internal organ, the

attainment of the state of some other jiva having that (organ) as adjunct,
there
is

not possible the recollection
I

'1

who was formerly a

transmigrator

and was somehow
tion'; for there is

myself have again reached to transmigrareleased, no identity of adjunct as between the bound jiva and the
thus, since this attainment of the state of another jiva

released jiva.

And
it

can do nothing,

does not import any defect.
ot
tlio

Similarly, even the earlier

mentioned attainment
Reflection

state of another jivji of the nature of

a

can do nothing (to import u delect into the theory);*

METIITS OP

THE AVACCHEDA vlfiW

#f

proper appreciation of the avaccheda view, ag found in the Parimala.

XL
The avaccheda view
mainly on the the jiva be a
illusory
released.
difficulty
is

not

based

solely

or
if

mentioned above that

reflection

creations,

there

and would

if

reflections

are
be

be

none
it

to

The

more

serious

difficulty

alleges

against the reflection theory is the impossibility of a Reflections are invariably of reflection of intelligence.

media possessing colour. When neither the prototype (intelligence) nor the reflecting medium (nescience) possesses colour, how can there be a reflection of one in the other? As the Bhattas ask "For sound, odour, taste and the like, how can there be reflectedness?" The- apparent limitation
objects possessing colour in

of the impartible ether affords a closer approximation to the truth. Though ether is one and indivisible, we
treat
is
it

as if defined by a pot, a

room

etc.
it is

When

a pot

carried
is

from one place

to another,
;

the pot alone

that

m'oved, not the ether

how can the pervasive ether
In the same way pure
were, by nescience or
its
it

be

moved from place
is

to place 1

consciousness
products,
the

defined, as

interna^ organs. Which accepted as the limiting adjunct depends on whether nescience is admitted to Jre one or many. Oij the former
diverse
is

view, the internal organs, are the adjuncts and on the latter view, the nesciences .themselves function as the
adjuncts.
view, there is possibility of sui'vumukti; lor the latter is based on the conception of

Even on such a
ass

man's nature

eternally

tmd

essentially intelligence.

$8

INTRODUCTION
it

The realisation of this is release
or
less,

;

may be delayed more
Since the avaccheda

but can never be denied.

view has no objection to employ reflection as an illustration, here too may be accepted the view that till the final
release consists in attaining the status of Isvara, though this is most intelligible on the view that the jiva is a reflection of Isvara.

release of

all,

What

causes real difficulty, however,

is

the position

of Isvara on the avaccheda view.

Pure

intelligence is

Brahm'aii; defined intelligences are the jivas ; where does Isvara come in ? The difficulty seems great on the

views which recognise a single
locate
it

in

its totality

maya or nescience and Brahman. Brahman as defined by maya in appears as Isvara as defined by the many
;

parts of m'aya,

Brahman.

appears as the jivas as undefined it is Such a solution is possible even on the
it
;

hypothesis of a plurality of mayas or nesciences; as defined by those mayas taken collectively, Brahman
will

be Isvara; as defined by them singly, it will be the jivas. Akasa as defined by a group of trees is called a forest; as defined by each particular tree, it

is called a tree.

On

this analogy, then, Isvara,

who

is

Brahman defined by m'aya, would
jiva.

be a kind of collective

lie

would stand

to the jiva in

much

the same

relation as Society or

Humanity

to individual m'en.

Such a conception is hardly adequate. Creation and destruction generally attributed to Isvara can hardly
be attributed to a collective soul.

men and govern them
This
is,

;

it

Society may conserve can hardly be said to make
in a figurative sense.

them or destroy them except
however,
not

a

serious

difficulty

for

any

Hindu

philosophical

system,

since

no

such

GOD IN ADVAITA system admits the creation or destruction of

39
souls.

As

for the creation of the
individual
souls

material world, since
to

even

are

seen

be

capable

in

some measure of fashioning their objects of enjoyment, it does no groat violence to imagine the collective soul as The creating and destroying the material universe. more serious defect of the view, however, is that Isvara
thus conceived can hardly occupy the same place as the God of religion. The collective soul is sure to command

degree of loyalty even as Society and Humanity; but it can command little of religious awo and adoration. God has to be not merely immanent, but

a

certain

also transcendent ; the transcendence is secured in that

the collective soul

is

transcendence

is

more than the individual; but the not great enough to constitute a
of
quality

marked
this

difference

as

well;

for

it

is

of
is

which is implied by the conception not a difference of degree alono. That God as a more, why movements like the Religion of Humanity can
difference

never secure a permanent foundation. be merely a collective soul.
It
is

Isvara cannot

possible to over-emphasise this aspect of

transcendence.

This

is

done by the view which holds

Lsvara to be Brahman's reflection in maya, while the jlvas are Brahman's reflection in avidya; avidya is distinguished from

maya

in that while pure sattva is

predominant in the latter, impure sattva is dominant in the former. Such an account would be defective in

two ways. Reducing Isvara too

to a reflection,

make him almost

as helpless as the jiva. I6vara could hardly control the jivas; for,

would Such an
it

who ever

heard of one reflection controlling another?

Much less

40

INTRODUCTION

can

He

sympathise or help.

Whatever may be the

merits of the reflection theory, there is little to be said for that variety of it which holds isvara too to be a
reflection.

back, then, to the avaccheda view, we shall have to turn to som'e form of it which gives Kvara a

Coming

better position than that of a collective soul.

The view

that nesciences are

many and

that they arc located in

the jlvas would seem to be more suitable.

On this view,
Isvara

Isvara

is

the content of the nesciences, while the jlvas
loci.

are their

Neither

Brahman nor

may

bo

treated as the locus, since this would conflict with their
eternal perfection.

We
the

have to say, of course, that
is

ignorance like everything else
is

in

Brahman, but
that
it

this

different

from

assertion

belongs

to

Brahman. It belongs to the jivas; and since jlvas arc many, a plurality of nesciences is also assumed. 32 The content of the nescience is Isvara. This is what it

means

in other words: for
is

Brahman

as pure intelli-

no question of attributes like omniscience, omnipotence etc. It is the jiva who suffers from his If finitude, and feels the lack of these perfections.
gence there
they did not belong to his essential nature he would, never know of their non-existence; even in feeling their
32

The assumption

of

many

gaktis for one avidya

may

reconcile the

singleness of avidya with the plurality of the jlvas; on such a view f however, we have still to say that a akti of avidya is destroyed when a
particular soul is released; though this is not to say that avidya itself is

destroyed (thus implying the simultaneous release of
difficult to

all jivas), it is

yet

can be destroyed without affecting the possessor of the gakti, for gakti and its possessor are fundamentally non-different. From this point of view, it is simpler to assume a multiplicity of nesciences,
see
fiakti

how a

one of these being destroyed on the release of each

jiva.

GOD IN THE AVACCHEDA VIEW

4j

absence, he transcends his apparent finitude if he does not realise them fully in his own nature it is because of
;

his ignorance; this ignorance belongs to him as jiva; it relates to the perfections which he lacks and which he

considers as embodied elsewhere; the embodiment of these is Isvara who is thus the content of nescience, as contrasted with the jiva who is but the locus. While

the loci of the various nesciences are different, their content is in all cases the same Isvara. Every nescience
is bipolar,

with Isvara at one end and a particular

jiva,

at the other.

Jiva

Jiva 3

When

knowledge comos to any jiva there is realisation of the perfection about which there was ignorance;

and there

is

merger of that jiva with Isvara.

But

so

long as even a single nescience exists the polarity of Isvara-jlva persists; and the jiva that has attained
the status of Isvara cannot
fied

move further and be

identi-

only when

This final merger will be possible the said polarity disappears by the ultimate destruction of all nesciences. The view, therefore, that
release until the final release of all is but the attainment

with Brahman.

of the state of Isvara squares even with this variety of the avaccheda theory of the jiva. further merit of

A

the present view is that the stressing aspects

it

avoids the defects of overof God's immanence or

S

16

42
transcendence.

INTRODUCTION

God

is

immanent

in this view since

He

not merely the content of their ignorance, hut also the inspirer of their limited knowledge and activity; the jivas would not know, feel
is

the internal ruler;

He

is

or net even to the limited extent that they do but for tlieir fundamental identity with the omniscient and

omnipotent God; the life of the jlva as jlva is possible only because his energies are fragments of the energies of the Lord. But at the same time the jiva is ignorant
of the Lord; between his capacities

and the Lord's, the

difference is great enough to be one of quality;

He

is

more than any jiva or

all

jivas put together; for of all

the nesciences together He is the wieldcr, 33 while the jivas are not the controllers of the nescience said to be
located in
34

them but are under
,

1

its influence,

on the

contrary.

A

collective

jiva

would be under the

influence of collective nuiyfi, whereas Isvara is the over-

lord of maya.

more

The avaccheda view of the jiva is thus in unison with the essentials of our conception of
it

God, while

makes room for the doctrine of universal
35

salvation so convincingly pressed by Appayya.
33

"mayinam
The

tu maheSvaram": &vrf. Upa., IV, 10.
Is

34
is

jlva would not be what he

but for nescience; in a sense he

the product of nescience;
lies in

how then can he

be the locus of nescience?

The answer
nescience.

pointing to the beginnlngless nature of nescience.

An

earlier nescience produces the jlva

who becomes
and
of

the locus of subsequent
is

This means infinite regress, which, however,
admittedly
the

no defect in
indeed,

what

is

phenomenal

indeterminable.
nescience;

That,

constitutes

nescience-character

tad

ev&

'vidyanam

avidyatvam.
35

For a statement

of all views as to the relation of the jiva
its sub-sections,

and

Kvara, see section 2 31 and

Chapter

I.

The

sub-sections

of section 2 '32 discuss the unity or plurality of the jlva

and of nescience.

A

fuller statement of the other views

has been avoicjed In the Introduction,

1LLUSORINESS AND PRACTICAL EFFICIENCY

43

XII.

The

entire choir of heaven

and furniture of the

earth being reduced to illusion by the advaitin, he has
since
it

will lead to

undue

prolixity besides serving

no purpose.
about
the

A

great
of

deal

of

unnecessary

refinement

was

introduced

time

Such, for instance, is the tendency to recognise a kutastha intelligence or a witness-intelligence as distinct from the jlva, isvara

Vidyaranya.

and Brahman.
prevailed and

Fortunately the interests of parsimony have repeatedly

we

find the counter-tendency to assimilate these extraneous

Thus the witness-intelligence has been sought to be identified with a form of I6vara or a form of the jlva
entities to those already recognised.

(see sub-sections of section 5*141, Chapter I).

There

is

a variety of the

pratibimba-vada,

known
with

wholly
being
the
is

illusory*

as abhasa-vada; the abhasa is considered to be while the reflection , in some views, is real,

identical

the
this

prototype;

hence
not

the

distinction

between

by Appayya, but mentioned by Madhusudana SasaravatI in tho SiddMntabindu; the following is a translation of what he has to say on the whole topic of tho
theories;
is

two

view

noted

distinction between jlva

and lavara; "The

self conditioned
is,

by ignorance,
Is

who has

.come to be identified with ignorance,

because of non-discrimiHimself,

nation from the appearance (abhasa) of the intelligence that

called the internal ruler, the witness, the cause of the world;

and

he,

who
that,

is

conditioned by the intellect,

who has come
of

to be identilied \vith

is,

because

of

non-discrimination

the

appearance

(abhasa)

(therein) of the intelligence that is Himself, called the jlva, the agent,

the enjoyer, and the cogniser; thus the Vartikakarapada.
difference

Because of the
in

of the Intellect with each body,

there

Is

difference

the

appearances of intelligence present therein;
non-discriminated therefrom

hence even the intelligence

Is cognised as if different. Because of the nonhowever, of ignorance, and because of the non-existence of difference,

difference in the appearance of intelligence present therein, in the case of

the witness-intelligence non-discriminated from that (ignorance) there
at no time whatever the manifestation of difference.

io

And on

this view, in

respect of the words 'That, thou'

etc.,

there

is

but exclusive secondary

implication; for, in respect of

the conditioning adjunct together with the
is

appearance

(therein),

there

abandonment

of

the

sense

expressly

too is indeterminable. signified (by those words); while the appearance as distinct from the inert and the non-inert. That is stated in the

8ank$epa6ariraka: 'Again, when the word Brahman comes to have for express significance ignorance together with the appearance therein (ol

44

INTRODUCTION

to account for successful practical activity in the world.

There

is

no doubt that even the illusory
word
/

is

practically
its

intelligence), then the

comes

to
is

have individuation for

express

significance;

but on that view there

exclusive secondary implication.'

Nor may
there
is

it

be said that since bondage

is for

the appearance alone, while

release for pure intelligence, there is difference of loci for bondage

and

release, as well as the unintelligibility of activity (on the part of the

its own destruction; for, bondage is admitted even of pure intelligence, through the channel of the appearance. That has been

appearance) for

said by the Vartikakarapada
'.viz.,

:

'This alone is

what

is evil,

the experience of the self as a transmigrate!''.

according to us, Therefore it is only

the (defective) appearance of pure intelligence that

removal thereof

is release;

thus there

is

is bondage; and the nothing irreconcilable. Or else,

even the intelligence non-discriminated from the appearance is the express significance of the words 'That thou art'; therefore, since there is non-

abandonment
defect

of part of

what
is

is

expressly signified, on this view there
is

is

but the exclusive-non-exclusive secondary implication; hence there
whatsoever.
It

no

this

view which

is

called

abhamviUa.

The

prototype intelligence conditioned by ignorance is isvara; intelligence as reflected by ignorance defined by the internal organ and its residual

impressions
reflected
is

is

the jiva: thus the author of the Vivarana.
is

Intelligence
intellect

in ignorance

Isvara;

intelligence

reflected in the

the jiva; the prototype intelligence conditioned by ignorance is the pure: On these two views, the thus the author of the Sankxepasdriraka.
diversity of the jlvas is because of the differences of intellect.

Because
etc.,

of the reality of the reflection, in respect of the words 'That, thou'

there

is

but exclusive-non-exclusive secondary implication,
the praMimba-vada*
Intelligence

It is this

view

that they call

made

the

content of

ignorance

is

Isvara: and that which is the locus of ignorance is the jiva;

thus says Vacaspati Misra. And on this view, because of the diversity of ignorance, there is diversity of jlvas. And for each jiva the world is
different, since material causality of the

us conditioned by his

own

ignorance.

(This

world belongs to the jiva alone, is only one possible interalso

pretation of Vacaspati's view.

For another, perhaps a sounder, view, see
tiiddhtintabindu,
p.

Brahmananda's commentary on the
introduction to the

117;

the

common

world)

is

recognition because of similarity, while Isvara's causality is

BMmati, TPH

edn.).

And even

(of

a

figu-

world cieated (theretrom).

of the jlva's ignorance together with the rative, as being the substrate The It is this which is the avacchcda-vada.

conditioned by ignorance is ivara and intelligence prototype intelligence reflected in ignorance is the jiva; pure intelligence unconditioned by

iLLUSORINESS AND PRACTICAL EFFICIENCY

4^

The water of the dream quenches the thirst in the dream. But is practical that efficiency limited to the same grade of reality as which is efficient? While some schools incline to this
efficient to

a limited extent,

opinion, the Advaitavidyacarya holds that practical The efficiency may be even of a higher grade of reality.

need for such a view com'es thus. The hostile critic of advaita wants to know how non-dualism is known to be
the truth.

Presumably because

it is

based on a valid

means of knowledge, say, revelation. But now we have revelation as pramana, non-dualism as the prameya, he

who apprehends
non-dualism
l

non-dualism' as the pramatr; in spite of this three-fold distinction how can it be said that
is

the truth and that
is

it is

established by

Scripture
tions,

?

The only answer
is

that all these distinc-

though

existent, are not absolutely real.
;

The

not absolutely real how can it tell us pramana, then, anything valid about absolute reality 1 The reply

would be that though belonging only
grade of

to the empirical

reality, the practical efficiency of the

pramana

may be that of a higher grade, that though pramana can never be absolutely real, it may yet make known the
absolutely real.

For such a

position, analogies are not

wanting in ordinary experience. The dream of a damsel produces consequences which, far from being
sublated, persist in

case of a snake-dream.

waking experience; similarly in the In the former we have a

persistent mental exaltation, in the latter
ignorance
is

we have a
the jlva; either
is

Ivara, what

is

conditioned by ignorance
is

is

of these, as the principal conclusion of the Vedanta,

what

called the
118,

eka-jlva-vada.

It is this that they call drsU-srsti-vada"

(pp. 112

Advaitamafijarl edition).
vada, see section 3 -71,
its

For further information about the subsections, and section 3 72, Chapter
P

46

INTRODUCTION

persistent bodily trembling etc., consequent on fear. It is true that trembling etc. continue even after the
illusory snake of

waking experience

is

known

to be

illusory; here the persistence is explained

on the basis

of residual impressions (samskara). But where the snake was dreamt of, the trembling and the snake belong
to

different
is

orders

of

experience.

The appeal

to

samsfcara

therefore not possible; even if such an
it

appeal

is

made

comes only

to this

that residual

impressions belonging to one grade of reality can produce practical effects of another grade of reality;
this is just the conclusion sought to be established. If there were not such practical efficiency, why should people desire pleasant dreams and hate unpleasant

and

dreams ?
is

Nor may
real,
it is

it

be said that even in dream there

something

content and
efficiency
;

the cognition of the dream that which accounts for the practical
viz.,

tive

more than the cogniaspect of the dream-experience; and when the
for this cognition is no

experience as a whole is said to be illusory, that aspect The fact of too is but illusory and assumptive. immediacy may perhaps claim not to be assumptive;
experienced. But immediacy as such cannot adequately account for the practical effects in their gradation. He that has kissed

for

it is

a fact that the dream

is

a girl in the dream has more happiness than he who has merely seen one he that has been bitten by a snake in
;

the dream has more fear than he

touched one.

The immediacy

is

who has merely common to all these
fear.

without distinction, but the practical efficiency varies as

shown by the grades of happiness and
blished

It is esta-

thus

that

the

practical

efficiency

of

an

THE INDETEHMINABLE ALONE AS PRACTICALLY EFFICIENT 47
experience may belong to a higher grade of reality than that experience. The merely apparent have empiri-

and the empirically real may culminate in absolute reality. The proposition will not appear so paradoxical if we remember that when we speak of
cally real effects
effect,

we mean not a bare consequent
is latent.

in time, but the

manifestation of what
is latent

And ex hypotJiesi what

in

its

being absolute reality, there is no contradiction becoming manifest in the highest type of
viz.,

empirically valid experience,

Brahma-saksatkara.

It is possible to go a step further

and say that far

practical efficiency requiring to be explained in the case of the indeterminable, it is the indeterminable

from

alone that can be practically is neither real nor unreal.

efficient.

For, the

efficient

it were wholly real it from change. Whence would then can there be activity or efficiency? The self alone It is no good is the real, and the self knows no change. to itself or another not to itself because it has no wants to satisfy, not to others, since there are no others. The

If

be perfect, parti ess, free

;

unreal, again, like the horns of a hare cannot be active or efficient, since it is non-existent. Efficiency then

requires existence, short of reality it is only that which is neither real nor unreal that can possess practical
;

This interesting argument is developed in the Advaitavidydmukura but does not figure in the
efficiency.

Siddhantalesa, though one might have expected
there.

it

XIII.

A more

fundamental objection to the

illusion doc-

trine attacks the status of that doctrine itself.

Is that

4g
illusory or not ?
least

INTRODUCTION
If not,

we

have, besides

Brahman,

at

one other
fails.

reality, viz., this doctrine;
If,

hence non-

dualism

on the other hand, that too is illusory, then the world, whose illusoriness is illusory, is consequently real; thus again non-dualism has to be
abandoned.

The present work

gives two replies, both
is

of which are interesting.
reality of the world,

What

denied by us

is

the

and that which denies, viz., illnsoriness, need not bo more real than what is denied; instances are known of error and delusion being
removed not by absolute truth, but by other error and delusions; the illusoriness of the world may then have
the

same grade of
36

reality as the

world of ether
it,

etc.,

not
is

absolute reality.
riot

On

the face of

the argument

very satisfactory. One would expect the sublater to have a higher degree of reality than the sublated.
Further, while the proof is not yet complete about the world of ether etc. not being real, it would seem to be

begging tho question to say that illusoriness may be of the same grade of reality as the world of ether etc., and

need not be absolute.
it

If illusoriness had been proved,

would be valid

to maintain that that itself

may

be

illusory; but illusoriness cannot be
is

proved until there

resolved the apparent absurdity of illusoriness being illusory without the content being absolutely real.

The other answer mentioned by Appayya is a We say that nacre-silver is illusory, trifle more subtle. since when nacre is cognised to be such, i.e., when there
the right intuition of the substrate of the nacre-silver experience, there is conflict with non-nacreity; the
is
86

See section 4*61, Chapter

II,

ILLUSORINESS AS ILLUSORY

49

silverness,

which

is illusory, is

not opposed to the non-

silverness of the substrate.

When there is cognition of
not removed, as nacreity is perceived to be such; hence

the world, not removed when nacre
it is

its illusoriness is
is

opposed to the non-illusoriness of the world, in the same way as nacreity is opposed to non-nacreity. The
very cognition of the world, then, makes out both itself and its illusoriness to be illusory. 37 Here again, it is
difficult

to see
is

When

nacre
;

the petitio principii is avoided. perceived as nacre, its nacreity cannot
is

how

be removed that

self-evident if not tautologous.

The

parallel statement

would be
its

ceived as the world,

"When the world is perworldliness cannot be removed."
is

What

is

actually stated, however,

that

its illusoriness

cannot be removed; and what we are opposing time is the possibility of asserting illusoriness
gently in respect of the universe.

all

the

intelli-

If the world were

apprehended as illusory, its illusoriness would bo opposed to non-illusoriness but according to the critic the world cannot be apprehended as illusory, since Hie
;

concept of illusoriness cannot intelligibly fit in with non-dualism. seem to be really in an impasse.

We

the advaitin justice he has independent proofs of the illusoriness of the world. The criticism of the allegation that perception cognises a world of
difference has been already set forth. Other proofs depend on the fact of the world being the object of finite cognition, on its being sublatablc and so on. But all

To do

these proofs have to surmount the logical obstacle sot up by the critic, an obstacle based on the Law of
37

See section 4*52, Chapter

II.

8

17

50

INTRODUCTION

Excluded Middle. If your illusoriness is itself an illusion, the world must be real if not, illusoriness itself is
;

real; in either case, non-dualism is impossible. discussion in the Advaitavidydmukiira is fuller

The and

more interesting. This is the nerve of the argument. The difficulty seems to arise from our imagining that a
qualification can apply only to something other than itself, not both to itself and others; illusoriness is a
qualification we predicate ;

and the subject of that predi-

cation cannot itself be illusory ; the illusory illusion must be real. But surely nothing can be farther from
truth.

When we predicate "reality" or "knowability "

do these qualifications have to apply only to what is Do we not say that itself not real or knowable ?
Ueality
is real,

just as

much

as that
it

it is

knowable
sense
if

?

And, on the contrary, would

make any

wo

maintained that the subject of the predication of reality The illusoriness of illusion is a is other than real? paradox assuredly, but no greater paradox than the
affirmation of the reality of the real.
finite

The whole of

experience
it is finite

abounds in such pciradoxes, just

and mediated, while absolute experience is impartite. Our knowledge itself is a paradox for it cannot be of the unknown, since there can be no
because
;

activity (not even cognition) in respect of

what

is

un-

known nor can already known
;

it

;

if it

be in respect of the known, that being be said to be of the partly known,

does the cognitive activity apply to the known part or the unknown ? In either case we have the same difficulties over again.

The conclusion that we are driven
is perfect,

to is not that

our knowledge

but that

it is

an

imperfect relational appearance of the supra-relational

iLLUSORINESS AS ILLUSORY

51

draw a similar conclusion in perfect knowledge. respect of the illusoriness of illusion. In any case the
appeal to Excluded Middle
beside the point. advaitin said that the illusoriness of illusion
is

We

If the
is true,

absolutely real, then the critic might argue to the reality of the substrate of the illusion. But just as illusoriness

may be
and the

illusory, this illusoriness

may again be

illusory

;

possibility is

not inherently absurd since as

we

" " have said " illusoriness", like reality" and knowability", may be predicated both of itself and others.
the difficulty in this way; we say that a particular experience, say that of nacre-silver, is an illusion we predicate illusoriness of it ; in proving

The

critic

may put

;

that predicate, illusoriness of the illusion
is this illusoriness itself

is

the probans;

illusory?

Then, not merely

nacre-silver

and the

like but

even real experiences like

that of a pot

may be

substrates of this illusory illusori-

ness ; thus the probans as residing both in the real and in illusions would be inconstant; even the real colour of

pot

etc. is

illusory.

copresent with a substrate which is illusorily Such an argument proceeds on the assump-

tion that

we prove

illusoriness because of illusoriness

and that

We

this probans if illusory would be inconstant. do not start proving illusoriness by illusoriness,

because of infinite regress. Our proofs of illusoriness are based on other well known grounds, such as being
the object of finite cognition ;

and

illusoriness being so

cognised

is

also

proved to be illusory on the same
the alleged
;

ground.

Nor does

inconstancy of the
conclusion,

probans amount to anything for in our final

we do not admit the pot etc. or its colour etc. to be real The whole world we say is illusory. Illusoriness is no$

52

INTRODUCTION

something outside of this world, but part of
there
is

it;

hence

nothing repugnant to reason in that too being illusory. No doubt, within our finite experience we have a difference established between nacre-silver and its
illusoriness.

The former
is

is
is

merely apparent (prati-

bhasika) while the latter

But this difference
there
is

empirical (vyavaharika). established by a prainana, whereas
illusoriness

no pramana for distinguishing the of illusoriness from illusoriness.
It

may be argued

that if nacre-silver, the substrate

of illusory illusoriness, is illusory, the self too may be illusory, as the substrate of illusory illusoriness; for,

some systems do hold the
self; but

self to be illusory;

and that

belief is illusory according to those

who

believe in the

ought to be an illusion in the same way as nacre-silver, it is clear that such an argument can at best show the possibility of the self

on this very ground,

it

too being delusive

;

it

cannot establish

it

as a certainty.

For we do not say
it is

that nacre-silver

is illusory,

because

the substrate of illusory illusoriness ; we say rather that, as it is an illusion, it is the substrate of illusory

illusoriness.

To argue back to the self being an illusion

the substrate of illusory illusoriness is wholly unjustified. But there is certainly a possibility, because of similarity to nacre-silver in this respect.

because

it

is

This possibility

is,

however, negatived by Scripture

which teaches the reality of the self, and by reasoning, which demands both a witness of and a limit to the process of sublation. We do not say that the self is
real because
it

is

unsublatable, but because, as the
it is

witness even of sublation,
evidenced.

self -certifying

and

self-

Everything

finite

perishes

up

to the self;

INDIVIDUAL VARIATIONS OF SUKHA

&c.

5$

but the self does not perish, even because it is the self of all, yea, even of the doubter. Non-contradiction or
coherence (the two are negative and positive aspects of one and the same principle) is of itself barren as the test of truth; its complement is self -manifestation. The
self alone is self-manifest
;

and if we hold that the

self is

not illusory, it is not merely because it is unsublated, but because it is self-manifest and unsublated.

Descartes was fundamentally right when he asserted the impossibility of thinking away the thinker. His error
lay in constituting an independent reality of this solf after eliminating everything that could possibly be its

The advaitin uses nearly the same words and appears to follow the same path but he is saved from the final error when he equates the individual with the universal self and identifies it with experience, not with
content.
;

one aspect of

it

the experience!

1

.

XIV.
The
self is one, infinite, universal.

Nor because

of

this is there the contingence of all persons

having the same experience of pleasure or pain at the same time for these are qualities of the internal organs, which
;

and hence vary with each jiva as Agency and enjoyership do not belong to pure intelligence; they belong to it as identified with the body, mind etc., or as transferred to it by superimposition from the body,
define the one Self,

defined by the respective internal organs.

mind mind
tions,

etc.

It does not follow that because the body,

etc.

are the loci of the above-mentioned distinc;

they themselves are real for the distinctions being assumptive, their loci too may be assumptive. He who
dissatisfied

is

with this explanation of distinction

54

INTRODUCTION

(vyavastha) can find no greater satisfaction in the hypothesis of a plurality of selves infinite or atomic.

Apart from the
attribute

difficulty

of

together with pervasiveness,

we

conceiving plurality find that the latter

stands

in

the

way
;

of distinguishing the

experiences of different souls for, being infinite, every soul is without distinction capable of being in contact

with everything

an object in the present, an impression of the past or the unseen potency due to past acts. Nor does the atomicity of souls offer a way out. How can
the atomic Caitra have experience of pleasure or pain or both together in different parts of his body 1 If some T

how he may be said to have such
since the different parts of his

experience,

why should
well,

he not experience Maitra's pleasure and pain as

own body

are not less

removed from him than Maitra's body?

When

along

with atomicity there is also the relation of .pail aijd whole (amsa and amsin) as between jlva and Brahman,
the possibility of explaining the distinction of happiness

and misery (sukha - duhkha - vyavastha) disappears Altogether. For, between part and whole there is a relation of difference cum non-difference. The jiva's experiences would thus be shared by Brahman even if they should somehow be compensated in the total
;

perfection that is
it

is

Brahman, another jlva in so far as non-different from Brahman would share the

experiences of the original jlva, which too is nonr different from Brahman; thus there would be inter-

mixture of the happiness and misery of different even on this hypothesis. 38
98

ji

vas

See sections 5*2 to 5 '215 and 6-61 to 6-6222, Chapter

II,

RELATION OF KARMA TO KNOWLEDGE

55

XV.
Ignorance of one's essential nature being the cause of all supcrimposition and consequent misery, release

by knowledge. The knowledge meant is the immediate, final and unshakable
consists in the destruction of that

intuition of oneself as identical with the one real that is

neither knower nor known, neither agent nor enjoyei' nor object of enjoyment, but Pure Consciousness, the substrate of the appearance of all these distinctions.

The

distinctions, however, persist

up

to the said realisa-

tion;

and the

activities consequent

such as engaging in ritual and so
contribution to

on the distinctions, on, have their own

make

in arriving at that realisation.

According to one main school, that of the Vivarana,

knowledge

of such activities, through ihe purification of the self, while, according to the other school, that of the Bhamatl, such acts instil only
itself is the result

30 the desire to know.

The

fact that independent fruit

prescribed for the various rites does not stand in the way of their subserving knowledge too;
of various kinds
is

only when such activity is aided by suitable auxiliary causes like hearing the Vedanta, reflection thereon and repeated contemplation of the
for, the latter results

In any case since the subsidiariness to knowledge is only through the channel of purification, these activities are not proximate (sannipatya) but remote auxiliaries (arad-upakaraka). For
truth taught therein.

renunciation too, as for the performance of karma, there is need; the two may belong either to different classes of
39

See sections 1-1 and 1-1, Chapter HI,

56

INTRODUCTION

people or to different stages of life; and its utility may be through an apurva generated thereby or through the 40 seen fruit of securing non-distraction from the hearing
(study) of the Vedanta.

The study

etc.,

of the Vedanta would seem to be in

any case the indispensable preliminary to realisation. It is, however, maintained by Bharatitlrtha that this is only one of the two paths taught by the Lord, viz., sfmkhya and yoga. The path of yoga is that of contemplation,

whose object

is

the attributclcss
in

the lower

Brahman, as

Brahman, not saguna meditations. The
is

possibility of such contemplation

mentioned in the
it

Prasna TJpanisad and the negation of

elsewhere

is

only apparent, being on a par with statements that Brahman is not that which is known. The patli of yoga
leads to the

same goal as that of sankhya there
;

is

need

for two paths because of difference in the capacity of

those interested

(adhikarins).

Yoga

is suitable

for

those who, because of dullness of intellect, failure to
find a skilled preceptor
in inquiry into the

and

so on, arc not able to engage

Vedanta, though from the Vedanta learnt by adhyayana they have a superficial knowledge
of the oneness of

Brahman and

the

self.

On

the face

would appear that such a person cannot successfully intuit Brahman. He sets forth armed with ignorance, not knowledge; his method is hit or miss guess-work; but none the less he will succeed, though
of things
it

with some delay; for, even guess-work
fail invariably; it
40

is
41

not destined to

very often succeeds.

Sections 1*21,

2,

2-11, 2-12, 2-13, Chapter III.
III.

41

See section 3-1, Chapter

CONTEMPLATION OP THE PURE BRAHMAN

57
is

What

is

valuable
it

about

this

position

the

liberalising tendency

indicates.

The supreme

truth

not the prize of the few ; it is not the treasured possession of intellectual aristocrats. If it is true that reality is one and that the jivas are identical
of non-dualism
is

with that one, no self can be hopelessly far from the realisation of that unity. It may be that those of keener

and clearer

intellect are

much nearer the

intuition; the

paths followed by others are none the less paths to the one goal, despite their circumlocution. Truth being a perfect orb, you are bound to encompass it sooner or

no matter where you start from and in which direction you go. This is all in the true catholic spirit of Hinduism. But there is room to doubt whether
later,

intellectual certitude is not a necessary preliminary to

the final realisation.

happen to make a correct guess; but that guess is of no value to him or others until it is verified by observation and when it is
;

A man may

verified

we have

intellectual certitude.

It

may, of

course, be said that this ascertainment has not been

arrived at though intellectual processes. There is the guess followed by the experience which guarantees the guess; in the light of that experience the intellect too
be satisfied secondarily; but the certitude which is given in experience has not been arrived at through the

may

intellect.

There

is

assuredly a great deal to be said for

this point of view. All that a true philosopher can insist on is the synoptic vision ; he need not and indeed

should not insist that this should be an intellectual

The man who trades in concepts is not intrinsically superior to him who trades in sounds and colours. The vision beatific may come through artistic
vision too.

S

18

58

INTRODUCTION

and the truly moral man, who has lost all thought of himself in the narrow sense, IB not necessarily farther from realisation than
the artist or the philosopher. This much, however, the philosopher can claim, viz., that his particular weapon, the intellect,
is

as through intellectual channels; 42

the sole critic of all achievement and that

wKere

this critic does not function the chances of going

astray are much' greater. But this comes to nothing more than tKe admission of Bharatitirtha that the path
of yoga involves delay.

XVI.
About that which
is

directly

the

instrument

(karana) of intuition there are divergent views, some holding that deep meditation is the karana, while others claim that position for the mind or the principal texts
of the Vedanta.

There

is

no doubt about the need for

everyone of these factors, the dispute being only about the primacy of one or the other. Of special interest in this connection is the discussion as to whether the mind
not a sense-organ and whether verbal testimony can of itself generate immediate apprehension. The Bhamatl school holds that the final intuition cannot bo
is

or

is

effective in destroying ignorance,

unless

immediate, immediate, that the immediacy can come only from the functioning of a sense-organ, and that, since no other sense-organ is operative in the
it is itself

which

is

process of intuition by contemplation of the truth of
42
realisation

To Madhusudana Sarasvati belongs the credit of claiming non-dual to come through the channel of devotion (bhakti). The

language he employs

is strongly suggestive of artistic experience. See his Bhaktirasayanam,; also the Siddhantabin&u, translated by P. M. Modi,

Appendix
advaita,

II.

and seems

The view marks yet another stage in the liberalising to derive some inspiration from Bharatitirtha,

of

INSTRUMENT OP INTUITION

59

non-dualism, the mind must be admitted to be a senseorgan. It is true, as the objectors would say, that the

mind

is active in

mediate cognition

too.

This need not,

however, stand in the

recognition as a senseorgan; for, immediate cognition is not an invariable consequent of the functioning even of the recognised

way of

its

sense-organs, since immediacy may be obstructed by a defect in the sense or the object. It is not every ear that

can appreciate music, but only the trained ear; the trained sense, like that of the yogin, can have immediate cognition of what we cannot perceive; the perfected mind of the siddha can intuit the Absolute though our

minds cannot the need for discipline does not detract from the sense-character of mind.
;

Even granted

this character, is

it

the

mind

that

is

directly the cause of intuition or is deep meditation the cause? Both views seem to find favour with different,

school of thought which insists on deep meditation (prasankhyana) as the direct cause, claims
writers.

The

Mandana as
view came
the

time

strongest if not earliest adherent. This in for extensive criticism even as early as of Suresvara who condemns it in the
its

Naiska/rmyasiddhi.

If

the

final

intuition

is

true

knowledge one would expect its karana to be a recognised means of knowledge (prama^a) and prasankhyana is not a pramana. The admission of mind as a sense-organ would get over this difficulty, because contact of sense with object is perception, and this is what happens when the mind through contemplation envisages the Absolute. In this case, we recognise no

new pramana, but only a new variety of a well-known pramana. The Vivarana school, however, holds that

60

INTRODUCTION

the principal texts of the Vedanta, such as "That thou art", are themselves directly the cause of the intuition,

and that, though they work through the mind, the
is

latter

not a sense-organ or the direct cause of immediate apprehension. According to this view, verbal knowledge may of itself be immediate, though its content be

not sensed.

In the well known story of ten foolish men

who
and was

started counting themselves after crossing a river every time counted only nine since the enumerator
left out in

each case, when the stranger starts counting, comes to the tenth man and says "Thou art the tenth", there is immediate realisation of the whole

party being safe and sound, though there is no senseapprehension over and above what existed already without producing the said realisation. The followers of the Bhamatl view say that this is to beg the question ; for the statement "Thou art the tenth" produces no
intuition except through the mind; and we say that the mind is capable of producing that intuition because it
is

a sense-organ.

The story of itself cannot negative our
legitimate criticism

contention.
itself to the

The only

may

direct

presence or functioning of mind in mediate

as well as immediate apprehension; that has already been stated. 43

and the reply

to

XVII.
However final or superior or ultimate this intuition may be, it is yet in the form of the conditioned it is not
;

the whole topic see sections 4 and 5 of Chapter III, together the Kalpataru on the BMrrtatl,, pp. lie,. ng t driraftgam edition, the Ved&ntaparibhdyd, pp. 43 46 (Bombay edition with the Sikhdmani) and The Six Ways of Knowing (D. M. Datta),
43

On

with

the

sub-sections,

pp.

5358.

DESTRUCTION OF THE FINAL PSYCHOSIS
free

Q

from

distinctions of
it is itself

knower and known though of
;

the impartite,

not impartite.

Two

questions

naturally arise out of this position. When knowledge that destroys appearance is itself of the form of

appearance, does it not require another agent for its own destruction? and if so, what is that other agent?
the final cognition is impure, what is it that figures as the object of knowledge therein? It seems contradictory to assert that the pure is that object of

Again,

if

knowledge.

What appears

in a conditioned

cognition must itself be the conditioned. can there be realisation of the pure unconditioned

mode of If so, how
there

Absolute ? be release?

And

failing such realisation,

how can

It is admitted

by all schools of advaita that the

final

psychosis, called the intuition of Brahman, has the capacity to annul not merely the rest of the world of

appearance, but

itself as well.

Various analogies are

The power of the clearing mixed with muddy water, precipitates both nut when itself and the mud already in the water; poison, administered as a drug, expels both itself and the poison
employed to illustrate this.
already present in the system when grass is completely burnt up by fire, the fire too dies out. It is not true that for the destruction of the final psychosis, something
1

;

over and above that psychosis is needed; this somethingother is undoubtedly required when a pot etc. is destroyed, but to insist on that here would be to argue

from

illegitimate analogy ; one

may

as well argue that

the final psychosis cannot be destroyed except by blows from a hammer or the like. The co-operation of time, unseen potency etc. is not denied, for they too exist

62

INTRODUCTION

prior to the destruction of the final psychosis along with the destruction of the universe. Those who are
still

unsatisfied maintain that

what destroys both the

universe and the intuition of
psychosis
itself,

Brahman
but the

is

not the

which

is

inert,

intelligence, associated with that avoided the apparent absurdity that the

Brahmanpsychosis. Thus is
final

psychosis

causes

its

own

destruction.
is

Brahman-intelligence

Though, in its own nature, not inconsistent with error and
them; just as the

delusion, being the substrate thereof, yet as associated

with the

final psychosis it destroys
itself

sun which by
yet does so

when its

does not destroy a piece of cotton rays are focussed thereon through a

44 Another ingenious solution would burning glass. have it that the psychosis directly destroys ignorance

alone ; but since ignorance is the material cause of the entire universe of which the final psychosis too is a
part, with the destruction of ignorance this psychosis too is destroyed. It should be noted that here too the

psychosis

is itself

the cause of

its

own

destruction,

though indirectly; the difficulty if any in such a notion Its only merit, then, lies is only postponed by a stage.
in its allowing for the continuance of the world-presentation for a while, even after the dawn of the final

psychosis. But the persistence of the world for the released soul (not merely in respect of him and for

others

who

are lookers on and unreleased) seems an

improvable and unnecessary hypothesis.

We
;

cannot

experience what the released souls experience while as for what they say, much of it may depend on our imaginative interpretation, even if we admit that those
44

For the whole

topic see section 7

and sub

sections,

Chapter

III.

THE CONTENT OP THE FINAL PSYCHOSIS

gg

the statements are really released and not merely on the brink of release. The doctrine of jivan-mukti has been noticed earlier. All that may be

wKo make

noted Here

is

that there is no need to bolster

up

that

doctrine by the hypothesis that Brahman-intuition destroys ignorance alone and not the universe.

The second question offers greater difficulties. If Brahman is known as the content of a psychosis, how can it be pure and unconditioned ? That which enters into a relation as the content thereof must surely be
1

conditioned by that relation. This is the position of Vacaspati Misra who says that the final intuition is of
45 If the relational form the conditioned (upahita). persists even here and what is intuited is not the

Absolute, what
tion
final?

the justification for calling this intuiThe reply is that here there is no
is

awareness of the condition or the conditioning, while there is awareness of Brahman alone. This is its

from psychoses of lower grades. Where the relationing has become so tenuous that it does not obtrude on consciousness, it is ready to be transcended in the fulness of the experience that is Brahman. It
distinction

not unintelligible that such knowledge takes us to the threshold of release. But an awareness of the
is

conditioned which

is

yet not an awareness of the
difficult, if

condition or the conditioning seems very

not impossible, to distinguish from an intuition of pure Brahman. Between the view which maintains the
intuition
sfet

of pure Brafiman and the Bhamatl view forth earlier, the difference would thus seem to
See the

45

BMmatV?

p.

78

(TPH

edition).

The note

thereon, as also

the relevant portion of the Kalpataru

may

also be looked up.

g^

INTRODUCTION

be mbre verbal than real.

The truth seems

to be this;

so long as one looks for what is apprehended in knowthe ledge, even the highest knowledge can give only conditioned Brahman, since we continue to l6ok for

what can enter into the knowledge-relation; but when we seek what is to be realised through knowledge, as
the fulfilment of knowledge through its transcendence in the infinite, impartite experience, what is thus known
is

the pure
1

Brahman.

The

differences of view

would

seem to depend on the stressing of one or the other of the abovementioned aspects. But in any case the path to release is in and through knowledge no other path
;

exists (na 'nyah

pantha 'yanaya vidyate).

In the preparation of this edition the following Manuscripts and printed texts have been used.
1.

A palm-leaf manuscript
B
10 of the

in

Grantha characters,
cited as

No. xxv
2.

Adyar Library,
in

Ax

.

A palm-leaf manuscript
B
33 of the

Grantha characters,
cited as

No. xxvi
3.

Adyar Library,

A2

.

A

No.

DC
4.

palm-leaf manuscript in Telugu characters, 4766 of the Government Oriental Manuscripts

Library, Egm'ore, cited as

Ex

.

A

No.

DC
5.

palm-leaf manuscript in Telugu characters, 4764 of the Government Oriental Manuscripts

Library, Egmore, cited as

E2

.

No.

B

paper manuscript in Devanagari script, 1885 of the Government Oriental Manuscripts

A

Library, Egmore, cited as

E3

.

,

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
6.

65

The Kumbakonam
K).

edition

(Advaitamaiijari

Series), (cited as
7.

The Vizianagaram Sanskrit

Series

edition,

in (This constitutes the basic text, cited as V, though some ways it is very unsatisfactory).
8.

The Chowkhamba Press

edition, (cited as

B).

9.

The Jivananda Vidyasagara

edition, Calcutta,

(cited as C).
10.

The Van! Vilas Press

edition,

Srirangam

(in-

complete, cited as {).

The editor takes this opportunity of thanking the Hon. Director, Adyar Library, the Curator, Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, Egmore, and the Manager, Vani Vilas Syndicate for their kindness and
courtesy.

Views and quotations have not been traced with as much success as could be wished. It is hoped to carry on the work of identification and publish a short Appendix at a future date. The rather elaborate division into sections and sub-sections will prove useful in such a case. The translation made in the pages of the Pandit is incomplete and in most places it is too much
;

of a paraphrase. An attempt has been made in the present translation to keep close to the text. The
transliteration tries
intelligible

to

by splitting components joined together by hyphens. This has necessitated the use of a double hyphen (=), where a word is broken up solely because the end of the line has been
S

make the text more easily up long compounds into their

19

66

INTRODUCTION

reached;

"ajnanasraya" is ordinarily printed "ajnana-'sraya", where the end of the line is reached with "ajiia", it is printed "ajnama-'sraya".

thus

while

The
him

editor tenders his heart-felt thanks to all the

scholars, both in the University

and

outside,

who gave

their unstinted help.

NOTE.
The

The 8iddMntale&a seems to have had more than one commentary. best known is that by Achyuta Krn&nanda it is found in most
;

printed editions of the text. There is, in the Library of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, the Manuscript of a commentary by one ViSvanatha
ascribes a commentary to Madhustidana has been found so far. The well known, advaitin, Sada&iva Brahmendra, wrote a verse compendium of this work, A prose compendium by Vasudeva called the Siddhtintakalpavain. Brahmendra Sarasvati, an advaitin who lived till recently, and another verse compendium by one Gaftg&dhara Sarasvati are also in print; the former is called SiMMntaletattltparyasangraUah, and the latter Veddnta-

Tlrtha

(I

A

10).

Tradition
of this

Sarasvati;

no trace

siddMnta-suktimaftjarL

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS.
CHAPTER L
1 !

3 -11

Nature of injunction in respect of hearing (studying) the Vedanta. Three kinds of injunction, apurva-vidhi, niyama-vidhi and parisankhya-vidhi.

1 -12

Which

of the above three

is

the sravana-

vidhi?
1 -121 1 -122
1 -131

Prakatartha view that

it is

apurva-vidhi.

Refutation of the above.
It
is

insist

a niyama-vidhi one variety, to on the study of Vedanta.
: :

1 -132

Another variety
dual texts.

to insist

on study of nonon study under a

1 -133

A third variety
guru.

:

to insist

1 -134

A fourth variety: to insist on the study of
the Scriptures in the original.

1 -135

A fifth A

variety to insist on the study of the sruti, as contrasted with itihasas,
:

puranas, &c.
1-136
sixth variety: to insist on hearing, as productive of immediate knowledge, in

conjunction with reflection and contemplation.

1 *137

A seventh variety: to insist on hearing, as
instrumental to mediate cognition alone.

68
1 -138

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS

An

eighth variety to insist on hearing, as certainly productive of immediate know:

ledge, co-operating with the mind.

1*139

A

ninth variety: hearing means inquiry

which
1-14

is

insisted

on for the removal of

doubt and error.
It is a parisankhya-vidhi to prevent dis-

traction by other activities.

1*15
1 *151

There

is 110

vidhi at

all.

Study under a preceptor established otherwise.

1 *152

Study and adoption of dualist texts can be avoided only by the Lord's grace, not by
a sravana-vidhi.

1 *153

Freedom

from

distraction

established

otherwise.

1*154

Exclusion of works in the vernacular
tongues secured otherwise.

1-155

The need for inquiry

&c. established by their utility, observed in experience.

2-11

Definition of Brahnian; creation etc. each

a definition.
2 '12
All three activities together constitute the
definition.

2 *21
2-22

Brahman
Is
it

is

the material cause.
jlva'?

pure Brahman or Isvura or the

2 -221
2 -222

Pure Brahman as upadana.
Isvara as upadana.

CHAPTER
2-223

I

9

Both Isvara and the
causes.

jiva as

material

Difference between avidya and

2 -2231

maya. Another variety of the above view.

2-224

Both are material causes though there is no distinction between maya and avidya.
Isvara as the cause of the empirical and jiva as the cause of the illusory world.

2-225

2-226

Jiva

alone

is

the

cause

of

all,

even

Isvaratva being posited by himself in
himself.

2 -23
2 -231

Is not

maya

the m'aterial cause ?

Maya

as parinamy-upadana,

Brahman

as

vivarto-'padana.
2 -232

Brahman

alone as upadana.

2 -233

Maya

is

only dvara-karana.

2 -234 2 -235

Maya is only an auxiliary (sahakari). Maya alone is the upadana Brahman is so
;

only figuratively.
2 -31 2 -311
Distinction between jiva and Isvara.

2 -3111

Isvara and the jiva are both reflections. Prakatartha view Isvara is the reflection
:

in the single maya, jivas reflections in its m'any diverse parts called avidyas.

2 -3112

Tattvavivetta view
sattva
is

:

prakrti wherein pure
;

predominant is maya that wherein it is overpowered by rajas arid tamas is avidya reflection in the former
;

is

Isvara, that in the latter

is jiva.

70

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS

2 -3113

Prakrti as projective
ing
it

is

is
is

former
2-3114

avidya. Isvara; in the latter, jlva.

m'aya as obscurReflection in the
;

Reflection in avidya is Isvara; reflection in its product, the internal organ, is the
jlva
;

Sankepasanraka
karma and
of

criticism

of

avaccheda view as occasioning destruction of acquired
influx of the

non-acquired.

2-3115

Citradipa

distinction

four

forms:

kutastha, the substrate of the gross and subtle bodies; jlva, the reflection in the
internal organ posited in the kutastha ; Brahman the undefined pure intelli-

Isvara, the reflection in the impressions of the intellects of all

gence;

beings,

such impressions

being pre-

sent

in

maya

located

in

Brahman.
is

Jivatva,

experienced as"I-ness",
elem'ent

the

super-imposed

and

is

destructible.

Appositional designation
intelligible, since

with

Brahman
is

sition

not

through

appobare non-

difference, but through sublation.

Even

on the
"jlva"
kutastha.
in the

former view of

may

secondarily Isvara identical with the

denote

apposition, the

blissful self of the sleep state described

Mandukya.
:

2-3116

Brahmdnanda view
sleep
is

the blissful self of

but the jlva.

Explanation of

CHAPTER

I

71

the Scriptural attribution of sarvesvaratva etc. Example of the artistically

worked cloth. Adhyatma forms are shown by iSruti as included in the
adhidaiva forms to facilitate the passage

from the conditioned
tioned.

to the uncondi-

2-3117

DrgdrsyaviveJsa includes kutastha under jiva, of which there are three kinds
:

absolute,
cal, i.e.,

i.e.,

what

is

undefined; empiri-

reflection in the internal organ

posited in
i.e.,

maya; the merely apparent,
'I' in
etc.,

one who has the conceit of the

dream-bodies
m'ode of maya.

posited by sleep, a

2 -312

Vivarana view
Jiva

:

Isvara

is

the prototype,

jiva the reflection.

2-313

is

intelligence

as

what There can be no reflection of is Isvara. what has no form. Isvara 's antaryamibhava not more intelligible on the
internal organ;
reflection theory.

defined by the is not so defined

What

is reflected is

reonly that portion which is outside the the interflecting medium. Avidya, not nal organ, may be treated as the defining

defect of krta-hana etc. has to be m'et in any case by the real

adjunct.

The

identity of the jiva:

and

this explana-

tion is possible even if the internal organ be the adjunct. There is no conflict

72

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS

with texts or aphorisms; authority of
the aphorist in Vedanta Siitra, III, ii, 20 and HI, iii, 43 and of the Brahma-

bindu Upanisad.
2 -314

Brahman itself through its avidya appears to be the jiva and by its own knowledge
is

released as

it

were.
of

Example of
himself
as

Kaunteya's

conceit

Radheya.
2 -32
Is the jiva one or

many?
body alone;

2-3211

A

single jiva animating one

other bodies non-anim'ated, similar to bodies seen in dreams; no distinction

between the bound and the released the
;

assumptive, as of persons seen in dreams.
release of
etc.

Suka

2 -3212

Hiranyagarbha, a reflection of Brahman, is the one principal jiva; other jivas are
reflections

of

this;

all

bodies

are

animated, but with a distinction.

2 -3213

A

single jiva animates all bodies without

distinction

;

non-recollection
etc.
is

of

one
to

another's
difference
distinction
released.

happiness
of bodies.

due

Even here, no between the bound and the

2 -322

Jivas are many, as defined by the internal

organ etc,

Distinction between bondage

and

release recognised.

CHAPTER
2-3221

I

yg
is

Ignorance though one has parts; and

removed
2-3222

in part

when Brahman-know-

ledge arises.

Brahman-knowledge destroys the mind and thence is destroyed the conjunction
of ignorance with intelligence.

2-3223

Ignorance resides in the jivas, not in Brahman; it is fully present in each
jlva,

in the particular, and abandons some enlightened jivas, as the
like jati

jati

abandons a destroyed particular.
jlva.

2 -3224
2-32241

Ignorances are many, one for each
All
the nesciences
;

together

create

the

world when one

is

destroyed, the world

is destroyed, but is immediately recreated by the surviving nesciences.

2-32242

Each nescience

creates a different world

for each jiva; only a delusive sense of identity, as in an illusion seen by several
persons.

2 -32243

Maya, located

in Isvara, is the cause of the
;

empirical world avidyas cause obscuration alone and the projection of the

merely apparent.
3-0
3 -1

What

is

agency?

Possession of such knowledge, desire to act and volition as is favourable to what is
to be done.

3 -2

Possession of knowledge alone, such! as favourable to what is to be done.

is

SI

10

74
3 -3

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS
Possession of knowledge of the form " is to be created.
'*

This

4 -1

Brahman 's oiriniscience

intelligible

though

there is no internal organ as for the jiva ; for Isvara's adjunct is ignorance associated

with

the

impressions

of

the

intellects of all beings: Bharatitirtha.

4 '2

Prakatdrtha view: there are transformations of maya which reflect intelligence
;

through the

manifestations

reflected
all

therein, Isvara sees the

world in

three tim'es ; hence omniscience.

4-3

Tattvasuddhi view: in the above manner, Isvara perceives the entire world of the
present
;

through impressions produced
is

thereby there
past
;

prior to creation

memory of everything maya transforms

presentation of all things to be created in accordance with the
itself into the

adrsta of jivas hence knowledge of the
;

future.

4 -4

Kaumudl view Brahman 's essential know:

ledge manifests everything related to it ; even the past and the future are related
to
it

as existing in avidya in the
;

form of

impressions omniscience

is
;

not through

cognition due to psychoses Brahman is of the nature of the knowledge of every-

thing but not the cogniser of everything.

4 *5

Vacaspati 's view Brahman may be said to be even the agent in knowledge since
:

CHAPTER

1

75
its

that knowledge though in

essence not

a product
5 -0
5-1

is

yet a product of Brahman,

as defined by

what is seen.

Why does the jiva need psychoses'?
Vivarana view:

Brahman's

jiva's intelligence unlike is not the material cause of

not in identity with them and cannot manifest them but (a) there
all things, is
;

is conjunction of the jiva with the internal organ, whose transformation,

the psychosis, goes out through the senses to the object and pervades it;
associated with this psychosis the jiva (b) Or, the condicognises that object,

tioned jiva

is finite

and has no

relation
its

with objects, but psychosis manifests

non-difference front the object-definedintelligeiice ; and thus the jiva illumines the object, (c) Or, the psychosis destroys the ignorance veiling the jiva and
;

the jiva, being manifested then, mines that object alone.

illu-

5 -11
5 '111
5-112

What is
The

the association with intelligence ?

relationship of subject

and

object.

For that

relationship the psychosis need not go forth; but when the psychosis is related to the object, there is an indirect
relation to the object even for the jlvaintelligence in proximity to the object/

since the psychosis is in identity with
this.

76

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS
Direct relation necessary for immediacy hence when there is conjunction between
;

5 :113

psychosis and object, for the jiva too there is a conjunction born of a conjunction.

5-114

Identification

with

the

object

secured

through non-difference between manifesting
intelligence

and

Brahman-

though the jiva is omnihe cognises objects only as present, conditioned by the internal organ; difference from the view (b), where
intelligence;
1

souls are finite.

5-12

What

is

the
?

manifestation

of

non-

difference

5 -121

The identification through the psychosis of intelligences as defined by the object and
by the internal organ; analogy of tank water and, field water becoming one
through a channel.

5-122

The

object-defined-intelligence creates a

reflection of itself in the

proximate part of the psychosis; with this there is identification of the jiva, not with the
obj ect-defined-intelligence
itself.

5*123

The
is

object-defined-intelligence

itself

is

identified with the jiva, but the

former

considered not as qualified by its being the prototype, but as qualified per
accident* thereby.

CHAPTER
5 -13

1

77

What

is

the removal of obscuration?

If

ignorance is destroyed, world too destroyed
c
!>

why

is

not the

5 -1311

Of a small part alone

there is destination

as of darkness by a glow-worm, or a rolling up as of a mat, or a retreat as of frightened soldiers.

51312

Object-de&ied-intelligence, when in conjunction with a psychosis, cannot be

obscured

by ignorance;
;

this

is

the

removal of obscuration ignorance need not obscure that wherein it is located.
5-132

What

destroyed by a psychosis is not primal ignorance, but a mode thereof
is
its

and

destruction alone is the removal ;

the ignorances to be destroyed are as numerous as the cognitions.

5 -1321

These modal ignorances too are beginningless.

5-1322

They have a beginning;

illustration from which causes dreams and the sleep

experience "I slept well."

5-13211

Each

cognition destroys one ignorance alone, as it destroys one pragabhava
alone, other

pragabhavas being seen to
capable
of

continue,

as

originating

doubt
5-13212

etc.

All ignorances do not obscure all things at all times; when one ignorance is this destroyed by a psychosis, when

78

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS
latter ceases, another ignorance obscures

the object.
arises
all

When Brahman-knowledge
surviving

ignorances

are

destroyed, being dependent on primal

ignorance destroyed by that knowledge.
5-13213

The

cognition while destroying one ignorance, drives away the others too in

the sense of obstructing their obscuring capacity so long as the cognition lasts.

5 -132131

Difficulty in a continuous
tion.

stream of cogni-

psychosis ceases, ignorance re-obscures; therefore even second and subsequent cognitions are
the causes of non-obscuration.

When

the

5-132132

Nyayacandrika view: each cognition destroys one ignorance alone; the other ignorances obscure the nature of the
object only as qualified per accidens by their respective times; and cognition

ignorances that obscure the thing qualified per accidens by the time
destroys
all
it lasts.

5-132133

The

essential

nature of the

object

is

obscured by that ignorance alone which is removed by the first cognition; the
second and subsequent cognitions remlove ignorances relating to the object
as qualified by space, time
etc.

In the
a

continuous
multiplicity

stream
of

of

cognition,

mitted;

or

psychoses is not adeven if multiplicity be

CHAPTER

I

79

admitted, there may be not many instantaneous psychoses, but five or
six,

each lasting for some time, so that each has some gross time for contentif

Even

they be instantaneous and thus

do not remove obscuration, there is no harm, since as relating to the already known they are not authoritative.
5 -1321331

Obscuring ignorance

is

two-fold located in
;

the object and located in the knower in the case of mediate psychoses, the latter

destroyed, not the former, since the psychosis does not go forth.

alone

is

5 -1321332

There
of

only one ignorance, located in the knower; the illusion is a transformation
is

as the content of the ignorance located in the knower ; even medi ate

Brahman

psychosis destroys modal ignorance, but another mode of it projects what is not
true.

5-1321333

Obscuring ignorance is present in the object alone though modal ignorance is not related to the witness conditioned by
;

the internal organ, primal ignorance is so related; and thence comes the

" experience "I do not know nacre etc., since even nacre etc. are non-different

from the

intelligence that is the content of primal ignorance; and in any

case there is non-difference between the

mode and

that which has modes j as for

8Q

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS
the

mediate

psychosis,
its

it

does

not

remove ignorance and
do so mtiy be delusive.

appearing to The rule about

removing ignorance applies only to immediate psychoses, but not to all
immediate cognitions
like the witness's
etc.

perception of nescience
5 -141

Who

is

the witness ?
:

5-14111

Krttastha(Rpa view
witness.
at intervals

the kutastha

is

the

The two bodies are manifested
by psychoses of the internal

organ; at other times, they are manifested together with the absence of
psychoses, by the witness. Individuation etc. constantly associated with the

witness; hence not subject to doubt etc., and subject to recollection of continuity contemporaneously with a continuous

stream
object,
is

of

cognition of some other Unlike the jlva, the kutastha

an indifferent spectator. Natakadlpa

too distinguishes the witness from the jlva; the witness is the Imtastha, com-

pared to a lam'p in a theatre. Tattvar pradipika too says that the inner self is the witness as non-different from the In all three views, the Lord is not jlva.
the witness.

5-14112

Kaumudt view:

the witness
is

is

some form

of the Lord, which

yet not the abode

CHAPTER
of causality.

I

81
sleep,

In

he

is

known

as

Prajna.
5-14113

Tattvasuddhi: the witness though really of the constitution of Brahman appears to be of the constitution of the jiva, in
the same

way

as the this-ness,

which

while really belonging to nacre appears
to belong to silver.

5-14121

The nescience-conditioned
witness, the jiva in his
indifferent.

jiva

is

the

own nature being

5-14122

The jiva is the witness, but as conditioned by the internal organ, not by the omnipresent nescience; the jiva as qualified by the internal organ is the cogniser.
If nescience obscures the witness, how are nescience etc. manifested by the witness ? Even by the light that it obscures, in, the

same way as Rahu.
5-1422

Another view: nescience obscures but
the exclusion of the witness.
bliss that is of the
is

to

Even

the

nature of the witness

certainly manifested, since there is seen unconditioned love for the self.

5 *14231

If bliss

manifest even here, what is the difference between bondage and release $ The undefined nature of Brahman-bliss " does not count, since " not being defined is not of itself a human goal; though
is

SI

II

82

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS
Brahman-bliss, as contrasted with material

happiness, is unsurpassable, you admit the real identity of all forms of
;

happiness nor may grades be admitted because of differences in the manifestcrs,

since
;

the illustration

is

not

accepted and even if it were, the state of bondage as one of clearer happiness

would be superior to the free state where happiness is not clear, because
undefined. Therefore the witness-bliss
is

not unobscured.

5 -14232

Advaitavidyacarya 's rcpl y analogy of the reflection in mirrors of different degrees
:

of purity; superiority and inferiority in the happiness may be superimposed

because of the purity or impurity of the
reflecting intellect.

5 -14233

Bliss

certainly experienced as obscured ; the witness is unobscured as intelligence,
is

but as bliss
tion
is

obscured; obscuraseen only where there is (partial)
it

is

manifestation, as in I do not know the sense stated by you". As intelligence

"

not wholly obscured, so bliss too is not wholly obscured but only to the exclusion of the particular psychoses of happiness.
is

5*1424

Since individuation

etc.

are continuously

presented to the witness, since they do not pass out to make room for

CHAPTER

1

83

memory-impressions,
recollected?

how can they be

5 -14241

Individuation

are also manifested, by the witness as defined by them, as transformed into psychoses with the
etc.

This witness being objects. impermanent, recollection is possible.

forms of

5-14242

Recognition of a psychosis of nescience, with the form "I" such as is necessary
to explain the recollection of nescience
etc.

in sleep.

5-14243

This psychosis with the form "I" is a modification of the internal organ (not of nescience), but is not cognitive, not
being guaranteed by any ascertained

means of
5 -14244

cognition.

Even this psychosis is cognitive, because of the experience "I know myself' the mind itself should be assumed to be the
7

;

instrument for this cognition.
5-15

Removal

of obscuration would seem to

belong only to psychoses relating to
external objects.

not even this rule, since in delusion the psychosis of the this does not remove ignorance, as otherwise the delusion would have no material cause.
is
' '
' '

There

5-151

Ignorance about the this-element is certainly removed, but not about nacreity
;

that

is

the

material

cause

of

the

g4

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENT^
delusion; hence the distinction in the Sanksepasariraka between the adhis-

thana and adhara of delusion.
5 -152

The ignorance

of the this-element is itself

the material cause; though removed in its obscuring aspect, it is not removed in
projective aspect; the distinction between the removal of these two
its

aspects has to be recognised to explain jivan-mukti and the persistence of the

delusion in reflection.

5 -153

Kavitarkika-Cakravarti Nrsimha Bhatto-

padhyaya's view: no experience of a psychosis of "this" as distinct from
' '

this is silver

'

'.

It is not to be

assumed
of the

from the
delusion

effect, since its causality
is

not evidenced.
is

The contact

of a defective sense
as the
cause.

alone established

The cognition of the

substrate cannot be the cause of such

delusions as yellow shell or blue water,
since there can be

no visual perception

of what is colourless colour
is

and the white

experienced at the time of the delusion. Contact with a
not
defective sense-organ applies to all cases

of delusion

and parsimony

dictates its
it

choice as the cause.

Nor may

be said

Cognition of the substrate is a necessary cause in super-impositions depen-

"

dent on similarity,

e.g.

nacre-silver ;

and

CHAPTER

1

5

similarity is not a defect in the object, since even delusive similarity may cause

superimposition and superimposition is not dependent on the nature of the object, since on the same cloth there may
;

or m'ay not be superimposition, according as there is or is not similarity."

Cognition of similarity may be a cause only in what is hindered by specific cognition, not in delusions like the yellow
shell ;

and the causes of specific cognition

would themselves explain, by their own
presence or absence, the absence or presence of the superimposition no need
;

for the cognition of similarity. piece of iron in contact with the sense of touch
is

A

not perceived as

silver, since there is

the possibility of its being perceived as any other piece of metal, copper etc.,

the object of doubt ; in the neighbourhood of silver, it is perceived
is

and hence

as silver.

The unhindered contact of

the this-object with a defective sense sets up an agitation in nescience, whose

consequent transformation has the delusive content, silver etc., too for content,

not the this-eleitient alone; the delusive content is experienced as sensory. This sensory nature cannot be explained merely from the sense-contact of the
this-element alone, as, in yellow shell etc., the this-elenient alone cannot be

ANALYTICAL TABLE OP CONTENTS
sensed as colourless and
is

not sensed as

white

the sense of sight needed for the perception of the yellowness
;

nor

is

alone of the bile in the eye, as then both the shell and its conjunction with yellow

would be non-perceptual.

Nor does the

yellow go through rays from the eyes and pervade the object, as then every

one should see

it

plated object. posed causal laws in respect of perception in general, perception of a substance

as yellow like a goldNo violation of the sup-

and percept ion of

silver.

No law about

perception in general in the absence of the ascertainment of a single mode of contact common to samyoga etc. As for
contact with a substance being the cause of perception of a substance, it is enough
i

the contact be with that on which

substancencss
is

superimposed. There no room for a further law about peris

ception of specific substances. Even if such laws be recognised they should be
restricted to empirically valid perceptions, in

see

view of such experiences as "I blue water/' which cannot be

explained by such laws. This view is not to be confounded with anyathakhyati, for silver present elsewhere (as on
the
aiiyulhfikhyati

view)

cannot

be

perceived here and now, and

we admit

CHAPTER
its

I

g7
its

indeterminability to explain both

perception

and

sublation.
etc.

superimposition of tin
timfe as of silver is

The nonat the same

due to the absence of
desire in relation

such defects as
to the former.

human

5 -154

Others hold the psychosis with the form of silver etc. to be superfluous the witness
;

manifested by the this-psychosis itself manifests the silver superimposed there-

on and this psychosis may itself account!
1

;

for the memory-impressions of silve3\

5-155

View
is

of two psychoses, one of the form "this" and the other of the form "This
silver/' not of silver alone.
silver
;

5-156

The cognition of

need not have the
is

"this" as content for silver there

the

appearance of conjunction with the thisness of the substance similarly, for the
;

cognition of silver, there may be the appearance of conjunction with the
this-ness of the substrate as content ; the

supernot appear in a single psychosis, since though the psychoses are different, they appear in the one witness manifested by the psychosis

two

the

substrate

and

the

imposedneed

with the form "this".
5*16
Objection: why is a psychosis needed in addition to the witness? Even if it

accounts

for

memory-impressions,

it

gg

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS

need not go forth. Distinction between mediate and immediate cognition may be due to difference in the instrument, like the distinction between knowledge from verbal testimony and inferential
knowledge.
5 -161

Reply: object-defined-intelligence alone manifests the object; where with that a
direct relation of identity is possible as in perception, no other relationship may

be assumed this relationship is brought about by the going forth of the
;

psychosis in mediate cognition there is no observed channel for going forth;
;

hence som'e other relation sui generis

is

assumed
5-162

there.
etc.

Individuation

are immediately cognised, only because of direct conjunction with intelligence ; hence only in conjunc-

tion

with

objects,

can

it

manifest

objects; for the manifestation of this

conjunction there 5-163

is

going forth.
is definite-

In perceptual cognition there

ness, not in other cognition; for, in the latter there is a continuance of the desire

know. Definiteness results from identity with m'anifested intelligence;
to

for the manifestation of this identity there is the going forth.

Objection the psychosis need not go forth to remove the ignorance veiling
:

CHAPTER

I

89

the object, as this may be removed even by a mediate psychosis.

Reply: cognition, if it is to remove ignorance, should have the sam'e locus

and content as the
:

latter.

even Devadatta's cogniObjection tion of pot and Yajfiadatta's ignorance of it have both the same content and
the

same

locus,
;

viz.,

intelligence

as

defined by pot so having the same locus does not count in the removal of ignor-

ance by cognition but the cognition that is to remove should belong to the same
;

person and refer to the sam'e object as the ignorance; this is possible even for
psychoses that do not go forth.

Reply: this would irriply removal of ignorance even by mediate cognition. Nor can immediacy be added as a qualification of the cognitions
;

for imm'ediacy

cannot be defined as a jati or upadhi. For us, immediacy will be shown to be

what
ance

produced by removal of ignorit cannot be a qualification of what causes that removal. The cognition that removes ignorance mtist have come into being by invariable conjunction with the intelligence that is the
is
;

hence

locus of that ignorance. For the sake of this invariable conjunction the

psychosis goes forth.

5

112

90
5 *164

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS

Parsimony prescribes the same locus for the ignorance of the object and the
cognition that removes it; hence the going forth of the psychosis.

5-165

Identity

cognition and ignorance established on the analogy of external light and darkness; hence the
of
locus

for

going forth.
5 -166

The going forth
ciation

is

needed either for asso-

with intelligence or for the manifestation of the non-difference
of the
cogniser-intelligence

from the
1

Brahman-intelligence manifesting the
object.

6-0

The non-difference

of

the

jiva

from

authority of the Vedantas, interpreted by the canons of purport, as shown in Ved. Su., I, i, 4.

Brahman has

the

CHAPTER
1-0

II.

How

can Vedantas have non-duality for purport? Conflict with perception.

Id

Tattvasuddhi view: perception apprehends bare reality, the constant substrate in pot, cloth etc.

The co-presence

and co-abseuce of the sense-organ serves
only in the apprehension of bare reality,

pot

etc.

being

delusively

presented.
is

Absence of sublating cognition
defect.

no

Differences cannot be cognised through perception, because they are apprehended only together with the
counter-correlates, many "of rem'ote in space and time;

which are nor is it

apprehended through memory, since there is no memory-impression of its being qualified by the counter-correlate as such; nor can it be inferred, since inference proceeds on the apprehension
of
difference ;

counter-correlates
;

are

but delusive appearances hence, differences and their correlates are also
delusive hence
;

no

conflict of Scripture-

declared non-duality with perception.
1
*2

Nydyasudha view perception does cognise
:

the particulars as real, but only as interpenetrated by the reality of the one
substrate; hence assumption of reality

92

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS
in the particular too is superfluous; Scriptural authority for this; distinction

from

1

other

attributes

of

the

particular, for the existence of which in the substrate there is no Scriptural

authority.

1*3

Sanksepasdrlraka view

perception does cognise the reality of the particular ; but as relating to external objects it has no
:

authority in respect of the inner
sole
is

self,

the

reality,

wherein Scripture alone

The imperative in drastavyah indicates not a command,
authoritative.
is

but the worthiness of the object.
1

4

Such reality as
is

recognised by perception

not inconsistent with illusiveness, for, perception relating to the present alone

cannot apprehend non-sublatedness in
all

three times.
if

1

-5

Even

non-sublatedness be apprehended by perception, yet because of Scriptural declarations of superiority and infeof
till

riority as to reality, it follows that the

non-sublatedness
limited

pot

etc.

is

of

duration

Brahman-know-

ledge arises.
L -6

Where

there is conflict Scripture alone is stronger than perception, since the
is

former
rises

free

from
as

defects

and

subsequently,

the

sublater;

CHAPTER

II

3

apaccheda-nyaya. Even objects of perception have to be investigated in the
light of valid teaching, e.g. the perception of odour in water or blueness in the
ether.

Scripture

jivya-virodha,
letters,

superior; no upafor, the existence of

words

etc., is

what

is

depended

on by revelation, not their
2 -1
If 6ruti
is

reality.

superior to perception,

why

the

resort to secondary implication in cases

of conflict with perception^

2 -2

Bhamall view Scripture
:

is

of force only

where

purportful; perception is stronger where there is no purport for

it is

Scripture, as in mantras and arthavadas; and for these, where they
conflict

with perception, secondary im-

plication is adopted.

2-31

Vivaranavartika view: lack of purport is not the test, since purport exists even for

what

is

understood by laksana.
defect

Free-

dom from

and posteriority in

time constitute the basis of the superiority of Scripture but perception though
;

sublated should have a suitable content

assigned to it hence there is assignment of empirical content capable of practical
;

or adoption of secondary implication for what is declared in Sruti.
efficiency,

2-32

The resort to secondary implication " "Cook the golden grains etc. is due

in
to

94

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS
inability to

perform what

is

expressly

enjoined.

2-321

Explanation of the apaccheda-nyaya and its applicability; perception thus sublated by Sruti is not contentless, but has

an empirical content.
2 -3211
Objection no sublation in the apacchedanyaya, but statements of what are real
:

at different times.

2 -3212

Reply Saslradlpika passage explained in
:

the light of the context earlier obligation not admitted to exist in fact;
:

analogy of the black arid red colours of
the cherry shown to be inapplicable.

2 -322

Why should not perception be stronger, on
the

upakrama-nyaya 2
the,

2-323

Reply: syntactical unity needed for
application
illustration
;

of

the

upakrama-nyaya;

no suspicion of syntactical unity between perception and non-dualist

revelation; hence apaccheda-nyaya alone applies.

3

-0

Alleged superiority of perception as upajlvya
;

distinction

from

cases

where the
not the

apaccheda-nyaya applies; truth-aspect alone which

it is

is

denied by

Scripture, but existence as well.

3*1

Reply: in sabda, what is depended on only such cognition of letters etc., as

is

is

CHAPTER

II

95

comm'on to valid knowledge and delusion; even existence of letters etc.

may

be denied. 3 -2
Capacity at least should exist for sounds to convey their sense. This may be
recognised consistently with non-dualism, according to which, the universe,

which persists up
ledge, is practically

to

Brahman-knowefficient and other

than the unreal.

Non-existence

may

subsist together with its counter-correlate, till sub! ation of the latter. Defini-

tion of unreality, as being the countercorrelate of negation in all places and
times, objected to.

3-3

Scripture

denies

the

reality,

not

the

existence, of the world; negation

and
Per-

counter-correlate cannot co-exist.

ception has empirical reality for content visaya-vyavastha,
:

3 '4

Non-acceptance of three grades of reality-

and merely apparent conceit of reality in pot, etc., and in
absolute, empirical
;

nacre-silver

etc.,

even because of associa-

tion with
tion

Brahman and non-discriminaHence negation
of

therefrom.

their reality is neither irrelevant nor

contradictory.

3-41

Origination

admitted

of

the

merely
its

apparent, in order to account for

immediacy.

96

ANALYTICAL TABLE OP CONTENTS
Is origination admitted for the reflection of the face? Immediacy not possible

3 -411

for such portion of one's

own face

as the

forehead

etc.

The

reflection cannot be

the merely apparent, as then the jiva who is a reflection would also be so. 3 -4111

Vivarana view the reflected face not other than the prototype differences of posi:

;

are super-imposed thereon imiriediacy possible for one's own face,
etc.

tion

;

apprehended by rays of light from the eyes, turned back by the mirror etc.; such apprehension needed
it is

since

to account for the

which

is

memory-impression, one of the three causes of

superimposition.

3-4112

Advaitavidyaeaiya's view
illusory
;

:

reflection

is

and

different
it

from the proto-

type reference to

as one's

own face is

of secondary import; conflict within experience on the Vivarcma view.

Memory-impression, as cause of superimposition, need not be of the specific
object super-imposed.

Illusoriness does

not result for the jiva, as the reflection theory is not accepted.

3-412

Criticism of the view that reflection is
real,

being a variety of shadow.
the shadow of a substance other
;

3413

Nor

is

than darkness nacre-silver too would be
real.

CHAPTER
3 -414

II

97

What ignorance causes this delusion ? By
what knowledge
is it

dispelled?

3 -4141

Ignorance of the adhisthana, persisting in
respect of protective energy, causes the reflection; knowledge of the substrate

removes

it

when aided by non-proximity

of the image.

3-4142

Removal merely of obscuring energy is due to obstacles posited by primal
ignorance which alone is the material cause of the superimposition of reflection; difference from empirical reality in that for the latter non-generation by

a defect

is a further condition; sublation of pratibhasika superim'position consistent with non-removal of primal

ignorance.

3 -51

Dreams
ance

too the product of primal ignor-

and

removable
;

by

Brahman-

knowledge alone merely apparent character due to the additional defect,
sleep.

3-52

Dream

sublatable

by waking cognition;

true knowledge of the substrate not necessary for the removal of delusion,

which m'ay be removed even by another
delusion.

3-53

Primal ignorance not the

mode mode
S

thereof, viz., sleep ; of ignorance established

cause, but a that sleep is a

by the

113

98

ANALYTICAL TABLE OP CONTENTS
delusions in dreams due to obscuration

of the empirical

world and jiva; a

pratibhasika jiva too projected as the spectator of dream's; because of their
spectator being super-imposed on the empirical jiva, the latter recollects the

dream on waking.
3 -541
Objections to dream being super-imposed on (1) undefined intelligence, or (2) intelligence defined

by individuation in (1) the dream elephant would require a
:

psychosis of the internal organ to be manifested by ahankara-Vacchinnacaitanya,

and no psychosis
"I

is

possible in

sleep; in (2) there is the contingence of

the experience

am an
"

elephant

" not

"I
3 -5421

possess an elephant.

Reply

to the first objection.

Substrate of

dreartfs is intelligence not as outside the

body, but as within it, hence psychosis possible without dependence on external
sense.

3 -5422

No psychosis not generated by valid testimony can have undefined intelligence as
its sphere,

hence that intelligence

is

the

substrate, as of itself immediate, not as

manifested by a psychosis; what is obscured is Brahman-intelligence, not
the jiva-intelligence which is a reflection
thereof.

CHAPTER
3 '543

II

99
conditioned, individuation and

The

substrate

is intelligence

not

qualified,

by

reflected therein ; hence

" the form I
3 -5431

no experience of
9

am an elephant/
is

Even

nacre-silver

super-imposed on the

reflection of intelligence defined

by the

this-element of the nacre.

3 -432

Nacre-silver superimposed on the prototype intelligence; others do not cognise at the same time, as each one can perceive that alone which has his ignorance as m'aterial cause.

3 -6

How to account for the visibility of dreamelephant
etc.
?

3-61

There are not pratibhasika indriyas, for the pratibhasika 'has no ajnata-sattva,
while
indriyas are uncognised; the empirical senses are then quiescent; no
subtle sense-organs

known

to exist.

3 -,611

Scripture declaring self-luminosity in the dream-state rules out the psychoses of
the empirical senses.

3-612

Internal

organ does not fail to be eliminated by above-cited texts, because that cannot be instrumental to cognition
except in dependence on an external sense or because that organ through its
;

transformation stands as the object of cognition recollection on waking is due
;

to memory-impressions consequent

on

100

ANALYTICAL TAfiLE O# CONTENTS
avidya-vrtti or on the destruction of the

dream-state.

3 -613

Even admitting a psychosis of the internal organ, its distinction from the jiva is
not well-known; hence elimination of other luminaries secured by; the said
Sruti.
;

3-62

Co-presence and co-absence of the functioning of the senses with the dream
experience;
silver.

this

too

may

be dream-

delusion, analogous to seeing the nacre-

3-71

D?sti contemporaneous with srsti; even the elephant of waking experience not an object of the sense of sight.

3-711

Who

posits the

waking world?

Not the

unconditioned self as transmigration would persist even after release nor the
;

conditioned

self,

because of reciprocal

dependence. Reply the stream of conditioning is beginningless and he who is conditioned
:

by the

earlier posited nescience posits

the subsequent nescience.

3-712

Nescience and five others are beginningless not in respect of them is perception
;

simultaneous with creation.

3 -713

What

is

the basis of the

ruti declaration

of sequence in creation?

CHAPTER n
3 -7131

Reply purport of Scripture is identity of self with nisprapanca Brahman; identity known through adhyaropa and apavada hence the mention of creation
:
;

etc.;

discussions

as

to

the sequence

assume purport therein for Sruti and have the purpose

intended
of

by

Sruti

m'aking

clear

the

principles

of

interpretation.

3-7132

Declarations of attainment of fruit by jyotistoma etc., parallel to the attain-

ment in dreams.

Those texts are autho-

ritative since the observances prescribed purify the intellect and lead to realisa-

tion of unity with

Brahman.

3 -72
3-8

Drsti

is itself srsti.
is

Drti

f the created.

Creation

is

by

Isvara

and in the stated sequence.

Illusoriness of the world though not

generated by the three causes thereof; removable by knowledge alone; or
different

from both the
is

real

and the

unreal j or

the counter-correlate of

that negation in all three times, which occurs in the locus of what is cognised.

3-81

Even

individuation, etc. are illusory like nacre-silver, since they are cognised by

the witness alone.

3 -82

.

They are not

same way, not being sublated in waking; the Vivarana
illusory in the

102

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS
declaration of the three-fold cause of
their

super-imposition is a praudhi-

vada.

4 -0

How to account for the practical efficiency
of the illusory?

4-1

As

in dreams, practical efficiency is of the
reality as the experience

same grade of
itself.

4-2

Advaitavidyacarya
waking,

:

even

dream expeit is

rience causes effects not sublated in
e.g.,

the dream-damsel ;

not

that the cognition of the damsel in the

dream

is

the cause
is

and that that
;

is real,
is

for that too

assumptive nor

mere

immediacy the cause of happiness, since
there are grades of the latter, though none in the form'er; hence practical
efficiency of a higher

grade of reality

is

possible.

4-3

Analogy of the darkness that obscures
objects in a dimly lit room, for one who comes in from bright light ; this has the

same practical
darkness.

efficiency as

well-known

4 -41

What

subserves practical efficiency is bare existence, not reality; no practical
efficiency

for
etc.,

the

mirage
do

etc.,

since

water-ness

are absent therefrom.
etc.

4 -42

Others water-ness
:

exist,

as otheretc.

wise activity in respect of mirage

CHAPTER

II

103

would be impossible; non-existence of
practical efficiency may be due to various
special causes,
e.g.,

destruction of the

super-imposition by specific cognition; not that which is unsublated in all three
times, but that which is not generated by special defects is practically efficient;

hence, even the illusory
cally efficient.

may

be practi-

4-5

Illusoriness too

is

illusory.

Objection:

illusory illusoriness not opposed to the reality of the world.

4-51

Advaitadlpika: illusoriness negates the
reality
oil its

substrate

the world; that

which denies

reality, illusoriness,

need

possess only the same grade of reality as the substrate, the world of ether etc., not
absolute reality.

4 -52

What

cannot be removed by the intuition

of its

own

locus negates
itself;

any

attribute

nacreity in nacre opposes non-nacreity, while its silverness is not opposed to its non-silverness

opposed to

;

world is not removed by the cognition of the world and hence negates its non-illusoriness; but Brahillusoriness of the

man 's
453

saprapancatva is removed by the intuition of Brahm'an.

eviObjection: verbal testimony as the dence for Brahman should be real. Reply even the empirical and unreal
:

104

ANALYTICAL TABLE OP CONTENTS
practically efficient; the Vedantas teach Brahman by such terms as "real"
is

not

found

in
;

connection

with

the

agnihotra etc. texts of non-duality are of greater force; even the validity of

knowledge about Brahman is less than real, as involving Brahm'an-hood which,
as distinct
is less

from Brahman, the

sole real,

than real.

5 -1

Intelligent beings not illusory as else there
will be

none to be released; nor can they be one with Brahman, in view of their

reciprocal difference.

5-2

Reciprocal differences due to differences of upadhi.
Difference must be in the
external adjuncts.
loci,

5-21

not in

5-211

Reply of some:
etc.

distinctions of happiness

are certainly due to differences in the adjunct, the internal organ, since

they are declared by Sruti to belong to
this

apposition of bondage and intelligence due to superimposition of the
;

identity

of the

internal

organ with

intelligence; transmigration of the latter consists in being the substrate of

the superimposition of identity with the knot of individuation ; as for the evils,
is

so even for reciprocal differences there the conceit of belonging to the self;

the

witness

experiences

happiness.

CHAPTER
misery
etc.,

II

105

5-212

only as identified with and differentiated by the internal organ. Others: not the internal organ, but the
reflection of intelligence therein is the locus of bondage; these reflections are diverse.

5 -213

Yet others: the enjoyer is intelligence as endowed with body and organs and
identified with the mind.
Still

5-214

the proximity of the internal organ, the real locus of agency etc., agency etc. may be superimposed even on pure intelligence as the locus;
others:

in

analogy of flower and crystal.
5-215
Distinction
difference

(vyavastha)

may

be due to

whose locus is assumptive, external adjuncts; example of the i.e., lamp appearing nearer or farther away.
'6-0

Which adjunct accounts

for one jiva not

recollecting another happiness etc.?

6-1

Difference in the abode of enjoyment is Hie upadhi the hand goes forth to pluck
;

the thorn from the foot, because of the non-difference of these organs from the

body; no such nondifference as between Caitra and Maitra nor do their bodies belong to a comm'on organism.
organism,
the
;

6 -2

Difference due to disjoining of adjuncts is the upadhi ; though the mother and the
S

114

106

ANALYTICAL TABLE OP CONTENTS
child in the womb are not disjoined, they are not united as organs of a single

organism.
6 -3
Identity or difference of bodies constitutes the upadhi; no difference between the
bodies of youth and old age ; growth not by increase of parts.
6-4
is

Difference

or

non-difference
is

of

the

internal organ

the upadhi.

6-5

Avidyas are manifold, one for each jiva;
hence the non-recollection of one jiva's
experience by another.

6-61

Vyavastha not m'ore

intelligible

on the

basis of a plurality of pervasive selves ; unity of the self favoured by !ruti and

parsimony.

6 -62

Nor can

selves be atomic as happiness or

misery throughout the body would be
unintelligible.

6-621

Objection:
atomicity.

!ruti

and

Srarti

support

6-6221

Reply: vyavastha not established even
thus Caitra
:

may recollect Maitra's pain
own
body.
difference

even as he recollects pain in different
parts of his

6 -6222

Objection

:

pure
is
it

conditions

vyavastha.

non-concomitant with the relation of part and whole or nonconcomitant with iion-difference? Not

Reply

:

CHAPTER
the
first,

II

since the jlva is said to be a part of Brahman and there would be

confusion between the experiences of the jlva and of Brahman interpretation
;

of amsatva as similarity together with inferiority; this itself is the relation

between the alleged members of the jlva

and the jlva.

Amsatva

is

not difference

non-difference: possibility of confusion among the experiences of various
jivas and as between the experiences of the jivas and of Brahman; the diverse

cum

jivas are non-different too in respect of intelligence ; illustration of the members

of an assembly; hence too, since there is not difference iioii-coiicoiriitant with

non-difference there should be confusion.

6-623

it is perception of noii'Objection: difference that accounts for recollection.

Reply

:

011

our view too

it is

failure to

perceive non-difference that accounts for non-recollection.

6-624

According to you the Lord should grieve through perceiving His real iion-difference from the jivas; but according to
us,

He

will not, perceiving the illusori-

ness of misery.

6 625

Objection knowledge which is pervasive may be the substrate of all differences.
:

108

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS

Reply

:

experience of happiness

etc.

cannot arise in dependence on knowledge; if that be an attribute of

knowledge, diversity should result for knowledge, not for the self.
6-6261
Difference between Isvara and the jlva not any more intelligible on this view:

Isvara too declared by iSruti to enter into creation and to be atomic.
6-6262
'Objection
all
:

other texts establish Isvara as
;

pervasive further He is the material cause of the Universe; hence texts about
etc.

atomicity
plained.

to

be

secondarily ex-

not secondary explanation apply also to similar texts about the

Reply

:

why

jlva?
Objection; the going up of the jlva is mentioned even before the going up of the adjunct, the intellect; departure is

declared even after the release from

name and
6-6263

form.
is

Reply: of the jlva too pervasiveness

declared; further for you the material cause is prakrti, not Brahm'an; even if
atomic, Brahman might be the material cause, as the atomic jlva is alleged to be the material cause of happiness and

misery present in a plurality of bodies;
secondary interpretation
is

possible of

CHAPTER

II

both sets of texts; if attainment is opposed to the pervasiveness of the jiva, it is opposed to the pervasiveness of Brahman too; pervasiveness is the proper nature of the jiva though he is finite as conditioned by adjuncts.

CHAPTER
1-0

III.

Knowledge
indirectly.

is

the

sole

path

to

the

attainment of Brahman; karma useful
1
-1

BMmatl view karma useful in generating
:

desire to know, prior to performing karma, is like the general
;

the desire to

know

inclination for food in the case of one

who has become
for food.
1
-2

lean through distaste

Vivarana view

useful in generating knowledge itself ; the suffix expressing desire not primary in this case; analogy of "He desires to, go on horse:

karma

back."
1-21

Such

utility of

karnia not inconsistent

with the need for renunciation, the two
belonging to different stages. Karmas are practised only till desire for knowledge
sists
is

generated; but the fruit per-

generated through removing obstacles and securing favourable conditions for study
1-3
etc.

till

knowledge

is

What karmas

are to be performed?

1 -31
1 -321

Asrama-karmas.
even those outside Kdlpataru view asramas (widowers etc.) are eligible for knowledge; hence not asrama-karmas
:

CHAPTER

III

alone are meant; even varna-dharmas, e.g., japa etc., are of use but obligatory rites alone are potent to produce know;

ledge.

1-322

Sanksepasdnraka admits the potency of both obligatory and optional rites; the principle of transfer from prakrti to
vikrti does not apply here, since sacrifice is prescribed in general terms by
Sruti, as subserving knowledge.

1-41

How

is

it

that Janaka

is

said to have

reached perfection by karma alone ? Is it because the path of knowledge is only
for brahmanas
L

i

No, "brahmana"

in-

cludes all the twice-born castes.
1 -421

The sudra not competent for such karma,
he has no knowledge of the Vaidika rites through adhyayana.
since

1-422

Others: even for the sudra there is competency for such karma as subserves

knowledge,

e.g.,

meditation
;

of

the

pancaksara, making gifts etc. study of the Veda not necessary, instrumental suffix being added separately to each

vedanuvacana, dana, yajfia etc. Imparting knowledge of Vaidika rites is alone prohibited. The apasudra section denies competency for saguna meditation or the acquisition of nirguna knowledge through the Vedanta. Practice of

112

ANALYTICAL TABLE OP CONTENTS

karma subserving knowledge m&y endow
the sudra with the body of a twice-born in the next life.

2'0

How
By

does renunciation subserve know-

ledge?
2-11

apurva that alone destroys som'e of the sins which obstruct
producing

an

knowledge; hence renunciation necessary at least in a past or in a future
life.

2*12

Apurva from renunciation qualification of him who
for sravana
etc.

is is

a special

competent

2-13

Utility through seen channels, securing

undistracted study &c.

2-14

The brahmana alone being competent

to

renounce, how can the ksatriya or vaisya be competent for study etc. ?

2-141

"

Brahmana "
and vaisya

is

upalaksana for ksatriya
;

as well these too are compe-

tent to renounce.

2 -142

Others the brahmana alone competent to
:

renounce.

In the

-case

of the knower

who renounces
the case of

there is no distinction of

competency based on caste; but not in

him who

seeks knowledge;

ksatriyas and vaisyas are competent for study; but samnyasa is not a qualification of their competence, any more than for those who have attained to the status

CHAPTER

III

H3

of divine beings on the path of release

by stages.
2-143
Eligibility for study belongs only to

him who has renounced; for ksatriyas and
as

widowers, there is {permission for such study as will bring about a brahmana body in another life.
vaisyas,

for

2-1431

How

can study in this birth produce knowledge in another ? Where there are obstacles in the present birth, the Sutra declares realisation in the next birth, through the generation of an

apurva or niyama-'drsta by hearing etc., carried on in this birth what is devoid
;

of renunciation cannot generate this
adrsta.

2-1432

Apurva due
this

previous sacrifice etc. leads to hearing etc. in the present birth ;

to

apurva itself may lead to realisation even in another birth; this explanation
alone acceptable where no injunction recognised in respect of sravana etc.
is

2 -1433

The Vivarana view

:

the above explanation

holds even where a niyama-vidhi is recognised, for the restriction is secured with repetition, not with the bare com-

analogy of pounding; hence the niyama-'drsta does not arise, for the most part, prior to the attainment of the fruit*
;

mencement of sravana

SI-15

ANALYTICAL TABLE OP CONTENTS
2*144

Vedfmta-sravana, though having a" visible result has also an unseen potency of its own. Only through this do sravana
etc.

subserve the attainment of know-

ledge in a hereafter.

3*0

Bharatitlrtha's view

yoga a means to attainment like sankhya; latter signifies sravana etc., and the former signifies
:

contemplation of Nirguna Brahman; such contemplation mentioned in Sruti,

supported by the Bhasyakara and the Sutrakara; if Sruti denies Brahman
to be the object of contemplation,
it

denies

its

being the object of knowledge

too; if its being the object of knowledge is well known, the contemplation thereof
is

also well

known from other texts such
;

suitable for those who, contemplation because of dullness of intellect, failure
is

to find a skilled perceptor etc., are not

able

to

make an inquiry

into

the

Vedanta, but have a superficial knowledge of the one-ness of Brahman, and the self from the Vedanta learnt by the

adhyayana; even such contemplation may lead to fruition analogy of guesses that turn out correct; the path of inquiry is quicker for him who has no
;

obstacles ; that of contemplation involves

delay.

4 -0

!What

is

the karana of Brahman-intuition ?

CHAPTER
4 -1

III

Deep meditation (prasankhyana) evidenced by &ruti and by the lover's
;

experience.

4-11

Prasankhyana not enumerated as a pramana; the success of guess work is due to mere chance and it cannot generate valid knowledge, though the content may not be sublated.

4-12

liex)ly:

There may be valid postulation of what is not established by a pramana, The knowe.g., isvara's maya-vrtti.

ledge of the oneness of Brahman and the self being based on the Vedanta, the intuition of that unity by meditation
is

certainly well-based.

4-2

The iniml alone is the karana; deep meditation is an auxiliary thereto, as
causing mental concentration.

4 '3

Only the mahuvakyas are the karanas;' instrumentality of the mind denied by
Sruti; instrumentality of verbal testin'ony at least in respect of mediate

knowledge has to be admitted here by hose for whom mind is the karana intuition of the sense is not through
;

but laksana; the mind too cause, but not the karana.
sakti,

is

a

5

-1

How

can verbal testimony generate immediate cognition? It may do so in con-

junction with the concentrated mind;

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS

immediacy of knowledge necessary to remove error which is immediate; and for Brahman there is no pramana other
than the Upanisads.
5 -2
It

may do

so in conjunction with intense

contemplation, as the m'ind does in the
case of the lost damsel.

5

-3

Immediacy of the cognition consists in the immediacy of the object and Brahman is eminently immediate. Immediacy is noii-dift'erence from the cognising intelligence.

54

Advaitavidyacarya
object is its

immediacy of the iion-dift'erence from such
:

intelligence as is helpful to empirical usage in respect of itself ; immediacy of

cognition

is

non-difference

of

such

intelligence, as is helpful to the respec-

tive empirical usages,

tive objects.
intelligence,

from the respecImmediacy an attribute of not of a psychosis. Hence

immediacy possible 'for happiness etc., which are witness-revealed; jlva in samsara does not realise Brahman,
because of obscuration by ignorance; ignorance not an obscuring agent for
Isvara,

and only for him: to

whom

it is

an obscuring agent does it present difference from the object-defined intelligence. That knowledge, which arises
only as in conjunction with
its

own

CHAPTER

III

content, destroys ignorance ;

man-knowledge, though

and Brahfrom verbal

testimony, arises thus in conjunction with Brahman-intelligence, the material

cause of
give

Though adhyayana may, superficial knowledge and sravana
all.

give certitude of existence, ignorance is not removed, because of the
defect of mental distraction, for the removal of which reflection and contem-

may

plation are necessary; the virtues of these may have been acquired by
practice in a previous birth.

6-1

Why

not

pot-cognition

etc.

remove

ignorance about
6 -2

Brahman?

Intelligence not the content of a psychosis of the senses. Modal cognitions dispel

modal ignorances which have pot

etc.

for content j ignorance as relating to the inert has to be admitted indirectly, if

not directly on the strength of observation, primal ignorance can be removed
;

only by that knowledge whose contents are not the products of that ignorance j or pot etc. are contents of modal ignor-

ances alone ; this position established on the analogy of sight of sandal-wood,

wherein there
smell too
;

is

no perception of
as

its

modes of ignorance, through
of
content,

differences

through

differences of cognisers.

ANALYTICAL TABLE OP CONTENTS
6 -3

Because of the restrictive injunction about study of the Vedanta, that knowledge alone as aided by the niyama-'purva can remove ignorance about Brahman.

6 -4

The sphere of primal ignorance is oneness of the jlva and Brahman and can be removed only by knowledge having the same sphere, not by modal cognitions
touching the bare existence of intelligence. Non-difference is not something

over and above intelligence; knowledge of non-difference is that whose content
is

intelligence through a special svarupasambandha controlled by special causes ;

difference in the knowledge, as occa-

sioned by a svarupa-sambandha exemfrom the cognition of the plified
qualified (visista)

and from doubt.

6 -5

Objection Even Brahman-knowledge cannot remove primal ignorance, since the
:

effect

cannot conflict with

its

material

cause.

Reply There is a conflict here, due to knowledge and ignorance having the same content; conflict even between effect and cause exemplified from cloth and conjunction of cloth with fire doc:

;

trine that destruction of the effect

is

due to destruction of the cause not
accepted.

CHAPTER
7-0

III

119
itself

How

is

Brahman-knowledge

des-

troyed?
7-1

Analogy of the clearing-nut which precipitates the dirt in water and precipitates
itself.

7-2

Analogies of water consumed by heated metal and of grass burnt up by fire.
Destruction not invariably generated by what is other than its counter-correlate.

7-3

No undue

extensiveness

is

not assuming

other causes in addition; for (1) need for another cause is not denied in all
cases; (2) analogy of the destruction of

a pot cannot establish the need for another cause in the present case, as, then, hammer-blows will also be needed
to destroy

Brahman-knowledge; (3) the

destruction of the fire-cognition may have an additional cause, just as fire

which has fuel needs an additional cause
for being quenched; (4) destruction even at the moment succeeding its origination is a contingence of the acceptable
in the case of

Brahman-knowledge; in

the

moment prior to its destruction, time,

unseen potency etc. also exist; hence they too may be causes of the destruc" tion; "removable by knowledge alone
as the definition of the "illusory"

means

"removable by knowledge while not being removable by any accessory of

120

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS

knowledge except when conjoined with "
knowledge.

74

Ignorance and the universe are removed not by the inert psychosis, Brahmanknowledge, but by the intelligence associated with that; analogy of the sun's
rays burning
;

when focussed through a

burning glass thus intelligence removes
the final

psychosis as well.

7 -5

Brahman-knowledge removes ignorance alone; and this material cause being
destroyed with Brahman-knowledge which is along
a part of
it;

destroyed, the world too

is

even after the rise of the

final psychosis,

prarabdha-karma

may

account for the continuance of a trace of
nescience, because of which there may continue the appearance of a body etc. ;

hence the phenomenon of jivan-nmkti.

CHAPTER
1-1

IV.

The

persistent trace of nescience is an element of the projective energy of primal nescience.
is

1-2

It

the

impression

left

behind

by

nescience, like the smell of garlic.

1:3

It is

primal nescience

itself like

a burnt

cloth retaining its configuration.

1?4

Sarvajiiatman

:

no trace of nescience can
;

survive knowledge jivanmukti is taught by way of eulogising the injunction to

study this
;

is

not his final view.

2 -0

2

-1

the removal of ignorance BrahmaNothing other than the self it is effected by knowledge on siddhi; the principle "yasmin saty agrimais
:

What

2:2

ksane yatsattvam" etc. It is other than the self, and of a fifth mode which is not real, nor unreal, nor real and unreal, nor indeterminable
:

Anandabodha.
2 '3
Advaitavidyacarya
:

removal of nescience

is certainly indeterminable, but it does not persist and hence its material cause need not persist removal is a modifica;

tion of existence relating to the last instant alone ; the conjugational suffix
signifies relation to present

time

etc.,

s

i

J6

122

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS
only as attaching to the sense of the

stem; refutation of pradhvamsa-'bhava
as permanent ; prag-abhava too
rejected.

may

be

2 -.31

Prag-abhava and pradhvamsa-'bhava not needed to distinguish the past from the
future.

2 *41

Momenta viness of the removal of nescience
does

not

involve

impermanence
there
is its

of

release; for

when

removal
is

by knowledge, what results
nal, impartite bliss

not a

production but a manifestation of eter-

and the cessation of

misery.

2 42

Citsukha

:

human

cessation of miseiy not the goal, but only as subsidiary to

happiness; but happiness is not subsidiary thereto gradations not possible in
;

non-existence of misery as
goal.

a

human
is

3-1

Bliss,

though eternally attained,
as
it

un-

of because were, nescience; analogy of the forgotten golden ornament round one's neck;

attained

attainment
3-2

is figurative.

Non-existence of bliss in transmigration patent to all, because of ignorance, which
posits non-existence of Brahman bliss ; this ceases with knowledge; and on the

"
principle
etc.,

yasmin saty agrimaksane
is

"

attainment

in the

primary

sense,

CHAPTER
3 -31

IV
bliss in

123

No immediacy for
hence
it is

transmigration ;
;

not then the
is

human goal non-

obscuration

present only with knowledge ; hence bliss as the human goal is attained by knowledge.

3-32

In transmigration, difference is superimposed between intelligence and bliss; this is removed by knowledge hence the
;

attainment.

4-0

Is release the attainment of the state of

Isvara ? or subsistence as pure

intelli-

gence?
4 -1

Eka-jiva-vada can admit only subsistence
as pure intelligence.

4-21

Even

on the nana-jiva-vada, in that variety of it which holds Isvara too to
so

be a reflection.

4-22

Release, until the final release of all, is attainment of the state of Isvara,

according to the view in which Isvara is the prototype of which jivas are
reflections;

analogy of reflections in

many media.
4-221

The Lord's Isvaratva is due not to His nescience, but to the nescience of others, and so long as these persist, He
will continue to be Isvara.

4-222

Difference from the fruit of saguna meditation no intuition of the iinpartite in
;

124

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF CONTENTS
the
latter

;

hence no destruction

of

ignorance; no unlimited Lordship.

4-223

Ignorance

etc.

do not attach to Isvara

though in incarnations
ignorant, to suffer

He

seems to be

and so on; this is mere acting; hence no contingence of fresh bondage for those who have become Isvara.
4 -2241

Conformity of

this

view with Sruti, Sutra,

Bhasya etc. Illustration from the Bhasya on the dahara section of the first
chapter;

4-2242

from the amsa
chapter;

section

of

the

second

4-2243

from the dream
chapter;

section

of

the

third

4-2244

and from the

section about the

form of

manifestation in the fourth chapter.

4 -2245
4-2246

Support of the Bhamatl and

its followers.

Erroneousness of the Scmksepasarlraka view that statements about manifestation of Isvaratva are assumptive

and

made
4-23

for argument's sake.

of Isvaratva Impossibility of attainment a is the defect on the view of Isvara as Same defect in the eka-jivareflection.

vada

and

in

the

view

of

absolute

difference between jiva

and Isvara.

CHAPTER
4*231

IV

125
etc.

Apahatapapmatva

cannot attach to

the jiva in release, on the dualist hypothesis; adventitiousness of these attri-

butes conflicts with Sruti and Sutra ;
is illusory.

if

they are eternally established, bondage

4 -2311

Hence non-difference of the Lord is difficult to avoid.

jiva

from the

4-23111

Apahatapapmatva, satyasankalpatva etc. conceived as special powers which come into being for the jiva at his release no contingence of non-difference from
;

Isvara.

4-23112

No

authority for such interpretation of the words; in transmigration sin does
attach;

when knowledge

arises,

even

because of knowledge, sin does not cling ; the assumption of a power is futile.

ABBREVIATIONS.
Adyar Ms. No. xxv B.
Adyar Ms. No. xxvi
10.

B 33.
S.

AKS,
Ap. &S,
B,

Mahamahopadhyaya N.
krsna Sastri's edition.

Ananta-

Apastamba 6rauta
of SLS.

Sutras.

Benares Chowkhamba Press edition

Bh.

G.,

Bhagavad Glta.
Brhadaranyaka Upanisad.
Brhadaranyaka - upanisad - bhasyavartika.

Brh.,

Brh. Vart.,

C,

Jivananda Vidyasagara

edition

of

SLS.

Chmd.,

Chandogya Upanisad.
Oriental Mss. Library

Egmore Ms.
Egmore Ms.

No.

DC

4766.

Oriental Mss. Library

No DC

4764.

Oriental Mss. Library No. R. 1885.

Egmore Ms:

K,

Advaitamanjaii edition of SLS.

Katha Upanisad.
Mimd.,

Mandukya Upanisad.
Memorial edition of Sankara's works, VanI Vilas Press.

Mem.

Ed.,

127

ABBREVIATIONS.

(Contd.).

MNP,
Mund.,
Nrs. Ut.,
Pat.,

.

Mimamsanyayaprakasa.

Mundaka Upanisad.
Nrsimha Uttaratapamya Upanisad.
Patanj all's Mahabhasya.

PM,
Prasna,

Purva Mlmamsa

Sutras.

Prasna Upanisad.
Siddhantabindu
edition).
( Advaitamafi j ari

SB,

SLS,
S&,
,

Siddhantalesasangraha.

Sanksepasariraka.

Srirangam edition of SLS.
Svetasvatara Upanisad.

Svet.,

TPH,
Taitt.,

Theosophica! Publishing House.
Taittiiiya Upanisad.
Taitt iriya Samhita.

Taitt.Sam.,

V,

Vizianagaram Sanskrit Series edition of SLS.
Vivaranaprameyasangralin (VSS).

VPS,
VSS,
Ved.Su.,

Vizianagaram Sanskrit

Series.

Vedanta Sutras.

OM

CHAPTER
Victorious
discourse
is

I.

the auspicious birth-destroying

from

(the Sutrabhasya) , which issues the blessed lotus face of the Bhagavatits sole

pada, has for

Brahman, and is

purport the non-dual diversified a thousand-fold on

reaching the (numerous) ancient preceptors (who expounded it), in the same way as the river (Ganga), which, issuing from the foot of

Visnu,
lands.

1

is

diversified

on reaching different
(1)

-.

Manifold are the ways disclosed by the ancient ones, who, intent only on the establishment of the unity of the self, paid no heed to what is established in empirical usage some of the different conclusions which lie at the base of these (differences) and which have been
;

made known

to

me by

the exposition of

my

revered father, I here compendiously bring together for the clarification of my mind. (2)
I write this not too extensive work, establishing (therein) through arguments, according to the best of my lights, such positions as require so to be established. (3)

Now, there
injunction
1

is

considered

first

what kind of an
self, verily, is to
the

it is

that, in the

form "The
also

See

the

Introduction;

compane

Brahmatorkastava,

w. 8687.

SI

17

130

CHAPTER

I

be seen, heard, reflected on," appears to be prescribed in respect of the hearing (study) of the Vedanta, for the

sake of knowing that (Brahman-self), in the case of one who has learnt (by adhyayana) his own section of

and in whom there has arisen the desire to know the Brahman3 self known superficially through the Vedantas
the

Veda

together with

its

subsidiary studies

2

,

.

1-11

Three, verily, are the varieties of injunction the injunction of the novel, the restrictively complementary

and the exclusive injunction. Of these, the first is that injunction whose fruit is the establishment of what is not established in any way in all the three
injunction,

times; for example,

"He

sprinkles the paddy-grains."

4

Here, for the purifactory act of sprinkling the paddygrains, in the absence of an injunction, there is no
establishment in any

way by

other evidence.

The
the
in

second

is

that

injunction
of

whose

fruit

is

complementation

the unestablished

element,

respect of what is established in part; for example,

pounds the paddy-grains." Here, even if there were no injunction, the establishment of
the pounding of the paddy-grains would come about even as presumptively implied for the production

"He

of the rice, the basic material of the purodasa (sacrificial cake) hence the injunction is not for the establish;

The subsidiary studies (angas) prosody, and astronomy.
2
3
4

are: phonetics, liturgy,

grammar,

In so far as they have been learnt by
In
all

rote,

not critically examined.

such

texts, the

imperative should be understood as the real

purport, though the indicative alone is used

THREE VARIETIES

Otf

VIDHI
is established

131

ment of that;

but,

when pounding

presumptive implication, in the very
part,

by same way, husking

with the nails and so on would also be established in
there being no distinction in respect of the causality as understood from experience; since thus

there is an element of non-establishment in respect of pounding, that (injunction) has the fruit of comple-

menting that element (making pounding the sole 5 The third is that injunction which, when means). there is constant relation of one subsidiary to two principals or of two subsidiaries to one principal, has
the fruit of removing the other principal or the other

subsidiary (whichever

superfluous in the case) for example, (the injunction) in the agnicayana "He takes hold of the reins of the horse with the words 'they seized
is
;

the bridle of the right'"; or (the injunction) in the grhamedhiya, a particular rite included in the

caturmasya,

"He sacrifices with the two ghee-portions."

Two

acts are to be observed in the agnicayana, viz.,

taking hold of the reins of a horse and taking hold of the reins of a donkey. Of these, since in the taking hold
of the reins of a horse the

hymn "They

seized"

etc. is

constantly established even because of the characteristic mark, consisting in its capacity to make known the

taking hold of the reins, the injunction
5

is

not either for
of restriction.

The term niyama-vidhi
this

literally
is

means injunction
its

With

much, however, there

not secured

distinction

from

parisankhyft-vidhi, since there cannot be restriction without exclusion.

The

differentia of the niyama-vidhi is that It completes
it

what
it

is other-

wise incomplete; hence

may

be said to be "restrictively complementary."
is

This equivalent

Is,

however, not used throughout, since

rather

But the function of complementation should be understood wherever the term "restrictive injunction" is used.
cumbrous.

132

SHATTER

i

the establishment of that or for the purpose of complementing any non-established element therein but since
;

hymn might, because of the characteristic mark being non-distinctive, be established even in the taking
the

hold of the reins of a donkey, that (injunction)

is

for the

purpose of removing this (possibility). Similarly, since the grhamedhiya has the darsa-purnamasa for
archetype, the ghee-portions are constantly established (for it) even by transfer 6 hence the injunction there
its
;

not for the purpose of establishing those (portions) or for the purpose of restricting them( as the sole material
is

for the sacrifice)
sacrifices etc.
7

but since by transfer even the foremight be established, that (injunction) is
;

for the purpose of removing this (possibility). This example which conforms (only) to the prima facie view

of the section on the grhamedhiya, is cited in the view that an example may be cited (for the present purpose) from anywhere (whether prima facie view or final
view).

Nor may it be objected that even in the restrictively
complementary injunction, when, for the pounding established in part, the part that
6

is

non-established
laid

is

made

Certain rites,

all

of

whose subsidiaries are

down

explicitly

and in extenso by Scripture constitute the archetypal (prakrti) rites; others modelled on them are called vikrtis. The Scriptural directions as to the latter not being complete, they have to be taken over mutatis
mutandis from the archetype.
called atidega.

This process of taking over or transfer

is

7

The darSa-pftrgamasa

consists of

two

sets of three rites.

To each
yajati,

Of these sets there belongs a set of five subsidiary rites called foresacrifices (prayftjae).

They are mentioned

in this order:

samidho

tanOnapatam

yajati, itfo yajati, barhir yajati,

svahakaraxn yajati.

They

sbould be performed in this order.

RAVA1*A-VIDHI AS APURVA-VIDHI

133
that conse-

up, that

(demand for a means)

is satisfied,

quently there is obtained also the removal of husking with the nails etc., which are the other means
established in part,
tion
is

and
in

that, therefore,

no discrimina-

possible exclusion, there being no distinction (between them)

effect

between restriction and

in their having the removal of the rest as the fruit. For, in the absence of the restrictive complementation

pounding, it would not be possible to exclude husking with the nails and so on, which are obtained by presumptive implication
resulting
to the
;

from injunction, as

therefore, the restriction, whose nature it is to complement the non-established element, comes first; and, as

present in the pounding that is enjoined, it is proximate hence, that (complementation) alone is admitted to be
;

the fruit of the restrictive injunction; therefore, the exclusion of others, which originates in dependence on
that (restriction)

and

is

what

is

not enjoined,

is

non-proximate, as present in not appropriately the fruit,

when a proximate
of which kind
is

fruit is possible.
1-12

Of the three kinds of injunction, thus distinguished,
the injunction of hearing (study)

recognised to be?

this is
is

Some, like the author of the Prakatartha say thus an injunction of the novel, since it (the hearing)

:

1*121

not established (otherwise). Indeed, in respect of the hearing (study) of the Vedanta being the cause of

the intuition of

Brahman

there

is

not the evidence of

co-presence and co-absence ; for, in ordinary experience, even for him, who has heard (studied), that (intuition)

does not arise for the most part, while for Vamadeva,

134

CHAPTER

1

present in the womb, that arises, though he has not heard (studied), and thus there is inconstancy both
8

ways.

Nor

is

the hearing

there a general rule, apprehended from (study) of other sacred teachings, that

hearing (study) in general is the cause of the intuition of the thing that has to be heard about, in which case, it may be doubted that, though here there be no means of
specifically, causality may (yet) be established at least through generality (i.e., resemblance to other sacred teachings). For, even in the case of the hearing (study) of the science though,

apprehending the causality

there be admitted causality of the intuition of the sadja note etc., yet, since, from the hearing (study) of the section relating to ritual etc., there is not
etc.,

of music

seen to result the intuition of
there
is

its object,

Religious

Duty

inconstancy. Therefore, this is certainly an etc., injunction of the novel. In the Bhasya too, in the " section There is the injunction of some other auxiliary,
partially,

which

is

the third for

him who has

that

(knowledge) ; as in the case of injunctions and the like," it is only an injunction of the novel that is recognised in
respect of

hearing

(study),

denoted by the word
:

panditya, (in the following words) "In the case of mauna, the auxiliary to knowledge, an injunction alone is to be recognised, as in the case of a childlike state and

panditya, since
g
Le.,
is

it is
the

non-established (otherwise)". 9
positive

both

in

and in the negative instances, the

probans
9

not constant to the probandum.

For a proper understanding, the whole section should be studied in the BM$ya. The question is whether of three auxiliaries mentioned in the Sruti, balya, pancjitya and mauna, there is injunction of any, other than the first, the injunctive term being explicitly used In relation to that
alone.

The

final

view

is

that they are all enjoined as auxiliaries.

The

SRAVANA-VIDHI AS NIYAMA-VIDHI

135
1-122

That the hearing (study) of the Vedanta is the cause of the intuition of the eternally immediate
not non-established, since, in niaintaining the immediacy of knowledge through verbal testimony,
is

Brahman
it is

(Vedanta study), defined as a means of valid knowledge whose content is an immediate
object, the causing of the intuition (of that object) is

settled that for that

It is for that purpose, indeed, that there 10 is the commencement of that (topic). Nor may it be
established.

said that, though with this much, as being a

means of
esta-

knowledge relating

to

Brahman, there may be

blished causality in respect of a superficial realisation consisting in an intuition of Brahman in a general way,

not established of that hearing (study) the causing of that intuition consisting in the certitude of existence, which is to be desired for the sake of the
there
is

word mauna, meaning the

state of a

muni, should be taken to mean not

"silence", but pre-eminence of knowledge. Panditya is not mere learning, but study of the Vedanta; balya is a child-like state. Mauna is the third

auxiliary for

him who

possesses the other two.

Mauna
is

is

taken to be
it is

enjoined, in spite of the absence of an injunctive word, because

novel

and non-established otherwise.

Since

the injunction

for

him who

already possesses that (knowledge),

it may be thought there is no novelty; hence the word "partially" indicating that the injunction is for those who, because of distractions, have not yet attained to pre-eminence of knowledge.

10 Nescience, which is realised as immediate, can be removed only by immediate knowledge of the kind perception gives us. Brahman, however, is the sphere of verbal testimony alone, which, like inference, is

ordinarily supposed to give us but mediate

cognition.

While certain

advaitins hold that this mediate cognition becomes immediate by long

uninterrupted contemplation pursued with faith, another school holds that even testimony can give immediate knowledge, where the object is immeBrahman being the eternal, all-pervasive sole reality, there can diate.

be no question as to

its

immediacy, though at

first it

is

not realised.

Sabda, as the sole pramftna for Brahman, does give intuition of Brahman.

For a

fuller discussion of these views, see

Chapter

III.

136

CHAPTER
for, it

I

removal of nescience;
inquiry in general
is

being established that the cause of the ascertainment of

inquired into and that the means of knowledge relating to Brahman is the cause of the intuition of that,

what
is

is

established of hearing (study), which is of the nature of knowledge of the words of the Vedanta as
it

subjected to inquiry, that it is the cause of that (certitude of existence). Nor is there the afore-mentioned

inconstancy both ways; for, the inconstancy in the co-presence is not a defect, being due to lack of the auxiliary (e.g., inquiry) while, in the case of him who
;

remembers other births, the

fruit being possible because

of hearing (study) in another birth, there is no inconstancy in the co-absence. Otherwise, causality being

sublated even by inconstancy, not even through express statement would there be possible the knowledge instru-

mental to that (removal of nescience). 11

And

even the

inconstancy in co-absence is not a defect, since it may be doubted that like the sense of touch (present) over and

above the sense of sight in the perception of the pot, there is some other means over and above hearing
12 And thus, (study) in the intuition of Brahman. because of (the result) being established, there is no injunction of the novel. Hence it is that, in the com-

" mentary on the section Repetition (is required) because of the teaching more than once," in the words
11 If inconstancy really ruled out the causal efficiency of gravana, not even an express statement in the form of an injunction of the novel

could establish that efficiency.
12 In the case of Vamadeva it is possible to imagine some other cause of intuition such as the might of austerities performed in a previous birth, just as it is possible for one to perceive the pot by touch, though

not by sight, because of being blind.

RAVAtfA-V*DHI AS NIYAMA-VIDHI

137

"

Hearing (study) and the

in intuition, are (processes)

and have a visible result,

which indeed culminate which have to be repeated like pounding etc., which culmirest,

nate in the production of rice", repetition is taught of hearing (study), which is for the sake of the intuition
of

Brahman,

since, because of its

having a visible

result,

the principle of the pounding in the darsa-purnamasa applies (to it). If, however, there were an injunction

of the novel, like the pounding of the (mortar contain13 this would not fit in. In the ing) sarvausadha,

agnicayana, in the words "Having filled it with all the herbs, he pounds it ; then he places it near," pounding is prescribed for the purpose of the purification

of the mortar that is to be placed near; of this, since it has no visible result, it is indeed 1* that there is no established in the Tcmtralaksana
repetition.

Therefore, this is certainly a restrictive injunction. For, in the absence of that, just as a person who sees

1-131

something with the sense of sight, when told by some one of some subtle peculiarity there not apprehended by
himself, proceeds to employ that same sense of sight with concentration in order to know that, even so, having heard in the case of the jlva, apprehended by the

mind

as "I", that

it is

of the nature of attributeless

Brahman-intelligence propounded by the Vedantas apprehended through adhyayana, a person might, in order
13
I.e., all

the herbs needed in the

sacrifice.

14 The eleventh chapter of the Pilrvamlm&wsG, dealing with tantra, the principle of serviceability to many by a single application or functioning, as a lamp is of service to many who surround it; cp.
vistara on

PM

XI,

i,

14.

S 1-18

138
to

CHAPTER
that,

I

sometimes proceed to employ therein the mind alone with concentration hence, the engaging in
;

know

the hearing (study) of the Vedanta would be partial (i.e., optional). As for (the text) "Not attaining (they
15 it is possible to return) together with the mind," doubt that it applies to the mind that is not concen-

trated, since it is also declared in Scripture

mind alone

is it to

be perceived
intellect.

"

"By
it is

the

and "But

seen

by the concentrated
1-132

"

Or

else

:

from such Scriptural declarations as

he sees the excellent one, that other, the Lord, he attains His glory, he becomes sorrowless", there is
the possibility of the delusion that release results from the knowledge of the self as different (from the Lord)
;

"When

then, for the sake of the knowledge instrumental to
release, there

would be partial (optional)

activity even

in respect of the hearing (study) of other sacred teachings consisting in an inquiry into the self as
different

(from the Lord); hence there may be a

restrictive injunction in respect of the hearing (study)

of that Vedanta whose purport is the non-dual self; for, here, the term "self" has for purport the non-dual
self,

as seen

from a consideration of such topics as

"That which is all this is this self." It is not indeed an invariable feature of (restrictive injunctions as) a class that there is a restrictive injunction only where a real alternative means is established; in that case it
might be doubted that
since, in

order to secure purport-

fulness for the restriction as to the hearing (study) of
15

Which seems

to rule out the activity of the

mind

in the appre-

hensien of Brahman,

AS NitAMA-VIDHI

139

the Vedanta, it has to be admitted of that hearing (study) of the Vedanta that by that alone can be

accomplished the intuition of Brahman, consisting in
the certitude of (its) existence, through the hindering impurities being removed by the unseen potency
(resulting from) the restriction, there would not exist any real alternative means for that (intuition), and therefore no restrictive injunction would apply; rather

injunction where, because of the partial establishment of what may possibly be considered an alternative means, the partial

is

it

that there is a

restrictive

non-establishment of the means desired to bo enjoined cannot be avoided (otherwise) for even with this there
;

results the fruit of that (injunction), viz., complement-

ing the unestablished element.

Or

else:

immediate knowledge of Brahman, con-

1-133

sisting in the certitude of (its) existence, is possible

from inquiry into the Vedanta, even as accomplished by a learned man merely by his own efforts, as much as through that (carried on) under instruction from a
preceptor; but the unseen potency (consequent on) the restriction as to the hearing (study) of the Vedanta

under instruction from a preceptor is of service in the removal of nescience through destroying impurities
texts
;

inquiry conducted without instruction), being obstructed by the non-existence of that (destruction) does not remove nescience and remains equivalent

hence

(the

to mediate knowledge.
is

Nor with the dawn of knowledge

the non-removal of nescience unintelligible; for, the non-existence of obstacles being needed everywhere (as

a cause), the non-removal of that (nescience), even

140

CHAPTER
is specific

1

where there
intelligible

because

perception (of the object), is of hindrance by an external

adjunct, like the non-removal of the delusion of a 10 reflection. Thus, in the same way as there is a restric-

Scripture by rote under instruction from a preceptor, because of the possibility
tive

injunction to

learn

(otherwise) of apprehending one's own section of the Yeda from the written versions (thereof), let this be a restrictive injunction as to the hearing (study)

under instruction from a preceptor, since there

is

partially established the inquiry into the Vedarita through one's own (unaided) effort alone, in order
to attain that intuition of

the certitude of (its) that since even by the injunction to approach a preceptor, in "For the sake of the knowledge of that, he is
certainly to approach a preceptor", there
is

Brahman, which consists in Nor may it be objected existence.

secured the

exclusion of inquiry without a preceptor, the (present) restrictive injunction is futile; for, the approach to a

preceptor being subsidiary to hearing (study), when there is no injunction as to this (latter), there can be no
injunction at all as to that (former) ; hence, there is no contingence of the futility of the latter, because of the

Otherwise, since, even by the injunction to approach, which is subsidiary to the learning by rote,
former.
there
etc.,

the exclusion of the study of written versions the restrictive injunction even as to learning by
is

rote (under instruction
futile.

from a preceptor) would be

10 One may know that reflections have no independent reality and that they do not exist in the media; in spite of this knowledge, one continues to perceive reflections so long as there are reflecting media and the objects reflected are proximate to them.

jSRAVAlSTA-VIDHl

AS NlYAMA-VIDHI
1-134

there being a partial establishment of the hearing (study) of works in the vernacular languages, whose purport is the non-dual self, let there
else,

Or

be a restrictive injunction as to the hearing (study) of the Vedanta. Nor is there the non-establishment of
that even

not to speak a barbarous tongue"; for, in the case of him, who, because of dullness in the learning of the sacred
is

from such prohibitions as

"He

teaching, feels that the hearing (study) of the
is

Vedanta

not possible (for him), and who, even transgressing
is

the prohibition which
desires
to

for the sake of a

human goal, 17
works
in

know

the

non-dual through
is

the vernacular tongues, there

the possibility of his

engaging himself therein, and hence the fruitfulness of
the restrictive injunction is intelligible.

Though, as

explained in the section about the agent (in sacrifices), there is, for the sake of a human goal, the prohibition of
the utterance of falsehood, yet, since, for some reason,

there

may

be, for

him who

transgresses even this accep-

ted prohibition in his desire for the proper completion of the rite, engaging in the utterance of a falsehood, there
again, in the section on the darsa-pur^amasa, a prohibition for the sake of the rite, "Utter no falseis

hood"; thus the prohibition for the sake of the indeed admitted to be fruitful.
17

rite is

A

prescription or prohibition
rite.

may

serve

human good
it is

generally or

the interests of a particular

In the former case,

puru&rtha, in

the latter,

it is

kratvartha.

The

fact that there is already a prescrip-

tion or prohibition,

which

is

puruartha, does not exclude a fresh pres-

cription or prohibition of the

same

in the interests of a particular rite.

This

is exemplified in the

new moon

next sentence, with reference to the full and sacrifices and the prohibition of the utterance of falsehood*

142
1-135

CHAPTER

t

Or

else, just

as there

is

the restriction

"By hymns

(mantras) alone should be called up the memory of the objects connected with the hymns ", because of the
partial establishment of what is based on those (hymns) , such as sentences from the manuals of ritual and the

instruction of friends, similarly, (here) there is the possibility of the partial establishment even of epics,

puranas and (other) works of human origin based on the Vedanta therefore, let there be this restriction (to
;

the Vedanta).
certainly a restrictive injunction. for the statement, in the Bhasya on the section
is

In any case this
is

As "There

the injunction of some other auxiliary partially" etc., that there is an injunction of the novel, that is in the view that there is partial non-establishment,
if it be a restrictive injunction, as is made clear there by the construction of the word "partially" even in the aphorism, whose purport is to state partial non-

even

establishment.

Thus say the followers of the Vivarana.
(studied),

M36

For him who has heard

from the verbal

testimony there arises at first mediate knowledge alone as free from doubt, since verbal testimony, being of such
a nature as to generate mediate knowledge (alone), cannot transcend its settled capacity. For him, however,

subsequently performed reflection and contemplation, because of the presence in abundance of

who has

these special auxiliaries, from that alone arises immediate knowledge. Just as the sense-organ, though

incapable of generating the cognition whose sphere is the element of "that-ness," yet generates recognition because of the co-operation of the memory impression

SRAVA^A-VIDHI AS NIYAMA-VIDHI

143

which has that capacity, similarly in the case of verbal testimony, though of itself incapable of generating immediate knowledge, the generation of immediate
knowledge stands to reason, because of the co-operation with intense meditation which is settled to be capable
of that (generation of immediate knowledge), as in the immediate presentation of the damsel con-

templated intensely by the bereaved lover.
since
it is

thus, established of verbal testimony that of itself in respect of its own content it generates mediate

And

knowledge, while, when it is defined as the instrument of knowledge co-operating with intense meditation, it
generates immediate knowledge, like the internal organ of the bereaved lover, there is a restrictive injunction as
before (in respect of the study of Vedanta). say som'e of those (followers of the Vivarcma)

Thus

not through the hearing (study) of the Vedanta, but only through the mind because there is the Scriptural text "By the mind alone
intuition of
is
;

The

Brahman

1-137

is it to

be perceived" and because there is the statement 1 in the Bhasya * on the Gita: "the instrument for seeing
;

the self
18

is

the

mind

purified by the sacred teaching, the

These would not seem to have understood the true doctrine of the
of

Vivararia, according to

themselves capable

which the major texts of the Upaniads are of generating immediate knowledge. The present
is

school holds that there

no injunction of the novel, since

it is

established

in experience that verbal testimony gives rise to mediate
that, as aided

What

is possible

by contemplation, it gives rise and necessary is, therefore, a

knowledge and to immediate knowledge.
restrictive Injunction as

to the obligatory exercise of inquiry, reflection

and contemplation,

in

respect of the texts of the Vedanta.

19

Here, as elsewhere, in this work, reference to the

Bh&wa

Is

always to Sa&kara's Commentary.

144
preceptor's

CHAPTER
instruction,

I

calmness, equanimity etc/* Hearing (study), however, is for the sake of mediate knowledge free from doubt hence, for the sake of that
;

alone
1-138

is

there a restrictive injunction thus say some.
;

Only for the sake of immediate knowledge

is

there

a restrictive injunction in respect of hearing (study), " because of the statement of the fruit (The self) is to be seen." And its being for the sake of that is not
directly, but in co-operation

with the mind which

is

the

instrument;

because

immediate

knowledge

is

not

recognised (to result) from verbal testimony. Nor is there the contingence of an injunction of the novel on
the ground that its being for the sake of that (immediate knowledge) in that form (i.e., in conjunction with the

mind)

is

not established

;

for,

by the sense of hearing in

co-operation with the study of the science of music, whose object is the removal of the superimposed
reciprocal non-discrimination among the notes heard, such as sadja, there is the immediate realisation of their

true nature free from reciprocal confusion; hence, it is settled that, where there is a science whose object is the removal of super-imposed non-discrimination in

respect of a thing which is manifest, the study of that (science) is useful as an auxiliary to the sense-organ

that generates the intuition of that (thing)
others.

;

thus say

1-139

For hearing (study) which consists in a special mental psychosis of the nature of inquiry into the
principles favourable for the ascertainment of the purport of the Vedaiita texts about the non-dual

Brahman, neither mediate nor immediate knowledge

6RAVAtfA-VIDHI AS NIYAMA-VIDHI

145

in respect of Brahman is the fruit, since this is the fruit of means of valid knowledge like verbal testimony.

(study) be but knowledge from verbal testimony as qualified by the purport determined by inquiry of the aforesaid character; for
:

Nor may it be said " Let hearing

that Brahman-knowledge is appropriate as the fruit"; for, in respect of knowledge, an injunction is unintellb
gible,

and

since

it is

(study) that
desire to

it is

admitted of the injunction to hear the basis of the aphorism about the?
enjoins the obligaappropriate to treat as hearing

know (Brahman), which

toriness of inquiry, it is (study) that inquiry alone, which consists in a mental activity of the nature of the acceptance (of the principles of reasoning) and rejection (of false principles).

Nor may

it

be said "Let Brahman-knowledge be the

fruit of the inquiry itself either through the ascertain-

ment of the purport or through the removal generated
thereby of obstacles consisting in human failings, such " as delusion as to purport for, it is not admitted of the
;

knowledge of purport that it is instrumental to the 20 and it is not knowledge from verbal testimony, admitted of the absence of obstacles that it is anywhere the cause of the effect hence, either of the two serving
;

as a channel (to

And

if

Brahman-knowledge) is unintelligible. Brahman-knowledge were generated by an

extraneous cause consisting in inquiry, then, for the validity of that (knowledge from verbal testimony)
20

See the topic in the fourth varnaka of the Vivarana; the author

of the Veddntaparil)hti$a accepts tatparya as a cause of valid knowledge from verbal testimony, hut explains the Vivara^akara's position (p. 255)

on the ground that the latter understood tatparya to mean "heing pronounced with a desire to cause the cognition of that"; see also VPS,
pp. 176, 176.

S

119

14ft

CHAPTER

I

there would be the contingence of being extrinsic. 21 Therefore, there is a restrictive injunction as to the

hearing (study), consisting in inquiry, only for the sake of removing human failings through the ascertainment " of purport. As for the text (The self) is to be seen", that is but mere eulogy (of the self) as worthy of being
seen, not the statement of the fruit of hearing (study)
;

thus say the followers of the Scwksepasanraka.
1-14

engaged in the hearing (study) of the Vedanta for the sake of Brahman-knowledge, in the same way as for him who is engaged in the study of the works of Caraka, Susruta etc., for the sake of medical knowledge, there would at intervals be the
is

For him who

contingence of engaging in other activities; hence, the " text (The self) is to be heard", which has the fruit of

removing that (distraction),
for, in the

is

an exclusive injunction;
is

Chandogya text

"He who

well-established

Brahman attains immortality," it is restrictively laid down that not having any other activity is the means to release since the word "tisthati" preceded by "sam" signifies fulfilment, the fulfilment in Brahman signified
in
;

by the word "brahma-samstha (being well-established " in Brahman) consists in not having any other activity and in the Atharvana text "Know that alone, the self,
;

give
21

up

all

other forms of speech", other activities are

According to the advaitin, who follows Kum&rila in this respect,

validity does not require to be produced or revealed

by any factors other
itself; It is

than those which enter into the original cognition

not

made
is
it

known, for instance,

by inference from

practical efficiency;

nor

produced by the repeated contact of the sense-organ with the object perceived; the cognition comes to us as valid;
intrinsic, not extrinsic.

many

parts of

its validity is

See further, the VeMntapartoMfa pp. 291297.

Ad PAKISANKHYA-VIDHI

147

explicitly prohibited; and there is the text of the traditional code to his sleep, yea, up to his death, let

"Up

him spend his time

may it
there

Nor in reflecting on the Vedanta. be said (they urge) that, since, of any such other

' '

activity not helpful (of itself) to
is

Brahman-knowledge, no establishment in conjunction with hearing (study) in respect of a single result, an exclusive injunc-

tion for the exclusion of that (activity) does not stand to reason ; for, in the aphorism "There is the injunction

of some other auxiliary" etc., and in the words of the commentary thereon "in that case where, because of the predominance of the perception of difference, he

does not attain that" there
since, for

is

a restrictive injunction

him who has accomplished hearing (study)

and imagines that what is to be achieved has been achieved even by the mere knowledge through verbal testimony, there would be no engaging in contemplation, helpful in the intuition that removes nescience, there is admitted a restrictive injunction in respect of
contemplation, merely because of the partial establishment of what is not instrumental to that ; hence, on that
principle,

when

there

is

establishment in conjunction

not instrumental, an exclusive injunction whose fruit is the exclusion of that (asadhana) is
is

even with what

Thus say some who adhere to the statement of the Vartika, The purport of the injunction there (in
possible.
' '

be a restriction; or it may be an exclusion, since, by the non-perception of the not-self, we devote ourselves to the supreme self."

'The

self is to be heard' etc.)

may

to

The hearing (study) that is laid down as relating the self in "The self is to be heard" in the same way

1-15

148
as reflection
etc., is

CHAPTER

t

simply knowledge of the

self,

as

generated by revelation and ceptor, but is not of the nature of inquiry into the purport; hence in respect of that, there is no injunction
the instruction of the prethat in the aphorism about harmony (of the texts), after the refutation of an injunction in respect of knowing the self, there is the

whatsoever.

Hence

it is

be seen, heard' which have the appearance of injunctions? For the purpose of turning one away, we say, from the objects
is to

(passage of the) Bhdsya beginning then, are there texts like 'The self

:

"For what purpose,

of natural activity." If hearing (study) were the inquiry into the purport of the Vedanta, then, through
the ascertainment of the purport, its fruit would be only the removal of obstacles consisting in delusion and doubt

as to the purport, not the removal of any other obstacle, nor the realisation of Brahman. And its having that
fruit is established even in experience,

and no other

means

is established

tion (with this) ; of the three injunctions.

whether optionally or in conjunchence there is no scope there for any

M51

as to inquiry, the approach to a preceptor enjoined for the sake of knowledge culminates in the goal of knowledge only through

Though there be no injunction

the inquiry into the Vedanta under instruction from a preceptor, since when a seen channel (of instrumentality) is possible, the

assumption of an unseen channel does not stand to reason. For the same reason there is

the exclusion of inquiry accomplished by one's own efforts. If, however, there were no injunction to learn

by

rote, then, the

approach (to a preceptor), that

is

NO VIDfll AS TO SRAVAtfA

1 49

enjoined, since it is not enjoined for the sake of knowing the letters (alone of the Veda), would not for the sake

of that (knowledge) make a channel of learning by rote, consisting in pronouncing (the texts) in the manner pronounced by the lips of the preceptor; hence there

would not be established the exclusion of the study of
written versions ; hence, the restrictive injunction as to
learning by rote
is fruitful.

seeks the inquiry into the Vedanta for the sake of removing delusion as to

Nor may it
etc.,

be said

"For him who

1-

152

purport
is

sometimes there

may be the engaging

even

in the sacred teachings of dualists, since there too there

inquiry into the Vedanta through constructions acceptable to them hence, a restrictive injunction as to
;

that inquiry into the Vedanta, whose purport is the non-dual self, is fruitful"; for, in the case of that
(dualistic teaching)

which

is

of itself the cause of

delusion as to purport, there is not the removal of that (delusion) hence there is not the establishment of any
;

other means.

22

Nor
its

is it

even the case that through the

removing (delusion as to purport) there would be the engaging even therein, in the case of some one, and that with this much there is the admission
delusion as to

of a restrictive injunction in "(The self) is to be heard;" for, in the case of him who is devoid of the
faith in non-dualism that is gained (solely) by the grace " 23 of the Lord, even in respect of the text (The self) is
22
23

Which would have
Igvara-'nugrahad

to be ruled out

by the

restrictive injunction.

Cp. KhanQanakhandakhtidya, para 163,

v. 25:

ea

puinsam advaita-vasana)
j5,yatej[

maha-bhaya-krta-trana dvi-tragam yadi

150
to be

CHAPTER

t

heard ", because of the construction acceptable to
is

the adversary, the delusion

possible that the purport is an injunction to inquire into the self that has a second; for, engaging in other pursuits, as prompted by
delusion,

cannot be restrained even by hundreds of

injunctions.
1-153

Nor does

it

stand to reason that

it is

an exclusive

injunction for the purpose of the exclusion of other activities ; for, in the case of him who has not renounced,
the exclusion of other activities
is

not possible, while, in

is

the case of him, who has renounced, the exclusion of that established by the Scriptural text "He who is wellestablished in

Brahman

attains immortality ",

which

being wellBrahman; in view of this other text enjoining renunciation, the teaching of the exclusion of other activities through the text "(The self) is to be
enjoins established in

renunciation

together

with

heard

' '

would be
it

futile.

M54

be doubted that though there be no injunction in respect of inquiry, a restrictive injunction is possible as to Vedanta being the content of the
inquiry, since there are objects of exclusion like works in the vernacular tongues ; for, since the restriction to

Nor may

obtained even from proximity, it cannot be the content of an injunction; further, even because of
the Vedanta
is

the force of the restrictive injunction "One is to study one's own section of the Veda", whose purpose is the

comprehension of the sense, this sense is obtained that the knowledge of the meaning generated from the Veda apprehended through learning by rote is what culminates in the fruit, not that (knowledge) which is

DEFINITION OF BRAHMAN

151

generated from any 'other cause hence, in respect of Brahman that is the sense of the Veda and is to be
;

known

for release, there vernacular works etc.

is

no establishment for
" There

Nor may

it

be said that in the section

is

the

1-155

injunction of some other auxiliary ", an injunction is recognised in respect of hearing (study), reflection and

contemplation, signified by the terms balya, panditya and mauna ; for, that inquiry is the cause of the ascer-

tainment of the purport of what

inquired into, that reflection consisting in recalling reasonings favourable to the establishment of the object and contemplation
is

consisting in the repetition of the cognition of that (object) are causes of the clarity of comprehension of

the object, these are establishedl in experience; and hence, in respect of them, an injunction is not required ;

merely as producing excellence of activity (in respect of them) through praising (them), there is the empirical usage of injunctiveness (in respect of them), as in the case of arthavada (eulogistic or condemnatory)
passages having the semblance of injunctions.

And

thus, since there is non-injunction in respect of hearing (study), like the inquiry into the section about ritual,

the inquiry into the section about Brahman too has for its basis the injunction as to learning (one's own Veda) by rote thus say those who follow the position of the
;

preceptor Vacaspati.
the object of inquiry, the definition has been stated to be the causality of the creation, sustentation and destruction of the world, by
is

Of Brahman,

that

2-11

the Scriptural text "That, verily, from which these

152
' '

CHAPTER

I

beings originate etc. Of the creation, sustentation and destruction of the world, the causality even of each one,
since
is

does not attach to any other (except Brahman) capable (of itself) of being the definition; if this be
it

said, true, this is certainly a three-fold definition, each of which is independent of the others. Hence it is that in such sections as "The eater (is Brahman), because of

" the mention of the movable and the immovable, the destruction of all and so on are mentioned separately as

marks of Brahman thus says the author of the Kawmudi.
characteristic
j

2-12

Others, however, say thus: since causality of creation and causality of sustentation are common to the efficient cause (too), in order to make known material
causality, there is

Brahman.

shown the dissolution of the world in " Let Brahman be the material cause of the
its creation, like

world; (but) in respect of

the potter in respect of the creation of the pot, and in respect of its
sustentation, like the king in respect of the sustentation

of the kingdom, the efficient cause may certainly be other

than the material cause" in order to remove this doubt, the control of the creation and sustentation of the world
;

is

declared of that (Brahman) alone.

And

thus, this

definition

but single, qualifies per accidens 2 * the non-dual Brahman as that which is without

which

is

differentiation the material
24

and the

efficient cause.
qualities

The non-dual Brahman cannot have any
not a real
qualification

which are

real,

as there would be loss of non-duality.
etc.

is

Hence, the causality of creation (vieana), but is only an ctccidens

(upalak?a^a).

It necessarily falls short of

what

it qualifies,

but

is

never-

theless able to give us a glimpse of the nature of that subject.

PARItfAMA AND VIVARTA

1

53
2-21

And

the material causality of

Brahman,

of the

nature of the non-dual, immutable intelligence, does not 25 nor consist in origination, as by the primal atoms, 2G does it consist in transformation, as of Primal Nature but it is characterised by being illusorily transformed
;

through nescience into the form of the universe of ether That change, which is of the same grade of reality etc.
as the thing, is transformation; what is not of the same grade of reality is illusory manifestation; or, change,

which is of the same nature as the cause, is transformation; what is of a different nature from that is illusory manifestation or, the effect which is non-different from the cause is a transformation; the effect, which even without being non-different from that (cause) is yet difficult to state apart from that, is an illusory mani;

festation ; such is the distinction between transformation

and

illusory manifestation.

the pure Brahman recognised as the 2-22 material cause, or in the form of the Lord (Isvara) or

Now,

is

in the

form of the jiva ?

Here, some of the followers of the Sanlcsepasarlraka 2-221 say thus the pure (Brahman) alone is the material cause, since in the aphorism about the origination etc.
:

(of the world) and in the BJiasya thereon, material causality is declared to be the definition of the Brahman

that is to be known.

And

of causality as " From the
25

thus, in such statements
self ether

originated,

"

Of the Naiyfcyikas, who hold that by the combination of atoms
is

something new and previously non-existent 26 Recognised by the Sa&khya.

produced.

S

120

154

CHAPTER
like

I

words

the

"self

1

"

whose

expressed sense

is

what
the

is

associated (with nescience) signify (here) only

secondary implication in respect of the pure

(Brahman).
2-222

The followers of the Vivarana, however, think thus because of such Scriptural texts as "He who knows
:

all generally,

who knows everything

in detail, whose

austerity
this

is

of the form of knowledge, from
(i.e.,

him proceed
(i.e.,

brahma

the Veda), name, form and food
is

the earth) ", the material cause

only that form of
as qualified by

Brahman which
omniscience
is
etc.,

is

the

Lord (Isvara)

and associated with maya.
in such sections as

Hence
"

it

that in the

BMsya,

The one

within (the sun and the self), because of the qualities of that being declared" and "(That which consists of

mind

etc. is
is

here what

Brahman) because of there being taught well known everywhere", it is said that
all,

being the self of
texts as

which
is

is

declared in such Scriptural
is

"

That alone
is

the rk, that

the saman, that is

the uktha, that

the yajus, that

actions, all desires, all

brahma, that is all odours, all flavours," and which is
is is

consequent on being the material cause of all,
teristic
If,

a charac-

mark

of the Lord, to the exclusion of the jiva.

however, intelligence as such, common to the jiva and the^Lord, were the material cause, that (being the
self of all)

would not be the characteristic mark of the

Lord, to the exclusion of the jiva.
in the Scmksepasariraka

Even

the refutation

of the material causality of the associated
is

(Brahman)

with the view of refuting the

igVARA AND jiVA AS MATERIAL CAUSES

155

27 material causality of what is qualified by maya, but does not have for purport the refutation of the material

causality of intelligence in the

form of the Lord,

as

distinguished (from

maya)

;

for, even in that (work),

at the close of the first chapter, it is said of the material causality of the world that it is present in the

(expressed) sense of the

causality defining per accidens the impartite intelligence that is present with that (Lord), as the bough (defines) the

word " That ".~ 8 And thus, though present in the Lord is capable of

moon hence the statement of that Brahman that is to be known.
;

as a definition of the

Since the universe of ether
of
is

etc. is

a transformation 2-223

located in the Lord, in respect of that, the Lord the material cause. Since, however, the internal organ

maya

are products of the subtle elements produced by the jlva's nescience in conjunction with the gross elements which arc the evolutes of the maya located in the Lord,
etc.

in respect of
(the jlva

them there is material and the Lord). Hence
text

causality for both
it

is

that in the
digits

Scriptural
27
If

"Even

thus,

these

sixteen

isvara qualified by maya were the material cause, material would pertain in part to the qualification too, maya. This is causality what is said to be refuted in the Sank$cpa$&riraka. isvara, that is associated with maya, is the material cause, but not as associated with

maya;
is

rather

is

He

to be distinguished

from the

latter,

when upadanatva

predicated of Him.

In the text " That thou art " the expressed sense of " That " is Lord characterised by omniscience, omnipotence etc., while the expressed sense of "Thou" is the apparently finite jlva. The secondary
28

the

implication of both terms is the pure Brahman. The expressed sen.se is understood here, since in respect of secondary implication there is no
difference between the

two terms and the reference

to the

term "That"

would in that case be

futile,

156
of
the
seer,

CHAPTER
that

t

go

shown of the vital air, the mind etc., denoted by the word " digit ", that, at the time of release from the body for
it

and sink into the person,

towards "

the
is

person,

reach

the enlightened one, they are destroyed by knowledge, in view of that aspect of them which is the product of nescience, removable by knowledge; in another text

Gone are the fifteen digits to their elements, there is shown their resolution into their respective material causes, in view of that permanent aspect of them which is not removable by that (knowledge) and consists in the
transformation of the gross elements that are products of maya; thus say those who maintain a difference

"

"

between maya and nescience (avidya).
2-2231

Just

as,

because the universe of ether

etc.

is

a

transformation of
is

maya

located in the Lord, the

Lord

the material cause in respect of that, similarly, because the internal organ etc. are transformations of
the nescience located in the jiva, the jlva alone is the material cause in respect of that. Nor is it the case that
the gross elements too, the products of maya, did not enter into the internal organ etc., the distinction
if

between the two Scriptural texts cited would be unintelligible
;

for discrimination

is clearly established,

in

the

BM$ya

on the section about the resolution of the
about the destruction of

digits, that the Scriptural text

the digits by knowledge refers to the vision of him who knows the truth, while the Scriptural text "Gone are " refers to the cognition of a dull the fifteen digits

a knower of the truth dies, the persons near liim think that his body etc. too are resolved
person, since,

when

I&VARA AND JIVA AS MATERIAL CAUSES
into

157

same way as a pot that is destroyed; thus say some of those who maintain a difference between maya and nescience.
earth
etc.,

in

the

Even among

those

who maintain

their non-differ-

2*224

ence, some say thus: though of the universe of ether etc., the Lord is the material cause, yet, of the internal

the jiva alone is the material cause, because of the cognition of (their) identity with the jiva; hence

organ
it is

etc.,

that in the Bliasya on superimposition, there is shown the super-imposition of the internal organ etc.
y karmavyavastha,~ there are mentioned, in the case of the intelligence that is Brahman, the connection with

on the jiva alone; and in the Vivarana, in the prati-

through being their material cause, and, in the case of the jiva, though not connected therewith, the connection with the internal organ etc.
pot
etc.,

Because of such Scriptural texts as "From this proceeds the vital air, the mind and all the organs, ether,
air, fire,

2-225

water, earth which is the support of all" Brahman alone is the material cause of the entire

empirical world; but the jiva (is the material cause) of the merely apparent dream world. (This is so

because of the following reason)
is

;

in the section

"There

contingence (of transformation) of the whole or conflict with the Scriptural declaration of (Brahman)

being without parts", the prima facie view being that, if Brahman be the material cause of the world, on the
that part of the treatise which shows how for the jiva, though one with the Impartite intelligence, there is yet distinction essentially (vyavastha) in respect of objects (karma) cognised at different times

29

I.e.,

and places and in

different ways.

158

CHAPTER

1

transformation of the whole of

it

in the

form of the

world there would be contingence of the non-existence of Brahman over and above the transformations, or on the transformation of it in part there would be the
contingenee of conflict with the Scriptural declaration of (its) being without parts, it is established as the final conclusion by the aphorism "For, just as in the
(jiva-) self, there are variations, even so (it

may

be in

the

supreme

self)",

with the doctrine of illusory

manifestation in view, that, like the creation of the dream world of many forms in the jiva-self, that sees
the dream, without any destruction of its

own

nature,

the creation of ether
;

etc.,

in

Brahman is

(also similarly)

intelligible thus say others.
r

2 226

-Che

J iy a

himself being, like the seer of dreams, he

who

posits in himself everything like lordship, is the cause of all; thus too say some.
' '

2'23

Now, because of the Scriptural text Know may a to " be prakrti (the primal cause) and because of the
persistence of the inertness of
is

maya

in pot

etc.,

cognised to be the material cause of the world;
is

maya how

(then)
2-231

Brahman

the material cause?

Here, the author of the Padarthatattvmirnaya says; Brahman and maya are both the material cause,

and hence there
butes,

the intelligibility of both texts, as also the intelligibility of the persistence of both attriis

namely,

reality

and

inertness.

Of

these,

Brahman, as illusorily manifesting, is the material cause; and nescience, as transforming itself. Nor is
material causality a mere matter of terminology in the

BRAHMAN NON-DIFFERENT FROM THE WORLD

159

case of the substrate of illusory manifestation, since there is no distinction even there in respect of the
definitive characteristic of material causality, viz,, being

in itself the cause of the origination of the effect.

Some, however, accepting even the aforesaid teaching, mention another definition common to both illusory manifestation and ti'ansf ormation material
:

2-232

causality

is

from

itself.

differcnce

the generation of an effect non-different And, for the world, there is iionfrom the real Brahman through (its)

illusory manifestation,

and from the

inert ignorance

through

transformation; for, there is experience of apposition, in the form "the pot is real," "the pot is inert." Nor may it be said that, because (in the
(its)

comm'ents) on the aphorism "Non-otherness therefrom, because of Scriptural texts like that about origination (arambhana) ", there are the statements "Non-otherness

means non-existence

as distinct

from Brahman,"

and "Indeed, by non-otherness we do not declare nondifference, but we deny difference," which belong (respectively) to the Bhasya and the Bhamati, and deny of the world non-difference from Brahman, the acceptance of non-difference would be an unwelcome conclusion; for, the purport of those two statements being the denial of non-difference of the same grade of
reality as the substrate, namely, Brahman, there is no conflict in accepting merely apparent non-difference,

as between nacre

and

silver.

The author of the SmksepasariraWa, however, 2233
says thus
:

Brahman

alone

is

the material cause

;

since,

in the case of the immutable, independent causality is

160
unintelligible,

CHAPTER

I

the subsidiary cause the subsi30 diary, though not the cause, is yet present in the effect, since there is seen in the pot persistence of the softness

maya

is

;

etc.

(of the clay), as of the clay (itself).

2-234

Vacaspati Misra, however, says thus: Brahman,
that has been

made

the content of the
cause,

maya

located in
it

the

jiva,

is

the material

since

of itself

illusorily manifests itself in the

form of the world, the
is

locus of inertness; hence

maya

merely an accessory,
effect.

not a subsidiary cause persistent in the
2-235

The author of the Sidhantamuktavali, however,
says thus: the energy maya is alone the material cause, not Brahman, because of such Scriptural texts as" This Brahman has neither an earlier nor a later, neither an
outside

"
etc.,
;

and "Of

that, there is neither effect

nor

cause

"

but, as being the substrate of maya, the material

cause of the world, it (Brahman) is figuratively the material cause such material causality alone is intended
;

to be declared in the definition (of
2-31

Brahman).
is

Now, who

is

the Lord,

and who

the jiva ?

2-3111

To
the
beings,

this, it is said

thus in the Prakatdrthavivarana:

beginningless,

which

is

indeterminable primal cause of associated with intelligence as such, 31
reflection of intelligence therein is

(that) is

maya; the

the Lord; the reflection of intelligence in the limited innumerable parts even of that (maya), which (parts)
30
cause.

That

is to say,

not the material cause; even the subsidiary

is

a

31
ft

Not

Intelligence as delimited or as reflected or as the prototype of

reflection.

RELATION OF I&VARA TO jfVA

161

are endowed with the obscuring and projecting energies, and are called nescience (avidya), (that reflection) is
the jiva.

In the Tattvaviveka, however,

(it is

thus)

:

of the 2-3112
3*

two primal cause, made up of the three constituents, distinct forms are established by the Scriptural text
"It creates the jiva and the Lord as reflections, and itself becomes maya and nescience (avidya) "; what is principally constituted of pure sattva, not overpowered

by rajas and tamas is maya powered by those (two) and
;
1

that,
is

whose sattva

is

over-

(consequently) impure, nescience ; postulating this distinction between maya and nescience, it is said that the reflection in maya is
is

the

Lord and the

reflection in nescience is the jiva.
itself is,

The one primal cause

through the predo- 2-3113

minance of projection, called maya and is the adjunct of the Lord through the predominance of obscuration, it is called nescience or ignorance and is the adjunct of the
;

jiva;

hence

it

is

that though

it

is

associated with

intelligence as such,

common

to both the jiva

and the

Lord, the experience of conjunction with ignorance, in the form "I am ignorant," is for the jiva alone, not
for the

Lord

is set

Lord such a distinction between the jiva and the forth in some (works).
;

In the Sanksepasariraka, however, following the Scriptural text "This jiva has the effect for adjunct,
the

2-3114

Lord has the cause for adjunct/'

it is

said thus

:

the

reflection of intelligence in- nescience is the Lord; the reflection of intelligence in the internal organ is the
32
Sattva, rajas

and tamas.

8 1-21

162
jiva ; nor may

CHAPTER
it

I

be said that since the definition of intelli-

gence

by a substance, namely, the internal organ, in the same way as of ether by a pot, the jiva
is

possible

may

be but intelligence as defined for, because of the difference here and hereafter between the parts of
;

intelligence defined as the jiva, there

would be the contingence of the destruction of the (karma) acquired and

the influx of the non-acquired; the reflection, however, is not differentiated by the incoming or outgoing of the
adjunct, in the same way as what is defined (thereby) hence, there is not this defect in the reflection-theory.
;

Thus, in the above-mentioned views of the jiva and the Lord as varieties of reflection, Brahman, that is in
the position of the prototype,
is

the pure intelligence

which
2-3115

is

attained by the released.

In the CitradTpa, the leaching of a three fold division into jiva, the Lord, and pure intelligence is
abandoned, and a four- fold division of intelligence
is

assumed

(in the following
is

way) for example, the ether
:

though in fact one alone
ether, ether,
i.e., i.e.,

yet four-fold, as (i) the pot(ii)

the ether defined by the pot,

the water-

together with the clouds and stars in the water located in that (pot-ether), (iii) the

what

is reflected

undefined ether at large, and (iv) the cloud-ether,

i.e.,

what is reflected in the watery parts of that (cloud), which are of the form of dew, and which are inferred
(to exist) in the region of the clouds, that exist in the ether at large, because of their effect, namely, rain;

similarly, there are (i) the
i.e.,

immutable (intelligence),
exists as the substrate of
is

the intelligence which

both the gross and the subtle body,

defined thereby

I&VARA AS A REFLECTION
t

165

and stands unmodified

like

an

anvil, (ii) the jiva,

i.e.,

the intelligence reflected in the internal organ posited in that (immutable intelligence) and associated with

transmigration,
intelligence,

(iii)

Brahman,
i.

i.e.,

the undefined

and

(iv) the tord,

e.,

the intelligence

reflected in the impressions of the intellects of all beings

that exist in the darkness of

maya which

abides in that
difference

(Brahman)

;

and

thus, there is

shown the

between the jiva and the Lord through differences in adjunct, as between the internal organ and ignorance
coloured by the impressions of the intellect.

And
said
in

this

is

another
:

peculiarity

of

what
as

is

of

that (Citradlpa) intelligence, the jiva,
is,

among
which
nacre,

the

four

kinds
the

"

appears

I

",

like

silver

on

the

immutable

(intelligence),

superimposed on the element whose

form of untainted bliss is obscured by nescience. Hence it is that, as in the case of "tins" " " ness" and I myself act silver-ness," there is in
distinctive
1

etc.,

and

the appearance together of the feeling of "one-self" " I the feeling of ", which are of the nature of the
is

the general element and the superimposed that is the special element. It is, indeed, the " I " which is of the nature of the superfeeling of
substrate that

imposed special element, being variable, since one person cannot have the empirical usage "I" in respect of " " another And the of oneself is the
person. feeling " other-ness " counter-correlate of

and of the nature

of the substrate that is the general element, since it is " Devadatta himself goes," in the present, in the form

empirical usage relating even to another person.

Thus,

164

6&APTB&

t

even because of reciprocal super-imposition, there is, for men of the world, non-discrimination between the

immutable

(intelligence)

and the

jlva.

And

the

distinction between

through the teaching

them is clear in the Brhadaranyaka, " As a mere mass of
sentiency,

rising from those elements, perishes even in their wake" in respect of the jiva, that it perishes in the wake of the perishing of the adjunct, and through the teaching
4

'Imperishable, verily,

is this

self" in respect of the
it is

immutable (intelligence), that

imperishable.

If the denotation of the "I", the jlva, be perishable,

how is there non-difference from, the imperishable Brahman? (The reply is) this apposition (\ve teach)
:

is

not in the view of non-difference, but in the view of

sublation.
' '

What

Just as by the cognition of manhood in was (taken to be) a post is a man", the cognition
is

33

of post-ness

removed, similarly, by the cognition of the

immutable Brahman-nature, in "I am Brahman," there is removed the superimposed nature of the
denotation of "1"$ for, there
is

the statement of the

Naiskarmyasiddhi

"

:

As

in

'

What was a post is a man'

the cognition of the post (is removed) by the cognition of a man, so by the cognition 'I am Brahman/ the cognition of
'

I

'

is,

indeed, removed without residue/'
in the Vivarana
etc.,

And
the

if,

in the

manner mentioned

this be apposition in the view of non-difference, then, let

word "I" denoting the jlva have the immutable
33

iaid "the post is man",

Of one of the terms in the appositional relation; when it is what is intended is not the non-difference of the

was

two as such, but the sublation of the prior cognition of the post; there really no post,

iSVARA AS A REFLECTION
(intelligence) cation, since

165

imposed,

is

for purport through secondary implithis (latter), which is not supercapable of non-difference from Brahman.

As
to

for the

the

Lord who is said to be comparable cloud-ether and a reflection in the im-

pressions of the intellect, he is qf the nature of the bliss of sleep, as established in the Mandukya
text

"

Having

sleep for his abode, one in form, a
7

mere

mass of sentiency, blissful, the enjoyer of bliss '; for, even in that (Upanisad) immediately after that (text), " He is the Lord of all, he is omniscient, it is declared
he
the internal ruler, he is the cause of all origination and absorption of beings"; and in the case of him, who
is

has for adjunct the impressions of the

intellects of all

beings, having all things for their content, omniscience, and for that same reason even universal agency etc., as
well, are intelligible.
is

Nor may it be said that ontniscience

not experienced in the case of any one who is conditioned by the impressions of our intellect; for, impressions being mediate, what 34 is also mediate.
is

conditioned thereby

34 The objection is "How is it that no one experiences in sleep 1 am omniscient/ if conditioning by the impressions of the intellect accounts for omniscience?" The reply one would expect is "Because in the case of each individual being, the conditioning is not by the impressions ol all the intellects of all beings." The reply given in the text, however, seeks to go deeper. The denotation of "I" is what is conditioned by the internal organ, which in waking is gross and perceptible. But in sleep it is subtle, being of the nature of an impression;, hence there cannot be immediately experienced either that or what is conditioned thereby; thus there being no experience of the "I" in sleep, how can " I am omniscient"? there be the experience This reply raises other if there is no experience of "I" in sleep, how are we to questions: (1) account for the experience "I slept soundly"? If the "I" here belongs to the subsequent waking stage, should not one be similarly able to say "I was omniscient"? (2) If he who is conditioned by vasana cannot have the experience of " I ", can Igvara who is also conditioned by vasanas " have the experience I am omniscient?" These may not be unanswerable, but no reply is indicated in the text or commentary.

166
2-3116

in the Brahm&nanda, however,

it

is

said that,

because of association with sleep, the blissful being mentioned in the Mandukya is the jlva. It is thus:
the internal organ, which, on the cessation of the karmas that bring about enjoyment in waking etc., is absorbed
in the

form of

sleep,

becomes solid

(i.e.,

patent),

when there is awakening, because of karma which brings about enjoyment afresh; then, the jlva, who has that
adjunct,
is

maya).

said to be of the nature of cognition (vijnanaHe himself, earlier, in the state of sleep,
is

having an adjunct in the state of absorption,
be blissful.
(text)

said to

He

alone

is set

forth in the Mandiikya

"Having

sleep for his
so,

abode"

etc.

This being

how can we

reconcile the statement

of his lordship over all and so on? Thus. There are two sets of three forms with attributes of the supreme
self,

the

cosmic
.

(adhyatma) and pure intelligence, are established in the Citradlpa, with the illustration of the artistically worked cloth.

(adhidaivata) and the personal Four forms, the cosmic three of the above

For example, the naturally white cloth is washed, made stiff with starch, marked by the application of what is of the nature of ink, and coloured by the use of colours
;

thus, there are four states even of the single artistically worked cloth; similarly, the supreme self devoid of

pure; as conditioned by maya, he is the Lord; as conditioned by the collective subtle body, the product of the nonit is

maya and

the adjuncts produced by

quintuplicated elements, he is Hiranyagarbha as conditioned by the collective gross body, the product of the
;

quintuplicated elements, he

is

the Virat self; thus there

ISVARA AS A REFLECTION

are four states even of the single supreme sell And in this supreme self, which is in the position of the artistically
is

what is in the position of the picture the entire universe, consisting of the immovable and

worked

cloth,

the movable.

Just as for the

men

in the picture there

are delineated likenesses of clothes, of a nature like to that of the cloth that supports the picture, even so, for
the embodied ones superimposed on the supreme self, there are posited likenesses of the intelligence that is
the substrate

which go by the name of jivas, migrate. As for the personal (adhyatma), it is of three forms, being divided into Visva, Taijasa, and Prajiia.
;

and

these,

these,Prfijna is the witness of bare ignorance, when the internal organ is absorbed in deep sleep, and that

Of

Taijasa is that which in dreams has conceit in the individual subtle
bodies.

(intelligence) is here said to be blissful.

Visva

is

that which in

waking has

conceit in

the
text

individual gross bodies.

"This

self

Here, the Mandul\ya has four quarters" begins with the

difference of four states, as Visva, Taijasa, Prajiia and Turiya in the case of this self that appears
in

the

sake
fourth
out

experience of the "I"; (next) for of convenience in the attainment of

the the

quarter, of the nature of Brahman withrelation to the world, through the merger of

each earlier quarter (in the next), it includes Virat etc. in the Visva etc., because of (their) similarity in respect
of having adjuncts which are (respectively) gross, subtle and more subtle; (and thus it) establishes the
quarters, Visva
etc.,

in

"He who seated in waking
and
so on.

(expe-

rience) cognises the external"

Therefore,

168

CHAPTER

I

with the intention to declare the inclusion of the

unmanifest Lord in the

blissful (one)

denoted by the

word

Prajiia,

there

is

the

statement there of the
all.

attributes of that (Lord), such as rulership over

been explained by the Bhagavatpada in the commentary on (the Manditkya-kdrikas of)
it

Thus alone has

Gaudapada.
2-3117

In the Drgdrsi/aviveka, however, there is ihis difference that the immutable (intelligence) set forth in the Citradlpa is included in the jiva-aapect and the
33 teaching of only a three-fold division of intelligence is adhered to. There, indeed), it is said that since, on

the analogy of Hie sheet of water, waves and bubbles, there is positing of one on another, the jiva is three-fold,
as absolutely real, empirically real and merely apparent. Of these, the one defined 30 is the absolutely real jiva;
for, in this,
(self),

though what defines
is to

is

assumptive, that

be defined, being non-assumptive, is non-different from Brahman. The likeness of intelli-

which

gence (which appears) in the internal organ posited in the maya which stands obscuring that (absolutely real "I " because of jiva) and which has the conceit of
getting
idientified

with the
;

internal

organ,

is

the

empirically real (jiva)

though the product of maya, persists as long as there is empirical usage. That Which has the conceit of "I" in the dream-body etc.,
for, that,

posited by sleep, which is of the nature of a particular state of the maya that in dreams stands obscuring even that (empirically real jiva), is the merely apparent
35 36
Into pure intelligence, jiva and the Lord.

By

mftyft,

I&VARA AS THE PROTOTYPE
(jiva)
for,

169

on waking, there is, along with the dreamworld, cessation even for the jiva that is the seer
;

thereof.

Thus have been shown these differences in the views of those who maintain the Lord to be a reflection.

The followers of the
since

Vwarana
37

y

however, say thus: 2-312

by the traditional code

"When the ignorance that

generates difference is absolutely destroyed, what can produce the non-existent difference between the self and

Brahman?"
it is

taught of only a single ignorance that the condition of the difference between the jiva
it is

and the Lord, the difference between the jiva and the Lord is through their being prototype and reflection, not tli rough both of them being reflections, it being
impossible for both to be reflections, in the absence of two adjuncts. Here too, the reflection is the jiva; what
in the position of the prototype is the Lord. Only when this is the case, on the analogy of prototype and
is

do the freedom of the Lord and the dependence of the jiva on Him stand to " But reason. And the aphorism (the creative activity
reflection in ordinary experience,

of
also

the
fits

Lord

is)

mere

sport,

as

in

the

world"

in, in the manner stated in the Kalpataru: "Just as a man plays with the changes, straight, crooked etc., occurring in the reflection, even so

does

Brahman with
the
jiva

the

changes
reflection

in

the

jiva."

Of

ignorance, the particular transformation of ignorance, which is of the form of the internal organ, is the place of distinctive

that

is

a

in

manifestation, as the mirror
37

is

for the sun's light that

The verse comes from the

12?

170
is

CHAPTER

I

too the empirical usage of that (jiva) as having that (internal organ) for adjunct. Nor with this is there the abandonment of (the view
all-pervasive.

Hence

of) ignorance being the adjunct; for, if intelligence, ns delimited by the internal organ alone as the adjunct,

were the would be

jiva, the yogin's control of a host of bodies

unintelligible.

Nor may

it

be said that, since,

by the might of yoga, the yogin's internal organ attains
the pervasiveness capable of manifestation in a host of bodies, for what is defined by that (internal organ) the
control of a host oC bodies stands to reason; for, in the
38 The penultimate section of the sacred teaching, entrance is like that of a lamp, for so it is shown (in

"

Scripture)", in the Bluwya etc. thereon, there is described the creation, through the might of yoga, of the internal organ which like the sense of sight is certainly
different for each

body

in the host

of.

bodies.

Since, in

the reflection, difference from the prototype is alone superimposed, that is real in respect of its own existence ;

hence, on the ground that for tho jiva, which is of the nature of a refleel ion, there can be no connection with
release, there

need not be assumed over and above

that,

in order that there

may be connection with release, either another defined jiva or another (variety of)
intelligence called the immutable, over

jiva that is a reflection, and different

and above the from both the
declaration

jiva

and

the

Lord.

The

Scriptural

has this for pur"Imperishable, port, that for the jiva, on tho removal of its adjunct,
verily, is this self

"

though there
38

is

cessation of its condition of being a
Sutras,

The Ved&nta

THE AVACCHEDA VIEW
reflection, its existence does
;

17 i

not perish it does not have for purport (the existence of) another intelligence, over and above that (jiva) and called the immutable. The
intelligence defined

by the jiva's adjunct, the internal

organ

etc., is

but the Lord that

by the texts

"He
in the

who

the prototype for, even stands in cognition" 30 etc.,
is
;

existence in the midst of modifications

is

declared of the

Lord

40 (very) proximity of the jiva, through being the internal ruler thereof.

alone,

Others, however, prefer the (following) view. In 2-313 the case of what is not conditioned by colour, a reflection

does not stand to reason;
(a

medium) which

is

much more is this so, colourless. Even the example

in

of

the reflection of the sky does not stand to reason, for,

the sun's rays pervading the expanse of the sky are reflected in water, the empirical usage that the sky
is

when

reflected

is

grounded on mere
for,

delusion.

Even'

the view that letters are reflected in

(the audible)

sounds does not stand to reason;

(sound) being the

manif ester (of the letters), in the case of attributes of sound like high pitch, their imposition on letters is intelligible through mere proximity, and hence there is
no evidence for the assumption that sound takes on the
reflection of letters.

The echo

too

is

not a reflection of

the

according to the doctrine of quintuplication, the sounds of the drum, the sea etc. are sounds of the earth, water etc., while the echo alone
earlier

sound;

is

the sound of ether,
39
40

and hence

it

cannot be the
finite self.

The term

"cognition (vijnana)" here

means the
controlled.

The Lord's

coatrollership Is exercised not from a distance, but

in the very presence or proximity of

what

is

172
reflection of

CHAPTER

I

any other sound.
which
letter,
is

Even

the echo in the
;

form of a
for, the

letter is not the reflection of a previous letter

echo,

manifesting a

caused by an audible sound may, even like the original audible

41 sound, intelligibly be the manifester of the letter.

Therefore, the intelligence, which like the pot-ether is defined by the internal organ, is the jlva what is not so defined is the Lord. Nor may it be said Since thus
; ' '

the intelligence that is within the world is defined in its entirety in the form of jivas, by the respective internal

organs as adjuncts, for the Lord, who is of the nature of intelligence devoid of that definition, there would be
existence outside the world alone; hence there
'

would

be contradicted the declaration of existence in the

midst of modifications as internal ruler, in lie who stands in cognition (i.e., the jlva-self)' etc.; on the
reflection-theory, however, since the reflected ether is

seen even while there does exist the natural ether

present in the water, the existence in two forms in one " For, even on the reflection place is intelligible.
theory,

only of the intelligence not within the adjunct, that reflection in that (adjunct) may be declared, but not the reflection of the whole, on the
it is

analogy of the moon in water ; for, of the portion within that, reflection therein is not possible. Verily, not like
the reflection of the ether or light defined by the cloud, in water, is there seen the reflection therein even of what
is

within the water.

Nor, of the face
water, as

etc.,

is

there

reflection
41

even when under
is to say,

when they

are

That

the letter manifested by the echo need not be a

reflection.

THE AVACCHEDA VIEW
outside.

173

Therefore, as in the case of the cloud-definedether etc., in respect of the reflection in water, so, in
respect of the reflection in such adjuncts as the internal organ, the prototype-character would belong only to

not within that (adjunct) hence what is of the nature of the prototype could not exist in the midst of

what

is

;

modifications ; hence there is parity (between the two theories) in the failure of the text about the internal
ruler to harmonise with (the conception of) the Lord. Hereby is refuted (the objection) that if the defined be

the jiva, then, because of the difference in the portions of intelligence defined by the internal organ here and
there,

at the times of agency and enjoyership there is the contingence of the destruction of the acquired

42

(karma) and the influx of the non-acquired. on the reflection-theory, since there has

Even
to

be

declared the reflection in the internal organ of that portion of intelligence which is not within (the adjunct)
itself

and is proximate to it, when the internal organ moves here and there, because of the difference in the prototype, there would necessarily be difference
of the
of this

(and thus) defect (for both theories).
too;

reflection

there

Nor

parity may it be

is

said:

"Though

there

view that the jiva is organ, yet, on the view that the jiva
tion

be parity of defect on the a reflection in the internal
is

a

reflec-

in

nescience,

and

that,

of

this,

the
is

internal

organ which moves about here and there

the cause

42 That is to say, in this life and in a future one; definition is understood on a spatial analogy, and the absence of identity between one limited space and another is urged as an objection to the use of that analogy for the jiva, who is conceived as identical in several lives.

174

CHAPTER!

of distinctive manifestation here or there, like the moving bright light above the mass of clouds in the case

of the reflection of that (mass of clouds), there is not this defect for, since there is no motion for nescience,
;

as (there is) for the internal organ, there is no contingence of difference in the reflections." For, in the

very same way, even on the definition theory, it is possible to admit that the jiva is what is defined by nescience 43 and, since there too, in order to remove such
;

defects as the destruction of the acquired, in that for a single jiva there is agency in one place and enjoyership
in another place, the identity of the jiva in 'fact has to

be resorted

to,

on that analogy, even on the view of the

internal organ as the adjunct, it is possible to remedy 41 that defect by recognising as helpful (thereto) the identity of intelligence in fact

and the identity of the
text

defining adjunct.
conflict

Nor on

the definition-theory is there

with

the

Scriptural

and aphorism

"As

this one resplendent

sun becomes differentiated in

manifold ways in the water, so this shining unborn self creates in the bodies different forms through adjuncts," " Hence it is there is the analogy of the reflections of the sun and so on "; for, in the aphorism " But since
not apprehended (any medium) like water, there is not that nature (of being a reflection) ", whicli succeeds immediately on the aphorism cited, there is stated the impossibility of reflection, since, just as in
there
is

the case of the sun that has colour, water as capable of generating a
43 44

is

apprehended
being at a

reflection,

Not by the internal organ.
Destruction of
tfce

acquired

karma

etc,

THE AVACCHEDA VIEW

175

distance from that (sun) and (itself) possessing colour, there is not similarly in the case of the omnipresent self

anything at a distance from
reflection
;

it

capable of generating

"
that,

and in the aphorism immediately succeeding The experience of increase and decrease is

because of being within (limiting adjuncts), thus there of both (the illustration and what is is accord
illustrated)", the aphorist himself states the purport

of those (texts) to be but the definition-theory, in that just as the sun which is reflected in the water increases
as

wore with the increase of (the volume of) water, and decreases as it were with a decrease of (the volume of) water, and moves as it were with the motion of the water, and consequently
it

the experience of

its

increase, decrease etc. concomitant

with

(that

of)

the

water
in

is

of

the

nature

of

superimposition, similarly, self, as defined by the internal organ etc., it is within since, adjuncts, there is the experience of increase, decrease

the case of the

concomitant with that (adjunct) and of the nature of superimposition; and, since thus there is accord
etc.

between the illustration and what
is

is illustrated,

there

no

conflict

;

and the definition-theory alone is accepted
"

by the Scriptural text
alone
is

As when a pot

is

moved, the pot

moved, not the ether enclosed in the pot, so too is " and by the the analogy of the jiva with the ether " aphorism (The jiva is) a part, because of the declaration of difference".

Therefore, in the case of the omnipresent intelligence, definition through the internal organ etc. happens of necessity; because of (this)
necessity, the jiva is

what

is defined.

176

CHAPTER

I

2-3U

Others, however, hold thus: the jiva is neither a 5 reflection nor the defined; but, like KaunteyaV
condition as Radheya,
it

is

for the untransformed

Brahman

itself that there is the
;

condition of the jiva,

taught in the BMsya on the BrJiadaranyaka that, on the analogy of the prince
because of nescience
for, it is

brought up in the family of hunters, Brahman alone,

through

its

own

nescience, migrates, and, through its

o\\n knowledge, is released;

"

and it is said in the Vdrtika Just as for the king's son, on regaining his memory,
is

the condition of being a hunter ceases, even so for the

ignorant self (there
'

release) because of such texts as
thus,

That thou art

'

".

And

since

it

is

only by

Brahman,
through

as having attained the condition of the jiva

its

own

nescience, that there is the positing of

the entire universe, the

Lord

too,

together with the

attributes of omniscience

etc., is

an assumption of the

jiva, like the deity perceived in

a dream.

2 32
2*3211

Now,

is this

jiva one or
to the

many?

Some, who hold

view mentioned just before,

adopt the unity of the jiva and say thus: the jiva is one; and therefore, it is only one body that has a jiva;
others, like the bodies seen in dreams,

have no jivas;
;

the world

posited by the ignorance of that (jiva) for that (jiva) there is empirical usage as long as there is nescience, as in the case of dreamnperception there is
is
;

45 The son of Kunti; here, Karna, who though born to the Sun-god and Kunti, was brought up by a charioteer, in ignorance of his true status as the son of Kunti; this state of ignorance is what is designated in the
text as the condition of Radheya, R&dliil being the wife of the charioteer of &n<J the foster-mother

Karna,

EKA-JIVA-VADA

177

not even the distinction between the bound and the
released, because of the unity of the jiva; even the

assumptive, like the release etc. of persons other (than the dreamer) in dreams; and the washing off of the mire of all objections that may
is

release etc. of

uka

occur to this (view) is to be effected solely in the continuous torrent of the dream-analogy.

view of a

Others, however, not gaining mental faith in this sole (animated) body and a sole jiva, and

2-3212

thinking that there

" But (the Lord
9

is)

with such aphorisms as more, because of the designation of
is conflict

"

difference/
is)

But

as in the world, (the creative activity

mere sport," which teach thai Hie Lord, who is more than the jiva, is alone the creator of the universe, not the jivn, and that though, because of having His desires (already) realised, there is no fruit for Him,
there
creation of the world merely in sport, adopt the 4 (following) view of a single jiva with many distinctive
is
"'

bodies: Hiranyagarbha, the sole reflection of
is

Brahman,

the principal jiva; others, however, which are of the nature of reflections of that (Hiranyagarbha), are

apparent jlvas, similar to the apparent clothes put on the bodies of human beings sketched on an artistically

worked
Yet

cloth,

and are subject

to transmigration etc.
2-3213

others, however, thinking that, because of the difference of Hiranyagarbhas in each aeon, there is
are distinctive (saviSesa) in that they are all animated so says the commentator. One is tempted to disregard this and take "saviSesa" with "vadam" so as to mean "distinctive view", the distinction from the other eka-jlva-vada being manifest; a better inter46
(sajivani)
;

The bodies

pretation, perhaps, is to take it to mean that the many bodies are "differently" animated, one by Hiranyagarbha and the rest by his reflections.

S

I

2?

178

CHAPTER

I

nothing to determine which Hiranyagarbha is the principal jiva, prefer the (following) view of a single jiva
bodies without distinction: a single jiva alone controls all bodies without distinction; nor

(animating)
is

many

there the contingence of the remembrance of one another's happiness, in spite of the difference in bodies,

thus

just as

(there

is

remembrance) in the case of the

different parts of a body; for, since there is not seen the remembrance of the happiness etc. of another birth,
it is settled

that difference of
;

body

is

the cause of the

non-remembrance of that in the case of yogins, however, the remembrance of the happiness etc. of a host of bodies
is,

apprehension of objects at a distance, conditioned by the might of yoga, and hence that is not an
like the

instance (to the contrary).

2322
here
the

Still

others, however,

who
in

too

there

is

parity

are dissatisfied, sinco the non-existence of

distinction
is

hence there

bondage and release and non-accord with the Scriptural text
between

"Tie who, among the devas, is enlightened, he alone " " becomes that and with the Blidsya on the section If
it

be said that

it is

denied, no (we reply), since

it is

from

the embodied," which teaches the release of the bound, resort to the view of many jlvas, through the admission
as adjuncts of the jiva, and obtain the distinction of the bound from the released.

of the internal organ

etc.

2-3221

some say thus: though ignorance, which has the pure Brahman for locus and content, is but one, and only the destruction of that is release, yet, because

Of

these,

of the

admission of the persistence of a trace of ignorance in the state of release while embodied.

JIVA-MULTIPLICITY

ANb UNITY OP AVIDYA

179

ignorance has parts; hence that itself, when, in some adjuncts, there is the rise of the understanding of Brahman, ceases in part, while in other adjuncts it
persists as before through (its) other parts.

Others, however, say thus: just as, in the view of 2*3222 some Logicians, the determinant of the presence of the
absolute non-existence of pot on the ground
is

the non-

existence of conjunction with the pot and hence the absolute non-existence of pot which exists in association 47 is not in association with many places possessing that

with some places, when by the rise of conjunction with

removed, similarly, since for the presence of ignorance in intelligence the determinant is the mind, the ignorance that exists in association with
pot that non-existence
is
48 parts of intelligence, through that adjunct, is not in 40 association with some when, by the rise of the

removed, in tho manner declared by the Scriptural text u The knot of 50 the heart is cut "; elsewhere it remains as before; it
realisation of
is

Brahman, the mind

is

only the association and non-association with ignorance that constitute bondage and release.

Yet others, however, say thus ignorance does not have pure intelligence as locus, but has the jlva for locus and Brahman for content; and that (ignorance)
:

2*3223

being, like generality in
47 48

the

particulars,
pot.

separately

Absence of conjunction with the
I.e.,

the mind.

49
50

Farts of intelligence.

By "heart"
it is

is

here meant the internal organ;

it is

"knot", since

a superimposition on intelligence and

is of

spoken of as a a compound

nature, the "this" (the object) and the "not-this" (the subject).

180

CHAPTER

t

realised in all the jlvas

which are

reflections in the

internal organ, abandons

some one for whom knowledge
(abandons)
a

has

arisen,

as

generality

destroyed

particular; this alone is release; in others it resides as

before ; this
2-3224
Still

is

the distinction.

others,

however,

establish the

distinction

between bondage and release only by admitting a different nescience for each jlva, and the persistence

and removal of that (individual nescience).
2'32241

On
is

this view,

by whose nescience

is

the world

effected?

If this be asked, (the reply

is), since

there

no determining consideration, it is effected by the nesciences of all, and is on a par with a cloth caused by
the release of one (person) , his nescience is destroyed, then, as for the cloth when a single thread is destroyed, there is destruction of the
several threads.

When, on

world common to him; even at that time,

like

(the

origination of) another cloth by the other existing threads, there is the creation of another world, common to all the rest, by the other nesciences thus say some.
:

2-32242

Like the merely apparent silver produced by the
respective (individual) ignorances, and like the duality which, in the view of the Logicians, is produced by the 51 the respective (individual) enumerative cognitions,

universe of ether
51
Prof. S.

etc.,

produced by the respective
Primer of Indian Logic;
it

The phrase "enumerative cognition" has been taken over from

Kuppuswami
what

Sastriar's

is

hardly

satisfactory;

is intended is this: the notion of duality arises not in

but in dependence on a subjective dependence on things, as they appear, desire to enumerate the things.

MULTIPLICITY OF AVIDYAS
(individual) nesciences, is different for each individual; there is only the delusion of identity, as (in saying) in

respect of nacre-silver
itself (is seen)

"

The

silver seen

by you that

by

me

too "; thus say others.
is

Maya

alone,

which

different

from the host

o

2-32243

nesciences located in the jivas and is (itself) located in the Lord, is the cause of the universe; as for the
nesciences of the jivas, they are of service in bare obscuration and in the projection of the merely apparent
nacre-silver etc.
:

thus say yet others.
is

(The topic of) material causation together with what is related directly and

concluded

indirectly.
3-0

Now, of what nature

is

the agency?

Some say thus: because of the Scriptural declarations "That saw," "He desired," "That of itself made itself," that (agency), as in the system of the
Logicians, consists in the possession of such knowledge, desire to act and volition as is favourable to the

3-1

(production of the)

effect.

Others, however, say thus

:

if in

order to explain

3-2

agency in respect of the desire to act and volition, there be needed another desire to act and volition, there is the
contingence of infinite regress; hence the agency of Brahman is but the possession of knowledge favourable to the effect nor is there this contingency in the case of
;

knowledge

too,
is

since that,
;

Brahman,

not an effect

being of the nature of and thus, the statement in
is

the Vivarana that the jiva

the agent in respect of

CHAPTER
happiness
52

I

and the statement in the Kalpataru that since they can be produced by a mere glance, ether etc. are (His) glance, while the physical world
etc.,

is

(His) smile, since through the channel of Hiranyagarbha it has to be produced with greater effort than a glance, 53 are in accord (with reason).

3-3

Yet

others, however, say thus:

agency consists in

the possession of knowledge which is favourable to the effect and is of the nature of a consideration that it is

be created; it is not merely the possession of knowledge favourable to Ihe effect, since, in the case of
to

dreams and other such delusions, there is contingency of agency for the jlva as possessing such knowledge of the substrate as is favourable to the " this is a continsuper-imposition; nor may it be said
nacre-silver,

genee of the acceptable, since it is of the jlva that agency is declared in respect of the dream-world, even Now, he creates chariots, by the Scriptural text
*

horses and roads: he, indeed, is the agent' "; for, this has been explained thus by the commentator 54
:

"

agency

is

merely figurative, as in

'

the

plough

52 The jlva has knowledge of happiness etc., as the witness thereof, but does not will them; yet he is said to be the agent; this is intelligible only on the view that agency requires the possession of favourable know-

ledge alone.

It

may

not be objected that the jiva does will the

means

to

happiness, for, what is denied is volition whose sphere is the internal organ, the material cause of happiness etc. The position thus set out by

the commentator is unacceptable to the modern psychologist.

Here too, the assumption of this school (and of the commentator) a glance requires no effort at all and is of the nature of bare is that knowledge, while a smile does require effort. The position has no support either from modern psychology or from the text of the Kalpataru.
53

$4

Sa&kara,

BRAHMAN'S OMNISCIENCE
supports
the

cow

etc./

since

(the

jiva

is)

the

efficient cause of the appearance of chariot etc."

omniscience, which results by implication from this very agency in respect of the creation

Brahman 's

of the entire universe, is established in the section " Because of being the sacred-teaching-source ", even through the authorship of the Vedas.

Now, how does Brahman 's omniscience accord
(with reason), since knowership itself is impossible, there being no internal organ as for the jiva ?

4*1

In reply to this, there has been already shown the view of Bharatltlrtha and others that the Lord is He whose adjunct is ignorance in association with the impressions of the intellects of all beings having all things for content, and that, therefore, there is omniscience

for

Him,

as the

witness of the impressions of

all

contents.

Prakatartha, however, says 4-2 thus: just as for the jiva, because the transformations of its adjunct the internal organ take on reflections
of intelligence, there is cognisership through association with that (adjunct), similarly, since for Brahman there
are transformations of

The author

of the

adjunct maya, which take on the reflections of intelligence, there is omniscience,
its

because the universe, though existing in the three times, is immediately known through the flashes (of
intelligence) reflected in that (maya).

The author of the Tattvamddhi, however, establishes omniscience thus since, in the manner mentioned,
:

4.3

184

CHAPTER

I

perception of the entire existent world

is

possible for

Brahman, and since as possessing impressions produced thereby, remembrance is intelligible, there is established
the cognition of

maya

is

past things; since, prior to creation, transformed, in accordance with the unseen
all

potencies of the jivas, in the form of cognitions of all objects, for Brahman too, which has that (maya) as adjunct, there results, as witness thereof, instrumentality in respect of that

(transformation), and hence cognition relating to future things is intelligible.

The author of the Kaumudi, however, says thus: since even by the knowledge that is Brahman's nature
everything in relation to that is manifested, there is omniscience for, even in the case of the past and the
;

future, association with that is intelligible since they exist, in the form of impressions, like a sketched but

unfinished picture painted on the wall of nescience but His omniscience is not through cognitions through psychoses, because of conflict with the restrictive
;

Scriptural text
after
it

" That alone shining,

all else

shines

"
;

and

since, prior to creation, in accordance

" one " with the restriction in alone, without a second there has to be declared the absorption of cognitions
through psychoses, in the same way as of the gross
elements, there is the contingence of the non-existence of Brahman's omniscience at that time and consequently

the contingence of the non-existence of creator ship in respect of the seeing, that is of the form of the first

transformation of maya, and in respect of the gross elements etc., which are preceded by that (seeing). If " This it be said being the case, for Brahman there

BRAHMAN'S OMNISCIENCE

185

would be only being of the nature
relating to

of

knowledge

all, not omniscience consisting in the knowership of all", true, Brahman is certainly of the nature of knowledge relating to all, not the knower of all; for

Him, there
hence
it is

is

that

not knowership of the nature of agency " Because of in section
the
it

;

the agree-

has been said by the commentator that oognisership is a characteristic mark of the jiva; even the Scriptural text, "He who is omniscient" has to be construed only in the view of His being of the
nature of knowledge.

ment of texts "

Though Brahman even by the intelligence that is His own nature is the manifester of everything in
association with Himself, yet that (knowledge), though in its own nature not an effect, is still, in its nature as

4-5

defined by what is cognised, an effect of Brahman; hence there is no conflict whatever even with the text "He who is omniscient" which declares agency in
respect of the generation of knowledge preceptor Vacaspati Misra.
:

thus says the

Now, why does not the jiva too, like the Lord, manifest objects even by the intelligence which is of
his nature, without requiring a psychosis?

5-0

To this Brahman's
everything,

it

is

said

thus

in

the

Vivarana

:

5-1

intelligence

as

the

in with identity being material cause of everything,

manifests

everything

associated

with

itself

;

not

(so) the jfva's intelligence, for, though omnipresent as having (the omnipresent) nescience for adjunct,
yet, as

not being the material cause, s i-*4

it is

not associated

186

CHAPTER
.

I

(with those objects)

which

is

Just as the generality cowness," omnipresent, though by nature not associated
likie

"

with particulars

horse, is yet associated with a

particular possessing a dewlap, similarly, the jlva, though by nature not associated with objects, is yet
associated with the internal organ. And thus, the transformation of the internal organ, in the

when
form

of a psychosis, goes out, through channels like the eyes, extends up to the object quickly in the form of long rays
of light like the rays from the sense of sight, and pervades the object, then, as associated therewith, (the jiva's intelligence) has that object for the sphere
(of cognition). Just as grass etc., though not combustible by pure fire, are yet combustible by fire in
association with an iron ball, though pot etc. are not

manifestable by the pure intelligence of the jlva, it stands to reason that they are manifestable by that
(intelligence) in association with a psychosis of the internal organ.

Or

else,
is

as having the internal organ for adjunct,
finite
;

the jlva

therefore, because of absence of

association, he does not manifest pot etc.; but

when,

through the channel of the psychosis, there is manifested the non-difference from Brahman's intelligence as
defined by the object associated with that (psychosis), it (the jiva's intelligence) manifests that object.

Or

else,

manifest
;

the jiva, though' omnipresent, is yet not himself, because of being obscured by
;

nescience hence he does not manifest objects because of the association with a psychosis in respect of a particular
object, the obscuration being

removed, he

is

manifest

FUNCTION OF THE PSYCHOSIS

and manifests that object alone. And thus, the sake of association with intelligence, or for the for sake of the manifestation of non-difference from objectthere alone
(defined) intelligence, or for the sake of the removal of

obscuration, the going forth of the psychosis is required and there is manifestation of that object alone which is in association with that (psychosis) hence, even the
;

parviscience
intelligible.

(little-ktoowingness)

of

the

jlva

is

On

the

first

present jlva,

what

of these views, in the case of the omniis the association with an object

dependent on a psychosis ? For, even by a psychosis it is not possible to bring about identity or conjunction as between the jiva-intelligence and the object-intelligence, both of which are already established and devoid of activity.

To

this

some say that the relation

is

only that of

object and

subject.

Others, however, say thus: if the psychosis were determinative of the relation of object and subject alone, then, the determination of that by a psychosis of the sense, even when it does not would
;

go forth, not bring about undue extension hence there is the contingence of the futility of the admission of its going forth ; therefore, that (view) is not
acceptable; but,

when the psychosis, which has attained with the jiva-intelligence proximate to the identity object, is in conjunction with the object, for that
( jiva-intelligence) too,

there results through the channel

of that

(psychosis)

an indirect relationship; hence

188

CHAPTER!

this (relationship) alone is

what

is

acceptable as the

association with intelligence.
5-113

Yet

others, however, say thus: since

seen for happiness etc., direct association with intelligence that

immediacy is only in the case of what is in
is

immediate,

direct association is required in the case of objects (of)

immediate (experience)

;

therefore,

since,

when

the

psychosis is in conjunction with the object, there results a definition (of the jlva), consisting in the psychosis, as iso defined, even for the jlva, \vho is the material cause
of that/' 3 there occurs a conjunction (with the object)

a conjunction (between psychosis and object) for, just as from the conjunction of a cause and a noncause there results the conjunction of an effect and
oi'
;

born

non-effect, there stands to reason, because of parity of

reasoning, the admission even of the conjunction of a cause and a non-cause from the conjunction oi an effect

and a
5.114

non-effect.

56

acceptable but the production of identity with the object, through the manifestation of the non-difference of the intelligence, which is
as the association with intelligence
is

A

section, however, says thus:

what

is

conditioned by the internal organ and manifests the
55

As a

substrate of the illusory presentation in the form of the

psychosis.

56

From

the conjunction of the psychosis, an effect of jiva-intelligence,

with the

object,

which

is

not such an

Inferred as between the jlva, which
object,

which

is

a non-cause.

a conjunction is sought to be a cause of the psychosis, and the The illustration runs thus: when the hand is
effect,
is

in contact with a tree, the

hand
is

is

a

cause, the tree a non-cause; because

of their conjunction, there
of the hand)

conjunction between the body (an effect

and the tree (a

non-effect of the hand).

The body being an

flvayavin

is

the effect of the avayava (hand).

FUNCTION OF THE PSYCHOSIS

object,

from the Brahman-intelligence that has been
with
is

identified

the

object;

though

the

jiva,

as

omnipresent,
(jiva)

form

in proximity to all objects, if in that he could manifest objects, that (form)
to
all,

being

common

there could not be the distinction

of immediacy for different persons, and hence only in that form of his, conditioned by the internal organ, does

he manifest objects; and thus, the final view that, in the immediate experience of objects, a superimposed
relation is the determinant,

reason)

;

nor

is

(with there thus confusion with the second

is

also in accord

view (as to the function of the psychosis), since there is certainly this difference between the two, viz., that the first view is (based) on the omnipresence of the
jiva, the

second on

its finitude.

Now, on

the second view,
'1

what

is

the manifest ation

5-12

of non-difference

Some say
defined

thus: the identification of the object-

5-121

and internal-organ-delined intelligences through

a psychosis, like (the identification) of the waters of the tank and the field through a channel, is the manifestation of non-difference
;

and

thus,
is

though the object-

defined Brahman-intelligence

alone what manifests

the object, yet the jiva manifesting objects is intelligible, since by the identification (with the jiva) through the
psychosis, the nature of the jiva is brought about (for that Brahman-intelligence )
.

Others, however, say thus: the manifestation of non-difference is not the identification of Brahman,

5122

190

CHAPTER
is 111

i

which

the position of the prototype and is objectdivfined, with the jlva, who is in the position of a reflection, since their identification is impossible so

long as there exists a distinguishing adjunct, like a mirror (in the case of a reflection); and if by the

psychosis-produced manifestation of non-difference there result the nature of the jlva for the object-defined

Brahman, then, there being no conjunction for Brahman at that time with that object, cognisership of that would be impossible and there would result non-existence of His omniscience. Rather is it that the object-defined
Brahman-intelligence causes in the proximate part of
the psychosis associated with the object a reflection that manifests the object, and hence there is the identification

of that reflection with the jlva ; and thus is intelligible even the non-confusion among the intelligences defined
its psychosis and the object, these in the positions of knower, means of being respectively " knowledge and object known; nor may it be said If

by the internal organ,

the psychosis-conditioned intelligence be valid knowledge of the object, since there is not for it, as for the
intelligence that is the substrate of the object, a superimposed relation with the object, the superimposed

relation

would not be the cause of the immediacy of the

object"; for, since in the psychosis there is reflection only of that intelligence which is the substrate of the
defined by the object, because of their non-difference, there exists that relation (of
object
is
57

and which

superimposition)
57

.

That

is,

non-difference of the reflection in the psychosis
is the.

from the

original, viz.,

the intelligence that

substrate of the object

FUNCTION OF THE PSYCHOSIS

Yet others, however, say thus: what manifests 5-123 58 of superimposition, objects, through a direct relation is but the intelligence which is in the position of the
prototype and
is

is

the substrate of objects; though there
it

difference (between

and the

jiva) in its character
its

as (really) qualified

by being the prototype, yet in

nature as intelligence characterised per acdclens by that
(being the prototype) there is identification, which alone is the manifestation of non-difference nor is there
;

thus confusion between the jiva and Brahman, nor conflict with Brahman's omniscience, since that continues as before, in the nature of prototype.

Now, on the third

view,

what
?

is it
it

that

is

said to be 5-13

the removal of obscuration

If

be said to be the

destruction of ignorance, even by the cognition of the pot there would be removed the universe grounded on

ignorance;

if this

be said, some say to this

in its

that of the ignorance which obscures intelligence 5*1311 entirety, there is, through knowledge in the part

defined by the object, destruction in part as of total darkness by the light of a glow-worm etc., or a rolling up as of a mat, or a retreat as of a frightened soldier;
this is the removal.

Others, however, say thus if ignorance be destroyed in part, then, because of the non-existence of the
:

5-

1312

material cause, there could be no fresh origination (of obscuration) there hence, when once removed, there is
;

the contingence of the non-existence of obscuration
58
ttie

Not a relation of superimposition

in respect of a reflection, as on.

preceding view.

192

CHAPTER

I

even at other times; and, in the case of what is nonactive, retreat and rolling up are impossible; hence,
not possible. Therefore even of the ignorance that obscures intelligence in its entirety, the removal consists only in its

removal of the nature afore-mentioned

is

nature of not obscuring the object-defined intelligence, which stands associated with the psychoses having the

" In

respective forms (of the object) ; nor may it be objected the case of ignorance which, like the cloth concealing
object, stands located in the object-intelligence,

an

how

does the non-obscuration of that (intelligence) stand to " I am ignorant/' it is reason ?"; for, by the cognition

understood that even while located in the intelligence " I that is manifest in the experience of ", there is nonobscuration of that (jlva) by that (ignorance).
5-132

Yet others, however, say thus: what is experienced " in the form I do not know the pot ", as in opposition to the knowledge of the pot, and as removable by that (knowledge), in the form "when there is knowledge of the pot, the ignorance of the pot is removed " is not primal ignorance, since this (latter) which has pure
intelligence for content

ledge

of
59

that

removable by the knowcannot be of that (intelligence)
is
is
it

and

character.

Rather

nature of a particular

mode

another ignorance, of the of primal ignorance, having

pot-defined intelligence for content ; hence, the destruction of that alone is the removal nor thus, when that is
;

destroyed by a single cognition, is there the contingence of the non-removal of obscuration by other cognitions,
69
I.e.,

removable by cognitions of particulars like the

pot,

MODAL IGNORANCES
since
it is

193

admitted that as

many

as the cognitions are

the ignorances removable by them.

These ignorances, which' are of the nature of 5-1321
modes, are, like primal ignorance, beginningless, since they are (of the nature of) ignorance thus say some.
:

and

Sleep, which obscures the empirical world and jiva 5-1322 projects the world and jiva in the dream, is of the

nature of a particular mode of ignorance, because of being endowed with the obscuring and projecting capacities; similarly, even the state of deep sleep is,
like

primal ignorance, certainly a mode of ignorance experienced in the period of deep sleep, since there is " I I did not know seen the reflection
slept well,

anything/' when the internal organ
since these

etc.

are merged;

two (modes of ignorance) arise only when

there
in

karma that causes enjoyment have a beginning; hence, even other waking life, they ignorance, of the nature of a mode, has a beginning;
is

quiescence of the

thus say others.
the view of beginning- 5-1323 lessness, in respect of a pot, even by the cognition that arises first, there would be the destruction of all

Now,

it

may

" be said

On

ignorances about
determination,
all
00

because of the absence of any and because without the destruction off
it,

ignorances obscuring the intelligence defined by that (pot), the manifestation of the object would be impossi-

ble ; therefore, in the case of the subsequent cognitions,

the (defect of) non-removal of obscuration certainly continues as before ".
60

As

to

which ignorance

is to

be destroyed by which cognition.

$1-35

194
5-13211

CHAPTER

I

To
are

this

some say thus just as even though there
:

antecedent non-existences of cognition, when a single cognition arises, only a single antecedent nonexistence ceases, and though there exist other antecedent

many

non-existences,

which are of the nature of obscurations

of that (object), as capable of producing doubt etc., there is the manifestation of the object, similarly, when

a single cognition arises, a single ignorance alone ceases; and though there exist other ignorances, there is manifestation of the object.
5*13212

Others, however, holding that

"

the immediacy of

obscured is self -contradictory, and when a single cognition arises, though other antecedent non-existences

what

is

exist,

because of the specific cognition (of the object), there is not that obscuration which is of the nature of the entirety of the non-existence o'f specific
yet,

cognitions," say thus: when a particular ignorance obscures, then by the cognition of that, there is the

(ignorance) alone; and all (ignorance) does not obscure all the time, because of futility; rather is it that when the obscuring ignorance
destruction

of

that

destroyed by a psychosis, and when there is a cessation of that psychosis, another ignorance obscures; nor
is

when

this is the case is there the contingenco that at the

time of the rise of Brahman-realisation, even by that there would not be the removal of those ignorances

though not directly opposed to that (realisation), are dependent on primal ignorance which is removable by that, and hence
for, these,

which remain without obscuring;

even by the removal of that (primal ignorance) their removal is intelligible, as in the case of the relation of

SUBSEQUENT COGNITIONS IN A CONTINUOUS STREAM

195

01 ignorance and so on; it is only for the sake of this, that, as of the nature of particular modes thereof, their

dependence on that (primal ignorance)

is

recognised.
it

Yet

others, however, holding that "since

is

of 5-13213

the nature of ignorance to have a content, as a general rule, all (of it) certainly obscures all the time nor may
;

it

be said that, since prior to the origination of the

is nothing to be obscured, obscuration does not stand to reason, since even then it exists (then) in a subtle form/' 02 make the following assumption;

object there

just as in a place

where many persons are gathered together, the thunder that falls on some one's head
drives

away

others too, or just as the medicine that
03

cures sannipata,

while remedying one
(too),

evil,

drives

similarly cognition, while destroying one ignorance, subjugates other ignorances

away another
as well;

evil

and the subjugation

consists in counteracting

the obscuring capacity, so long as the cognition lasts.

Now,

this being the case, in the case of a continuous

stream of cognition, there would be futility for the second and subsequent cognitions, as not removing
obscuration, since obscuration in
its

entirety has been

removed even by the and subjugation.
61

first cognition,

through removal

When

ignorance

is

destroyed, the relation of ignorance to the

self is also destroyed

therewith and does not call for another lagent of

destruction.

62

The Vedantins, unlike the NaiySyikas, are satkaryavadins, and
effect in

maintain the pre-existcnce, In a subtle form, of the
63

the cause.

A combined derangement of the three humours of the body,

causing

fever of a dangerous kind.

196
5-132131

CHAPTER

I

though subjuthe psychosis, yet, on the cessation of that, gated by obscures again, as does the darkness subjugated by a
light,

To

this they say thus: ignorance,

when

the light goes out; but if at the time o

the

cessation of a psychosis another psychosis arises, the

ignorance that has been subjugated remains in that condition alone, as does darkness when another light
conies in at the time one light goes out; and thus, in conformity with the definition common to whatever

maintains antecedent non-existence, 04

viz.,

that that of
existence of

which there

is

existence

when

there

is

another at the previous instant and of which there is non-existence in the absence of that (other), is the

product of that (other), it follows that non-obscuration is the product even of the second and subsequent psychoses hence, there is not their futility.
;

5432132

The author of the Nyayacandrika, however, says
thus by a particular cognition, there is but destruction of a particular ignorance, but not the subjugation of other obscuring ignorances as well; and thus, even in
:

the case of the second

and subsequent psychoses in a

continuous stream of cognition, there is f ruitiulness, as each destroys a single ignorance nor is there thus the
;

contingence of the non-manifestation of the object because of the possibility of obscuration even on the
64
If

an expiatory

rite is

performed, there

is

no misery;

if it is

hot performed, there is misery. Hence the performance of the rite is said to be the cause of the non-existence of misery, though what happens
is

but the perpetuation of the antecedent non-existence of misery, and
is

antecedent non-existence

beginningless.
is

The empirical usage of the

causal concept in such cases

based on the definition of causality here
is

formulated: that of which there

existence etc,

RELATION OF TIME TO THE FUNCTION OF COGNITION
rise of

197

ignorances which are of the nature of modes, obscure the nature (of things) as qualified per accidens by the respective times, and cog-

knowledge;

for,

nitions destroy all ignorances that obscure the object as
qualified per accidens
05 by their own times; and thus,

when a
time,

particular cognition arises, because of the destruction of the ignorance obscuring the object at that
existing ignorances being such as obscure the object at other times (alone), there is no unintelligibility whatsoever in the manifestation of

and because of the other

the object at that time; like the proximity in time in respect of rain, the fruit of the Kariri (rite), the
respective times are but qualifications per accidens in respect of pot etc., the objects of ignorance, and hence do

not enter into the constitution of the objects; hence there is no unintelligibility whatever even in the removal of ignorances by the second and subsequent cognitions of a continuous stream, which (cognitions) do not have for
content the subtle differences

among the various times.
:

66

Some, however, (say thus) it is only the ignorance 5-132133 removable by the first cognition that obscures the bare existence (of the object) but what are removed by the
;

second and subsequent cognitions are those whose objects are qualified by space, time and such attributes.
65 66
I.e.,

the time during which each cognition lasts.

difference between each instant in a continuous stream is not these differences in time were really attributes Of the object, could not be removed by the cognition not aware of the hence the attempt to show that temporal temporal differences; differences are but qualifications per accidens, on the analogy of the Kariri rite, whose object is to produce rain; what is intended is no doubt rain immediately, not in some distant future; but since this temporal qualification by itself cannot be accomplished by a rite and may occur independently of the rite, it is an upalaksana, not a vi6e?ana.

The
if

cognised; ignorance

198

CHAPTER
it

I

Hence

is

that

when

there has once

arisen the

perception of Caitra, which is of the nature of the certitude of existence and removes ignorance, there is not

experienced the obscuration of existence in the form "I do not know Caitra," but only the obscuration of the qualified, in the form "I do not know where he is now" arid so on. If it be the case with some forgetful persons
that there
is

seen obscuration of existence in the form
",

" I do not know
seen, let
it

even in respect of what was once
;

be so in their case elsewhere, when (an object has been) once seen, cognitions and ignorance have but the qualified for objects. Nor may it be said " This

being the case, for the second and subsequent cognitions of a continuous stream, there would not be the removal
of ignorance, since ignorance as qualified by gross
(i.e.,

perceptible) time has been

removed even by the

first cognition, while,

of the ignorance qualified by the subtle tim'e other than those of the earlier and later
67

cognitions,

the removal

is

impossible by the second

and subsequent cognitions which do not have that
(time) for content;" for in the case of a continuous

stream, since
arises first,

possible even for the psychosis, that to last for that period, 68 no differences of
it is

67 The later cognition destroys, if at all, the ignorance qualified by the time intervening between the lapse of the earlier cognition and the coming into being of itself; this, it has been said, is momentary and too subtle to be perceived. Since thus the cognition does not have that time for content, how can it destroy ignorance as qualified by that time? This is the objection*

68 I.e., the period of the entire cognition. For a further exposition of this view, see the Vedantaparibtuift and the SikhtimaQi commentary thereon (p. 23 et. scq). Most of the difficulties met here are due to the conception of present time as a bare instant. But the Naiyayikas and the Vedantins rightly recognise what is called the " specious present " as containing a residuum of the past and a foreshadowing of the future. On the subject of temporal perception and the "specious present," see Indian

Psychology, Perception, pp. 153162,

SUBSEQUENT COGNITIONS NON-PROBATIVE

199

psychosis are admitted; even if that were admitted, since it m'ay possibly be of the nature of five or six
psychoses, each lasting a long time, it is intelligible that they may have contents differentiated by such
qualifications as gross time differentiating
;

them one

from another and even if it be admitted to be of the form of a succession of many psychoses rising at* each instant, since, for the second and subsequent psychoses,
as having for object only a thing already known, there is no probativeness, there is no harm even if they do

Indeed, probativeness does not consist merely in non-sublation of content, for, in
the case of the hill and the
fire

not remove obscuration.

thereon, which are

and non-cognised, and are the content of inference, there being no
(respectively) previously cognised
distinction as to non-sublation, there is the contingence

of the probativeness of inference in respect of both.

Nor

is this

a contingence of the acceptable

;

for there is

not seen the empirical usage " in respect of the hill too, " inference is the means of valid knowledge as (there is seen the empirical usage) "in respect of fire, inference " is the means of valid knowledge and it is said in the Vivarana in the case of ignorance (directly) established
;

by the witness that, though the content of inference etc., whose object is to make known the exclusion of nonexistence (from it),
it is

not the object of knowledge

for any means of valid knowledge. Therefore, since for the second and subsequent psychoses, as for

psychoses like contemplation, there is no probativeness, there is no harm even if they do not remove ignorance,

200

CHAPTER

I

since the removal of that is admitted only in the case

of probative psychoses.

Now, there

is

not even this rule; for, a mediate

psychosis (though probative, as in inference) since it does not go forth, does not remove ignorance if this be said
;
i

*-

5-1321331

in reply to this some say thus: the ignorance

that obscures objects is of two kinds; one is located in the object, is of the nature of the material cause of the

projection associated with rope etc., and is assumed because of the product (i.e., the delusion) ; the other is
located in the person

and

is

known from
what

the experience
located in the

" I do not

know

this "; since for

is

person material causality is not possible in respect of the projection associated with the object, and since for

what
is

is

located in the object there can be no conjunction

with the manifestation

"

I do not

know

this,"

which

of the nature of the witness, there is necessity even
;

for both kinds (of ignorance)

and

thus, since there is

no going forth of the psychosis, in the case of the mediate (cognition), and since, in respect of the tree at
a distance, though the particular size is understood from the testimony of a reliable person, there is seen the projection of a size contrary thereto, (it follows that)

even when the ignorance present in the object
present in the person
for, in the case of the

is

not

removed, there is certainly the rem'oval of the ignorance
;

I do not know the meaning experienced in the form of the sacred teaching" its removal is experienced

"

ignorance

immediately after the teaching of that (meaning); hence it is that for the Vivarma (passage) "in

IGNORANCE AS SUBJECT-LOCATED AND OBJECT- LOCATED 201
inference
(lit.,

etc.,

there
it is

sleep),"
is

susupti said in the Tattvadlpcma that the
is

is

[not]

removal

of

(not) removal of the ignorance 00 present in the object of that (inference etc.)"

meaning

"

there

/

Others, however, say thus ignorance located in the 5-1321332 person alone, like the film in the eye, is what obscures
:
1

no evidence for an ignorance which is over and above that and is present in the object; nor
objects
;

there

is

may

it

be said: "for what

is

located in the person

transformation into the projection present in the object is not possible; or, if it were possible, then, in respect
of the size of the tree at a distance,

when ignorance

is

removed by mediate cognition, the projection of a contrary size would not be possible"; for, since, in the doctrine of Vaeaspati, the whole universe is an illusory
manifestation of

Brahman which has been made

the

content of the ignorance located in the jiva, similarly, it is intelligible that nacre-silver etc. are illusory

manifestations of

Brahman made

the content of the

70 ignorance located in the person;

and by a mediate

psychosis, though a particular mode be removed, yet
69

The word "not" has been introduced in square brackets in the

translation to .correspond to the negative particle in the original texts;

the mutilated quotation in the present
tion with the
is

work makes sense only

in conjunc-

commentary; what

is

expressly stated in the Tattva&ipana

only the non-removal of ignorance; but because inferential knowledge
it

too is knowledge and because of the use of the words "tad-vi?ay&-'jfi&na"
is

inferred that the removal of

some other ignorance (purusa-gata-'jnana)

is

meant.
70
It is

only

if

the concept of transformation (pariijRma)

is

adopted

and a pariQ&ma-k&rana looked for, that ignorance resident in the object would have to be treated as a material cause of the projection; no such
assumption
is

necessary on the hypothesis of illusory manifestation.

Sl26

202

CHAPTER

I

the projection of a contrary size

is intelligible,

through

another mode (of ignorance).
5*1321338

however, say thus: because of its according with the intelligibility of the transformation
others,

Yet

into nacre-silver

only the ignorance present in the object that obscures it, like a cloth that covers the object; nor may it be said that if that be the case,
etc.,
it is

71

there would be the defects, viz., the unintelligibility of the manifestation of ignorance because of its nonis conditioned by the and the impossibility of (its) being internal organ, removed by mediate psychoses for, though for ignorance in the form of modes there is no conjunction
;

conjunction with the witness that

" with the witness, yet the manifestation I do not know " is nacre certainly intelligible in the case of primal
ignorance, which is in conjunction with that (witness) ; for, even in the case of nacre etc., since they are nondifferent

from the

intelligence that is the content of
is

primal ignorance, there

no contradiction in their

being experienced as the content of that (primal " I do ignorance) and the evidence of the perception " is exhibited in the Vivarana etc., only not know this
;

in the context of establishing primal ignorance

;

even

if

there

that only the of ignorance in general, in the form " I am experience ignorant", is the content of primal ignorance, while the

be

admitted

the

distinction

experience of ignorance as embracing particular objects in such forms as "I do not know nacre," is the
71
tion, it

If

nacre silver

is to

be conceived as the product of a transformaof. nacre

must be the product neither

nor of ignorance located in

the subject, but of ignorance located in the nacre,

NATURE OP THE WITNESS

208

content of the modal ignorance, yet, whether because of the conjunction of primal ignorance with the witness, there being non-difference between modes and that

which has modes, or because of the identity in fact between the witness-intelligence and the object-intelli72 gence, it is intelligible that even the modal ignorance
present in the object

may have

the witness for content;

though mediate cognition does not remove ignorance, the experience of its removal thereby is intelligible as
a delusion conditioned by non-experience caused by the obstacle, viz., the mediate psychosis of the nature of
certitude of existence; for immediate cognition alone
is

admitted to remove ignorance as a
No\v, there
is

rule.

not even this rule, since, in the case of the perception of nescience, individuation and
its

attributes of pleasure, pain
is

etc.,

the removal of

ignorance

be said, no; the perception of nescience etc. being of the nature of the witness, there is no detriment to the rule that immediate
if

not admitted;

this

cognition in the nature of a psychosis does remove
obscuration.

Now, who

is this

witness,

who

is

spoken of over and

above the jlva?

To

this it is said thus in the

Kutasthadlpa: the 5-14111
the substrate of the

immutable
72

intelligence,
is

which

is

Since there

non-difference between primal ignorance and its

modes, and since primal ignorance is in conjunction with the witness, modal ignorances are also in such conjunction; this is the first explanation.

The

witness-intelligence is in reality non-different from the object-defined

intelligence;

modal ignorance located in the
is

latter

is,

therefore, in con-

junction with the former tbo; this

the second explanation,

two bodies, 73 since it directly sees the two bodies that define itself, and since it is free from modification, is said to be the witness. In ordinary experience too, the
character of being a witness
is

well-known to consist

only in indifference and knowledge. Though for the jiva there are psychoses which manifest the two bodies, yet
the two bodies which are certainly manifested to some

the time by the all-pervasive immutable) intelligence as defined by themselves, are (also)
extent
all

manifested

psychoses-cognitions which go forth at intervals from the internal organ, which is the

through

womb

(as it were)

of the reflection of intelligence

constituting the jiva; but in the intervals, they are manifested, along with the non-existence of psychoses,

by the immutable intelligence alone.
individuation
etc.,

Hence

it is

that

being always in conjunction with the manifestation, are not the sphere of doubt etc., and there is the recollection in the case of the individuation

thing else
this."
is

contemporaneous with continuous cognition of some" for so I was
certainly perceiving long be doubted how, in the case of what manifested by the immutable, there could be empirical

Nor may

it

usage, memory etc. for the jiva; for, through identification with the jiva by reciprocal superimposition the 74 immutable is proximate to the jiva. Nor may it be said

be the witness, why the immutable?"; for, in the case of that (jiva), the agent
let the jiva intelligence itself

"

in empirical usage, worldly
73

and Scriptural, indifferent
and

The gross and the
That
is

subtle.

74

to say, is not external to the jiva, as Devadatta

Yajfiadatta are external to each other. In the latter case, fested by one could not serve the other's empirical usage or

what

is

mani-

memory,

WITNESS AS OTHER THAN THE JIVA

205

spectatorship is impossible, and hence the character of the witness, as declared in the Scriptural text " Witness,

pure and free from gunas ", is impossible; further, in the text "Of the two one eats of the sweet " the witness, fruit, the other looks on without eating,
intelligence,

of the nature of indifferent manifestation, is mentioned as distinct from the jlva, the enjoyer of the fruit of

karma.

In the Ndtakadipa too, the witness is shown as distinct from the jiva, by the example of the " The lamp present lamp in the theatre. It is thus:
in

the

theatre
(the

illuminates

without distinction

the
7

master

owner of the show), the audience and the danseuse, and illumines even in their absence.'

Similarly, the jlva, of the nature of individuation by the appearance of intelligence, is qualified

comparable

to

the

master

who

has

a

conceit

(of ownership) in the dance, since he possesses joy and grief produced by the conceit (of ownership) in the

perfection or imperfection of the enjoyment of objects; objects are comparable to the members of the audience,
since though existing close to that (jiva) they are free from that (joy and grief) ; as possessing manifold

changes, the intellect is comparable to the danseuse; that which illuminates all these and shines in sleep etc.,

even when individuation

which

is

etc. are absent, is the witness, of the immutable intelligence, of the nature

the substrate of the jiva-delusion consisting in individuation qualified by the appearance of intelligence.

The witness thus distinguished from
not belong to the constitution of

the jiva does
either,

Brahman

but

is

206
intelligence untouched

CHAPTER

I

by the distinction of jiva and the

Lord thus
:

is it

said in the Ktitasthadlpa.

In the Tattvapradlpikd too, it is said that since in the case of the Supreme Lord, associated with maya and endowed with attributes, the qualifications pure, without gunas would be unintelligible, the pure Brahman,

who

is

the inner self of

all,

gets to be the witness,

because of non-difference from the jiva.
5-14112

In the Kaumudi, however,

it is

said thus: because

The of the Scriptural declaration of divinity etc., in one divine being, concealed in all beings, all-pervasive, the inner self of all, the supervisor of (all) action, the
abode of
all things,

"

the witness, intelligence, pure,
is called

without gunas

",

what

the witness

is

but some

particular form of the Supreme Lord, who knows continuously the jlva's engaging in and desisting from activity, himself being indifferent j and he, as not being
the abode
75

world),

of such attributes as causality (of the is immediate; and, as manifesting the
etc.

persent in the jiva, he is proximate to the jlvaj and in sleep etc., when there is quiescence of 70 the effect and the cause, it is he who manifests the

ignorance

ignorance present in the jiva and is called Prajna; in the section about deep sleep and departure, it is ascertained that what is taught by the two Scriptural
75

The

witness, as the

knower

of the jlva's ignorance

etc., is

proxi-

omnipotent cause of the world, is remote from the jiva. How, then, can the Lord be the witness? The answer is that the witness is not the Lord, but a mode of the Lord, in

mate

to the jiva, while the Lord, the omniscient,

which mode there are not such attributes as causing the world.
76

The

effect is the body,

and the cause

signifies the

organs (the

indriyas).

WITNESS AS A MODE OP 1SVARA
texts

207

embraced by the woman he loves, knows nothing outside nor anything within, even, so this person, embraced by this Prajna self, knows nothing " He outside nor anything within ", goes forth making a great noise, mounted by the Prajna self" as
he,

" Just as

different

from the

jiva in the states of deep sleep

and

departure, is the Supreme Lord; this (ascertainment) too has the witness for purport.

In the Tattvasuddhi

too, this

view alone
:

is esta-

5-14113

Wished by the following statement just as, in the " This is silver", the this-element, though delusion
really included in the constitution of the nacre, is

apparently of the constitution of
witness,
is

silver,

even

so,

the

who is certainly of the constitution of Brahman,
its

apparently of the constitution of the jiva; hence

service in the empirical usage of the jiva's happiness etc.

Some, however, say thus: the nescience-conditioned 5-14121
jiva alone is the witness, because of being directly the

spectator; for, in ordinary character of being a witness

experience too, the is well known to be

spectatorship without agency; and that is directly possible only for the jiva, who is of the nature
of unattached, indifferent manifestation, since the jiva, though subject to the imposition of agency etc., through

getting identified with the internal organ, is in himself " The one divine being indifferent; as for the hymn
etc.," that teaches the character of being the witness in the case of Brahman, with reference to its condition as " the jiva; the hymn Two birds etc.," on the principle

of the section of (the persons in) the cave, has for

208

CHAPTER

I

purport both the jira and the Lord

77
;

or, in

the

manner

explained by the Painyirahasya-brahmana cited in the commentary on the section of the cave, it has for purport
both the jlva and the internal organ; hence, there 78 conflict whatever.
5-14122
is

no

Others, however, say thus: true, the jlva alone is the witness, but not in his form as conditioned by

omnipresent nescience, as there is contingence of the perceptibility of one person's internal organ etc., by another person, there being no difference in the conjunction with the witness that manifests one's own internal organ; nor is there non-contingence of this, since, through difference in the internal organ, there is
difference in the cogniser for, in respect of the internal organ etc., which are to be manifested by Ihe witness, when the witness is non-different throughout, the
;

difference in the cogniser is of no avail; therefore, it is as conditioned by the internal organ that the jlva is the

witness ; and thus, whether because of the non-conjunction of one person's internal organ etc., with another

person's witness, because of the witness being different for each person, or because of the impossibility of that

(perceptual relation), the non-manifestation is intelligible; since the internal organ exists in a subtle form
77

79

That

is

to say, the witness is the

Lord in the

jlva-condition, so

that there is no need to identify the bird that does not eat with the Lord
exclusively.

78 The jlva meant hy the Painffi-rahasya-brahmaya is the reflection of intelligence In nescience, not in the internal organ; the latter cannot be said not to eat; the former is unattached and indifferent and hence

may

be Identified with the witness without contradicting Scripture.
79

In the case of other persons' internal organs

etc,

WITNESS AS JIVA MANIFESTATION OF NESCIENCE

209

even in sleep, the witness conditioned thereby certainly " exists even then; nor may it be said since the internal organ-conditioned, is the cogniser, he is not the witness ;

and

since in sleep, though there is

no cogniser, the wit-

their difference should necessarily be for the difference between attribute and declared"; 80 the adjunct being acceptable to the final position,

ness exists,

difference (between cogniser and witness) is intelligible " what is in the form qualified by the internal organ is

the cogniser; what is conditioned by that organ, as an adjunct) is the witness."

(internal

Now,

if,

for the witness of the nature afore- 51421

mentioned, obscuration by ignorance, that obscures
intelligence in its entirety, is unavoidable, how, then, is

there the manifestation of nescience, individuation etc.

by what

is (itself)

that, like

Rahu,

81

obscured ? If this be asked, some say nescience is manifested by the light

obscured by

itself.

ignorance obscures intelligence only to the 5-H22 exclusion of the witness-intelligence, which is the

In

fact,

manifester of nescience, the internal organ and
80

its

The distinction is thus: what persists in the an attribute (vie?ana), like the blueness of the lily; what does not persist is either an adjunct (upadhi) or qualification per accident
Of the advaitins.
effect is

(upalak?ana)

;

of these, the adjunct lasts at least as long as the effect, not

so the upalak^ana;

when we

say!

"bring the red crystal", the redness^

though not natural to the crystal, lasts till the crystal is brought; but when Devadatta's house is indicated as that which has a crow sitting on
It,

the crow

may
is

not remain there

till

the house is reached.

See the

Kalpataru, pp. 420, 421 (AK8).
81

Rahu

not seen except by the light of the luminary which It

obscures (in eclipses).

SI

27

210

CHAPTER

I

attributes; because of this being postulated in confor-

mity with experience, there

is

no

defect.

Hence

it is,

because of the conjunction of these (nescience etc.) all the time with unobscured manifestation, that they are

not the sphere of ignorance, erroneous cognition or doubt. If it be said that if the witness-intelligence be
unobscured, there is the contingence of the manifestation even of the bliss that is of its essential nature, no

a contingence of the acceptable; for, in respect of the self there is seen unconditioned love due to the manifestation of the
(that is not a defect)
;

for, it is

nature of

bliss,

and there

is

the

Vwarana

statement

"There
by
5*14231
is

certainly manifested happiness characterised being the abode of supreme love."
is

happiness be manifest even now, there the contingence of non-distinction between release
;

Be this so

if

and the

state

of transmigration.

Now, though the
is
82

bliss of the witness,

wherein difference

posited,

is

manifest, obscured,

the
is

undefined

Brahman

bliss,

which

is

not manifest in the state of transmigration, and hence there is distinction if this be said, no for,
;
;

the element of undefinedness in bliss

not a human goal, 83 while the mere immediacy of bliss exists even now.
is
82

From

the bliss that

is

Brahman, which as

reflected in nescience

constitutes the bliss of the witness; the latter is different from the former, as a reflection from the prototype; but in both cases the difference is

assumptive.
bliss of the witness is experienced by the different jlvas; this experience has two aspects, immediacy and reciprocal difference. The former aspect is present even now, in bondage; as for the latter, the absence of the difference, which is posited in the self, is not of itself a

83

The

human

goal.

If,

however, differentiation be an essential characteristic of

tho bliss

we

experience, then, our bliss should be radically different from

Brahman-bliss.

MANIFESTATION OF HAPPINESS OBJECTIONS

Now, the defined
in

bliss of the witness is surpassable, is
it is

not very clear, since
the

common

to sleep,

and since
is

happiness

from material objects there
;

experience of its beingfc surpassed whereas the undefined Brahman-bliss is unsurpassable, since in the

AnandavalU, the description of the hundredfold superiority of each succeeding stage beginning with human
If this be said, no ; for, the bliss of the witness, bliss from material objects
bliss

culminates in Brahman-bliss.

and Brahman-bliss being in
the final
position,

fact identical according to

impossible.

If

it

superiority and inferiority are be said that Scripture declares the

progressive superiority of each later stage beginning with human bliss, who is it that says Scripture does not
declare it?

But

it is

said that

it

cannot be justified on
since in the case of

the view of non-dualism.

Now,

the sun's light, which is but one, there are seen degrees of manifestation, as conditioned by differences in the

manifesters, such as the palm (of the hand), a crystal and a mirror, in the case of bliss, though one, the possession of superiority and inferiority, consisting in
degrees of manifestation as conditioned by differences in the manifesters, the psychoses of happiness, stands to reason ; if this be said, no ; for, the illustration is not

admitted; in the case of the sun's

light,

which spreads

everywhere, which shines (but) not clearly in the sky without relation to the palm etc., when the passage is obstructed by relation to the palm, as in the case of

water running in deep places, there is greater manifestation because of intensification; when the passage is obstructed by relation to a bright mirror etc., there is

CHAPTER

1

even greater manifestation than in that (other case), because of intensification and because of the addition
of the brightness of that (mirror); hence there are not admitted here degrees of manifestation as conditioned by the manif esters; 84 and, if the illustration

spreading in the sky, undefined bliss would be not clear, while of the
since, like the sun's light
bliss defined

were admitted,

by the psychosis of happiness there would

be greater manifestation, as of the sun's light defined by the palm etc., the state of transmigration itself would

turn out to be more desirable than release. Hereby is refuted even the view that bliss, though manifest in the
state of transmigration, yet, being disturbed

by

illusory

cognition and its impressions, disturbed by a stiff breeze,

like the light of the
is

lamp

while

in

release,
it is

because

of

not clearly manifest, the absence of that
(truly)
;

(disturbance),

manifest as

it is

for, if the

distinctionless essential bliss be manifest, therein is not possible an excellence which, because of the defect of

disturbance

is

manifest

in)

not manifest, but attaches to (i.e., is the state of release. Therefore, the
is

assumption that the bliss of the witness does not stand to reason.
,5-14232

unobscured

To this the Advaitavidyacarya says thus: just as when the very superior white light which is but one is
mirrors possessing different degrees of impurity, because of the different degrees of impurity of the adjuncts, the inferiority of whitereflected in

many

ness
84

is

superimposed indifferent degrees on the
is to say,

That

we have

in the alleged examples, cases not of

delimitation, but mechanical intensification.

MANIFESTATION OF HAPPINESS REPLY
respective
bliss,

21<J

reflections,
is

even

so,

when

the

essential

which

really
bliss

unsurpassable

and
bliss

one

alone,

becomes the

of the witness, as reflected

in the internal organ,
to

and becomes the

due

material objects, as reflected in that psychosis of the internal organ, which is of the nature of

happiness associated with different degrees of purity, consisting in superiority and inferiority of the element
of goodness (sattva), caused by the contact of different objects under the influence of merit acquired in a

previous

life,

then, because of the defect of degrees of

impurity in the adjunct consisting of the constituent darkness (tamas), inferiority is superimposed in different degrees (on that one bliss) hence, in bliss,
;

though manifest in the state of transmigration, there

is

no

satisfaction, since
it is

of inferiority,

through the superimposed degrees surpassable; on the rise of know-

ledge, since all superimposition of inferiority ceases

and

the superimposed surpassability is lost, there is the accomplishment of what was to be accomplished; this
distinction being intelligible, the bliss of the witness,

which
is

manifest as the sphere of unconditioned love, certainly unobscured.
is

is

Others, however, say thus: bliss, though m'anifest, " in me certainly obscured, because of the experience
not, it is not manifest"; since even in one

5'14233

it is

and the

same witness, differences of aspects posited by nescience are possible, there is no conflict between non-obscuration
in respect of the intelligence aspect and obscuration in respect of the bliss aspect and since the manifestation
;

of the essential nature (of

Brahman) does not remove

214
85

CHAPTER
there
is

1

obscuration,
(of bliss)

no

conflict in the obscuration
;

when that

(essential nature) is manifest

and

obscuration

is seen only in respect of what is manifest, " I do not know as in the sense stated by you." Nor
it

be said that, in that case, there is experienced! the obscuration of the specific, alone as defining the unobscured general form; for, it would be an undue

may

extension for the obscuration of one to appear as what defines another. Nor may it be said that (here) what
controls (that appearance)
is

the relationship of the

generic and the specific and that consequently there is no undue extension ; for, since there is no relationship
of the generic to the specific other than that of the pervaded and the pervader, there is the contingence

that the ignorance which obscures smoke would be " ?8 Thereexperienced in the form I do not know fire.
'

fore, that

by which ignorance appears as
is

defined, that

alone

is

obscured; hence ignorance
is

consistent even

ignorance, just as it obscures intelligence to the exclusion of the witness element, even so it obscures bliss too only to the exclusion
of what have been appropriated by the various psychoses of happiness. This alone is the removal of obscuration
in the case of bliss

with what

manifest.

And

from (material)
like

objects.

And

this

removal of obscuration,
85

the removal

of outer

Obscuration can be removed by psychoses alone, not by the

essential self-manifestation of intelligence; for the latter co-exists with
error,

which

is

superimposed thereon.

86

Tor, fire and smoke are in the relation of pervader and pervaded
is

and

this

the only relation between the generic and the specific;

if

Ignorance of the specific

may

determine the obscuration of the generic,

then ignorance of the pervaded (smoke) should appear as ignorance of the pervader (fire) but this is absurd*
;

NON-ETERNAL FORMS OF THE WITNESS

215

darkness at dawn, comes in increasing degrees, under the
influence of different psychoses due to different causes.

Thence
also

results

the

reciprocal
bliss

difference

between

essential bliss

from (material) objects, as among the (various) blisses from (material)
and the
the witness-intelligence being unetc. there:

objects.

In any
by
is

case,

obscured, the manifestation of individuation

certainly not in dependence on a psychosis this is

certainly

common
thus,

(to all the positions).

Now,

how is there recollection of individuation

51424

etc., since impression, which is of the nature of cognition in its subtle state, is impossible when cognition exists,

while

its

production by the witness,

who

is eternal, is

impossible?

some say thus: individuation, which. is 5-14241 manifested by the witness in association with always itself, is manifested by the witness even as defined
this

To

by

itself,

as

transformed

into

the

forms

of
;

the

psychoses having the various pot etc. for objects hence, because of the non-eternality of this (witness), the

production of impressions
objects like pot.

is possible,

as in the case of

There

is

indeed no rule that the

production of an impression which has oneself for its sphere should be by the witness only as defined by a
psychosis having the form of oneself; for, if that were the case, an impression with a psychosis for its sphere there would be the contingence of nonbeing impossible,
while, because of the contingence of infinite regress, the (existence of a)

remembrance in the ease of a psychosis,

216

CHAPTER

I

psychosis having another psychosis for been refuted through the refutation
cognition.

its

sphere has
reflective

of

But, when by intelligence as defined by a

psychosis something is manifest, by that psychosis there is the production of the impression whose sphere is that
(thing)
tion,
;

this alone is the rule.

And

thus, even cogni-

happiness etc., which are psychoses of the internal organ, are manifested by the non-eternal witness

defined by themselves, in the same way as the sparks proceeding from the red hot iron ball (are manifested)

by the

defined by themselves; hence, the production of impressions even among these (psychoses) stands
fire

for the views, stated in the (following " verse of the) Kutasfhadipa Intelligence present in the cognition with the sole form of the pot, would manifest
to reason.

As

the pot alone; the known-ness of the pot is made manifest by the Brahman-intelligence ", that cognition which is an attribute of the object is manifested by

Brahman-intelligence as defined by the object, and the view stated in the Tattvapradlpika that cognition, desire etc. are manifested by the eternal witness, of the

nature of undefined pure intelligence, even according to those two (views), association with psychoses should necessarily be declared, since intelligence is of the nature of the immediacy of what is in association with 87 hence, because of the existence of a non-eternal itself;
form', as associated
87

with those (psychoses), there
is

is

no

According to both views, there

immediate experience of known-

ness, or of cognition, desire etc.; this

immediacy would not be possible
is

but for their association with intelligence; hence there
intelligence should be admitted.

association of

Intelligence with psychoses; and, as so associated, a non-eternal

form of

THE

I

PSYCHOSIS

217

in ^intelligibility whatever impressions in respect of them.

the

production

of

Others, however, recognising the psychosis of "I ", postulated in order that nescience, with the form
there

5-14242

may result recollection of nescience etc.,

(existing)

even during sleep, explain (through that) the impression whose object is the "I". Nor on this view is there
the unintelligibility of the recollection of the object

"I"

contemporaneous with the continuous cognition of another (object), in the form " for so long I was
certainly perceiving this" for, like the contemporaneity of happiness and misery through the difference of what
;

defines (them),

88

there

is

no

conflict in the

contempo-

raneity even of two psychoses; hence, even at the time of the continuous cognition of another (object), the
succession of psychoses of nescience with the
is possible.

form "I"

Yet
the form

others, however, say thus: the psychosis with 5-14243

but a psychosis of the internal organ; but like the psychosis of contemplation etc., it is not
I
is

"

"

cognition, since

of

that

not generated by the settled cause (cognition) ; indeed, such means of valid
it is

perceptual knowledge as the sense of sight are not possible there nor inference etc., since the recollection
;

of individuation

knowledge of

him who is deviod of the inference etc.; nor is the mind the
is

seen even in

instrument (of valid knowledge), since for that which is the material cause (of the psychosis), instrumentality
is

not settled in any case whatever.
88
E.g.,

If
may

it

be said

' '

Then,

happiness as defined by the foot

co-exist

with misery as

defined by the head.

8 1-28

218

CHAPTER

I

even the recognition of the object

'

I

'

would not be

"

cognition,

no; though, in respect of the I-element, the

nature of cognition does not belong to it, it is of the nature of cognition in respect of the element of that-

by the impression which is settled to be the instrument of memory; in the same way as between mediacy and immediacy, validity and invalidity,
89 present in a cognition through differences of aspect, there is no conflict even as between being a cognition and

ness, as generated

not being a cognition.
5-14244

however, say thus: even the psychosis in the form "I" is certainly cognition, because of the
Still others,

experience
bility

"I know myself"; nor

is

there impossi-

of an instrument, since, in conformity with experience, instrumentality too is assumed of the mind

itself,

the internal organ.

5 '* 5

This being the case, a rule about the removal of obscuration results for those immediate psychoses alone which have external objects.
not even this rule, since, in the case of " this " does nacre-silver, the psychosis in the form not remove ignorance, as, otherwise, because of the non-

Now, there

is

existence of the material cause,

90

the creation of silver

would be impossible.

If this be said

to this they say thus

form "this" there
89

is

though by the psychosis in the removed the ignorance about the
:

The cognition "The

hill is fiery" is

immediate In respect of the

hill and mediate in respect of the fire; similarly, in the delusion "This is

silver", the cognition is valid in respect of the this-element

and invalid in

respect of the silver-element.

90

I.e.,

ignorance,

THIS PSYCHOSIS

219

this-element, since ignorance about the specific element, nacreity etc., is not removed, that itself is the material

cause of silver; for, there is experience of the superimposition of silver when there is ignorance of nacreity

and of the non-existence of that (superimposition) when there is knowledge of that (nacreity etc.) and 00 " of the Bhasya on in the Vivarana on the explanation
etc.,
;

superimposition, material causality, in respect of the superimposition of silver etc., is declared of that

ignorance alone whose co-presence and co-absence are
experienced; for this very reason, there is made in the Sanksepasarlraka the distinction that the nacre-element
is

the support, the this-element the substrate, that the content of ignorance together with its elaboration is the

support, and that what appears superimposed in the intellect, as of a particular form though not (really) of
that form,
is

the substrate. 01

Others, however, say thus: for the silver, which is " this is silver," as identical with cognised, in the form
the this-element, the material cause is only the ignorance of the this-element; and of that (ignorance), though the obscuring capacity alone is removed by the psychosis
in the

5453

with

continuance together projecting capacity; hence there is no impossibility in its being the material cause; in the superimposition of a tree as upside down as reflected
is
its
90a
I.e.,

form "this", there

the Paftcapddika.

91 If ignorance of nacre be the material cause, the delusion should be of the form "nacre is silver", not "this is silver". To meet this objection there is the distinction made between the substrate and the support, the latter merely underlying the superimposition, and the former appearing
therein.

CHAPTER
in water

1

and in the superimposition of the world that continues in release while embodied, even though there
is

the removal of obscuration that comes into being immediately after the intuition of the substrate in its
entirety, there is admitted the material causality of

ignorance as conjoined with the projecting capacity
alone.
5-153

Kavitfirkika-Cakra varti

Nr simha Bhattopadhyaya,

however, thinks that, since, prior to the creation of silver, there is not at all, as distinct from the delusive " a psychosis in the form psychosis "this is silver, " this ," the inquiry as to whether it has or has not the
capacity to remove ignorance is baseless. It is thus: a psychosis in the form "this", as distinct from the delusive psychosis, is not established in experience,
since there is

Nor may

it

no experience of a duality of cognition. 02 be assumed from the effect, that the cause
is

of superimposition

the cognition of the substrate in its generality, since there is no evidence in respect of this Nor is this the (latter) being the cause of that,
viz.,

evidence,

the non-creation of silver

etc.,

in the

absence of contact with the substrate, since therefrom results the causality in respect of superimposition,
only in the case of the contact with a defective organ. Nor may it be said " Contact is not what pervades
:

everywhere, whereas the appearance of the substrate (in the cognition) pervades even the superdelusion

imposition of individuation etc. on the self-luminous inner self ",* for, that too does not pervade the superimposition of pot
92

etc.

;

for, prior to the perception of
.

As

"this"

and "this

is silver

NO SEPARATE THIS PSYCHOSIS
pot
etc.,

221

a visual psychosis, whose sphere is the colourless Brahman that is the substrate of that (perception), is impossible, while the natural luminosity (of that
obscured; if mere manifestation of the substrate, such as is common to the obscured and the unobscured, be the cause of superiniposition, then, even
is

substrate)

prior to the contact with the this-element of nacre, since there exists the obscured natural luminosity of the
intelligence defined
is

by that (nacre), even then there

the contingeiice of superimposition.

Nor may it be said " In respect of superimposition
:

in general, manifestation in general of the substrate is the cause*, in the superimposition of the merely

apparent, the explicit manifestation of the substrate (is the cause) hence there is no undue extension, since
;

appropriateness in the causality of the general in respect of the general, and of the specific in respect " of the specific for, even thus, there is no pervasion of the merely apparent superimpositions of yellowness on
there
is
;

the shell, blueness on well-water

and

so on; visual

cognition (of what is) unconditioned by colour being impossible, and the cognition of the whiteness present in the shell etc., being non-existent at that time, there is
not, prior to the superimposition, the possibility of a

psychosis whose sphere as the shell etc.

is

the colourless substrate such

Nor may

it

be said

" Even am'ong the merely

apparent, only in the case of superimpositions like silver, let there be the above-mentioned special cause";
for,

in that case, in order that there

may

be the
etc.,

contingence of the superimposition of yellow shell

222

CHAPTER

I

prior to contact, it will necessarily have to be said that the cause of that superimposition is the contact with

a defective organ; and when for this itself there results, because of parsimony, causality in respect of all merely

apparent superimpositions in general, it is possible to explain even the occasional nature of the silver-super03

imposition

from

this alone

;

hence, for the manifesta-

tion of the substrate, whether in general or specifically,

there does not result causality in respect of superimposition.

supernot dependent on similarity, in the superimposition imposition of silver etc. dependent on that (similarity),
the cognition in general of the substrate, consisting in the cognition of the substrate as qualified by a particular

But now, though not a cause

in other

colour

etc.

constituting the similarity to silver

etc.,

should necessarily be said to be the cause; for, if the contact with defective organ be alone the cause, there
is

the contingeiice of the superimposition of that silver on a cinder, as on nacre. Nor may it be said that
is

similarity too

even

between
there
is

a cause, as a defect of the object; for, dissimilars there is superimposition,

when

the delusion of similarity, since there is seen the imposition of a dark rocky surface on the

94 distant expanse of the waters of the ocean.

Nor does

it

stand to reason to say, on the principle of the cause of that alone (being the cause), 05 that the causal
93

That

is to say,

why

it

occurs at certain times, not at others.

94

Here, similarity of colour is alone the cause,
is

and that

is

not based

on a

defect in the object, since water

really colourless.

95

Let the cause of that alone be the cause,

why

that other cause in

the middle?

SIMILARITY AS CAUSE OF SUPERIMPOSITION

223

aggregate of the cognition of similarity may be the cause of superimposition for, it is not seen anywhere
;

that

the

causal

aggregate

of

a

cognition

is

the

cause of a thing, and there is parsimony (in the assumption of causality) in the case of the cognition
of similarity
itself.

Nor may

it

be said "It

is

only

on pure water, though itself white and present in a white silver vessel, that there is the superimposition of blueness, not on a pearl: like this distinction, there is
(also) the distinction that there is the superimposition

of silver on nacre, not on cinder etc., even because of the nature of things, but not because of dependence on
the cognition of similarity"; for, though on a piece of cloth as such there is no superimposition of being a lotus bud, yet since the superimposition of that is seen

on that form of
it

it

(the cloth) fashioned

by

scissoring,

ascertained that that superimposition does not conform to the nature of the thing, (but) conforms to
is

the existence or non-existence of the

cognition

of

similarity; otherwise, at other times too, there

would

be the contingence of that superimposition thereon.

The reply
of
similarity

is

:

is

even on the view that the cognition the cause of superimposition, its

be declared only in the superimposition of silver etc., which are obstructed by specific cognition 90 (of the substrate), but not in the superimpositions of
causality

may

yellow shell etc., which are not obstructed thereby, because of impossibility (of the said causality). And
in the case of what are obstructed
96
E.g.,

by

specific cognition,

when there

is specific

cognition of the nacre as nacre, not
it,

merely as a bright white substance, silver cannot be superimposed on

224

CHAPTER

I

there being the rule that the causal aggregate of the obstructing cognition is also an obstruction, the causal

aggregate of the specific cognition should also be said to be an obstruction; hence, all distinctions being
intelligible

even from

this,

what

(is the object) of

the

assumption of causality in the case of the cognition of
similarity?
It is thus:

when, in respect of cinder

etc.,

contact with the sense of sight, since there exists the causal aggregate of the specific cognition of

there

is

its

dark colour

etc.,

there is no superimposition of
etc.,

silver; even

on nacre

when

there

is

such contact

with the sense of sight as pervades the dark portion etc., then, because of the existence of that (causal aggregate), there is not the superimposition of that
(silver)
;

(but)

when

there

is

contact with only that

portion which is similar (to silver), there is superimposition, because of the absence of that (causal
aggregate). If it be said that because of the existence even then of the causal aggregate of the specific
cognition of nacreity,
97

there

is

the contingency of non-

superimposition, no

;

for, the cognition of

nacre being

absent at the time of the superimposition, the nonexistence of that causal aggregate

must be stated even

by you.

"

By me

there

is

the admission of the non-

existence at that time of the causal aggregate of the

cognition of nacreity, because of the obstruction by the
defect, viz., the cognition of similarity,

which

is

the

cause of the superimposition; but

if

by you there be

such an admission,
97

it

would be the story of returning
a mere

The existence

of this causal aggregate at that time is

Assumption on the part of the objector.

SIMILARITY AS CAUSE OP SUPERIMPOSITION
to the toll-gate at

225

break of day";

if this

be said,

no; for, nacreity being cognised immediately on drawing near, even when there is seen the glitter constituting
the similarity to silver, it is non-established of that (cognition of similarity) that it is an obstacle to the

causal aggregate of that (specific cognition) ; hence, the non-existence of that causal aggregate should be
said to be either because of obstruction by such defects as distance or because of non-attention to what apprehends 98 the dark under-side etc., which manifest

Similarly, because of the defect which (nacreity). causes the invariable superimposition of blue colour on

the waters of the ocean, and because of non-attention to what apprehends the waves etc., which manifest the

wateriness at a distance, there is non-existence of the causal aggregate of the specific cognition of a white

watery expanse etc., and hence there is the superimposition of dark rocky surface etc. In the spread-out
because of the existence of the causal aggregate of the specific cognition of extendedness, there is not the
cloth,

superimposition of being a lotus bud etc.; because of the non-existence of that (causal aggregate) in that

form of

it

fashioned

by

scissoring,

there

is

that

superimposition.

Now,

09 thus, on a piece of iron felt with the hand,

because of the non-existence of the causal aggregate of the specific cognition of its dark colour, why should
98

That
That

is to say,

to the sense-contact.

99

is

to say,

when

the tactile sense alone te operative and

there is no perception of colour, in respect of which there larity with other metals.

may

be simi-

S

129

226

CHAPTER

I

there not be the superimposition of silver, since the

not required (according to you, for superimposition) ? If this be asked, that does happen, (we reply) but, because of the non-existence of the causal aggregate of the specific cognition that
cognition of similarity
is
;

excludes copper

that superimposition too might come into being; hence, in some cases, where there is the superimposition of many, it becomes the sphere of
etc.,

doubt

;

but in some cases where there
etc.,

is

abundance of

silver, as in a treasury
;

there

is

imposition of silver there is no harm cases a superimposition does not originate, like the nonorigination of superimposition sometimes on nacre because of the jion-existence of defect in the cause

only the supereven if in some

etc., etc.,

though there

is

cognition of similarity.

the psychosis in the from the effect.

form "

this

"

is

Therefore, not to be assumed

assumed from (its) cause, the unhindered contact with, the object "this"; for, in " this respect of the psychosis ", even as arising from
is
it

Nor

to be

that (contact), it the silver, which

is is

declared by us that the content is a transformation of nescience as

agitated by contact with a defective organ and is contemporaneous with itself (i.e., the psychosis) ; and

though, in the silver which originates at the same time as the cognition and exists only as long as the mere appearance, there is not any contact prior to that
(origination), yet the apprehension of that too by the sense of sight is intelligible even because of the contact with the object "this", the locus with which that
(silver) is identified; for, in the case of the

merely

THE SENSE-ORGAN
apparent
silver, there is the

IN

DELUSION

227

experience of visibility in the form "I see the silver with the sense of sight", even in the absence of the contact of itself (with the senseorgan).

Nor may

it

be said

" Even because of the sublater,

the non-existence of contact, that (silver) is not object of the sense of sight; nor is it originated

an by

contact with a defective organ, simultaneously with the ' psychosis this ', since sense-contact, which is a cause of
cognition, is not settled to be a cause of

an object;
',

it is,

rather, subsequent to the psychosis by that, and manifested by that, since

'

this

generated

it is

superimposed
;

on the witness manifested by that (psychosis) as for the experience of its being an object of the sense of
merely through the indirect dependence on the sense of sight, as being generated by the psychosis this \ which manifests the intelligence that
sight, that is
'

illumines (the silver) itself "; for, if that be the case, in the delusion of the yellow shell, there is the contin^

gence of non-requirement of the sense of sight; for, in that case, there is no requirement of the sense of
sight in the apprehension of the shell, since, of the
shell

mere

without colour, apprehension by the sense of sight is impossible; nor in the apprehension of yellowthere that requirement), since in what is imposed, its being an object of a sense-organ is not admitted.
(is

ness

Nor may

it

be said: "Yellowness

is

not super-

imposed as such; but in respect of the experienced
yellowness of the bile present in the eye, there is superimposed the conjunction alone with the shell; hence

228

CHAPTER

I

there is the requirement of the sense of sight for the experience of the yellowness alone "; for, if that be the
case, there is the contingency of the non-perceptibility

conjunction; for, not being conjoined to the witness manifested by a psychosis having the form of the yellowness of the bile present in the
its

even of shell and

region of the eyes, being manifested thereby is impossible in their case further, there is not admitted a single
;

psychosis
yellowness.

whose sphere

is

the

shell

conjoined

to

Nor may

it

be said: "It

is

not admitted that, of

the yellowness of the bile present in the region of the eyes, there is, because of a defect, a superimposition

of relation on the shell; but of that (yellowness) which

has gone forth together with the rays from the eyes

and pervaded the

object, there is the superimposition

of relation there, as in the red cloth made red by the dye; hence, conjunction with the witness manifested

by the psychosis in that form

is

possible;" for, if that

be the case, in respect of a shell seen by an eye affected by bile, there is the contingence of the cognition of yellowness, for others too, as in respect of what
is

covered with gold. Nor may it be said: "That yellowness, like the bird which has flown high
in the sky, can be apprehended at a
distance,

up

only when apprehended close by; and in the case of the others (not affected by bile) there is-

no apprehension (of yellowness)
being proximity
others
to yellowness

For, there even in the case of those

close

7

by/

place their sense of sight in the neighbourhood of that (affected) sense of sight, the apprehension

who

THE SENSE-ORGAN IN DELUSION

2JJ9

of that (yellowness by them too) cannot be avoided thus too, in the superimposition of blueness on the pure river
;

water flowing on the exceedingly white sandy surface, and in the superimposition of blueness on the sky, and
in the superimposition of darkness on red clothes, at night by moonlight, since it is not possible to declare
the superimposition of

what

is

(perceptually) expe-

rienced, if there be not admitted in these cases a visual

psychosis, whose sphere is the substrate in conjunction with blueness, the non-utility of the sense of sight could

not be avoided (in any way) further, by the words of the PaucapGdika, which proclaim that, in the case of the infant who has not (yet) lasted bitterness, the
;

appearance of bitterness in what

is

sweet has for

its
is
is

cause the impression of experience in another life, it made clear that only the taste of bitterness, which

of a sensory nature, as otherwise the functioning there of the sense of taste would be unintelligible. Therefore, in the cited cases
is

superimposed as such,

100

of the superimposition of blueness, the superimposition, which, even because of the contact with the substrate,
arises simultaneously with the psychosis of the sense of

sight

that psychosis,

whose sphere is that (substrate); is the content of and hence should be admitted its being

the object of the sense of sight; for, there being no psychosis whose sphere is the bare substrate, without
colour, there is

no manifestation of the

object-intelli-

gence,

and

consequently

manifestation

by

that

(intelligence) is

impossible in the case of the water, the

100 That is to say, its sensory nature is not due to its being experienced along with something else, e#., bile present in the tongue.

230

CHAPTER

t

blueness superimposed thereon etc. In the case, however, of the superimposition of bitter taste, since for

the substrate and the superimposition there is not apprehension by the same sense-organ, when, by the psychosis which is generated by the tactile sense and
the substrate, there is manifested the intelligence defined by that, even because of contact with the sense of taste affected by bile, there arise
is

whose sphere

simultaneously the superimposition of bitter taste and the taste-psychosis whose content is that alone hence
;

must be admitted bitterness being an object of the sense of taste; for, in the bitter taste manifested by the intelligence manifested by the psychosis which is generated by the tactile sense and whose sphere is the substrate, since there is no need for the
sense
of taste

even indirectly,

it

is

impossible

to

establish in

any other way (except the one mentioned) the experience of being an object of the sense of taste Silver too as an (in the ease of that bitterness).

object of the sense of sight being intelligible even in the " same way, the experience " I see is not to be sublated.

Nor may

it

be said

" If the silver not in contact be

an object of the sense of sight, there would be violation of the law apprehended about different effects having
different causes, such as that in respect of perception in general the contact of object with the sense is the

cause, that in respect of the perception of substance the conjunction with that (substance) is the cause, and that in respect of the perception of silver conjunction with
silver is the cause.

"

of contact

common

For, there being no single mode to conjunction etc., the first law is

SUGGESTED LAWS AS TO THE CAUSE OP COGNITIONS
non-established.
is

231

the locus

The second law relates to that which of substance-ness from an empirical point

of view, since, as in the case of darkness according to 101 the superimposition of substance-ness the Logicians,

some cases even on what is not capable of conjunction and is not a substance and, in the case
is

possible in

;

apparent silver, the cognition of substance-ness is admitted to be due to the superimposition even of that present in the substrate, in the
of
the

merely

same way as of the

this-ness (present in the substrate)
conflict

;

because of (both) these, there is no second law. The postulation of a special relationship of effect and cause, other than the general relationship
of effect

with the

and

cause, in the

form of the second law,

being set aside by (considerations of) prolixity, the third law is non-established. Even the principle that where the general is the cause of the general, the
specific is the cause of the specific, relates to cases

where,

as on the admission of a general relationship of cause and effect between seed and sprout, there is the contin-

gence of the origination of a different sprout from a different seed; therefrom cannot be established any
special
(otiose

relationship

of effect

and

cause,

which

is

and) comparable to the fleshy protuberance on the goat's neck. Nor may it be said that even here, on the admission merely of the general law that, in respect
of

perception of substance, conjunction with substance is the cause, there is undue extension in that
the
there
the contingence of the perception of one substance from the conjunction with a different one;
is
101

The Naiy&yikas hold

that darkness

is

not a substance.

232
for,

CHAPTER
the

I

law

is

admitted that in

respect

of

the

perception of various substances conjunction with the respective substances is the cause", as otherwise undue
extension could not be avoided even if the third law

were admitted.
the violation of

Therefore, there

is

no contingence of

any

settled law.

Further, there would be no harm even if a settled law were violated here for, in the case of the experience " " I see this silver/' "I see the blue water etc., which
;

is

not

otherwise

explicable,

explanation

would be

impossible unless laws, such as that, in respect of perception in general, contact with the object is the

cause and so on, though primarily apprehended, are restricted to empirically valid contents.

Nor,

if this is the case,

does there result the view

of (erroneous cognition as) cognition otherwise, since the assumption is -possible even of this restriction that
the cause in respect of valid knowledge, not in respect of delusion, and there is the contingence of

contact

is

the superimposition here of that silver alone which is not in contact and is present in some other place for,
;

in the case of the silver

devoid of identity with the intelligence manifested (by the psychosis) and is present in some other place, immediacy is unintelligible
is
;

which

further,

it is

established, through such considerations

of cognition and sublation, that the content of delusion is indeterminaas the unintelligibility (otherwise)
ble.

Nor may it be asked " If the sensory nature
:

of the

merely apparent be admitted merely because of the

NO SILVER PSYCHOSIS

233

contact with the substrate, at the time of the superimposition of nacre-silver, why should there not be the
visibility of tin too

which

is

at

some other time?";

at the

superimposed even there time of the super-

imposition of silver, though there is no distinction in the perception of the glitter common to tin and silver,
yet there is not then the superimposition of tin, because of causes like the non-existence of human defects such

as desire (in relation to tin), and for that very reason, there is admitted by me even the non-origination of a psychosis whose content is that (tin).

only one sense-generated the silver in identity with the psychosis whose sphere this-element prior to that there is no psychosis in " this the form "; hence the inquiry is not to be made
there
is

Therefore

is

;

as to the existence or non-existence of the removal of

ignorance even there.

" this

Others, however, accept a psychosis in the form ", since the cognition of the substrate is the cause

5*154

of superimposition, and think that the psychosis in the form of silver is futile, because by the witness even

by that (psychosis in the form "this") the manifestation is possible of the silver superimposed on that, and because the production of the impression whose content is silver is intelligible even by that " this "-psychosis, which manifests the witness that
as manifestated

illumines

it.

^
of two
is

On

the view

the cause of the super" this is imposition, the second psychosis (of the form) " silver has the superimposed silver for content; it does S

" this " (of the form)

cognitions,

one psychosis

5*155

234
not,

CHAPTER

1

however, have for its sphere merely what is superimposed, without the this-element, since, in the form " I cognise this silver," it is experienced to have for content the silver that has been identified with the
this-object
:

thus say some.

5*156

Others, however, say thus: just as the nescience present in intelligence as defined by the this-element is

transformed into the form of silver, even so the nescience
present in intelligence as defined by the cognitive psychosis whose content is the this-element is trans-

formed into the illusory cognition of
is

silver; but there

not, like the psychosis of the this-element, a nonsilver;

superimposed cognition of

and

thus, like the

manifestation of silver as in conjunction with the this-ness present in the substrate, in the case of its
cognition too, there
is intelligible

the manifestation of

conjunction with having for content the this-ness present in the substrate; and hence that too is not to be

admitted as having the "this" for content; nor may it be said that since, like silverness, the conjunction of
silver

and this-ness is the sphere of the silver-cognition, the this-ness too, which is the counter-correlate of that
(conjunction) should be said to be the content of that (cognition) for, there would be no undue extension
;

if

even because the locus of
content,
102
;

its

identity has
its

"

this-ness"

for

it

should
it

content

nor

may

conjunction for be said that, since there is taught

have

102 The question is whether the illusory cognition should have "thisness" for content; the answer is that it need not, since the cognition of the this-element, which is the locus of the illusory cognition and is in a relation of identity with it, has the "this-ness" for content, and with this much it is possible for the illusory cognition to have the conjunction (of "silverness" and "this-ness") for content; in "the locus of its identity", "its" refers to the illusory cognition, "the locus" being the cognition of the this-element; "it" in "it should have" refers to the illusory cognition.

GOING FORTH OF PSYCHOSIS
in the

TO MANIFEST IDENTITY 235
possibility

Vivarana on the Bhdsya about the

and (of superimposition)the rule about the substrate the superimposed appearing in a single cognition, there
should be declared (their) being the content of a single
psychosis for, in spite of difference of psychoses, there is admitted the manifestation of both in the single
;

witness

manifested by the psychosis in the
since

form

"this."
things is 516 intelligible even because of the clarity of the witness, what (is the use) of the psychosis? Though it be

Now,

the

manifestation of

all

needed for the

intelligibility of the

production

etc.

of

residual impressions whose contents are pot etc., the admission of its going forth is futile ; for, as in the case of mediate cognition, the manifestation of pot etc. too

even by the witness as defined by a psychosis that has not gone forth. Nor in that case is there the unintelligibility of the difference between
is

intelligible,

mediacy and immediacy, since, as between knowledge from verbal testimony and inferential knowledge, that
(difference)
is intelligible

even because of the difference

in psychoses due to the different instruments.

some say thus in the case of perception, the 5161 intelligence, which as the substrate of the object is defined thereby, is alone the manifester of the object, since where a relationship of identity is directly

To

this

:

possible, it is impossible to
;

assume a relation sui generis

or some other (relation) hence, for the sake of the manifestation of that (identity), the admission of the

psychosis going forth stands to reason; in the case of mediate cognition, in respect of the fire etc., which are

2o6
remote,
the

CHAPTER
conjunction
of

1

the

psychosis

being

impossible, and there not being cognised any channel

for the psychosis to go forth, such as is capable of copresence and co-absence in the same way as the senseorgan, it is intelligence only as defined by the psychosis that has not gone forth that is presumptively admitted to have the object for its sphere through a relation sui

ye tier is, there being no other way.
5-1

62

Others, however, since, in respect of individuation,

happiness, misery
intelligence,

Which are directly conjoined to immediacy is settled, and consequently in
etc.,

cause of immediacy is intelligence only as conjoined with the object, establish the going forth of the psychosis as for the manifestation
etc.,

respect of pot

too, the

of that (intelligence).

M63

Yet

others, however, explain thus the going forth
:

of the psychosis in what is understood by perception, as compared with what are understood by verbal

testimony and inference, a (certain) definiteness
experienced.

is

Indeed, in respect of the particular taste,

fragrance etc. of the mango, there is not, even if taught a hundred times by a trustworthy person, such

form

understood by perception, since the desire to know persists even after that, in the " " it be Nor is it?"
definiteness as in
is

what

how

sweetness

etc.

in

may general may

verbal testimony, yet, since

Though be understood from there are no words expressobjected:

the sweetness of the ing particular sub-classes such as mango, and since even if they existed their relation
(to

what they signify) would not have been apprehended
is

by the hearer, there

not through verbal testimony

TO CREATE DEFINITENESS AND REMOVE JIJNASA

237

the understanding of sweetness as defined by particular distinctive classes hence the persistence of the desire
;

to

know

in the

stands to reason"; for, from the statement that mango there is a particular sweetness excelling
there
is

all else,

understood even the particular subclass (of sweetness) present in it. This statement

does not, indeed, leave out the particular (sweetness) present therein, and make known there the particular

present elsewhere; because there non-authoritativeness. Nor may
particular present there
it

is
it

the contingence of

be said

"

Even

the

makes known

in its general

nature as a particular, but not as particularised; 103 " hence the desire to know for, since even by perception
;

the particular class of the attribute, sweetness, is made the content only in its own nature (as generality), and
since

some

other

particularity

present
content,

in
104

the
there

particular class is not of is the contingence
desire
to

made
the

the

persistence
case

of

the

know (even

in the

of perception).

Therefore, in what is apprehended by perception, there is, because of identity with manifested intelligence

which

of one consistency of immediacy, definiteness capable of removing the desire to know; because of the non-existence of that in what is known through verbal
is
etc.,
is to

testimony
103

there

is

indefiniteness
words can
tell

;

this distinction

us is the existence of a but they cannot tell us more mango, specifically what it is; we know, in other words, not the particular sweetness, but that the sweetness has a particularity.

That

say, all that

particular variety of sweetness in the

104

What

the objector seems to require for the removal of jijnasa

is

a cognition of the particularity of the particular class; and the reply that not even perception can give us this cognition.

is

238
is to

CHAPTER

I

be accepted. Hence it is that for happiness etc., known by the witness, there is definiteness for Brahman
;

though known by psychoses due to verbal testimony, ignorance is not removed prior to reflection etc., and there is definiteness when that (ignorance) is removed subsequent to that
there
is indefiniteness, since,

(reflection etc.).

Now

even with this the statement made that the

going forth of the psychosis is for the sake of the removal of the ignorance obscuring the object, that does
not stand to reason; for, there would be no undue extension even if there be admitted the removal of
the ignorance, which is present in the object-defined intelligence and obscures it, by a psychosis which has

In that case, not gone forth. Nor may it be said: of Yajiiadatta's there is the contingence of the removal
ignorance of the pot by Devadatta's cognition of the pot, since there exists (the feature of) their having the

"

same content, while both having the same locus is not the ground of their opposition (such that one can remove
cognition and the ignorance present (respectively) in the denotation of '!' and the object-defined intelligence have different loci (and are
the
other),
since

the

yet

cognition removes the ignorance)"; for, even if there be admitted the going forth of the psychosis on the recognition that the

opposed

so

that

the

ground of opposition between cognition and ignorance is their having the same locus and the same content,

undue extension continues as before, because Devadatta's pot-psychosis and Yajnadatta's ignorance
the

of the pot come to have a single locus, intelligence

WHAT

IS

IMMEDIACY

?

239

defined by the pot; hence, only a separate ground of " When opposition has to be stated in the form

ignorance obscures a particular object in respect of a particular person, that (ignorance) is to be removed

by that person's cognition of that object"; hence, having the same locus is not needed.

To

this they say thus: if the going forth of the

psychosis be not admitted, the very ground of opposition between cognition and ignorance could not be

determined.
stated
as

If

it

"

When

be said that that (ground) has been ignorance obscures a particular

and so on, object in respect of a particular person there is the contingence of the removal of no; for,
ignorance
cognition. attribute of the cognition that removes (ignorance), what is that immediacy? It is not a generality; for,

"

present in the object, even by mediate If it be said that immediacy too is an

in the visual cognition
staff",

"

This

is

a person

who had
if

a

whose content
to

is

a person qualified by a staff
that

brought

mind by memory-impression,

(generality) be present in respect of the element of the staff too, even in that (element) there is the contin-

gence of the removal of ignorance present in the object,
contingence of the experience of immediacy in respect of that element too, " I see the staff." in the form If, even though there
is

and there

the

(consequent)

no experience (of immediacy), memory-impression be assumed to be a mode of contact and there be admitted an assumptive immediacy because of (the
is

cognition)

being generated by sense-contact (underis

stood thus), there

the contingence of the recognition

240

CHAPTER

I

of that (immediacy) even in inferential knowledge etc., by assuming knowledge of the probans etc. to be a mode

of contact; if, however, there be no immediacy in respect of the staff-element, that (immediacy) could

not be a generality, because of the rule that generality exists pervasively; even if there were not this rule,
it

could not be a generality existing non-pervasively, since there is not determined any special defining

Nor adjunct. being undefined.
witness,

1015

is it

106 this (immediacy) an upadhi,

If

senses, no, since it is

be said to be generation by the not pervasive of perception by the
it

and

since, in the perception of the pot qualified

by heaviness etc., brought to mind by inferential knowledge and knowledge from verbal testimony, there
is

over-pervasion of the attribute-element. For, though mediate in respect of that element, yet because of the

non-existence of any other instrument (of cognition), generation (of the cognition) belongs to the senses alone,

through the capacity of the accessory that brings to mind; further, since there is not apprehended any

common property
ration itself
is

defining the generation, sense-genedifficult to apprehend in many cases;

and,

if

such (defining properly) were apprehended,
Immediacy and
non-existence cannot be present in the

that itself being primarily cognised would intelligibly
105
its

same

locus, unless the locus is defined in different

ways

for the

two predicates;
if

and he who asserts

their co presence should state the defining adjunct
is

any; no such adjunct
106

determined by him.
render into English.
is

This

is difficult to
it

Prof. S.
jati".

Kuppuswami
jati,

Sastriar defines
it

as "an attribute which

not a

Unlike the

by inherence (samavaya), but by a relation sui generis or some indirect relation. See A Primer of Indian
is

related to the particulars not

Logic, pp. 24, 25.

WHAT

IS

IMMEDIACY

?

241

be of the nature of immediacy, and it would not be proper to assume in the case of sense-generation, which
is
it

not capable of being perceptually experienced, that is of the nature of immediacy, which is so capable

(of being experienced). Hereby is refuted this doubt too, that immediacy consists in generation by sensecontact, and that in respect of the immediate element
in

what

is

generated by the sense as aided by associa-

no generation by contact, since, presentation through association being present even in inferential knowledge, association, which is (thus)
tion, there is

common to other means of knowledge as well, is not a mode of contact; and (this is refuted) also because (origination by sense-contact) is not common (to all cases of immediacy), no (single mode of contact) being common to conjunction etc. 107 If it be said " what is acceptable to you as immediacy, let that be for me too ",
no; for, that (immediacy), which is to be taught in connection with the ascertainment of the immediacy of
108 is, in the manner knowledge from verbal testimony, to be shown even there, the consequence of the removal

of ignorance and hence cannot be an attribute of the cause of its removal. Therefore, since the Brahman-

knowledge, which " knows

is

He who

declared in the Scriptural text " the self crosses sorrow and is

invariably conjoined to Brahman, the locus of primal ignorance, the material cause of all, is what causes the

removal of primal ignorance, there should be admitted
viz.,
I.e., to the several modes of contact recognised by the Logicians, conjunction (saipyoga), inherence in what is conjoined (sarjiyuktasamav&ya) and BO on.

107

108

See Chapter

III, sections

5*1 to 5*4.

S 1-31

242

CHAPTER

I

the rule that psychoses of the senses, because of the capacity of the respective sense-contacts, arise only in

conjunction with the intelligence as defined by the respective objects, and invariability of conjunction with
the intelligence that is the locus of ignorance should be said to be the attribute of the cognition that removes (ignorance). And thus, the ground
of the

comes

to

opposition between cognition and ignorance be determined in the form: "When

ignorance obscures a particular object in respect of a particular person, that is removable by his cognition,

which

relates

to

that

object

and

comes

into being as invariably conjoined with the intelligence that is the locus of that ignorance." Nor, if this is

the case, is there the contingenee of the capacity to remove ignorance even for the verbal cognition about the

nature of the veins (nadis) and the heart
for
that
(cognition)

;

for,

there

may

result

though by chance

conjunction with either object, the veins or the heart, yet since verbal cognition is possible even without conjunction with the object, there does not result
(for that cognition) the coming into being as invariably

Therefore, in order to explain conjoined with that. the opposition between cognition and ignorance, the

going forth of the psychosis should be declared.
5-164

Others, however, say that, since it is established by parsimony that the ignorance present in the object is removable by cognition in the same locus, the going
forth of the psychosis
is fruitful.
of,

5-165

Yet

others, however, say that the going forth

the psychosis is established because of conformity to

THE VEDANTA AS EVIDENCE FOR NON-DIFFERENCE

243

the illustration that external light is seen to be capable of dispelling external darkness only where there is the

same locus (for both).
Some, however, say that though there be no need 5466
of the going forth of the psychosis for the sake of the removal of obscuration, yet there is need of it either

for the sake of association with intelligence or for the sake of manifesting the non-difference of the cogniserintelligence

from the Brahman-intelligence manifest-

ing the object.

Now, this non-difference of the jlva from Brahman, which is manifested by the psychosis, what evidence has
it?

6-0

That

it

has the Vedanta for evidence has been
bells.

loudly proclaimed as with the pealing of

All the

Vedantas, whatsoever, examined with the marks of purport such as the unity of the initial and concluding
passages, harmoniously lead to the non-dual Brahman, non-different from the inner self. How this is the

sense (of the Vedantas), that has been elaborated in the sacred teaching itself, in the chapter on harmony; 100

for fear of prolixity
109

it is

not set forth here.
I,
i,

ga&kara'a Bha$ya on Vedn &#.,

4.

END OF CHAPTER ONE

CHAPTER

II.

Now, how can the Vedantas harmonise in respect of the non-dual Brahman, that being opposed to
perception etc. ? If this be asked, no (we reply) for, through the Scriptural texts and reasoning of the arambhana section, ilhivsoriiiess is understood of the
;

1*0

world known through perception etc., as being of the nature of an illusory manifestation of Brahman. Now (it may be said) the illusoriness of the world cannot be made known by Scriptural texts and reasoning, that being opposed to perception etc., which, in forms like " The pot is real ", apprehend the reality of pot etc.

To
thus
:

the author of the Tattvaswddhi replies perception apprehends neither pot, cloth etc., nor
this,

j.j

their reality, but bare reality
etc.,

as their substrate.

And

constant in pot thus perception too is but
is

which

favourable to the establishment of non-dual Brahman " If it be so, there would be of the nature of reality.

not perreal, real, perception only of the form of the form the pot is real', concomitant with ception the presence or absence of the sense-organ ". If this be said, no (we reply) for, just as in delusions, for
'

'

'

;

the this-element, the substrate, there is apprehension through perception, and the presence and absence of the

sense-organ are exhausted therewith, while for the imposed silver-element there is presentation through
delusion, even so

admitted that everywhere there is apprehension of bare reality through perception and
it is

246

CHAPTER

II

that the functioning of the senses

is

in respect of this

alone, while the presentation of different things like

pot

is

through delusion.
be said that, since no sublation is seen as there (in the case of the delusion), the
if it
;

Now,
here

admission

itself is baseless, no (we reply) for, though sublation be seen, the very incapacity of diverse no things like pot to be perceived, in the same way as things

remote

in

space
It
is

and

(admission).

time, thus: pot

is
etc.,

the

basis

of

that

which are cognised

immediately after the operation of a sense-organ, are cognised as certainly different from everything else,
since

no doubt or error

is

then seen in respect of that

difference of pot etc.

there

Where in respect of post etc., is doubt as to its being a man and so on, even there,
from those which are other (than these)
of difference, which
is

difference

does certainly appear, not being subject to doubt or
invariably cognised with the counter-correlate, apprehension through along perception is not possible ; for, there is the possibility
1

error.

And

even of counter-correlates which are not in contact, " being remote in space and time. If it be said Let the

knowledge of difference be of the nature of memory, since it is dependent on recollection for the countercorrelate element, in the same way as recognition for the element of that-ness ", that is not (so) ; for, even
thus, there is

being
1

no residual impression of the element of by the counter-correlate, which qualified
is

For, difference
all

a relation; and cognition of a relation has for
is

content

the relata and

determined by cognition of

all

the relata.

DIFFERENCE NOT ESTABLISHED
(element)
is
2
.

g47

Nor is there the present in difference of an possibility of that impression as the conclusion " The inference in the form golden hill is a countercorrelate of difference because
it

,

is

a thing

", the

the being qualified by the counter-correlate of difference; for, since inference
is

sphere of which (inference)

cannot set out in the absence of the knowledge of
difference,

there

is

self-dependence would result; for, where; the delusion of non-difference in respect of the
inference cannot set out, because of
establishing

subject, probandiim, prolans, presence (of probans)

in the subject

etc.,

(the

defects

of)

what

is

(already)

established

and

so on; hence, the

knowledge of their

difference is needed to dispel the knowledge of their
non-difference.

Then, as for the clement of difference, even for the element of being qualified by the counter-correlate, let there be perceptual character",
it

If

be

said

"

no (we reply)

;

for,

where the counter-correlate

is

unperceived, being qualified by that cannot be perceived; for, in the absence of the perception of both
relata, perception of the relation is impossible.

There-

fore,

for the

counter-correlates
is

perceived, there
2

incapable of being but appearance, of the nature of
all

Since perceptual cognition of

counter-correlates is impossible,

there cannot be impressions either, in the case of

many

of these; hence,

cognition of difference cannot be even of the form of

memory; even should

impressions be possible, "being qualified by the counter-correlate" cannot

be the object of an impression, not having been perceived before; this
really a supplementary argument.

is

248

CHAPTER

II

delusion ; consequently, difference, which is invariably cognised in the same cognition as those (countercorrelates),

and pot

etc.,

which are invariably cognised
difference, are the content of

in the

same cognition as

delusion alono; therefore, perception, which apprehends distinctionless bare reality, is favourable to the

establishment of non-dualism.
1-2

The author of the Nyayasudha, however, says thus
"

:

though pot etc. are sensed, (the cognition) pot is real" and so on is blended with the reality of the substrate; " hence there is no conflict. If it be asked Why thus,
should not (the cognition) pot is blue and so on be blended with the blueness of the substrate?", no (we reply) what is said by Scripture about the thing,
'
;

'

which

of the nature of reality, being the material cause of the world is accepted by all, because of absence
is

of contradiction; when, in consequence, the appearance " " and so on is intelligible even as interpot is real

penetrated by that, there would be -prolixity in the assumption of reality even in pot etc. (while, however) since that (Brahman) is devoid of colour etc., blueness
;

have to be assumed in pot etc. alone there difference (between the two cases).
etc.
;

is

thus

1*3

The learned author of the Sanksepasarlraka,
however, says thus though perception has the property of apprehending the reality of pot etc., yet, since for
:

perception etc., whose content is what is external, there no authoritativeness characterised by making is

known

the

truth,

there

is

not,

because of conflict

NON-AUTHORITATIVENESS OF PERCEPTION

&c.

with that, any suspicion of the sublatioii of Scripture referring to non-duality. That, indeed, is a etc,, means of valid knowledge, which makes known

what is unknown. And, in the case of pot which are the contents of perception etc.,
is

etc.,

th<jre

not

the

property
it is

of

not

being

known;

for,

since in respect of the

inert there is riot the

act

of obscuration,
ignorance.

not admitted to be the content of
alone,

Since

Brahman
it is

which

as
is

self-

luminous has the possibility of manifestation,
content of ignorance, of that, which makes

the

only what gives knowledge known the truth and is a means

of valid knowledge. That content of valid knowledge.

(Brahman) alone

is

the

It is for that reason that

too restricts valid knowledge to the self Scripture alone in "The self, verily, is to be seen" etc. By the

words "to be seen", seeing -is not, indeed, enjoined, since that, which is dependent on the means of valid
knowledge, is not the sphere of an injunction but, in " The self is the form worthy of being seen ", it lays
;

down

the restriction that being the object of valid

knowledge is appropriate to the self alone, because of its being unknown, and not to anything else.
Some,
however,
say
thus:

on

the

view

that

1-4

perception, which apprehends the reality of pot etc., is valid, even if there be not understood its inferiority to the means of valid knowledge applying to Brahman,

the reality apprehended thereby ends up by being " either of the form of the genus reality ", because of the cognition of its recurrence, or of the form of s 132

250

CHAPTER

II

.

particular spatial and temporal relations, because of " the cognition of spatial and temporal relation in Here

and now the pot
of the pot
etc.,

is

real", or of the

form of the existence

because of the cognition of the denial of " that existence in The pot does not exist ". And this is not in conflict with its own illusoriness. Even those

who maintain
spatial

illusoriness do, indeed, refuse to admit,
etc.,

in the case of pot

not their existence nor their
relations,

and temporal

nor generality

etc.,

therein, but (only) their unsublatedness. Nor may it be said "Let unsublatedness alone be the reality apprehended by perception "; for it is not possible to

apprehend through perception, which apprehends the present alone, that there is no sublation of this
(cognition) in all the three times.
1*5

Others, however, say thus: though reality whose nature is unsublatedness be apprehended by perception, " The yet, from the text pranas are real; of these, this
(self) is the reality ", there is cognised superiority

and
that

inferiority as between the reality of

Brahman and

of the entire world, synecdochically indicated
;

by the

mention of the principal one, the fprana in respect of reality of the nature of unsublatedness, there can be no
superiority
or
inferiority
all

unsublated for

except by way of being time and being unsublated for a little

while, since there can be

by way

no superiority or inferiority or littleness of content, as in of extensiveness

the case of the properties of rulership and beauty, which are the spheres of such expressions as "King of Kings,

Cupid among Cupids"; even if this (distinction) were possible in some other way, that would but end

.

SUPERIOR AUTHORITY OF SCRIPTURE

351

in the (distinction of) superiority
stated, because of unity of sense

and

inferiority here

with other Scriptural

declarations of the world being sublated by Brahmanknowledge; therefore, the reality of pot etc., appre-

hended by perception, is of the nature of unsublatedness, till there is Brahman-knowledge hence, there is no conflict with the Scriptural declaration of illusori;

ness.

Yet others, however, say thus of the two, Scripture and perception, which apprehend (respectively) the illusoriness and the reality of the world, though there is conflict it is Scripture alone that is stronger than
:

perception, which is tainted with the suspicion of defect and comes into operation first, since the former is free from defect and subsequent (to perception),
(as

required)
;

(section)

"

Among

by the principle of the apaccheda and because it is said in the traditional Code those three (perception, inference and verbal
.

testimony), superiority belongs to verbal testimony M Nor does alone, because of its very nature (jati) this statement of the traditional Code have for content

what can be known from the Vedas alone; for, there can be no suspicion, in that ease, of conflict with
of perception, while the declaration of the superiority the Veda is appropriate only in respect of 1<liat sense

of the Veda, where conflict with perception is suspected. In the Naradasmrti too, in the section on witnesses,

seen by perception, that, without putting faith in the perception, it should be " Ether is investigated by valid teaching and so on: like a fire; seen to be like a surface, the glow-worm
it

is said,

even of what

is

252
there
is

CHAPTER

II

no surface
it is

in ether

;

nor

is

the glow-worm

fire

;

therefore, proper in respect of an object seen by perception;

to

make an

investigation even

knowing

objects after investigation, one does not swerve from righteousness/' Nor, in the absence of the revealed

teaching that, of the five (qualities) beginning with sound, sound alone is the quality of ether, could the

perceived blueness of ether be refuted by perception Nor does that sublation result from the ascertainetc.

ment
is
is

that, since blueness is not cognised in the ether

near by, the cognition of that (blueness) at a distance

produced

by

the
(to

defect
infer)

of
that,

distance;
since

for,

it

also possible

blueness

is

seen at a distance, its non-cognition, near by is produced by the defect of proximity, like the non-cognition of

what

is

enveloped in mist
it is

experience,

further, on the strength of intelligible that the blueness of the
;

Nor is there sublation ether exists non-pervasively. by the perception of the absence of the cognition of
blueness for one

3

who has approached

that (place in the

horizon) where the ether seemed to touch the earth, at which place there was the cognition of blueness while
the person was at a distance for, it is intelligible that the appearance of proximity to the earth, in the case
;

of the blueness that
3

is

but up above,

is

due to the defect
per-

The

attribute of a substance

would normally be expected to

vade the entire substance; but this expectation

may

be set aside where a

quality is seen to be present in a substance, though not wherever the

substance
its

is

cognised; in such a case, the proper procedure

is

not to deny

having that attribute, but to recognise the non-pervasive existence

(avyapya-vrttitva) of that attribute.

.

NEED FOR CORRECTION BY SCRIPTURE

253

of distance, as in the case of the clouds, stars etc,

(which appear to touch the earth);

4

further,

the

superiority of revelation to perception is indubitable, since, in the case of odour etc., which are cognised as intermixed with earth etc., distinction has to be

predicated only with the help of such revealed texts as "If some unlearned ones say that odour is cognised in water, that is to be understood to belong to earth alone,
:

as conjoined with water
qualities
like

and air."

Among

connate

odour, present in such loci as water, it is not, indeed, possible for those like us to discrimi" nate through perception, in the form Odour is the

If quality of earth alone, not the quality of water etc. it be said that tlic perception, in which defect is suspected, because, earth etc., being for the most part
reciprocally related, the presentation of the attribute of one in another is possible, is there corrected by
revelation, then, here too,

"

Brahman and

the world

being reciprocally related in the relation of material cause and effect, the presentation of the attribute of

one in the other

is

possible; hence in perception, in

is suspected, distinction has to be made the help of revelation, in the manner mentioned with

which defect

by the sage: "There are

five

aspects

(of being),
;

existence, appearance, attractiveness,

form and name

the first three are of the nature of Brahman; the latter two are of the nature of the world"; thus, the position (of perception) is equal (in the two cases). Nor thus
4

The cognition
to

of blueness

may

be illusory in the case of the ether
is

which seemed
really

touch the earth, but not in the case of the ether which

up above.

254
is

CHAPTER

it

there conflict with that on which

it

(verbal testimony)

is

dependent;

5

for,

knowledge, which

is

by revelation as a means of valid dependent on the perception of
(alone)

the existence-aspect

of

letters,

words and

sentences, there is destruction of their truth-aspect,

on which
2*1

it is

not dependent.

Now, if revelation be superior to perception, for the word "sacrificer", in "The strew is the sacrificer," secondary implication need not be assumed
in its reference to the strew; similarly, in
sacrifice

"

He

is to

with the soma,

"

the possessive implication
(i.e.,

"with the

sacrifice possessing

soma" need not be assumed

in order that there

characterised by) may not

be the conflict with perception (which results) when the construction has to be said to be appositional, because,

construing them as referring to different objects, there would have to be understood instrumentality to what is desired, in the case of the
(otherwise),
in

and instrumentality to the sacrifice, in the case of the soma, and through this difference in functions, sentence-split would result; for, in both the
sacrifice,

cases

(of implication), even though there
it

is conflict

with perception,

should be possible for the superior

revelation to disregard this (conflict) and establish the non-difference of the sacrificer from the strew and the

non-difference of the soma from the sacrifice.
2-2

If this be urged,
(called)

it is

thus answered in the work
It
is

the

BMmati.
is

Scripture that
5
I.e.,

purportful of greater force than perception,

indeed

the perception of words and sentences and their sense.

PURPORTFULNESS OF AUTHORITATIVE SCRIPTURE
not
all

255

for mantras and arthavada Scripture (eulogistic or condemnatory) passages, however, there
;

is

no purport in respect of their sense, which is a channel to the eulogy (or condemnation), any more than (there is purport) in the word-senses, which are
channels to the sentence-sense.
If
it

be said that if

they had no purport, there would not result from them (even) what is not in conflict with other means of
valid knowledge, such as the possession of forms
deities,

by

since instrumentality to valid

restricted to

knowledge is purportful testimony alone, no (we reply)
;

for, the said restriction is not established, since the

visista-vidhi

(agnistut),

With lie who

"

the revati
desires

(rks)
is

of this very
to

cattle

treat

the

varavantlya (saman) " sacrifice therewith

as
is

the

agnistoma-saman and

seen to be authoritative in

respect of the nature of the qualification (viscsana), though that is not the sphere of the purport (of the
text).

Here, indeed, the varavantlya, which
is

is

based

on the revati-rks,

And
the
6

this is

the qualification of the saman. not established in ordinary experience, in
qualifications like the soma, in

same way as
Where
well,

which

the sacrificer desires not merely heaven hereafter, but cattle

here as

he

is

enjoined to employ the

revati-rks

sung with the
of the

varavantlya saman.
qualified, for

This

is

called a vigista-vidhi,

an injunction

he

is

not merely asked to do this or that, but he Is also told

how

it is

to be done;

and we have not two injunctions, in which case

there would be sentence-split, but one complex injunction.
of the injunction can be only one, the rite;
rite

The purport
itself,

but the qualification of the

has also to be made known in this case by the prescription

since, unlike the

soma plant or
not strictly

curds,

it

is not established in experience.

Thus, the illustration shows that Scripture
respect of

may

be authoritative even in

what

is

its

purport.

256
case, the text

CHAPTER

II

would be authoritative in respect only
;

of the prescription of the sacrifice as qualified by that nor is there implication of the qualification by the

injunction of the qualified; for, reciprocal dependence would result, in that when the qualification is known by implication there would be the injunction whose

sphere

is

the

qualified,

while

when
the

there

is

that

(injunction),

there

would

qualification through that.

implication of Therefore, for the text

be

whose purport

but the injunction of the qualified (visista-vidhi), authoritativeness has to be declared even in respect of the nature of the qualification. And
is

there

is

no purport in respect of that

(qualification)

there be purport in respect of both, sentenceThus, for eulogistic passages too, split would result. whose purport is the praise of what is prescribed, there
since, if
is

no purport in respect of the sense which
it is

is

a channel

to the praise; since, consequently
is

perception that
case.

stronger than those, in order not to conflict therewith,
is

a different signification
the text
sacrifice

assumed in their
whose
it

In
by)

"

He

is

to

(achieve what he

desires
is

with

the

soma

",

injunction of the qualified, if
sacrifice

the purport be admitted that a

non-different from the

qualified (thereby) is

soma material and prescribed, then, since what is
not
established
in

prescribed

ordinary " He is to experience, like the curds prescribed in (achieve what he desires by) sacrifice with curds ", its

there

is

establishment would have to be sought even from the text whose purport is the injunction of the qualified,

without (this qualification) being the purport, in the

SCRIPTURAL SUPERIORITY NOT DETERMINED BY PURPORTFULNESS.

257

same

way

as

for

the

(other)

qualification

the

varavantlya

(saman)

based on the

revati

(-rks).

Truly, from a revealed text devoid of purport, there cannot result a sense opposed to the perception, which apprehends the difference between the sacrifice and
hence, so as not to conflict with that (perception), there is resort to possessive implication in that case. The Scriptural texts of non-duality, however, whose purport is non-duality, as made known

the

soma plant;

by the

six kinds of

marks beginning with the harmony

of the initial and concluding passages, are of greater force than perception; hence, therefrom results
sublation of perception itself, not the interpretation otherwise of Scripture, so as not to conflict with that.

taught thus 2*31 the superiority of Scripture to perception is not through its being puiportful; for, though the injunction " Cook the golden grains " has for its purport the declaration of
it is
:

In the Vivaranavdrtika, however,

cooking as relating to the golden grains, yet, since, in the case of the golden grains, connection with cooking, in

primary sense of an act culminating in the origination of a difference in form and taste, conflicts with
its

" That thou art " the purport be though for the text the declaration of non-difference between the jiva and

perception, so as not to conflict with that, there is admitted of the word " Cooking " a secondary implication in respect of heating alone; (similarly),

Brahman,

yet, since the non-difference of the

" sense of the word Thou " from the expressed sense of the word " That " conflicts with perception, so ag
S

expressed

133

CHAPTER

II

not to conflict with that, there is admitted secondary implication (for both words) in respect of intelligence
distinguished

(from the expressed senses of both
in the case of eulogistic texts, as in the

words).

Even

case of injunctions of subsidiaries like the prayaja, while

knowing their respective

senses, the objects (signified)
;

are certainly known not as subsidiary to another for these, there is subsidiariness to another (cognised later),

because of the use (they should have) hence, for them too, as for the text about the prayaja etc., there does
;

exist

purport in respect of the intermediate syntactical

connection; for, the syntactical unity (here) is that of a sentence (with another sentence, the injunction, not that of a word with a sentence) for, intermediate
;

purport
this

is

not admitted

(to

be)

solely

where the
7
;

syntactical unity is as of a

word (with a sentence)

having been established by the Vivaranacarya in " the Nyayanirnaya, even for texts like The strew is
the sacrificer
",

there

is

a possibility of the primary
is

sense being the purport; and secondary imfplication admitted only so as not to conflict with perception.

How

then
is
:

is

The reply
,

there the superiority of Scripture ? because of freedom from defect and

7 In the syntactical unity of a sentence with a ^entence (vSkyaikavakyata) the first sentence conveys a novel significance, complete in itself but for the expectancy of fruit; hence its construction as one unit with

the latter sentence.

Where the syntactical unity is like that of a word (padaikavakyata), even sentences apparently complete convey no novel significance, and what they mean can be expressed in each case by a
word:
e.g.

"vayu

is

the swiftest deity" as a sentence is but equivalent to

the word "praise-of-vayu (vayuh-praSastya)". As against this view of the BhOmati, the present view contends that even a eulogy is complete in itself

but for the

fruit,

and that there

is

an intermediate purport in respect of

that sentence-sense,

NIRDOgATVA AND PARATVA OF SCRIPTUftB

2 59

8 posteriority in time. That Scripture as such is superior to perception, is the general rule. But perception,

though sublated by Scripture, should somehow be shown to be possible by the assignment of a suitable content, since there cannot be contentless cognition. Hence it is that perception, which has been diverted from making known the truth, because of conflict with
non-dualist Scriptural texts, is justified by the assignment of empirical content capable of practical efficiency.

perception of nacre-silver, " " though sublated by the perception This is not silver common to all, is yet justified in conformity with experience by the admission in front of us of
elaborate?

Why

The

(indeterminable) silver associated with nacre; but there is not assumed as the content, in opposition to that 9 (experience), silver that is remote or within or merely
of the perception, which apprehends the difference of the strew from the sacrificer, and
unreal.

And thus,

Brahman-knowledge, as in accord with practical efficiency, justification is not possible by the admission of a merely apparent content if sublated by " The strew is the sacrificer there text
persists
till
;

the Scriptural would be no content at

",

all

(for that perception)

;

consequently, in order to remedy this, the general rule is departed from, and the Scriptural text itself is otherwise interpreted in the manner declared in the section
8
In time

The word "paratva" may mean merely supremacy; but

posteriority
appli-

would rather seem to be the sense intended, because of the cation later on of the apaccheda-nyaya.
9
I.e.,

of the nature of cognition itself, as in the view of dtmakhyati.

g gO

CHAPTER

il

relating to "the achievement of that (sacrifice)/ Nor, as in the case of (conflict between) non-dualist

710

Scriptural texts and perception, is it possible here to justify perception by the admission of absolutely and
empirically true contents for Scripture and perception (respectively) ; for, it is not possible to declare
absolutely true identity of the sacrificer with the strew

by a single eulogistic passage opposed to a multitude of Scriptural texts whose declaration of the illusoriness
of
all

except

Brahman

of purport. be taught in respect of the expressed sense of the word "Thou" the nature of Brahman as qualified by omniscience, non-enjoyership etc., the perception there

by the six-fold marks Thus, if by the text That thou art there
is justified
' '
' '

of

non-omniscience,
baseless
;

entirely

would be enjoyership etc., hence, in order to remedy this,
by
partial abandonment is distinction that enjoyer-

secondary
resorted
ship
etc.

implication

to,

adopting the

belong to what is associated with individuation, while to the pure (being) distinguished from that (individuation) belongs the nature of the
indifferent

Brahman.

"
grains
etc.,

" Thus, even in Cook the golden there being a possibility of perception

being wholly contentless, in order to remedy this, there is secondary implication (recognised) for the Scriptural
text.

But

how
10

11

the justification of the content being some" There are here no possible, in the case of
is

Since the strew cannot literally be the sacrificer, what

the

similarity which conditions the one being spoken of as the other? It is the fact that each is instrumental to the achievement of the sacrifice.

11

By

is practically efficient,

the assumption of duality, which, though not absolutely real, perception is provided with a content.

DUE TO INCAPACITY TO PERFORM
differents whatsoever ", of this
is

26i

superior, there 12 there is no contingence at all of a failure to distinguish

Scripture, which is no interpretation otherwise; hence,

(between the two cases). " Cook the in

Or

else,

golden grains
is

",

"Sacrifice 2-32

with the soma

(i.e.,

achieve what

desired with the

soma

sacrifice)" etc., the resort to secondary implication is not in order to conform to perception, but because of

incapacity to perform (what is primarily signified by the words). Cooking, in the primary sense, cannot indeed be performed in the case of the golden grains,

same way as mere heating; nor can a somasacrifice non-different from it (soma) be performed by any one, in the same way as a sacrifice to which the material, soma, is an accessory. Nor may it be said that it is the conflict with perception of what is considered to be that which ought to be performed, which is spoken of in other words as "incapacity to perform"
in the
for, in the injunction

bright the lunar orb ", though in respect of the lunar orb, the brightness, which is considered to be what ought to be performed, does

"

;

Make

not conflict with perception, there is seen incapacity to perform ; therefore, the latter is different from the former. And thus, in that case, the resort to secondary
implication

Therefore,
superiority

only because of that (incapacity). there is no sublation whatever of the
is

of

Scripture,
18

as

established

by

the

apaccheda-nyaya.
12

There

is

such a failure on the view that

it is

purport which condi-

tions the superiority of Scripture.

13

The

may be made

principle is explained in the succeeding paragraphs. to PM, VI, v. 4955.

Reference

262
2-321

CHAPTER

II

Now, how does the apaccheda-nyaya apply here? The reply is (as follows). In the jyotitoma, among those who go round (the fire) for the sake of (the
ceremony
priest
called) the

holding him who goes before by
if

bahispavamana, (each succeeding the tucked up

a letting go by the udgatr, then, on looking at the Scriptural text "Should the udgatr let go, the sacrifice should be concluded without any fee, and the same sacrifice should be recommenced/' there
waist cloth), there
is

arises the cognition of

expiatory rite if the pratihartr lets go, this (earlier cognition) is sublated by the contrary cognition, which arises on
;

an obligation to perform an occasioned by the udgatr letting go later,

looking at the Scriptural text "Should the pratihartr 77 let go, the whole of the sacrificial fee should be given,

and

relates to the obligation to

perform another ex-

piatory rite occasioned by the pratihartr letting go; similarly, the earlier perception of the reality of pot etc.
sublated by the subsequent Scripture-generated cog" nition of their illusoriness. Though in the case cited
is

the earlier cognition of the obligation to perform an occasioned rite is sublated by the subsequent cognition of the obligation to perform another occasioned rite, yet the sacred teaching which gives rise to the earlier
cognition of obligation to perform an occasioned rite has scope where there is letting go by the udgatr alone,

a simultaneous letting go by both, or the letting go by the udgatr is subsequent (to the other's
or there
is
; if, however, perception should be sublated non-dualist Scripture, then, as having no other by content, it would be baseless;" such a difference

letting go)

THE APACCHEDA-NYAYA

263

(between the two cases) should not be suspected; for,

when, in respect of pot

there applies the perception sublated by Scripture, even in respect of that it obtains an empirical content and has its purpose fulfilled;
etc.,

hence, just as in the case of the sacred teaching connected with the earlier act of letting go, which is wholly

sublated where there
there
is

subsequent act of letting go, no need to look for some other content further,
is
3,
;

here too,
all

it is

possible to say that perception

has scope

as relating to the reality of
cognition.
14

Brahman

that is

known

in

(This

is

said by some)

:

in the course of even a 2-3211

single sacrifice, there are obligations to

perform

diffe-

rent occasioned rites due to different occasions occuring in sequence the two cognitions of obligation, since they
;

originate in succession, like the
in the case of the black
fruit, are certainly

two cognitions of colour

and red colours of the cherry

nyaya

is

both valid; hence, the apacchedanot an example of the sublation of the earlier
;

cognition by a subsequent (one) hence it is that in the Sastradlpika, in the section about letting go, there is
this statement:

the meaning of the sacred teaching about the occasioned rite the sacrifice, that has to be performed in one way before the rise of
is
:

" This indeed

the occasion, has to be performed in a different way, when there is (that) occasion."

This

is

not (sound).

longs to what is
14
of

Obligation to perform besubsidiary. And the expiatory rite,
this,

2-3212

According to the commentator,

argument
grades of

is

for the benefit

those

who

refuse

to

recognise

three

reality

absolute,

empirical and merely apparent,

264

CHAPTER
is

II

the earlier act of letting go by the udgatr, is not a subsidiary in a rite characterised by a

whose occasion

subsequent act of letting go by the pratihartr; for, just as the sacred teaching about the ahavamya (as that into

which

all

should be offered) relates to

all
15

oblations
so too the

other than the oblation in the hoof-mark,

sacred teaching

"

Should the udgatr

let

" relates to go

a rite not characterised by a subsequent act of letting go

by the pratihartr.

Nyayaratnamala: teaching, whose nature
cularising the content

This has, indeed, been said in the " The restriction
of

a

sacred

is

general and settled, by partiso on, is called sublation of

and

the established

In analysing the " sublation of the " " That being so, thus defined, it is said: established
".
:

this is the

meaning of the sacred teaching in the case of the rite which is not characterised by a subsequent
by the udgatr and
is

act of letting go

is

characterised by

the pratihartr letting go, the gift of the entire sacrifi-

a subsidiary; the same " even where the udgatr lets go.
cial fee is

to be seen (to apply)

As

for the statement cited from the

astradipiM,

that occurs towards the close of a passage declaring the
sublation of the earlier obligation, in the words
:

" Therethough

fore, the cognition of the earlier expiatory rite,
15

As a general rule, all oblations should be offered in the ahavamya avamedha, however, there is the injunction to make the offerings in the hoof-marks of the horse. If this were over-ridden by the But by admitting its general rule, it would be entirely purportless.
fire.

In the

validity for the particular sacrifice alone, the general principle is restricted

Without being

nullified.

THE APACCHEDA-NYAYA

265

originated, becomes false, because of being sublated;

for the subsequent (cognition), however, there is no sublation whatever "; therefore, its purport is a mere
reflection

on the assumption " though

it

would have

to

be performed in a different way, prior to the rise of the occasion, i.e., without the occasion having arisen, i.e.,

where there
purport
is

not the rise of the occasion "; but its not that prior to the rise of the subsequent
is

occasion the obligation occasioned earlier existed in
fact;
for,

there would

result

conflict

with earlier

passages of the context.

Let be the conventions of the Mimamsakas.
is

Where

the conflict in admitting two obligations in succession, on the analogy of the black and red colours (of the

The reply is what is this obligation which could be removed by the origination of an obligation in
cherry)
?
:

respect of a subsequent occasioned rite?

It is not the

capacity of the earlier occasioned rite to be accomplished 18 by volition, since that is not lost even subsequently.

Nor Nor

is it

the possibility of the fruit accomplished by
17

volition; for, this has not been generated even earlier.

does

it

consist in being that

by the non-perfor-

mance of which there would be a defect in the rite; nor causes (does it consist) in being a subsidiary; for, what
a defect in the
16

rite,

in the event if its non-performance,

Hence, it is not like the blackness of the cherry, which Is destroyed by its subsequent redness. 17 Tligrefore, it is not an object of v&licJ knowledge, like the priof
blackness of the cherry.

SI-34

266
is

CHAPTER

II

while a of the nature of a specific kind of effect subsidiary, whether (remote) as contributing to the
;

18

ultimate fruit, or proximate (as contributing to the due 10 performance of rite itself), is a specific kind of cause
;

neither of these can be (merely) occasional; in order to maintain (therefore) that they are of the very nature
(of the rite), they have to be particularised thus in the case of the rite not characterised by an act of letting go
:

occurring subsequently and contrary (to the earlier act), the rite occasioned by the earlier act of letting go
is

a subsidiary, and it is only there that its nonobservance is a cause of defect in the rite therefore, in
;

the case of a rite characterised by another subsequent act of letting go, (even) prior to the rise of the sub-

sequent act of letting go, it is not possible either for the rite occasioned by the earlier act of letting go to be a
subsidiary to the (main) rite, or for to be the cause of a defect in the rite.
18

its

non-observance
it

Truly,

has not

feature".

The word "niyama-viSe^a" would mean "a specific invariable The commentator specifies this feature further as an effect

(vySpya, literally, the pervaded). This is 'now he arrives at it. Nonobservance may be related to defect in the rite as originating it or as pervading it or as pervaded by it; what is of the nature of non-existence
as a

(abhava) cannot originafe anything; defect in the rite too may be treated mode of prior non-existence, which cannot be originated; nor is nonobservance the pervader of the defect for even where there is need for that expiation alone and that is performed, defect may still arise from some
is left

other cause; the third possibility alone
19

and that

is

here considered.

Subsidiaries

(sannipatyopakaraka).
of the

may be either remote (aradupakaraka) or proximate An example of the former is the offering of the
which contributes
first

fore-sacrifice (prayaja)

to the invisible (apurva) result

main

sacrifice; the latter class too contributes to the

apurva, but
e.g.,

through being accessory in the

place to something proximate,

though purifying the material, such as rice-grains by sprinkling. See MNP (Edgerton), sections, 182-192; Edgerton's equivalents, though not
implausible, are not those usually accepted.

CONFLICT WITH THE UPAKRAMA-NYAYA

267

been seen anywhere, nor does is stand to reason, that a certain thing is pervaded by another thing' for a certain
the cause (of that other) for a certain tim'e, not subsequently. Nor may it be assumed that what is called obligatoriness is but some
is

time, not subsequently, or

other attribute, capable of coining and going, since there is no evidence (for this), while a distinction is
intelligible

between the two contrary teachings about the

act of letting go, in the

same way

as in the case of the

sacred teachings about ( the offering of obligations in) the hoof-mark and (in) the uhavanlya fire. Therefore,
the statement about the origination of two obligations in sequence, is baseless.

now, on the principle of the section about the 2-322 (superior force of the) initial passage, why should not
perception itself be of greater force than revelation,
since at its origination
it

And

has nothing opposed to
is

it?

The reply

is:

where syntactical unity

cognised,

2-323

there (the whole passage) should be understood to lead to one sense alone, since the cognised syntactical unity

would be destroyed should there be
(in the course of the passage).

different senses

passage "Prajapati gave is a eulogistic passage /analogous to parakrti
referring to
this

Thus, here, the initial a horse to Varuna"
(as
;

what

is

apparently an act of Prajapati)
;

to

no contrary has arisen, hi the first instance by it the intellect of the donor is turned to (the performance of)
a
(as his duty consequent on the gift) combination of words in the concluding passage
sacrifice
;

the

"As

many

horses as one receives in gift, so

many

four-

268

CHAPTER

II

potsherd-sacrifices one is to offer to

Varuna" conveys a

sense opposed thereto; since (for these words), the (cognition of this) contrary has already arisen, they would not attain syntactical unity with that (opposite),

they were construed as heard (i.e., literally) in order to maintain the syntactical unity, the sense of the nic,
if
;

(the causative suffix)

is

20

interpolated;
it

and

it is

only

as in accord therewith that

(the later sentence)

derives

its

own

existence ; hence the superiority of the

initial passage.

cal unity is not cognised, there the sentence

Where, however, reciprocal syntactiwhich has
thereto, does

come

into existence without taking into account the

earlier existent,

and has a sense opposed
its

certainly

make known

own

sense ; hence not here is

the superiority of the earlier existent.

Hence

it is

that

the statement about the non-use of the sodasin cup is

admitted to make known
but since for both there
is

its

own

sense, without taking

into account the earlier existent statement of its use;
is

no difference of content, there

recognised as inevitable optional performance even there (in the use of the cup). And thus, since there

no suspicion of syntactical unity between non-dualist revelation and perception, the capacity (of the former)
is

to

make known its own

sense without taking into account

the latter, though earlier existent, is unhindered.

And

in generating the knowledge of that sense, the principle " The earlier of apaccheda alone applies, (as said in)

has not arisen; the later, since it cannot arise in any other way, cannot occur without sublating the earlier ", not the principle
rises only as unsublated, since the later
20

So that "receives" means "causes to receive".

SUPERIORITY OF PERCEPTION AS UPAJIVYA

269

of (the superiority of) the initial passage. Hence it is that even in ordinary experience the earlier existent perception of nacre-silver is sublated by the teaching of

a trustworthy person.

Now, even thus, the superiority
it is

of perception, since

3-0

depended on, cannot be avoided. Of the two sacred teachings about letting go, since the earlier is not depended on by the later, the sublation of
is

that which

the earlier by the later is proper. Here, however, perception, as apprehending the existence of letters, words etc., is that which is depended on by the revelathat sublation
illusoriness

tion teaching illusoriness ; hence it is of the revelation is proper, in the form of not teaching the

opposed to that (perception).

Nor may

it

be said "Though by the Scriptural texts about illusoriness the reality-aspect of letters, words etc. be denied, there is no denial of the existence-aspect (of letters,

words etc.), which is what is depended on; hence there is no conflict with that which is depended on"; for, by such Scriptural texts as " There are here no differents
is taught the non-existence of the even in the existence-aspect. world,

whatsoever,

"

there

some say thus even for him who, because of a defect of hearing, hears " bring the vrsa " as "bring the vrsabha" and so on, there is seen valid 21 knowledge through the words therefore, in valid
this
:

To

3-1

;

Both words mean the same thin& "bull"; but the hearing as is defective and delusive; what causes the valid cognition of "bull" is, then, a sound heard which is common to both the valid and the
21

"vr?abha"

delusive hearing; this alone is what is depended on. The advaitin goes one step further and says that perception which is wholly delusive is yet depended on by the valid verbal testimony as to non-duality: thus the

commentator.

CHAPTER

II

knowledge through verbal testimony, only such perception of letters, words etc., as is common to valid knowledge and delusion, is needed; consequently, nondualist revelation depends only on the perception of letters, words etc., not the valid knowledge thereof; and thus, even though the existence of letters, words etc., be denied, there is no conflict with what is depended on.
3-2

Others, however, say thus: though, in valid knowledge through verbal testimony, the establishment of the existence of letters, words etc. be not needed, yet
since valid knowledge does not arise

from a sound that

has not (the requisite) capacity, there does exist the

need to establish the existence of capacity. Even in regard to this need, there is no conflict with what is depended on for, though denied by the Scriptural text " There are here no differents ", there is recognised
;

the existence of the universe, which persists up to Brahman-knowledge, accords with practical efficiency,

from the unreal; else it would follow that perception and other empirically valid means of
and
is

different

knowledge are contentless. Nor may it be asked" How can the world gain existence, despite the denial of the existence-aspect, since denial, if it did not remove its counter-correlate, would be self-contradictory?"; for, " this is silver " in conformity with the two cognitions

and "

this is not silver," in the case of nacre, there is

admitted, of the non-existence of the superimposed in the substrate, a capacity to put up with the existence
of a counter-correlate, which persists till sublation and is different from the unreal. Hereby, (the view that) for the world; if denied in respect of its existence, there

EMPIRICAL REALITY OF PERCEPTION

271

would be but unreality as for the horns of a hare, is refuted; for, there is difference (from the horns of a hare) because of the recognition of an existence that is
removable by Brahman-knowledge (alone). Nor may " If of the it be said: superimposed there be denial in
the substrate, in respect of existence, the denial of it elsewhere, in respect of existence, would follow of itself;
hence, because of the contingence of its being the counter-correlate of negation relating to all places and
times, its unreality would be difficult to avoid; for unreality is defined only in this way that unreality consists in being the counter-correlate of negation

relating to all places and times, a definition of that in any other way not being possible "; for, by those who

admit of the unreal that

it is

the counter-correlate of

negation relating to all places and times, there cannot be given as evidence, in respect of its being so, either perception, since all places and times cannot be per-

no such revelation is cognised; hence, inference alone has to be offered as evidence; consequently, that, which in that inference
ceived, or revelation, since

has to be said to be the probams of exclusion from the real, that itself, being cognised first (as compared with
the other mark),

may

intelligibly define unreality.
:

Others, however, say thus the purport of Scriptu" There are here no differents whatsoever " ral texts like
is

3.3

the negation of the world in respect of reality, not in respect of existence for, if a negation in respect of existence did not remove (that) existence, it could not
;

be the negation of that, while, if it did remove that (existence), there would be conflict with perception.

272

CHAPTER

II

it be said that since reality too is established such perception as " The pot is real ", negation is by not proper in that respect too for, in order that there
;

Nor may

may be no conflict with Scripture, it is intelligible that perception may have for content empirical reality consisting in an appearance of reality. Nor, this being
the case, is there the unintclligibility of the negation of the world in that respect, since in the world there
is

no possibility of the absolute reality present in
for, just as in

Brahman;

but the cognition of the appearance of silver that constitutes the possibility of real silver and consequently there is negation
it is

nacre

of that
that ",

hence it is that in "This is not " This is not my cow, but only that
'

silver,
'

but

V

He who is

present here is not Caitra, but (the one) in the room", of that which is denied, reality is understood elsewhere

but the cognition of the appearance of reality that constitutes the possibility of reality, and consequently, the negation of that is intelligible. Theresimilarly,
it is

fore, since there is not the suspicion of the denial of the

existence of letters, words, capacity
conflict
3.4

etc.,

there

is

no

with what

is

depended

on.

Yet
reality

others, however, do not accept three grades of consisting of absolute reality in Brahman,

empirical reality of the nature of an appearance of reality in the world, and a merely apparent reality
inferior even to that, in nacre-silver etc.; for, even because of interpenetration by the absolute reality of the substrate, Brahman, the conceit of reality in pot etc.,

and in nacre-silver etc., is intelligible, and hence there is no evidence for assuming an appearance of reality.

EXPLANATION OP REFLECTION

And

thus, since in the

world there

is

no cognition of

and since, even from the cognition of that in Brahman which has been identified therewith, the possibility of that (cognition) in respect of the world is
reality,
intelligible

through non-discrimination (of the world
is,

from Brahman), there

negation of the world in respect of reality, neither conflict with what is depended on nor the negation of that of which there is
if

there

is

no

possibility.

be asked: "If no appearance of reality 3-41 be admitted in the universe other than the absolute
it

Nor may

reality present in Brahman, for what reason is there admitted in nacre the origination of an appearance of
silver,

other than the silver at a distance

(i.e.,

else-

where) ?"; for immediacy being impossible in the case
of what
is

at a distance

and not in contact (with the

sense organ), in order to account for that (immediacy) that (origination) is admitted. delusion caused by 3-411 reflection, there should be accepted the origination of an appearance of the face, in the mirror, other than the face

Now,

thus, even

where there

is

on one's neck; for, in respect of the face on one's own neck, though immediacy is possible for the portion defined by the nose etc., there cannot be immediacy for
such portions as the eye-balls and the forehead, while in the delusion caused by reflection there is seen immediacy
for such portions as the eye-balls. Nor is there the contingence of the acceptable in admitting the reflection as other than the image for, the jiva too that is a reflection of Brahman being different therefrom, there
;

would be the contingence of illusoriness for that
3 J-35

Cjiva).

274
3*4111
is

CHAPTER

II

To

thig the followers of the

vivarana say thus:

it

on the face on one's neck

that, because of the defect,

viz., the proximity of the mirror as an external adjunct, there occurs the superimposition of being present in the mirror, facing oneself, and difference from the

assumed the of a face on the mirror, because of superimposition prolixity (of assumptions) ; because there is sublation of the relation alone, in the form "The face is not in
(original) image; hence, there is not to be

the mirror", while, if it were another illusory thing, there would be sublation of its existence in the form

"

This

is

not the face " and because there
;

is

recognition

of non-difference from one's
face

appears in the

own face in the form " My mirror ". Nor is immediacy

impossible for the substrate, i.e., the face on one's neck; for, there is admitted the rule that the rays of l%ht

from the eyes obstructed by an external adjunct are turned back and apprehend the (original) image, like
growth in one direction, grows in another) for, if that rule were not admitted, there would be the contingence of a visual
its
;

a creeper

etc.

(which, obstructed in

delusion of reflection (even) in the case of primal atoms and in the case of gross objects though hidden by walls etc. Nor may it be said " There is the rule that visible

only of what is not hidden, is and of perceptible form, not of anything else"; gross for, since the grossness and perceptible form of the image can be of use in the settled way of generating
is

delusion of reflection

visual cognition, use in any other

it is

unintelligible to

way;

further, if

assume (their) an interposition like

could serve here as an obstacle evep without

IDENTITY OF REFLECTION AND PROTOTYPE

275

preventing the conjunction of the obstructed rays of
light

from the eyes (with the image),

then, in the very

same way, even in the case of pot-perception etc., there is the possibility of its being an obstacle, and it would follow that contact with the sense of sight would as
such
fail

to be

the cause

(of visual perception).

22

Further,

by those who maintain the superimposition of an illusory face on the mirror, in order that there may result the memory-impression included
even
in

prior superimposition), experience (of the face) has to be established only by the assumption of the apprehension of one's own face
(of

the

three

causes

23

by the rays from the eyes which are sometimes turned back (by a reflecting medium). Nor is the memoryimpression intelligible even with the prior experience (of the face) as defined by the nose and other such
(visible)

parts,

since

with this

much

the

superetc.,
is*

imposition of the reflection of the eye-balls
unintelligible; further,
it is difficult

to predicate prior

experience in any way, where in the water of a tank there is superimposition of the reflection of an unseen

person seated on the top of a tree by the side of the tank. And thus, it has necessarily to be said of the rays of

light

from the

eyes,

when

obstructed by an external adjunct,

that they reach the (original) image
22

and apprehend

The interposition

of

an obstacle

is

supposed to obstruct contact

of the object with the sense-organ.

If the wall serves to obstruct visual

perception, but not as obstructing the passage of rays from the eyes to the object, then, the passage of the rays would be immaterial, and sensecontact would fail to have causal efficacy in perception.

23

(dosa)

The three causes are memory-impression (sainskara), defect and sense-contact (samprayoga) or cognition of the substrate

(adhirth&na-Jfiana).

276
24

CHAPTER

II

on the strength of the (experience) of the effect, (we have to say that) the capacity to reach the image and apprehend it belongs only to those which are obstructed by a mirror etc., not to those which are
it;

obstructed by a rock etc. ; for those, which are obstructed by the not too pure copper etc., there is not the capacity
to
specific configuration of the face, of the defect of relation to an impure adjunct; because

apprehend the

since in the case of those (rays)

which have reached

an adjunct and have turned back, there is not the same obstruction by the sun's light, as in the case of those (rays) which desire to reach the sun direct, in looking
at the reflected sun there is not the

same
is

inability as in

looking at

it

direct;

where there

contact with

an

adjunct like water, though some (rays) obstructed by
the adjunct get (back) to the image, some apprehend the sand

within that (water in making such assumptions.
etc.

etc.)

;

there is no defect

3.1112

au *hor of the Advaitavidya, however, states thus the view of the Preceptor Vidyaranya and others, who admit the illusoriness of the reflection and maine

^

tain three classes of jivas.

The

reflection in the mirror,

which

is

clearly seen

by the bystanders

to be different

from and similar to Caitra's face, is certainly different therefrom and illusory in its own nature, like nacresilver in relation to the silver in one's
is

own hand.

Nor

there conflict with the cognition of non-difference from the image, in the form " face appears in the

My

24 The view summarised here has a superficial similarity to that of modern science about the reflection of the rays of light; but the similarity
is

not fundamental.

REFLECTION AS SUPERIMPOSITION

277

mirror

in the mirror "

for, because of conflict with the clear cognition of difference, duality, facing oneself etc., the cognition of non-difference is impossible and the talk of "My face
; ;

"

one's

shadow

of secondary import like the talk of face as one's own face. Nor may it be
is

with the cognition of non-difference, the talk of difference should not itself be of secondary import for it is not possible to deny,
conflict
;

doubted why, because of

the unsophisticated), the delusion pf another person in the reflection, leading up to such practical activity as the desire to avoid or
(i.e.,

in the case of children

be said that since even prudent persons are seen to have recourse to the mirror etc., in order to know the special features of their own faces,

approach.

Nor may

it

the cognition of non-difference too leads to practical activity; for, this recourse is intelligible even because of

the knowledge of the special rule that the reflection, though different, has (yet) a form similar to that of
the image. As for the statement that the sublation ' The " face is not there is only of the conjunction of the
'

face (with the mirror), not of the face, that is not " This is (correct) ; for, it would follow that even in

not silver

the sublation is only of the identity of silver with the this-object, not of the silver. And if
",
is

superimposed by way of identity on the this-element, (the statement) " This is not silver "
is

because silver

the sublation certainly of the silver as identical and

not of the identity alone, then, since the face is superimposed on the mirror, as in conjunction with it, (the " The face is not there " is the sublation statement) certainly of the face as in conjunction, and not of the

278

CHAPTER

It

conjunction alone ; thus there is parity (between the two cases). As for the statement that there would be
prolixity in assuming superimposition in the case of the substrate too, that is no defect, any more than the proli-

xity of the assumption of the appearance of silver
(in nacre), (the assumption, in both cases) being based

on evidence.

respect of one's

Where there is delusion of reflection own eye-balls etc., there is no means

in of

assuming immediacy for the (original) image; to assume because of this that the rays from the eyes
obstructed by
the adjunct

reach to the

(original)

image, leads to

much
it

How, indeed can

in conflict with experience. be that on contact with water, while
is

that

some rays from the eyes pass through unobstructed, others, which are so exceedingly delicate that they are
obstructed even by conjunction with water, conquer the host of (solar) rays, that (ordinarily) obstruct the whole body of rays from the eyes, 25 and enter the solar

orb situated in their midst?

Again, since even in

looking at the moon's reflection, as in looking at the moon, there is no distinction in respect of (sense) contact with the (original) image, which is agreeably cool as nectar, why should there not be satisfaction for the eyes, through the manifestation of coolness look(in

ing at the reflection) ? How, again, can it be that those which are obstructed by conjunction even with water are not obstructed by conjunction even with rocks etc.?
if obstructed and turned back by do not get conjoined with the eye balls etc.? them, they Or, how can it be that, if they (the con-

Or,

how can it be that,

reflected) get

25

In the attempt to see the sun directly.

REFLECTION AS SUPERIMPOSITION

379

joined with them (the eye-balls etc.), they do not perceive what is thus in conjunction ? It is seen that even by a defect (where one exists) the apprehension of
the specific aspect alone
is in (sense-) contact.
is

obstructed, but not the appre-

hension even of the very existence of the substrate that

the view, however, that the reflected face is a superimposition, there need not be assumed anything in
conflict

On

with experience.
is

It is thus

:

since visual super-

seen only in the case of that which has an unconcealed, gross and perceptible form, to the grossness and perceptibility of the (original) image, for

imposition

which causality is

settled in respect of the perception of

their locus, there belongs causality even in respect of

the superimposition of the reflection of their locus; and in the case of an obstructing substance like a wall, which

the perception of a concealed substance by intercepting the contact with the eyes,
is

settled to obstruct

which, on the analogy of the sense of touch and so on, is understood to function by reaching (to their objects), it is to be assumed that it (the obstructing substance)
obstructs in no other

way even
is

of the reflection of what
conflict in this, in
effect,

in the superimposition concealed. What is the

assuming, on the strength of the that for what is settled to be a cause etc., in some

cases, there is causality etc. elsewhere too?
is

Hereby

refuted (the statement) that if the rays from the eyes obstructed by the adjunct be not admitted to reach to
the (original) image, there would be the contingence of the delusion of visual reflection in the case of what is

concealed and

is

devoid of a perceptible form and so on.

280

CHAPTER

II

Further, there is the contingence of the said defect only on the acceptance of that (turning back and reaching to the image). How? When, without turning
one's eyes (towards the object), as in looking at the sun directly, one looks face downwards on the water, the rays

from the eyes which are obstructed thereby go up and apprehend the prototype sun; when, without turning
one's eyes sideways, one looks with eyes straight at a mirror, those (rays) obstructed thereby apprehend the

face of

him who

is

by one's

side

;

similarly, even if one's

face be not turned backwards, the apprehension by those

(rays) obstructed by the adjunct, even in the case of

what

is

concealed behind one's back, would be

difficult

to avoid; for,

abandoning any principle regulative of the turning back of the rays from the eyes obstructed by the adjunct, it is admitted that the going (back) is
only to where the (original) image
in
is.

Similarly,

when

an impure mirror a fair face

is

reflected as dark,

since the fair colour of the (original) image,
existent, is

though

yet of no service in the visual cognition, the

visibility of the

prototype face has to be maintained only as qualified by an imposed colour, on the analogy of the
delusion that the shell
is

yellow hence, in the very same
;

way,

it

would be

difficult to

avoid (this), that even the

colourless

may, as qualified by the darkness of the
though of
itself

adjunct mirror, be the object of a delusion of visual
reflection; for, in the case of ether,

colourless, visibility is admitted as qualified

by super-

imposed

blueness.

Therefore, only the view that the

reflected face is in its nature a superimposition is

more

REFLECTION NOT A SHADOW

281

acceptable. Nor is there a weakness here too in respect of the memory-impression (needed as a cause, being a

consequence) of prior experience for, like the dream superimposition of an unseen person merely through
;

the memory-impressions of the experience of persons in general, the superimposition of particular faces in mirrors is intelligible merely through the memory-

impression of the experience of faces in general. This, however, is the difference: in dreams, the superimposition of the specific

form of a person
is

with the unseen potency which

in conformity the cause of what is
is

auspicious or inauspicious; here, however, the superimposition of the specific form of the face is in

conformity with the proximity of the (original) image.

Nor
its

is

it

a defect that, if the reflection be in

nature illusory, there would be the contingence of illusoriness even for the jlva that is a reflection of

be so in the case of the jlva (looked upon) as a reflection, yet since the jlva (that is Brahman) as defined is real, (his) experience of release

Brahman;

for,

though

it

is intelligible.

As
mirror
is

for the view of some that the reflection in the
etc.,

3-412

is

being a variety of shadow cast by the face, certainly real, that is not (sound). Indeed, what called the shadow of a body and so on is only that

darkness which, when by particular members (of the body), light that is pervasive is obstructed in some places, comes into being in those places. And shadowness of the nature of darkness is not appropriate in the
white or red colour. S I -36
case of the reflections of pearl, ruby etc., which are of Nor is that nature intelligible in

282

CHAPTER

II

the case of the reflection of the sun

etc.,

which are devoid

of shadows of the nature of darkness.
3*413

Now,
which
is

be said that) if the shadow of the nature of a reflection cannot be of the
then, (it

may

be another kind of substance, since the assumption of another substance is intelligible when there is non-inclusion among the recognised

nature of darkness,

let it

be said, (we ask) will this other substance be associated with such cognized properties as the peculiar colour, size and
substances, as in the case of darkness
;

2fl

if this

configuration

and with the property of facing oneself?
be
it

Or,

will

it'

devoid
is

of

these?

On

the

latter

not possible through this other substance to explain the cognition of the reflection as associated with the particular colour etc.; hence its
(alternative),

assumption
however,

is

in vain.

On

the

first

(alternative),

how

is it

possible to explain the reality of the

reflections of

cognised at a single mirror of small size?

numerous faces, large in size, which arc the same time, without being mixed up, in

How,

again,

when

a

mirror, whose parts are closely packed, continues to remain like that, can there be within it the origination
of another substance possessing many parts, low or prominent, like the jaw, the nose etc. ? Further, in the

origination of a reflection possessing many colours like whiteness, redness and yellowness, there is no cause of

the like nature present in the mirror and in contact with
26

Darkness (tamas)
it

is

the

MImamsakas and Vedantins,
is

recognised as an independent substance by since it is cognised directly as possessing

blue colour, though by the Naiy&yikas,

not included

among

the substances enumerated

^REFLECTION NOT REAt

it.

(It

may be said)

:

" In the case of

reflections,

which

are only of such a size as to be fit to abide in the the (reflecting) adjunct, the cognition of large size and
similar cognition of lowness and prominence are but delusions; and some cause has to be assumed capable of

originating that kind of reflection without conflicting with continuance as before of the mirror and its parts ".

If this be said, then, let nacre-silver too be real. For, there too, it would be intelligible to assume some cause
capable of originating in the nacre, which continues even as before, the silver that gets to be identified therewith,

and
it is

to lay

down a

rule in the case of that silver

that

apprehended by a sense-organ (only) in cooperation witli a cause which is considered to be a
defect.
27

Why then
8

(follow) the

maxim

of (cooking)

half the gourd,- and say that nacre-silver is unreal, while the reflection is real? Nor in that case, would
there be for the nacre seen as silver the contingence of liquefaction when thrown into the fire, as (there is)
for (real) silver ; for, the non-existence of the capacity to liquefy in nacre-silver is intelligible in the same way

as the non-existence of heat or sweet smell in the
reflection of fire,

musk etc.
is

Now, it may be said nacre:

silver is not real, because of the sublation
all,

admitted by

silver, the silver appears but as an illusion "; then, (we say) because of the sublation established in all cases, in the form "The face
is

in the

form " This

not

the mirror, the face appears there, in the mirror, only as an illusion ", it stands to reason that

not

ip.

27
28

As, for example, the glitter of nacre.

The other

half being left to grow.

284
the reflection too
is

CHAPTER
but unreal.

II

Therefore, the contenillusoriness too does not

tion that the reflection is real is unsound.

3 414

Now

>

the contention of

i* s

not demonstrated (for it) as in the case of nacre-silver, any ignorance which causes (it) or any cognition which dispels (it), while being

stand to reason; for, there

is

capable of co-presence or co-absence (with

it).

34141

^ tllis some ( say ) in the suP erimP osition * reflection, which arises even after the full cognition of
:

the face), the ignorance which obscures the substrate is not the material cause (of the
the

substrate

(e.g.,

superimposition), nor is the cognition of the substrate in its specific aspect the dispeller (of that delusion) ; though (this is so), yet, since for the ignorance
of
the
substrate,

though

dispelled

in

its

aspect

of obscuring energy, persistence is possible in its aspect

of projective energy, .that (ignorance) itself is the material cause ; and cognition of the substrate in co-

operation with the removal of the proximity of the (original) image to the adjunct, is the dispeller of that
(delusion) together with
its

material cause.

20 for Others, however, say thus: it is not natural to leave out the aspect of projective energy cognition and dispel the aspect of obscuring energy alone for, if
;

by Brahman-knowledge, in the case of primal ignorance, and by the cognition of nacre etc., in the case of modal
29 That is to say, where the projective aspect is not removed, it must be due to the presence of obstacles to the removal thereof, and not due to the inherent capacity of knowledge to remove the obscuring aspect alone; such obstacles are projected by primal nescience and they will
cognitions, therefore, there
of primal ignorance.

continue to exist for anything short of Brahman-knowledge; by such is the removal of the obscuring capacity alone

REFLECTION CAUSED BY PRIMAL IGNORANCE
ignorance, the aspect of obscuring energy alone were dispelled, then, in respect of the protective energy there would be the contingcncc of its persistence for all time.

Nor

that (persistence) determined by the presence of an obstacle to the removal of the aspect of projective
is

energy, consisting in the proximity of the (original) image to the adjunct for, even prior to the proximity (coming about) of the (original) image to the adjunct,
;

when

it is

understood through perception that there

is

no relation of the (original) image, Caitra's

face, to the

mirror, or that Caitra's face is not in the mirror, there should necessarily be the removal even of the aspect of
projective energy; hence it would follow that at that time, if there be proximity of those two, (yet) because

of the non-existence of the material cause, there would

not be the delusion of reflection.

Therefore, primal the material cause of the superimposition of reflection. Nor is there parity of the said 30 defect even here for, though, in respect of external

ignorance alone

is

;

things, different

forms of psychosis do overcome primal
aspect of obscuring energy, in those

ignorance in

its

parts of intelligence which are defined by the respective objects, yet, they do not dispel its aspect of projective energy otherwise, there would be the contingence of the.
;

in

dissolution even of the empirical projections present those places. 31 Nor, if the reflection is the
is

product of primal ignorance,
30
I.e.,

there the contingence
when
would

once ignorance
31

failure of a material cause for subsequent reflections, is dispelled.
is to

That

say, not

merely the

reflection, but the

mirror

too,

disappear.

286
of
its

CHAPTER

It

empirical reality; for, what

is

determinative

of empirical

reality is non-generation

by a defect
in

over

and

above

nescience

;

and

since

the

present case there does exist a defect over and above that, viz., the proximity of the (original) image

and the adjunct,
is

(its)

intelligible.

Nor may

merely apparent character " it be said When this is
:

the case, there would be the contingence of even that cognition of the substrate, which is aided by the removal

of the proximity of the (original) image and the adjunct, failing to remove the superimposition of
reflection, since that

has not the capacity to remove the

32 primal ignorance "; for, there is no conflict; though that (cognition) has not the capacity to remove igno-

rance about Brahman, yet, since the cognition of the true nature of the substrate has for content what is opposed
to the superimposition of reflection

which has that

(ignorance) for material cause, it is intelligible that, in co-operation with the absence of obstacles, it has the capacity to remove that (superimposition) ; even on the

view of modal ignorance as the material cause, since its obscuring energy has been removed by an earlier
cognition of the substrate, there
is

failure of a

common

content;

33

hence,

it

(the obscuring energy) cannot be

removed by that cognition of the substrate whicK belongs to the same time as the absence of obstacles;
hence,
32

it

has to be accepted that merely the super-

Between removal of the superimposition and non-removal of
For ignorance and the cognition.

primal ignorance.
33

DREAM CAUSED BY PRIMAL IGNORANCE
34 imposition of reflection

287

is
it

what

is

removed by that

be that this superimposition is removable only by Brahman-knowledge that has the capacity to remove (also) the ignorance that is the
(cognition)
.

Or else, let

material cause of (the superimposition) itself. As for the contingence of empirical reality (for the reflection),
that

answered on the ground of its being generated by a defect over and above nescience.
is

Thus, even in the superimposition of dreams, since there is superimposition on undefined intelligence, or

3-51

on intelligence conditioned by individuation, (but) devoid of modal ignorance, 35 and since (in the words) " That darkness of ignorance is called sleep, which is " it the cause of dreaming and waking is said by the Preceptor that both the dreaming and waking worlds
are products of one ignorance, that (dream-superimposition) is the product of primal ignorance and hence
is

sublatable only

capacity to cause its merely apparent character is only because of generation by a defect, such as sleep, over and above
;

by Brahman-knowledge that has the remove its (the dream's) own material

nescience thus say some.
:

Others, however, say thus because of the statement " in the Bhdsya These chariots etc. seen in dream's are
:

3-53

sublated on waking ", because there is seen in the

Vivarana (the passage) " since it
in the nature of ignorance, like
34

is

opposed to bondage
",

waking cognition

and

That

is

to say, merely the projective energy of ignorance.

35 This is the witness-intelligence; it is conditioned by individuation; as the locus of the psychosis of pleasure, pain etc., it is devoid pf modal
ignorance,

288

CHAPTER

II

because of the experience of the illusoriness of dreams by one who has woken up, waking cognition has the
capacity to remove -the superimposition of dreams; hence its merely apparent character is only because of

being sublated by cognition other than Brahmanknowledge. Nor may it be asked how the cognition, which has not for its sphere the true nature of the
its

substrate and has not the capacity to remove the ignorance that is its material cause, can remove the super-

imposition for, in the case of the superimposition of the rope-snake, removal is seen even by the delusion of a
;

which arises immediately after itself (i.e., the snake delusion), just as by the cognition which has the capacity to remove the ignorance that is its material
stick,

cause and
3-53

is

of the true nature of the substrate.

Yet, others, however, (say) thus: not primal ignorance, but a distinct mode of primal ignorance, which of the form of sleep, and which, when there is the quiescence of the karma that brings about enjoyment
is

in waking, arises as veiling both the empirical jiva, the spectator of the waking world, who is of the nature

of a reflection, as well as the waking world seen by him, (that) is the material cause of the superimposition of

doubt or error such conceits as " I
brahmin, I

dream world. Nor is there no evidence for sleep being a mode of ignorance for, the empirical jiva, who is veiled by primal ignorance, who is the spectator of the waking world, who has in respect of himself without
the
;

am

a man, I

am

a

am a son of Devadatta", and by whom' such incidents of the waking world as the death of his own
grandfather are always experienced as of one un-

DREAM CAUSED BY MODAL IGNORANCE

289

obscured form in respect of himself because of his long
association therewith, if for him there were no obscuration by something at the time of dreams, then, in dream
too,

as in the state of waking, there

would be the

contingence of the non-existence of such delusions as

"I am a tiger, I am a sudra, I am a son of Yajnadatta" and of such (other) delusions as that of his grandfather
being alive j therefore, it is only for sleep that there is established the nature of a specific mode of ignorance,

which arises at that time and obscures the empirical world and jlva. Nor thus, because of the jiva too being
veiled, is there the contingence of the non-existence

of a spectator for the world; for, there is a merely apparent superimposition of the spectator, the jlva And thus, too, along with that of the dream world.

when

consciousness

is

called

up by karma which
is

brings about waking enjoyment afresh, there
tion of the

subla-

dream world, only by the cognition of the

nature of the empirical jiva, which has the capacity to remove the ignorance of the form of sleep, that is the material cause of (the dream) itself. Nor may it be
said that there being thus the sublation thereby even of its spectator, the merely apparent jiva, there would

not be the recollection " I experienced an elephant in the dream "; for, since the merely apparent jiva is superimposed on the empirical jlva, there is no undue extension even in admitting the recollecempirical
jlva's

tion of the (former's) experience.

is

positions stated earlier, that there superimposition of the dream world on undefined

Now, both the
or

3-541

intelligence

on

intelligence

as

conditioned

s

137

by

290
individuation, do the first (view),

CHAPTER
not
the

II

stand

to

reason;

for,

on

dream

they ness

space other conditioned by individuation, 80

occupy

elephant etc., since than that of the witcannot,
like

be manifested by that, independently of relation to a psychosis of the internal organ

happiness

etc.,

;

and the sense of

sight

etc.

being

quiescent,

the

rise of a psychosis is impossible; hence, there cannot

be manifestation by that, in dependence on the relation to that (psychosis); (while), on the second (view), " I there would be the contingence of (the experience)

am an elephant"
an elephant
3-5421

as of "This is silver", or of

"I

possess

"

as of

"I

am happy ".
:

Here, some justify the first view (thus) intelligence undefined by individuation is accepted as the
substrate of the

dream world, not as outside the body, but only as within it. Hence it is that absolute illusoriis

ness
is

declared of the dream-elephant
(in the

etc.,

since there

no space

body)

corresponding to their

perceived dimensions.

And

thus,

though the internal

organ, having no freedom (of action) outside the body, has need of the sense of sight etc., in order to originate,
in waking, a psychosis

whose sphere is the external thiselement of nacre and so on, yet, in the case of the
is

internal organ,

psychosis

(which) within the body is free, a possible of itself (i.e., without dependence
;

on any sense-organ etc.) therefore, there is no unintelligibility whatsoever in the undefined intelligence, which
36

The

witness,

who

is

conditioned by individuation,

is

the percipient,

but the dream cognitions are, on the first view, superimposed on undefined Intelligence, not on the percipient; hence the difference from the experience
of happiness
etc.,

which are superimposed on the

percipient,

DREAM SUPERIMPOSED ON UNDEFINED INTELLIGENCE 29 1
manifested by the psychosis of the internal organ within the body, being the substrate. For the same reason there is this statement of Bharatltirtha in the
is

Vivaranopanyasa: just
that
is

as, in

waking, the nescience,

present in intelligence as defined by the thiselement of the nacre manifested by the psychosis

generated by (sense-) contact, is illusorily transformed in the form of silver, similarly, in dream too, the
nescience, that is present in intelligence manifested in the psychosis of the internal organ within the body

when
when

there is the association of defects like sleep, may illusorily transform itself ijti the form of the universe,
in co-operation with the memory-impressions

of diverse objects called

up by the unseen potency
3*5422

(adrsta) (of past karma).
Others, however, say thus: undefined intelligence not the substrate of the dream world, as manifested

is

by a psychosis. For, the origination is not possible of a psychosis whose sphere is undefined intelligence,
except as based on verbal testimony, while the psychosis in the form I is seen to rise only in intelligence as
'

'

defined by individuation etc. Therefore, its substrate is that intelligence which is of itself immediate and is

undefined by individuation

etc.

Hence

it is

that, in the

Sanksepasariraka, there

is

(first)

the verse

"
:

The

delusive cognition of objects in the form of immediacy comes about in dependence on a substrate cognised as

immediate by the mind or of
sight; for

itself or

by the sense of

it is so cognised in dream, delusion etc."; after stating thus that the immediacy of the substrate needed by the superimposition cognised as immediate

292

CHAPTER

II

(comes) sometimes of itself, sometimes by a psychosis of the mind, sometimes by a psychosis of the external organs, the immediacy of the substrate is cited as resultsuperimposition, by the " immediately succeeding verses: Here, in dreams, is immediately cognised of itself; yet, even intelligence in the absence of its substrate, the content of the sense of sight (i.e., visual forms etc.), delusion arises

ing

of

itself

in

dream

repeatedly only as with (such) form, because of the instrumentality of the mind. Just like the delusion of
silver etc., in what is cognised by the sense of sight, so in the ether too, which is cognised by the mind, there is, because of the force of immediacy, the delusion which

to it such as whiteness/' be said that since the whole of intelligence undefined by individuation is veiled, there is no manifestation of it in the absence of a psychosis. For, it is

ascribes

various colours
it

Nor may

admitted that Brahman-intelligence alone is obscured, while the jlva-intelligence, which is a reflection (of the former) in nescience, is, though undefined by individuaAnd thus, the dream-elephant etc. tion, not obscured.
being

superimposed

on

intelligence

undefined

by

individuation, there is for the cogniser-intelligence too the empirical usage " I see this ", because of the manifestation of non-difference effected by the psychosis of the internal organ etc., which arises invariably at the same time (as the superimposition) and has for its sphere the substrate (of the superimposition). 87
37 If non-difference between the cognising intelligence and the substrate intelligence were not thus manifested by a psychosis, the dream

being imposed on undefined intelligence, the experience "I see an elephant" would not have been explained. The word "etcetera" after "internal organ"
includes the possibility of the psychosis being a transformation of nescience (avidya-vrtti) B uch as has to be postulated for the cognition of sleep.

DEFINED INTELLIGENCE AS THE SUBSTRATE

Yet
in

others, however, justify the second

view thus:

saying that intelligence defined by individuation is the substrate, it is not admitted that individuation
enters into the substrate-aspect as its proprium; rather,
it

that intelligence alone which is conditioned by individuation and is of the nature of a reflection therein,
is

that

is

the substrate ; therefore, there

is

not the contin".
3. 543 1

gence of experiences like

" I

am

an elephant

Thus, even nacre-silver is imposed on that reflection
of intelligence which
the nacre

and

is

defined by the this-element of present in the internal organ of which
is
;

there

is the psychosis for, if it were superimposed on the prototype intelligence which is defined by the this-

element of nacre and

is

common

to

all,

there would be

the contingence of the non-existence of failure to cognise by others, as in the case of happiness etc. ; 38 thus say

some.

Some

(others) , however, admit the superimposition

3,5433

of that even on the prototype intelligence, and justify the failure to cognise by others on the ground that what

has some one's ignorance as its material cause perceptible by that one alone, not by another jiva.

is

in the case of the superimposition of nacresilver, the experience of visibility is justified either

Now,

g.g

directly or through the channel of the cognition of the substrate, since that is needed; the experience of
38

alone, not

The experience of happiness etc. is cognisible by the experiencer by others; the same is the case with delusions; but this would
if

be unintelligible

common

to all experients;

they were superimposed on the universal intelligence hence the need for defining the substrate aa

reflected intelligence.

294

CHAPTER

It

visibility in the case of the

dream-elephant and so on,
not

how
3-61

is

that to be justified?
is:

The reply

in order to justify this,

it is

manifestation possible to predicate a merely apparent of the senses too, as of the dream body and objects, since
for the merely apparent, there
;

is

no reality except as

cognised while, in respect of the reality of the senses which are super-sensuous, uncognised reality would

have to be predicated.

Nor is it possible

to say

even of

the empirical sense-organs that they go forth from their respective orbs, locate themselves in the dream

body and apprehend their respective objects

;

for, at the

time of dream (sleep), there is declared of them quiescence consisting in the absence of functioning; further,
the empirical tactile organ, which exists in the interior of the body, devoid of empirical spatial properties
suitable to itself, cannot pervade the entire

dream body

which
30

is

(sometimes)

of greater

dimensions than

itself;

and if it (the tactile sense) were located in some one part (of that dream body), it could not explain (the dream experience of) cold touch in all parts,
generated by immersion in the water of the dream. Hence it is that there is refuted even the suspicion of
the explanation that in dreams, though the sense-organs of waking life are quiescent, there exist subtle senseorgans, which are parts of the subtle body, which are
39 The tactile sense is pervasive of the whole body, within and without; but since dreams are experienced within the lody, only such part of the tactile sense as is within can function, if at all; and this, of course,

does not pervade even the whole of the percipient's body or other similar bodies, to say nothing of bigger bodies like those of elephants, etc., envisaged in dreams.

NO SENSE-FUNCTIONING IN DREAMS
of service in the empirical usage of Taijasa (the intelligence of dream-consciousness), and that the sensory nature of dream objects is due to these; for, there are

not

known any

subtle sense-organs other than the senselife.

organs of waking

" Here, this person is selfFurther, (the text) " teaches the self manifest -luminosity of the self with
reference to the dream state, since, in waking, the self-

3-611

luminosity of the self is difficult to discriminate, because of intermixture with luminaries like the sun and because
of (the self) functioning through psychoses of the sense of sight etc. ; otherwise, since it is always self-luminous,
the
in

word " here " would be

futile.

Therefore, if even

dreams there be assumed functioning through
etc.,

psychoses of the sense of sight

then, even there, as in waking, its self-luminosity would be difficult to

discriminate; consequently the cited Scriptural text would be affected. 40

Now, in dreams, though there be assumed the quiescence of the sense of sight and so on, the internal
organ remains non-quiescent; since thus elimination (of all organs) is not secured, there can be no discrimination of self-luminosity. (If this be said), not so. " For, in the section (The self is the) agent, since the
sacred teaching (about rites) is purportful", it in the Nyayanirnaya that the internal organ
is
is

3-612

said

not

instrumental to cognition except in dependence on some other organ like the sense of sight; in the Tattavaprar

dlpika
40

it is

said that since that (internal organ) stands
its authoritattveness, i.e t , sublated.

In respect of

296

CHAPTER

II

as the object of cognition, through its transformation in the form of elephant etc., in dreams, it cannot, at that
all time, be the instrument of cognition; elimination (of organs) may result in either of these two ways. Nor,

if the internal
it

organ did not function in dreams, would be unintelligible for one who has woken up to recollect
etc.,

the elephant

seen in the dream; for, that is intelligible through the transformation of nescience settled (to exist) in sleep while, on the view favoured by the
;

" In sleep, what Vedantaliaumndl, (in the words) manifests ignorance, happiness etc. is but essential
intelligence as conditioned by that state ; the recollection

by one who has woken up is due to the memory-impression generated by the destruction of the state (of sleep) which is the conditioning adjunct," that in sleep there is no transformation of nescience, here too, the recollection is intelligible, because of the memory-impression

generated by the destruction of the dream state that

is

the conditioning adjunct of the intelligence that manifests the dream-elephant etc.
3-6 13
is

^r
dreams

e * se '

Because

^ such Scriptural texts as

" That

sattva

(i.e.,

", let

the internal organ) whereby one sees there be even in dreams, in the manner

mentioned in the Kalpatam, a psychosis of the internal organ, having the dream-elephant etc. for its sphere. Nor with this is there non-establishment of
for, the internal

elimination; as organ apprehended being always superimposed as identical with the jlva, its

"I"

distinction therefrom is not well

known from

the view-

point of ordinary experience; therefore, only the nonexistence of the functioning of the sense of
sight etc.,

SENSE-FUNCTIONING IN DREAMS DELUSIVE
is

297

needed for the sake of elimination; for, there being 41 the certitude that whatever is well known to be the seen is capable of being manifested by the seer, nothing else
Therefore, the of the sense of sight etc., in dreams, being functioning in any case impossible, the experience of visibility etc.,
is

needed for the sake of elimination.

in the case of the dream-elephant
delusion.

and

so on, is but a

Now,

in

dream

too, as in

waking, there

is

cognised

3-62

the concomitance of the experience of elephant etc. with the opening of the eyes and so on, so that when the

eyes are open there is experience of elephant etc., not when they are closed; if this be said, like the experience
eyes", this too may be some delusion, that superimposes on the experience of the dream-elephant etc., which is of the nature merely

"I see dream

the silver with

my

of the witness, either concomitance with the sense of sight etc., or a psychosis that is concomitant with that.

What

delusion, indeed, even though difficult to accomplish as it were, cannot maya accomplish, especially when transformed in the form of sleep, by whose might

the chariot cognised in the dream is in an instant cognised as a man and that again in an instant as a cat, while for the percipient there is no recollection of
conflict

between the earlier and later?

Therefore,

though there is parity in respect of the cognition of the concomitance of co-presence etc., it is only the

waking experience of elephant
41

etc.,

that

is

generated by

What

is

needed
;

of cognition (drSya)
since,

is the elimination of whatever may be an object the exclusion of the internal organ is not necessary,
it is

from the empirical point of view,

confounded with the seer.

5 1-3$

CHAPTER n
the sense of sight
etc.,

not the dream experience of

elephant
3*71

etc.

Those, however,
creation

who maintain

that perception is

(drsti-srsti-vadins) accept, for the whole world of waking, creation contemporaneous with perception, since the uncognised reality of what is assumptive is unintelligible; and they say that even the waking

experience of elephant etc., is not an object of the sense of sight, since the cognition of the concomitance of the

perception of pot
sight,

with the contact with the sense of which (concomitance) is irreconcilable with the
etc.
etc., is

prior to the perception, justified by them, only as in the case of dreams.

non-existence of pot

basing oneself on (the view of) perception as creation, one admits of the whole world of waking

Now,
it is

if

assumptive, who is he that posits it ? Is it the unconditioned self or the self conditioned by nescience?
that

Not the
person

first

;

who

even in release there exists the posits without the need of any other
for, since

instruments, the world would persist, and there would be non-distinction from the state of migration. Not the

second; for, since nescience has itself to be posited, the establishment of the person who posits has to be declared

even prior to the assumption of that (nescience).

some say thus: he who is conditioned by the earlier posited nesciences is he who posits the subsethis

To

quent nesciences.

And since,
it

in the case of the stream

of positer and posited,

cannot be said

"

This

is

the

VADA
first",

299

there

may

it

not the defect of infinite regress. 42 Nor " Since beginninglessness is admitted of be said
is
is

nescience,
silver,

assumptiveness, as in the case of nacreinappropriate; otherwise, the distinction

between what has a beginning and what has not a beginning would be unintelligible "; just as the tower
etc.,

posited in dreams,

is

in

some part posited as already

some (other) part, as originated at that time, even so, in waking too, some (part) of what is to be posited is posited as with a beginning and some (other
existent and, in

part)

otherwise;

hence,

with

this,

the

distinction

between what has a beginning and what has not a beginning is intelligible. Hereby is explained even the distinction between effect and cause. 43
44 are Others, however, say thus: nescience etc. reality certainly beginningless; in respect of these, it

m
is

3.712

not admitted that perception is creation, but only in respect of the (rest of the) world other than these.

Now, even
of ether
etc.,

thus,

who

is

he that

posits, in the case
etc.,

3.713

their creation, its sequence

which are

cognised from Scripture alone ?

No

one at

all.

What

42 A continuous stream has neither beginning nor end; and this no defect in what is recognised to be strictly like a stream; v:here, however, one arbitrarily assumes a beginning and says "This is first" the opponent can show that it is dependent on another and that on another, thus involving infinite regress; it is only thus that infinite regress can be
is

a

defect,

not merely because of the indefiniteness of a continuous stream.

43 With its consequence that the object, as cause of the cognition, should exist prior to and independent of the cognition.

44
are:

The

six beginningless ones, according to this school of advaita

jlva,

Isa,

pure intelligence, the difference between jiva and I6a,
of nescience to intelligence*

nescience,

and the relation

300
basis then,
self,

CHAPTER

II

have such Scriptural texts as

"

From

the

ether originated"?

3*7131

(then) that they have as basis the identity of the self and Brahman devoid of connection with the
universe.

Know

Since the comprehension of Brahman devoid of connection with the universe comes about through

superimposition and (subsequent) removal (thereof), as instrumental to that comprehension, there is in Scripture the mention of creation and destruction,

not because of (their) being the purport; this is loudly proclaimed in the Bhdsya etc. (It may be said) Then,
' i

the attempt
relating to

made
ether
45

in the quarters

(of the Sutras)
air
46

and the

vital

to

remedy

the

reciprocal

conflict

among
so
on,

the

Scriptural texts

about the creation of ether
that
(creation)

etc.,

about the order of
if

and

would,

there
in

be

no purport

(in

respect
;

of

them), be
is

vain."

Not

in vain (we reply)

for, that

(attempt) sets out

on an assumption (that Scripture

purportful in

regard to these), for the sake of understanding the principles (of interpretation). It has indeed been said " in the iSastradarpana: Assuming that the Scriptures have purport in regard to creation, this has been said
here; but that
identity of
is

not (really)

so, since

they have the

Brahman and

the self for purport ".

3.7133

The attainment of fruit by such observances taught
in Scripture, as the jyotistoma, is

on a par with the

attainment of fruit produced by observances taught by
45 46
Ved. SH.,
II, ill.

Ved. 8&.,

II, ir.

VADA

301

Scripture in dreams. And since, for the Scriptural texts about the jyotistoma etc., there is purport, in regard to Brahman, through the channel of the purification of the intellect, there is no non-authoritativeness (for them) the elaboration of this and other ways, in
;

which
is

the

position

that

perception

is

creation

supported, is to be seen, however, in the original works. This is one variety of the view that perception is creation, viz., that the creation of the universe is

contemporaneous with perception.

Another variety, however, of the view that perccption is creation is that which is thus shown in the Siddhantamuktavatt etc.: perception itself is the creation of the universe, since there is no evidence of the difference of the seen from the seeing; also because of the traditional Code "The wise ones declare this world to be but of the nature of cognition; others, of defective vision, are deluded and see it as having an
obj ective nature.
' '

3-72

preceptors, who gain no peace of mind on either variety of the view that perception is creation,

Some

3.3

prefer the view that perception is of the created. The universe is created by the Supreme Lord in the order

shown

in Scripture

and

is

certainly

endowed with non4

cognised reality;

when

corresponding means
said

in respect of each object the of knowledge turns up, there

results the perception of that (object).
:

" If thus there be no assumptiveness for the world, for that (universe) which has origination, des(then), truction etc., as understood from Scripture, and which has practical efficiency, as understood from perception

Nor may

it

be

302
etc.,

CHAPTER
reality alone

li

would have been admitted;"
it

for,

though there be not (mere) contemporaneity with the
assumption,
since
is

not,

like

nacre-silver

etc.,

generated by the three causes (of superimposition)
consisting in sense-contact,
defect, or cognition of the

memory impression and 47 substrate, memory impres-

sion

and

delect, yet there is admitted (for it) illusori-

ness, consisting in removability

difference of nature

by knowledge alone, or from both the real and the unreal,

or being the countercorrelate of the negation in all three times that is present in the locus of what is cognised; 48 on the view of reality, there would not be illusoriness
of the said nature in the universe; hence, there is difference (of the present view) therefrom.
3*81

Now,
etc.,

thus, even for individuation

and

its attri-

butes, illusoriness of the said nature results, as for ether

though there be no assumptiveness; hence, the 40 attempt made in the Bhasya, the tika and the Vivarma
to

show the threefold cause
is

in respect of their super-

imposition

in vain.
:

If this be said, the preceptor Citsukha says even for individuation etc., merely apparent nature is
47

Cognition of the substrate, in

its

general nature,

is

substituted

for sense-contact, since the latter is absent of the substrate fully, in its specific

from dream-delusion. Cognition nature too, removes delusion; this is
(jfiana),

what

is

referred to as knowledge

when

it

is

said

that the

illusory is

what

is

removable by knowledge alone.

Brahman
and

is used in the sense of locus (adhikarana). the locus of whatever is superficially cognised. In Brahman, the world is denied in relation to all three times that it was not, is not

48

The word "upadhi" here
is

will not be; hence, there, it is the counter-correlate of such negation*

The

translation of "pratipanno-'pftdhi" follows Krgp&nanda's commentary.

49

The

"tikft" in this context is the Paftcapadika.

PRACTICAL EFFICIENCY OF THE ILLUSORY
acceptable, since, like nacre-silver, they are cognised

303

by
3*82

the bare witness (intelligence).

The preceptor Ramadvaya says thus this (attempt to show the three-fold cause) is only an argument on an assumption (of the opponent's view) for, if from the " For intelligence which is the passage beginning with
:

;

evidence for the non-dual substrate, the Brahman-self", which establishes the three-fold cause there, intelligence

were the instrument of valid knowledge, there would result contradiction of the postulation of the Vedanta as instrumental and so on hence, it is clear that this
:

is

an extravagant argument (praudhi-vada). Now, since on both the views, that perception is creation and that perception is of the created, illusoriis

4-0

ness

admitted,

how

is

there practical efficiency for

what

is illusory

by nature'?
reply.

As

in

dreams we

Now, the

practical

41

nature of bathing etc., accomplished by the dream-water etc., is certainly unreal. But what is
efficiency, of the

accomplished with the water
is

waking experience, Practical efficiency of the same grade of reality (as the experience itself) exists without distinction in both thus say some.
etc.

of

that real?

50

:

The author of the Advaitavidya, however, says, thus: for dream objects, there is not merely such
60

4-2

The

to take the statement about the

translation follows the commentary. It is possible, however, water of waking experience to be not a

question, but a further affirmation of the objector, contrasting it with the dream content. The reply on either interpretation consists in pointing out that practical efficiency is in no case absolutely real, but corresponds to

th$ grade of reality of the experience,

304

CHAPTER

II

practical efficiency as is sublated

by waking;

for, in the
is

case of the damsel, the snake

etc.,

of dreams, there

seen

the generation of happiness, fear etc., unsublated by that (waking). For the happiness, fear etc., though gene-

rated by a dream content, no sublation is experienced immediately on waking; but since, on the contrary,

even immediately on waking there is seen the continuance of those together with mental satisfaction, quaking of the body etc., it is concluded that they are
certainly real even before (waking). Hence it is that for creatures there is desire again for the dream whose

sphere is the object that produces happiness, aversion to the dream which is not of that nature.
in a dream, the rise of happiness, fear
etc.,

and

And
like

which
it is

cognition, are of the nature of psychoses of the internal

organ,

is possible.

Nor may

it

be said that
etc.,

the

cognition of the dream-damsel

which produces

happiness
real
;

etc.,

for,

and that that (cognition) is certainly that too, which is of the nature of such
is is

psychoses as sight and touch and the witness of the dream world,

superimposed on
established to be

merely assumptive.

Indeed, for him whose senses are quiescent, real psychoses of the sense of sight etc. are not possible. Nor may it be said that the mere imme-

diacy of that content produces happiness, and that that (immediacy), being of the nature of the witness, is
certainly real; for, there being experienced different grades of happiness and different grades of fear, as in

touch as contrasted with sight, in the touch of the hand of the damsel as contrasted with the touch of the foot, and in the serpent's contact with a vital spot as

PRACTICAL EFFICIENCY OF THE ILLUSORY

395

contrasted with a non-vital spot, it must be said that in dreams too the respective grades of happiness, fear etc.
are generated by different grades of the assumptive
sight,

touch

etc.

Similarly,

in

waking experience,

darkness

is

4-3

assumed by one who has just entered a room, where there is a light which is capable of illumining pot etc. and is seen by another person present there; for this
seen such practical efficiency as is appropriate to well known darkness; for, by that (darkness) in respect of that (person) there is seen the

(darkness) there

is

obscuration of pot etc., the removal of that when a lamp or the like is brought in, and re-obscuration when that
is

taken away: thus too say some.
Others, however,

(say thus)

:

in such practical

4-41

efficiency as

tence of water

drinking and bathing, it is the bare exisetc., that serves, not the reality thereof; since for that (reality) there is neither causality nor
the determinant of that (causality), what (is the use) of it ? Nor, this being the case, is there the contingenee of such practical efficiency as is appropriate to well-

known water

etc.,

nacre-silver etc.

even for the water of the mirage, for For, on the view of the author of the

Tattvasuddhi and others (like him), that in the water of the mirage and so on, the class water-ness etc. does not
exist

and that consequently the designation of the " water " is due delusion with that content by the word
by a memory-impression of the former experience of what is so designated, there is not the
(alleged) contingenee, since there does not exist the

to its generation

3

139

306

CHAPTER

II

class water-ness etc., that brings

about the respective

practical efficiency.

4 42
*

those who, in the case of the merely apparent, adhere to empirical usage of the same class as that which was formerly seen, since even there the

On the view of

does exist, as otherwise there would be conflict with the delusion designated as qualified by that, and there would be the contingerice of the
class,

water-ness

etc.,

non-existence of activity in respect of that (delusion) on the part of those who need water, the non-existence
of practical efficiency here and there is intelligible, in some cases because of the destruction of the superimposition, root and all, when the substrate is known

some (other) cases because of the destruction of the superimposition alone by the cessation (even) of the general knowledge of the substrate, and in some (other) cases (still), where by the sense of sight there is the superimposition of fire etc. on red beads etc.,
specifically, in

because of the non-superimposition of hot touch

etc.,

that

cause burning, cooking etc.; and in some cases, some kind of practical efficiency has to be recognised further,
;

if

there has to be stated something which excludes the water of the mirage etc., and is of the nature of what
serviceable to practical efficiency,
it is

is

possible for

one to give up unsublatability in all three times, 51 which 52 is in conflict with Scripture and is impossible of

apprehension through perception
51

etc.,

and predicate

This

is

for practical efficiency;
will serve the purpose.

the kind of reality that is sought to be claimed to account it is here suggested that a lower degree of reality

52

I.e.,

those texts which declare the illusoriness of the world,

ILLUSORINESS OF THE ILLUSORY
serviceability to such practical efficiency as is appronot priate to silver etc., only of the silver-ness etc.,
53 therefore, since practical generated by special defects efficiency is possible even in what is illusory, the world
;

is

certainly illusory, not real.

Now,
world be

since, if illusoriness as
real, there

an attribute of the

4-5

would be

loss of the non-duality of

Brahman, that
;

(illusoriness) too should be said to be

but illusory consequently, whence the loss of the world's reality, when, in the manner stated by you, that the
illusory connection of

Brahman with

the world

is

not

opposed to
ness
is

its (real) non-connection, illusory illusorinot opposed to reality ?
:

To this it is said thus in the Advaitadlpika

illusori-

4.51

ness consists in having the same nature as the world of ether etc. And that negates the reality of the
substrate (of which it is an attribute). And in an attribute negating an attribute opposed to itself, it is established for both disputants that what is determinative

as

the possession of reality of the same grade the substrate, not of absolute reality for, in
is
;

pot-ness etc., which negate non-potness etc., absolute Since Brahman's reality is not admitted by us. connection with the world does not possess the same

grade

of

reality

as

the

substrate

(Brahman),

it

does not negate the non-connection with the world. Hence too is refuted (the view), that if illusoriness
is

empirical, opposed to that,
53
E.g., defects of

be

for

the
is

world's reality,

which

and

not merely apparent, there

the sense-organs.

308

CHAPTER
;

it

would be absolute reality for, if illusoriness, which of the same grade of reality as the substrate,
empirical,
empirical.
4-52

is
is

the

substrate

too

should

invariably

be

Or

else,

that attribute which cannot be

removed by

the intuition of its

own

locus, that is a negator of the

attribute opposed to itself ; for, there is seen the distinction that, in nacre, the identity with nacre, which cannot

be removed by the intuition of

its locus, is, opposed to

non-nacreity; while, in that very thing (nacre), the identity with silver, which is removable by that
(intuition of the locus) is not opposed to non-silverness.

And thus, since the world's illusoriness, though assumptive,
it is

cannot be removed by the intuition of the world,

certainly the negator of (the world's) reality. As for Brahman's connection with the world, since that

can be removed by the intuition of Brahman, it is not the negator of (Brahman's) non-connection with the
world.
4^53

Hereby is refuted the following view understood from verbal testimony be

:

" If Brahman
real,

reality

should be predicated of the capacity of verbal testimony, and of the authoritativeness of cognition through verbal

testimony

;

for, there

cannot be the establishment of an

empirical object through the statement of an untrustworthy person, which has merely apparent capacity, or
of a real object through such statements as those about the agnihotra, which have empirical capacity ; hence, the

invariably of that sense of verbal testimony which is of the same grade of reality as the capacity; and if authoritativeness consisting in non-

establishment

is

EMPIRICAL VALIDITY & CAPACITY OF

ABDA

309

sublation of content be unreal, the reality of the content would be inconsistent and thus, because of the existence
;

of a real object over
sarily exists
;

and above Brahman, duality necesetc,

consequently, even the world of ether

may be

Because, practical efficiency having been established even of the empirical, the establishment of the real Brahman even from what has empirical
real ".

capacity is possible because the reality of Brahman is " real " established from the existence of such terms as
;

in the

Vedanta whose purport is Brahman; because difference (from statements about the agnihotra etc.)
in that that (reality) is not established,

is intelligible

since such terms do not^exist in the texts about agnihotra arid so on, and since even where they do exist they are

in conflict with the stronger Scriptural texts about the non-duality of Brahman; because, the rule about the

sense of verbal testimony and its capacity having the same grade of reality has no authority; and because illusoriness is intelligible even of the authoritativeness
of the knowledge of the real Brahman, since it is associated with what is other than that, 34 in the same way as

the authoritativeness of the pot-cognition is associated with non-pot. Therefore, on the reasoning stated in the

arambhana
of ether

section, the illusoriness of the

whole world

etc. is

made

firm as adamant.

Now, though

illusoriness

may

be established of the

5-1

non-intelligent world of ether

etc.,,

by such words as

54 Validity consists in being that experience whereiji for what has Brahman-hood, Brahman-hood is cognised as the predicate; it is, therefore, associated with something over and above Brahman, viz., Brahman-hood; and in thus passing beyond the one absolute real, it becomes less than real,
i.c.,

illusory.

310

CHAPTER
55

il

arambhana,

since illusoriness is impossible in the case

are to experience release, it does not stand to reason that there is harmony (of the
of intelligent beings,

who

Vedantas) in respect of the non-dual Brahman. Nor can the earlier mentioned non-difference of these from
stand to reason, since for these, which are reciprocally different, non-difference from the one

Brahman

Brahman

impossible. Nor is their difference not established, since it is established by the distinctions of
is

happiness, misery
5.3

etc.

If this be said, no (says the non-dualist), since, on their non-difference too, that distinction is intelligible

even because of differences in the external adjuncts.
5-21

Now,

since their non-difference is not lost, even

though there be differences in the external adjuncts, how (can there be) the distinction? Indeed, the nonintermixture of conflicting attributes, which has to be explained through differences in the locus, does not
result

from the admission of difference in something

other than that.
5-211

To this some say thus
misery
etc.,

the distinction of happiness, does certainly result from difference in the
:

external adjunct,

viz.,

Desire, purpose, doubt, faith and Scriptural texts as the absence of it, firmness and the absence of it, modesty,

"

the internal organ, since by such

keenness of
alone/' and
55
I.e.,

intellect, fear, all these

are in the

mind

"

Vijnana

(i.e.,

the mind) performs the

world
Of
it,

is

"modification" of speech, that being the way in which the characterised by the Chandogya, on the advaitin's interpretation

SUKHA-DU9KHADI-VYAVASTHA
sacrifice ", it is that alone

31 1

which

is

declared to be the

locus of all evil, while by such Scriptural texts as

" Unattached indeed
unattached
is is

He Who is person", and indeed unaffected ", absolute indifference
is this

"

declared in the case of intelligence. Nor, this being the case, is there conflict with the experience of the
apposition of bondage, like agency, with intelligence; for, the internal organ being superimposed as identical

with intelligence, the experience of the attributes of that (organ) as in apposition with intelligence is intelligible.

Nor may

it

be said that,

if

the internal organ be the

locus of bondage like agency, the intelligent one would

not be the transmigrator

;

for, it is

admitted that his

transmigration consists only in being the substrate of the superimposition of identity with the knot of individuation,
for,
50

which

is

the locus of bondage like agency;

even with

this,

the conceit of the self as the locus
the conceit

of evil

is intelligible, like
etc.,

"

This

is

to be

the substrate of the superimposition of identity with the snake, which is the locus of fearfillness and it is in this view alone that there
;

" in the rope feared

are found texts of Scripture and the traditional Code, such as "As if contemplating, as if moving" and

"

The

self
'

confounded by individuation thinks
".

'

I

am

the agent

Nor may
self there are
56

it

be said: "Since in one and the same

superimposed the respective internal

heart, for

Individuation, the substrate of I-ness, is called the knot of the it is there that the strands of the self and not-self, the subject
object, the "not-this"

and the

and the "this" appear

to cross

and get

tater-twined, so that there is superimposition of either on tl^e other,

312

CHAPTER

II

organs, which are the loci of diverse happinesses miseries, the distinction of the happiness, misery

and
etc.,

a conceit in the self, does not result even thus "; for, just as in the case of the host of evil present in the internal organ, which has attained superimposition of identity, even of the reciprocal differences
is

of which there

therein, there is the conceit of (their) belonging to the is self; and the distinction in that (enjoyment)
intelligible,

through difference, which
self's

is

of the same
is

kind as the

experience of

evil.

Hereby

refuted

(the objection): "Though happiness, misery etc., are attributes of the internal organ, yet since the experience

of these
is

is

of the nature of the witness and since that

one, there does not result distinction in

enjoyment

consisting in the experience of happiness and misery (by different persons at different times)"; for, it is

only for that witness, which, by attaining identity with the respective internal organs, is differentiated through
the differences of the respective internal organs, that there is experience of the happiness, misery etc. of the
respective internal organs; hence, that distinction too
is intelligible.

5-212

Others, however, say thus since the inert cannot intelligibly be the locus of bondage like agency, (and) because of the aphorism "(The self is) the agent,
:

because the sacred teaching is purportful ", which declares the intelligent one alone to be the locus of these,
the locus of bondage is the reflection of intelligence in the
internal organ;
different

and

since this,

which

is

unreal, which is

(original) image, is different in each (individual's) internal organ, there are such distinctions

from the

SUKHA-DUSKHADI-VYAVASTHA
as learned

313

and unlearned, happy and miserable, agent
Nor,
thus the superimposed be the there the contingence of bondage
if

and non-agent.

locus of bondage, is

and

release

having

different

loci;

for,

since

this

reflection of intelligence is

superimposed on the absolu-

tely real jiva, which, as (intelligence) defined by the internal organ, is real in its essential nature and persists

admitted to consist in being the substrate of the superimposition of identity with the
in release, his

bondage

is

reflection of intelligence,

which

(reflection) is the locus

of agency.

The others, however, say thus: in the text wise ones declare him to be an enjoyer who is conjoined
Yet
with the body, the organs and the mind," enjoyership is declared of that intelligent being, who is conjoined with the body and the organs as auxiliaries and with the

"

5-213

mind, by way of identity; therefore, since through differences of the internal organ there are differences
in

what is

qualified thereby, there is distinction (because

of these latter differences).

Nor

is

there a difference

of locus (for bondage and release) in that bondage is for the (internal organ) qualified, while release is for the

pure

;

for, the

bondage present in the qualified does not

fail to attach to the substrate

(visesya), while (the substrate included in) the qualified is not other (than that pure one). 57
" " follows the explanation vigistasya 'natirekat viita-'ntargata-vigesyasya kevalad anatirekad ity The man with the staff is recognised to be non-different from the arthaft. man merely as man; this recognition is not sublated; therefore, the same man, the substrate in the cognition of the qualified-man-with-the-staff, is essentially identical with mere man; the difference, as qualified or as npt

57

The

translation of

of the commentator:

qualified, is assumptive.

SI

40

314
5 *214
Still others,

CHAPTER

II

the pure intelligent being be the locus of bondage like agency, since on the analogy of the redness of the crystal, there is

however, say thus:

let

admitted the superimposition of another agency etc., even on the intelligent being, because of the proximity
of the locus of agency etc., whether that be the internal organ or what is qualified thereby. Nor, because of that

being one,
intelligible

is

distinction unintelligible; for, that is

even because of differences in the external

adjunct, Nor may it be said that because of differences in one (thing), there cannot be a distinction among
conflicting attributes in another (thing)
;

for,

merely

through the external adjunct of the nature of the base
or the top, there
is

seen in the tree the distinction

between conjunction and the absence thereof; 58 it is also seen that in the case of the ether which has become the
59 sense of hearing, there are, through differences in the

adjunct,

viz.,

the

respective ear-cavities of various

persons, such diversities as perceiving or not perceiving sound, and perceiving what is high or low, pleasant or

unpleasant.
5-215

A few, however, say thus:

if the distinction

among

conflicting attributes has to be explained by difference

of locus alone, then, on the intelligent being alone, that
58

The same

tree

is

botli

conjoined

and not conjoined with a

monkey, according as we are thinking

of the base or the top of the tree.

The

difference of the adjunct, base or top, accounts for the distinction

between conjunction and non-conjunction.
59 According to the advaitavedftnta, the sense-organs proceed from the various elements; the element of ether becomes the sense of hearing; similarly, the element of fire becomes the sense of sight; and so on. See
the

gUKH A-DU#KHADI- V YAVASTHA
has been distinguished (from adjuncts),
positing of difference, because of the
adjuncts, since
it is

315
let

there be

influence

of

not admitted anywhere that only that difference, which has a non-assumptive locus, can
effect

the

60

distinction;

while,

through

differences

posited by such adjuncts as a gem, a mirror,
distinction is admitted

and a sword,

among such

attributes of the

face as darkness, fairness, roundness or length, and of a lamp (it is admitted) among such attributes as that

being nearer or farther away, through differences 61 posited by the adjunct, viz., the pressing of the finger.
possible to explain distinction as due to the influence of adjuncts, it should be determined

When
is

thus

it is

60

which

the adjunct that accounts for the jivas' nonrecollection of one another's happiness etc.

some say thus: the non-difference and difference of the abode of enjoyment constitute the adjuncts that account for recollection and non-recollecHere,
tion ; for, the pain defined by the body is recollected as defined by that, while the pain defined by the foot is not

6-1

recollected as defined by the hand, since there is not the cognition "I, as defined by the hand, experience the

pain defined by the foot
tion of the

".

hand

to

remove

then, is there operathe thorn that has run into

How,

the foot?
60

This operation of the hand
is

is

not due to a

Vyavastha
"

the

same word

distinction

both distinction and adjustment consequent thereon; " has been used throughout, but " adjustment "

should be understood where suitable.
61 The illustration is not very clear, but this seems to be what Is meant: when the finger is pressed against the eye-ball, a lamp in front seems either to advance or to recede, i.e., appear in front of where it
really
is

(paurastya) or behind where

it

really is (paScatya).

316

CHAPTER

II

recollection (of the pain) as (belonging to the self)

defined by the hand; since, as between the organ and the organism, the foot and the body, there is no difference, the pain defined by the foot is recollected as

I have (of the self) defined by the body, in the form a pain in the foot"; (the operation of the hand) is due to this recollection, rather. Thus, since there is no nondifference between the bodies of Caitra

"

and Maitra, the
recollected

pain defined by Caitra 's body defined by Maitra s body; nor
?

is is

not recollected as
it

as

defined by another organism common to both the bodies, since there does not exist even an abode of enjoyment
consisting in an organism common to both (bodies) therefore, there is not the contirigeiice of the operation of Maitra 's body to remove the thorn that has run into
;

Caitra 's body.
6-2

Others, however, say thus what accounts for nonrecollection is the difference of disjoined adjuncts. And thus, even if for that (self) defined by the hand there be
:

admitted recollection of the pain defined by the foot, there is no defect. Nor, this being the case, is there
the contingence of the recollection of the mother's 62 for what are happiness by the one in the womb, intended by the word "disjoined" are those which do

not enter as organs into a single organism, and the two bodies of the mother and of the (being in the) womb are
so (disjoined).

Nor may

it

be said that recollection
is

is

understood (to exist) even where there

disjunction,

62 The upadhis of the child and the mother, in this case, are not disjoined (vi61i?ta). To meet this objection, the word "vi$lii?ta" is more carefully defined in the next sentence.

SUKHA-DUtfKHADI-VYAVASTHA

317

because of the (following) statement of the Bharata: "Lo! even (headless) trunks, with weapons held aloft
in their arms,

and looking through the eyes in their own severed heads, felled down (their) enemies"; for, even there, the head and the trunk are such as can enter (and had entered) as organs into one organism further, when the head was cut off, there must necessarily have
;

occurred either swooning or death therefore, that kind of statement opposed to perception has for purport the
;

praise of the excessive enthusiasm of combatants, on the a fortiori principle; and even if it be a praise of the

having for content special persons endowed with such power, non-recollection being accounted for as a general rule by the (cause) set forth (by us) is not nullified. For the same reason, in the views stated arid to be stated, there is not the contingence of defect
existent, as

because of the recollection of what occurs in another
body, by yogiiis and those

who remember

(other) births.

Yet

others, however, say thus: the identity

and

6-3

difference of bodies constitute the adjuncts that account for recollection and the absence thereof, since, in the case

of the experience of infancy and another existence, there are seen (respectively) recollection and the absence
thereof.

Nor may

difference of

body be suspected even

as between infancy and youth, since there is recognition (of the body as one). Nor may difference in that be

understood because of difference in size;
differences of base
so, in the case of the

for, just as

by

and top in the case of the same tree, same body, the attaching of more

than one size is intelligible through difference in time. " Now, without the increase of parts, there is no

318

CHAPTER

II

" a difference of size, a difference of body is necessary ; if this be said, no (we reply) for, the light, which
is
;

difference in size, and the parts that arrive later do not attach to the body as it exists already; hence, if there

pervades the central hall of a story, spreads out simultaneously with the lighting of the lamp, and contracts
simultaneously with the veiling of it j by him who follows this (view of expansion and contraction), there is not

admitted the view of the creation (of the effect) from the primal atom onwards (by accretion) and on the
;

effect being an) illusory manifestation, the of the body is intelligible through maya, even growth without the increase of parts, in the same way as (that of) the body exhibited by magic.

view of (the

6-4

Still others,

however, declare the distinction bet-

ween

recollection

and non-recollection

(to

result)

through the non-difference or difference of the internal organs. And this view has been explained earlier.
6-5

Some, however, adopt the manifoldness of ignorances, which are the adjuncts for the differences of
the jlva, and declare the distinction between recollection and non-recollection (to result) through the nondifference or difference of that (ignorance).

6-61

Here some say thus
the aphorism)
77

"A

in the section (beginning with part, because of the teaching of
:

diversity

,

(there

are)

the
is

" Since the unseen potency
even in the case of resolve
be said

following aphorisms: not restrictive ", " And

etc., it is

(that enjoyment is)

" If it from attachment to a
the same ",

(specific) locality, no, because of its entry (into other

REPUTATION OP PLURALITY OF SELVES.
following these aphorisms and the commentary thereon, distinction be not admitted in
bodies as well)
;

"

if,

(the experience of)

one and the same self through

differences of adjuncts, then, even on the view of different selves, in the manneir of Kanada and others,

parity in the unintelligibility of the distinction (in respect of enjoyment). It is thus: when, by the thorn that has run into Caitra's foot, there is originated
there
is

pain for Caitra,

why

is

pain not generated for other

selves too, since, all selves being all-pervasive, there is

no difference (among them) as to the entry into Caitra's body? Nor is there the distinction that he, whose body the thorn has pierced and so on, for him
alone there is pain, not for others ; for, it is not possible to restrict the body, that is originated in the proximity

of

all

the selves, to belong to some one (self) alone, not

to others.

Nor

is

there the restriction that the body
to that

originated by some one's unseen potency belongs

one, since even for unseen potency restriction has not been established. When, indeed, in order to originate

that unseen potency, the mind unites with some one self, it certainly unites then with other selves too; when

com'mon, how can that unseen potency originate in some one alone? "Now, though the mere union with the mind is common, the resolve *I shall
the cause
is

attain this fruit', the volition that is favourable to the

act originating unseen potency, these and such others are distinct (for the different selves) hence, from this alone may result the restriction of unseen potency "; if
;

this be said,

(is the reply) ; for, resolve etc. being the conjunction with the mind, which originated by

no

320

CHAPTER

II

(conjunction) is common (to all selves), distinction is not established even for them. "Now, since cognition

with one's own mind

is

the cause of resolve

etc.,

the

conjunction of the mind becomes itself non-common "; that is not (so) for, it is not possible to restrict the
;

mind, which

is

eternal

and conjoined to

all selves,

as the

property of any one alone. Nor because of particularities of unseen potency does there result for particular
relationship of property and owner, in respect of the mind; for, even of that unseen potency, " as (said) before, distinction is not established. Now,
selves

the

03 though the selves are pervasive, only particular loci in them are subject to bondage hence, since, for other
;

selves, there is not (the occupation of) that particular locus in Caitra's body, there may be the distinction

among happiness, misery etc."; that is not when Maitra arrives at the very locus, which
left after

(so); for,

Caitra has

enjoying happiness etc., happiness, misery etc., are seen even for the former ; hence, into certain bodies there enter the loci specific to (unseen potency etc. of)
other selves too.

Therefore, even

if

the solves be

different, the distinction is certainly difficult io explain. And in explaining it somehow, it is proper to recognise

the unity of the self, because of conformity to Scripture and because of parsimony, and explain it on that
(basis)
alone.
6-62
is

" Let the
not easy to
63

selves, then, be but atomic, if distinction

make out, on

(the view of their) pervasive-

unseen potency &rayas sa eva

Prade6a, locality, is here used in the sense of the locus of the etc., belonging to the self: atmano yah pradeSo 'd 'tra prade6a-6abda-'rthah.

REFUTATION OP
ness
".

JIVA'S

ATOMICITY

321

Not

so; for, if the selves be atomic, the rise

sometimes of happiness in all the parts (of the body), which (happiness) is (yet) located in the hand, head
or foot, would be unintelligible.

a statement of what (some) moderns assume: because of the declarations of going up,

Here

is

6-621

departure and return being unintelligible otherwise, and because of the explicit declarations of atomicity in such " This self, whom these two, merit Scriptural texts as

and demerit, bind, is indeed atomic ", and "The hundredth part of the point of a goad ", the jivas are certainly atomic. Though they are atomic, there is no non-cognition of happiness in all parts (of the body),
since cognition, happiness etc. have the property of pervading localities extending beyond their locus, on

the analogy of the light of a lamp. Since jivas have 04 parts, in conformity with the traditional Code "Drona
a part of Brhaspati", there is no unintelligibility whatever in the simultaneity of the happiness, misery etc., common to the head, hands, feet etc., or in the
is

diversity of enjoyment of the yogins, who have entered a multiplicity of bodies. And thus, there being no confusion among the jivas, because of their atomicity,

there

is

difference

the distinction of happiness, misery from the Lord, who is pervasive.

etc.,

as also

To

this it is said (in reply) in the Advaitadlpika:

6*6221

even thus,

difficult to

For, avoid Caitra's recollection of the happiness or misery present in Maitra, in the same way as Caitra's
64.

how

does the distinction result?

it is

which

is

The word " smrti an itih&sa.

"

has been loosely used to refer to the

CHAPTER H
recollection

of

the

happiness

or misery present in

form " There is pain in the foot, but a pleasant feeling in the head". The difference of his members from the jiva, Caitra, is
different

members of

himself, in the

not, indeed, distinct
for, there
is

from that of Maitra (from Caitra) necessarily difference of the members from
;

the jiva, in the case of those who, in animating a
plurality

of

bodies,

are

capable

of

dissociating

(themselves from one body) and passing on to another; and difference cum non-difference is admitted by you, as between the members and the whole.
6-6222

be said that pure difference accounts for non-recollection. The purity of the difference
it

Nor may

should, indeed, consist in non-concomitance with the relation of member and whole or in non-concomitance

with non-difference.
taught to be a
texts,

Not the
of

member

being such Scriptural Brahman, by
;

first

for, the jiva

and aphorisms as "He is, " An eternal part indeed, a member of the Supreme ", of myself (having become a jiva) in the world of jivas,"
traditional Codes

"A part, because of the
the jiva and

teaching of diversity," there is the contingence of confusion of enjoyment, as between

Brahman. 05

Now
respect of

(it

may

be said) the jiva
in the

is

not a

member

in

Brahman,

same way in which the

members of the
65

jiva are in respect of the jiva; being a
the jiva are related as the whole and a

Brahman and

member;

pure difference is non-concomitant with this relation; therefore, there Is
not the condition which accounts for non-recollection; hence the possibility of confusion between the enjoyments of the two. The relation of aipSa

and amgin

is,

of course,

assumed by the advaitin

for argument's sake

t

REFUTATION OF AMSA-'MSl-BHAVA

member

is

(but) figurative

and

consists rather in being

inferior while being similar to that (other), as "The orb of Jupiter is a hundredth part of the orb of the

"; if this be said, (we ask) what other than this is membership in the principal sense which belongs to the members of the jiva in respect of the jiva and which
is
00 introduced into the body of what accounts for nonrecollection? It is not the relationship of creation as

moon

(there is) for threads in respect of cloth, since the jiva is beginning-less; nor is it a relationship of locality, as (there is) for pot-ether etc., in respect of ether at large ; nor is it that of being a piece, as of pieces of stone broken
off

with a chisel; for, being atomic, (the jiva) has no If it be said that localities and cannot be broken up.

to be different

and

(yet) non-different

is

what

it is to

be considered a member, no (we reply) ; for, in that case, there is the contingence of confusion of enjoyment

between the jiva and the Lord and among the jivas themselves for, among these, which are in themselves
;

admitted by you, because of (their) being intelligent further on the view of you, who maintain difference cum non-difference as between
different, non-difference too is
;

an assembly and

even reciprocal non-difference among the jivas included in a single
its

members, there

exists

assembly, since through the non-difference of (another from) the assembly non-different from oneself, the nondifference of oneself too
to avoid;
66
67
I.e.,

(from that other)

is difficult

67

for, the rule that

what
A lf

is

non-different

from
which
non-

"is

made a

constituent of."
is non-different

A, a

member

of the assembly

from

in turn ie non-different from another member, B; therefore, different from B,

A A

lf

is

324

CHAPTER

II

that which is non-different from another

is

non-different

from that other

68

is

admitted by you who say

" If for

conjunction etc,., and for the genus there be location in more than one, then, because of the non-difference of
the quality from what has the quality and so on, even for cloth etc., non-different from the conjunction that

non-different from pot, there would result nondifference from pot." Nor is there any other nonis

between members and the whole, which accounts for recollection even in the midst of difference,
difference

other than the non-difference based on such attributes

common

to other jlvas as similarity in respect of being

intelligent

assembly;

or in respect of being included in one (if there were such non-difference) its

mention could be intended, to avoid undue extension; for, if that were the case, it would follow that that alone
should be distinctively mentioned.
it is

If

it

be said that

distinctive of the non-difference between
to be based
;

members

and the whole not
etc.,

no (we reply) for, it difference is based on similarity of attributes etc., since, as between the jlva and its members there is similarity of attribute in respect of being intelligent and so on,

on similarity of attributes is the case that their non-

(membership of) an assembly, both when they (the jlva and the members) are defined by a single body, and when there is a gathering together

and

since there is

of a plurality of bodies (animated by different members of a yogin's jiva). If it be said that though there may

be another non-difference based on similarity of
68

attri-

That

IB to say,

that

A

which

is

non-different from B,

which again

is non-different

from

C, is non-different

from

C.

feEFUTATION OF PLURALITY OF SELVES.

325
its

butes

etc.,

the non-difference between the jiva and

members, based on the relationship of members to the \vhole, is not based on that (other similarity), no

(we reply), since there are not two non-differences between them; for, in your system, when the locus is identical, plurality is not admitted whether of difference
or of non-difference, either through difference in the counter-correlate or in the form of it. 69 Therefore,

undue

extension

is

well

established

on

the

first

alternative.

Even by

this is refuted the second alter-

native too; for, if difference non-concomitant with non-difference accounted for non-recollection, then, since, in the manner stated, there, is, in your system,

non-difference too between the jiva and Brahman, and among the jivas, undue extension would be difficult to
avoid.

the perception of non-difference that accounts for recollection, in its absence, there is non-recollection; since the non-difference of oneself

"Now,

since

it is

from oneself and from one's own members is perceived, there is recollection of misery etc., for him who sees that since non-difference from other selves though it may
;

perceptible to him, there is not the recollection of their misery etc. in the case of him, who remembers other births, since there does exist
exist
is
;

not

perception of non-difference from the self of the earlier existence, there is recollection of incidents therein since
;

for others there
(recollection)
69
I.e.,
;

is

all

not that (perception), there such things are thus consistent

is
".

not

If

in

what

defines the counter-coirelateness (pratiyogitva).

26
this be said,

CHAPTER

II

even on the view of the self as one, because of the ignorance that obscures its being the self of all, there is not for Caitra the perception of non-difference

from the

self of

Maitra

etc.

;

since all distinctions are
this,

intelligible

even

because of

the admission

of

differences in the self, in conflict with Scripture, is
futile.

6-624

Nor even thus can the distinction be supported by you who maintain the reality of the world; for, there being necessarily for the omniscient Lord the perception of the real non-difference from other jlvas, when
the jlvas are miserable, there is (for the Lord) the " I am miserable ". In contingence of the experience

our system, however, the Lord, though perceiving
transmigration in the jlva non-different from Himself, like the impurity in the reflected face, yet does not
grieve, because of the certitude of (its) illusoriness;

hence there
6-625

is

not that contingence.

"Be

this so.

Let not difference as among members

be the substrate of hands, head, feet etc., and of .the plurality of bodies (animated by a single jiva) since
;

for the lamp of the self there is the indestructible pervasive light of knowledge, that itself may become
If this be said, no (we reply) ; for, of the experience of happiness and misery, which, like knowledge, is an attribute of the self, origination

the substrate of

all ".

in dependence on knowledge is impossible; therefore, there is the contingence of the non-existence of diversity of enjoyment through differences of limbs
like

hands and

feet,

in the case

or

through differences

of the organism, of bodies, in the case of

REFUTATION OF PLURALITY OF SELVES.

337

him who

has

a

plurality

of

bodies.

If

it

be

admitted that experience of happiness and misery and so on is an attribute of knowledge itself and not of
the
self,

then, through their diversity, though difference

m'ay result for knowledge, which is an attribute of the self, difference does not result for the self; therefore, it
is

not possible through diversity of enjoyment and so on to negate the non-difference of the self; there is also
the abandonment of the view that, because of the the
locus
self,

of

enjoyment

etc.,

being

atomic

and

consequently delimited for each body, there is not the contingency of the confusion of the attributes of all,
as on the doctrine of its pervasiveness

and on the

doctrine of

Therefore, the explanation of distinction by admitting the atomicity of the self does not stand to reason.
its

non-difference.

Nor even does
difference of that

the establishment thereby of the 6-6261

( jiva)

from the Lord stand to

reason.

the view of you, who say that, because of the Scriptural declaration of going up etc., and the express Scriptural declaration of atomicity, the jiva is atomic, it would follow that even the supreme (self) is atomic,

On

because of the declaration of entry in such Scriptural texts as "Having created that, He entered that itself ",

"

"The two

He, who, having entered the people, rules them ", and entered, dwelling on the highest sumtnit,"

and because of the express declaration of atomicity in the Scriptural text "The small one, this mantra self,
within the heart, smaller than a grain of rice or a grain " of barley whence then the establishment of difference
;

328

CHAPTER

II

between the supreme (self) and the jiva through (their)
pervasiveness and atomicity (respectively)
6-6262
1

?

Now, (it may be said), the all-pervasiveness of the supreme (self) is established because of such Scriptural " declarations as All-pervasive like the ether and
" and " Greater than the sky, greater than heaven ", and because of being the material cause of the
eternal
entire universe; therefore, the Scriptural texts about

His atomicity should be understood to be for the purpose
of contemplation or (made) in the view of the difficulty of apprehending (Him) and the Scriptural texts about
;

entry are to be explained as relating to adjuncts like the body. Nor may it be doubted that even the
Scriptural texts about the jiva's going up etc. may be supported as relating to the adjunct, the intellect ; for,
(in the words)

up

after ",

" That (jiva) going up, the prana goes the going up of the jiva is mentioned even

as prior to the going
;

up

of the intellect, which is (here}

called the prana there is also the Scriptural declaration of departure, even after release from name and form, " (in the text) Thus, the enlightened one, released from

the Shining Person, who is higher than the highest ;" there is also cited the illustra-

name and form, reaches

naturally the locus of the text) "Just as a well laden waggon motion, (in
is

tion of the waggon, which

goes creaking, even so this embodied self goes forth
shouting,
6-6263

mounted by

the intelligent self".

If this be said, that is not sound (we reply) ; for, pervasiveness is declared even of the jiva in such'
Scriptural texts as

"He

is,

verily, that great

unborn

REFUTATION OF PLURALITY OF SELVES,
self,

who

consists of knowledge/'

" Just

as,

when a pot

is carried,

the pot alone
is

is

carried, not the ether enclosed
to the ether "; since,

by

it,

even so

the jiva

compared

in your system, material causality in respect of the world belongs to Primal Nature alone, there is not for

Brahman

the material causality of the world

;

further,

the material causality of the world is possible for it, though atomic, in the same way as the jiva's material
causality of the happiness and misery present in a plurality of bodies (animated by itself) ; for these two

reasons the pervasiveness of that (Brahman) is not established by that (material causality); if for the Scriptural texts about its entry there be assumed
reference to the body as the adjunct, in the case of the Scriptural texts about the jiva going up etc., it is
possible to admit

reference to the intellect as the

adjunct; since in the

" Five-fold activity
",

commentary on the aphorism

is

mind

difference is

taught (of the prana) as of the taught between the intellect and
it

prana because of difference in their products,
intelligible that

is

when the intellect-conditioned jiva goes

up

first, the prana goes after it; the Scriptural declaration of the attainment of Brahman after release from

name and form
the case of
jiva
that,

is

opposed to pervasiveness as much in
attained, as in the case of the

Brahman, the

who

Brahman has

In the system of him who maintains even after release from material name and form,
attains.

to be attained as associated with a nonmaterial world, form etc., since even for the jiva who attains there exist non-material body, organs etc., there
is

no opposition

to the declaration of the attainment of

330

CHAPTER

II

Brahman (by

the jiva) as conditioned by these if by the mere citation of the example of the waggon, the
;

natural locus of motion, there should result natural motion for the jiva, then, because of proximity to the
jiva, the natural locus of entry, in

" The two entered

the cave for

", it is

Brahman

possible to establish entry as natural too; for, the one word "entered", which

the jiva, should be said to have for purport a single form of entry. Therefore, since in the system of others, there is not established

attaches to both

Brahman and

the

distinction

between Brahman and the

jiva,

as

pervasive and atomic, the desire to establish difference thereon has to be left far behind. In our system, since
intermediate texts have to be interpreted in conformity with major texts, whose purport is the identity of Brah-

man and the self,

the explanation of the Scriptural texts making out the difference of the jiva from Brahman is in some such way as that pervasiveness belongs to the
jiva in his

own nature and

finitude to his

form as

the

conditioned by adjuncts; this (explanation) is clear in Bhasya etc. Therefore, because of the illusoriness
of the non-intelligent world and because of the nondifference of the world of intelligence from Brahman,

no conflict whatever in the harmony of the Vedantas in respect of Brahman that can be attained
there
is

by knowledge

alone.

END OF CHAPTER TWO.

CHAPTER

111.

Now, when it is said, in the traditional Code, "The means of attaining that, O Great Sage, have been declared to be knowledge and karma/' that karma too is a means of attainment, how can the attainment of

i-o

Brahman

be through knowledge alone? True, (but) " No other (there is) the Scriptural declaration path (is known)" etc.; further, nothing other than know-

ledge can be instrumental to the attainment of the eternally existent Brahman, (a process) analogous to

the attainment of a golden neicklet worn round the neck, but forgotten; because of these reasons, that kind of
traditional

Code

signifies the

need for karma (only)

indirectly, in the attainment of
is

Brahman.

What,

then,

the utility of

karma?
:

Here, the followers of the BMmatt view say (thus)
its utility is

H

in respect of (generating) the desire to know, which is a means of attaining Brahman, through the acquisition of knowledge; (they say this), because

of the text "This the brahmanas desire to know, by the study of the Veda, by sacrifice, by gifts, by penance, by
fasting." Now, why should it not be useful in respect of the knowledge (itself), which is to be desired? No
;

because of the sense of the suffix
signifying desire),
section

and

(i.e., the saw-suffix, because of the Bhasya on the

which

means
ledge,

III, iv, 27, on Sarvdpeksa says "Calmness, equanimity etc. are proximate to knowledge, being related (directly) to know-

commencing with

while

sacrifice

etc.

are

(comparatively)

CHAPTER

III

know."

external means, being related (only) to the desire to Now, if he, who practises sacrifice etc. for the

sake of the desire to know, has a desire (for the Veda), then, the desire to know exists already; if there is no
(such) desire, there cannot result any desire for the desire to know, which (latter) is instrumental to

knowledge hence, since there would be no performance of sacrifice etc. for the sake of the desire to know, it is not meet to hold that sacrifice etc. are applied (i.e.,
;

directed) to the desire to know.
reply).

He, who

If this be said, no (we has become lean because of distaste for

food, has, in order to

remedy that (leanness), a

desire,

of the nature of a turning to food; but there is not generated in him that taste (for food), which will lead

him
etc.

to activity in respect of it, because there is the defect of disordered humours, due to intense indigestion
;

hence, medicine

is

So

too, for the person,

who

prescribed to cure that disease. has, by virtue of the clarity

of intellect, generated by obligatory

and expiatory

rites

practised without a desire for fruit, during many prior existences, gained faith in respect of this sense (of
Sruti) that Brahman is of the nature of unsurpassable means of attaining that, bliss, and that knowledge is the (for such a one) there is desire, in the nature

of a turning towards the attainment of Brahman, and knowledge (as the means thereto) yet, such taste, as
;

will lead to activity in respect of hearing (study) etc.,

which are means of knowing Btahman, does not arise, because of obstruction by the defect of sins accumulated in (prior) existences without beginning, which bring about a leaning towards enjoyment of (sense-) objects,

KARMA INSTRUMENTAL TO KNOWLEDGE

333

in the same way as there is a leaning to prohibited acts, for a person subject to desires, even though he has faith in Scriptural authority; hence, as a consequence of the

removal of the obstruction, that (taste) is brought about through sacrifice etc.; (and) the prescription of these
is intelligible.

follow the Vivarana, however, say thus the rule, that of the two the sense of the stem and the sense of the suffix the sense of the suffix is of greater

Those,

who

:

force, is a general rule

of greater force than this is the .special rule, established by (a consideration of) such
;

texts as

"

He who desires heaven

"
etc.,

that the instru-

mentality taught by verbal testimony relates only to that which is taught by verbal testimony to be the object

In such wordly usage as "He desires to go on a horse, he desires to kill with a knife," the means, such as horse etc., are understood to relate only to the
of desire.

the object of the desire signified by the sansuffix. So, too, in the case of the prescription signified the imperative suffix, in such Vedic usage as "That by

going

etc.,

be -sought, that, verily, is to be desired to be known", "That is to be reflected on, contemplated."
is to

Hence,
ledge

sacrifice etc.

that

is

are directed) to knowsignified by the stem (in the word

apply

(i.e.,

vividisanti).
result the practice of knowledge; there right up would then be contradicted, in respect of renunciation consisting in the abandonment of karma, its subser-

of

Now, karma

this being so, there
to the

would

dawn

vience to knowledge, as established by the Scriptural " declarations like Only by him who has renounced is

CHAPTER
that to

III

known."
is

Before the seed
there
is

If this be said, no (we reply). sown, there is ploughing; after that,

results

no ploughing; thus, the growth of rice etc. both from ploughing and not ploughing; like-

wise in conformity with the saying

"For the

saint,

who

desires to attain yoga, karma is said to be the cause ; for the same person, who has attained yoga, calmness

(non-activity)

is

said
till,

to

be

the

cause,"

there

is

practice

of

karma

intellect, there is the rise

on the purification of the of a leaning towards what is

within

(i.e.,

the self), in the
;

form of a desire
thus
is

to

know;

thence follows renunciation

admitted the rise

of knowledge from both karma and the renunciation It is, indeed, said in the Naiskannyasiddhi: thereof.

"Karmas, securing
fication

for the intellect through
is

its

puri-

a leaning towards what

within,

achieve
at

Even on the view that karmas subserve knowledge, karma is practised only up to (the generation of) the desire for knowledge. If,
therefore,
this view
r

disappear, the end of the rainy season."

their

object

and

even

as

clouds,

it is

asked

"What

is

the difference between
to the desire for

and that of subservience

knowledge?" this (we say) is the difference; on the view that karmas subserve knowledge, even though they
are quiescent (i.e., are abandoned) after securing the desire for knowledge, which is a channel (to knowledge), yet

there

is

a rule (understood)

that they

generate knowledge by securing the means, which lead up to the fruit when accompanied by cessation of

unhindered hearing (study), reflection and contemplation, through the attainment of an
activity, viz.,

INSTRUMENTALITY OF ARAMA-KARMA
excellent preceptor.

335

the view, however, of their subservience to the desire for knowledge, they achieve
their

On

object even with securing an intense desire capable of generating activity in respect of hearing

(study)

etc.

;

hence, there

is

generate knowledge; this subserve purification consisting in the removal of impurities and the endowment of (good) qualities

no necessary rule that they is on the view that karmas

which secures capacity for knowledge of the self, a view founded on the traditional Code " Of him for whom these eight and forty purificatory ceremonies"
etc.

Now, of what karmas
the Scriptural text cited?
1

is

the application taught by

1-3

the

To this, Veda "

said by some by the words "study of the duties of the student are indicated ;
it is
:

1-31

similarly, the duties of the house-holder,

by the words

and by gifts" and the duties of the " forest-dweller, by the words by penance, by fasting";

"by

sacrifice

;

hence, it is the duties of the various orders of life that alone serve (to bring about) knowledge. Hence it is
2 that in the Vedanta Sutra

" Even (for him who

is

not desirous of release) the
life (is

karma

of his

own order

of

enjoined", there is used, in respect of karma (which is) for the sake of know" karma of his own order of life." ledge, the term
it is
1 The reference know" etc.
is

compulsory) since

to Bffc., IV,

4,

22, "This,

the brfchmanas desire

to

2

HI,

iv, 32,

336
1-321

CHAPTER

III

In the Kalpatarn, however,

it is

said thus

:

it is

not

the duties pertaining to the various orders of life that alone serve (to bring about) knowledge; for, the utility
in respect of knowledge, even of the acts of those, who,

are outside any order (of life), is 3 " established in the section Even for those outside
like
etc.,

widowers
orders

(the

of

life),

(there

is

competency

for

knowledge), that being seen." Nor may it be objected that this section is intended to establish, in the ease of

widowers

any order have (yet) had the desire for knowledge aroused in them by
etc.,

who being

outside

sacrifice

etc.

performed in prior

existences,
viz.,

their

competency for the means

of knowledge,

hearing

(study) etc., and (that it is) not (intended) to establish the utility of the karmas practised by them (in this
life) in respect of
4

knowledge

;

for, it is explicitly said in

an aphorism of that section, "And the promotion (of knowledge is bestowed on them) through special acts/' and in the commentary thereon, that even japa
(prayer) etc., which are duties pertaining to caste, as such, (not to a particular order of life, in the caste),
are useful in respect of knowledge (as for) the " karma of his own order ", in the aphorism expression
;

"Even (for him who is not desirous of release), the karma of his own order of life (is compulsory) since it
is

enjoined

",

that

is

caste as well.

In

this

used to imply the duties of (one's) view it is said: "Utility in
it

respect of knowledge exists even in the case of duties

other than those pertaining to the orders of life;
3
III, iv, 36.
III, iv, 38.

4

INSTRUMENTALITY OF ALL OBLIGATORY RITES

337

(belongs), however, only to obligatory (rites). Their fruit, viz., diminution of sin, is, indeed, needed by knowledge, not the fruit of karma performed for a desired

Just as, when subsidiaries, end, such as heaven etc." whose utility is settled in the archetype (the prakrti
rite), are transferred (to a vikrti rite),
6

5

no

utility

may

be assumed for them, other than that obtaining in the archetype, even so, of sacrifice etc., enjoined in the case
of knowledge, there may not be assumed, besides what (fruit) is settled for obligatory rites, i.e., the diminution of sin, any utility in respect of knowledge common to

v

both obligatory and optional

rites.

In

the

Sanksepasanraka,

however,

there

is

1-322

declared the application of both obligatory and optional rites for, there is no distinction in (the denotation of)
;

the words

" sacrifice "

etc,

The

subsidiaries,

whose

(in the Scriptural text). utility is settled in respect of

the archetype, are related to the modelled rite by transfer, only through the transference of their utility
as settled in the archetype; their utility is not assumed after their transfer; hence, there is not, in that case,

the possibility of assuming any utility other than that settled in the archetype. Here, however, sacrifice etc.
5
It

may

be said that though obligatory rites and optional rites (for

may

have different specific results of their, own, yet there be assumed some fruit common to both, so that both may subserve knowledge. Such a contention is answered in the next sentence.
particular ends)
6

Rite

may

be broadly divided into principal and subsidiary.

In

cases, a principal rite is enjoined together with its full complement of subsidiaries. This serves as the archetype (prakrti) on which are

some

modelled other (vikrti) rites. The subsidiary rites of the vikrtis have to be obtained by transfer (atideSa) from the prakrti, except where
explicitly prescribed,

R

I

4.3

338

CHAPTER

III

are primarily enjoined directly by Scripture; utility has to be posited later, in their case, as in the case of
subsidiaries primarily laid
transfer).

down (and not obtained by
assumed as
(which

Why,

then, should this not be

common

to all obligatory

and optional

rites,

are) understood by the (use of the)
(sacrifice),

general

name

even though this be not settled as necessary

to support the application (of sacrifice etc. to the pursuit of knowledge), as primarily understood? Even by

those
etc.,

who
it

inquire into (the regulations for) sacrifices

is

admitted that, in sacrifices

etc.,

there

is

(already) settled, only where are related (as subsidiaries to the vikrti) through things
their
utility

fixation to the fruit

(in

the

prakrti).

Where,

however,

utility is

posited after the relation of a thing (as a

subsidiary), utility, though not (already) settled, is to be posited in conformity with the nature of the thing which
is

applied (as a subsidiary). It

is

only in the acceptance

of this principle that in order to secure (an occasion for) the commencement (of the discussion) of the

nature of sublation, it is established in the beginning of the tenth chapter (of the Purva Mimamsa"), that (the
subsidiaries)

of the

archetype are related to the

modelled

rite,
it

Further, if

through their utility (in the former). be admitted that there is an injunction
rites,

only in respect of obligatory

because of there

being no (other)

settled utility, then, the injunction (in
if

by gifts" etc.) would be futile, diminution of sin from (the performance of)
sacrifice,

"by

the

obligatory

rites

and the

rise of

established; if

knowledge therefrom be otherwise they be not otherwise established, there

OPTIONAL RITES TOO INSTRUMENTAL

339

would be no distinction

obligatory and optional rites), since the origination of the service needed by knowledge is not settled (as the f rait even)

(between

of obligatory rites ; hence,

it is difficult

to avoid a pres-

cription common to obligatory and optional rites. Now, " it may be said, Though it is otherwise established of

obligatory rites (that their performance is) the cause of diminution of sin, in general, it is not established in particular that it removes the sin, which is an obstacle
to the rise of

knowledge but, when there is this injunction, obligatory rites being performed with a view to knowledge, knowledge necessarily comes about; otherwise, purity alone (would result) the rise of knowledge
;

;

being (thus) not invariable, the injunction is purposeful.'' (To this we say), then, even in the case of
obligatory rites, the channels (of knowledge), viz., the destruction of the sin that is an obstacle to the rise

of knowledge, and the unseen potency which secures the attainment of an excellent preceptor and hearing
(study), reflection have to be posited.
etc.,

are but unsettled as fruit, and Hence, there being no distinction

in the matter of positing utility that is not settled, there is no need to suspend the injunction common to

obligatory and optional rites, as understood use of the general term ("sacrifice").

from the

is it possible to support such 1*41 statements of traditional Codes, as "By karma alone did Janaka and others attain perfection " 9 They do

Now, even

thus,

how

not refer to the practice of karma as subservient to " knowledge; for, by the use of the word brahmanas "
in the text about desire for knowledge, competency for

340

CHAPTER ni

karma

as subservient to knowledge appears (to exist) only in the case of brahmanas. Hence, it must be said of the karmas practised by Janaka and others that they

directly serve (to bring about) release. Not so; for, " the use of the word brahmana " in the text about the

desire for knowledge is impficative of the three (twiceborn) castes. As the venerable author of the Vartika
says,

" The use of the word

'

brahmana here implies

'

all

twice-born persons, since there is no distinction in respect of the competency of all (these) for knowledge of the self." Nor is it proper to take the word

"brahmana'' as indicating a special kind of competent person, in the paraphrased (iiijunctive) form, "Let him who desires knowledge practise karma," which enjoins competency in respect of him who desires knowledge;
a qualification cannot attach to the subject (of the 7 Now, the injunction about the rajasuya, injunction).
for,

"Let the king who
sacrifice

is

desirous of absolute
",

empery

with the rajasuya

prescribes competency

him who desires absolute empery; this means "Let him who is desirous of absolute empery sacrifice with
for the rajasuya which is to be performed by a king"; the "king" thus prescribed as a qualification of the sacrifice, in the capacity of the agent, enters by

presumption (arthapatti) into the body of qualifications of him who is competent (to sacrifice), since no
not a king can accomplish a sacrifice that is to be performed by a king; even so, here too, the

one

who
I.e.,

is

attach, the injunction

the uddeya, the person desirous of knowledge. If it did BO would prescribe, for the performance of karma, two independent qualifications, brahminhood, and the desire for knowledge,
7

and would thus

suffer

from the defect

of v&kya-bheda or sentence-split.

NOT EXCLUSIVELY COMPETENT

341

" brahmana " prescribed as the agent in sacrifice etc. (for the sake of knowledge), enters by presumption
into the

body of qualifications for him who is competent

(to sacrifice).

Even

this is not intelligible.

For,

it is

established in the Stitra

"In any

case, the

same duties

performed), because of the two-fold marks", that, in the text about the desire for knowledge, there is an injunction relating to special fruit, only in
(have to
be

which have been already enjoined elsewhere (than in connection with knowledge), and that there is no injunction in respect of
respect of those sacrifices
etc.,

sacrifice etc. not

already established. Hence, if, in that one text, which is a supplementary reference to the sacrifice etc. already established, one understood two

prescriptions a subsidiary prescription of an agent, and a prescription relating to fruit, there would result the defect of sentence-split.

On the view (Now, it may be said as follows) which holds that there is no prescription of the king as
:

agent in the text about rajasuya, a qualified agency results even from the mere proximity of the word "king"; so, here too, in order that there may be no
sentence-split,

though the

"brahmana"

is

not pres-

cribed as the agent, yet performance by a brahmana results even from the mere proximity of the word

" brahmana

Hence, (the text) leads up to the (sole) competency of the brahmana. Even this (we reply) does not stand to reason. For, in the case of sacrifice
".

which are established elsewhere as competent for persons of (all) the three castes, and which are
etc.,

342

CHAPTER

III

prescribed as subservient to knowledge of the self for which persons of (all) the three castes are competent, it is proper that competency should belong to (all) the
three castes.
It is not possible to restrict this

compe-

tency by the mere proximity of the

word " brahmana,"

not conjoined to a prescription; hence, it is " " to imply the preferable to take the word brahmana
is

which

entire range of those

competent for knowledge, as

already established.

range of those competent be implied, then, since desire for knowledge may occur even

Now,

if the entire

to the sudra, there

would

result

competency for him

too,

in respect of

karma

subservient to knowledge.

If this

be said, no (we reply) ; for, on the ground that there is competency for Vaidika rites for him alone, who has
studied his section of the

Veda by adhyayana and has

knowledge of
knowledge
is

generated thereby, competency for denied in the apasudra section 8 in respect
it

of the sudra,

devoid of adhyayana, the hearing (study) of the words of the Scripture etc. because of traditional Code "Give not knowledge to a sudra ",
is
;

who

there cannot result for him, as a means (to release), even a superficial realisation of the glorious might of

knowledge hence, desire for that (knowledge) cannot
;

result; for these reasons, there cannot be for competency for knowledge. Thus say some.

him

1422

Others, however, say thus: there is competency for karma subservient to knowledge even in the case of the
8

The section

of the

competency

of the gatra for

Ve&Qnta Sutras, wherein is discussed the Vedanta study and is decided on adversely

to the ftttdra.

COMPETENCY OP THE UDRA

343

sudra; for, though there cannot be for him the study of the Veda, performance of agnihotra etc., yet there can be competency for the incantation of the

Pancaksara, which

is

the mantra-raj a-vidya,

and

(the

performance of) penance, gifts which are means for the diminution of sin, in the case of (all of) which competency for all castes is explicitly
Further, since the instrumental suffix is used independently in the case of each of the means, study of the Vedas, sacrifice, gifts etc., and since widowers and others are permitted the practice only
declared.

and paka-yajnas, 9

of incapiations, gifts etc., as subservient to knowledge, there is no need to combine the study of the Veda

(with these other means).
that desire for knowledge does not come about for the sudra. For, since there is the traditional
is it

Nor

Code "Discourse unto the four castes, placing the brahmana foremost " declaring competency for (all) four castes in respect of hearing epics, puranas etc., there can come about the desire for knowledge, even for him
(sudra), who has realised the might of knowledge from the puranas etc. As for the traditional Code " Give not knowledge to a sudra ", that prohibits the

imparting of knowledge (only) about agnihotra and other rites, which are not useful for his observance.

Or

there being no means for him to know even the duties of his own caste, there would result non-authorielse,
9

These seem to be

sacrifices offered in the
fire.

household
to

fire,

not in

the three-fold sacrificial
is

The competency
II,

of the gfldra for these

mentioned in HUrtta Smrti,

w.

11-14,

and referred

in Chapter X, 64.

The commentary on the

latter explains the

by Gautama term as

344

CHAPTER

III

tativeness consisting in non-observance for the texts

" The sudra is a fourth which specify his duties thus caste he is once-born (not twice-born, like the others) his (duties are): truth, freedom from anger, purity;
:

;

;

the cleansing of the hands
ro

and

feet,

which

is

according
10
;

some the only purificatory ceremony (for him, not
the
(all five

acamana, the ceremonial sipping of water)

kinds of) sraddhas; the support of servants; being content with a wife of his own

performance of
(caste)

;

service of the higher castes.

"
thus

Nor

does

the

apasudra
case

section

become

contentless.

In

the

of

the

sudra,

who

is

devoid of the purificatory
viz.,

rite,

upanayanfy
in

known

subsidiary to knowledge, as the approach to a

consequence of such texts of the " traditional Code as Neither is there sin for a sudra, nor is he fit for any purification, " that section denies
preceptor,

competency for meditation on Brahman as endowed with attributes (saguna) and for the hearing (study) etc. of the Yedanta as the means of knowing the
Attributeless.

It cannot negate the sudra 's desire for

the knowledge of the Attributeless, since that desire is prompted by the attractiveness of the subject and in
;

not prescribed, there is no possibility of competency (therefor), other than the desire for Nor it; hence, the denial of competency is improper.
is
10

the case of what

view, fiudras, like

Gautama mentions this women, have

ceremonial purposes. An some, bathing for gGdras consists in washing the hands and feet, while Gautama holds that they should bathe, but without any mantras.

as the view of some, since, in his own the duty of sipping once, not thrice, for alternative explanation is that, according to

COMPETENCY OP THE SfJDKA

345

may it be said that since hearing

(study) of the Vedanta does not come about for him, knowledge will not arise, even though the practice of karma subservient to knowledge

about, and that, consequently, his practice of the karma subservient to that end would be futile. For, though he has no competency for the

may come

hearing (study) of the Vedanta, competency in respect

means of knowledge, which consists in the hearing of puranas etc., whose purport is the unity of the self and Brahman, is shown by the Bhagavatpada in the concluding words of the commentary on (Sutra 38
of that
Since, moreover, there is the of) the apasudra section Discourse unto the four castes/ traditional Code
:

"

*

declaring competency for (all) four castes, in respect of the understanding of epics, puranas etc., it is settled,

however, that there
regard to
is 110

no competency for sudras (in 11 " And there knowledge) through the Vedas.
is

conflict in the siidra practising

karma subservient
the
rise

to

knowledge,

since

it

may

subserve

through creating (in another birth) the body of a person of one of the three (higher) castes fit for the hearing (study) of the Vedanta.
of knowledge

by the three higher castes of the meditation on that which is endowed with attributes (sagunavidya), whose
is

This

analogous

to

the

practice

fruit is release

by

stages, since it

(the meditation)

11 The punctuation, which is adopted in most printed texts and is followed by Thibaut, puts in a full-stop after "legends etc.", the words "it is settled" etc. commencing a fresh sentence. If this punctuation be adopted, there would be no point in including the second sentence in the quotation. The punctuation of the present text seems preferable, if the sense of this paragraph is to be conveyed with adequate force,

S

I

44

CHAPTER

III

subserves release through the creation of pure divine bodies (deva-sarira), fit for the rise of (the higher)

knowledge.
for content

Since, therefore, the

word " brahmana "

in the text concerning the desire for knowledge has
established to be competent for knowledge, there does result for the sudra too competency for karma subservient to knowledge.
all

those

who are

2*0

Now,

let it

be that

through the purification does renunciation (samnyasa) serve that (end)
2-11

karma subserves knowledge of the intellect; in what way
?

(thus) since the sins that obstruct the rise of knowledge are infinite, some are removable by
:

Some say

the practice of sacrifice etc., some are removable by the unseen potency from renunciation hence, renunciation too subserves that end (vi^., knowledge), only through
;

the purification of the intellect, in the

same way as

karma.
tise

And

thus, for those house-holders,

who

prac-

there

healing (study) etc., is attainment of knowledge, not in this

in the intervals of karma,
life,

but

only after attaining renunciation, in another life. As for those like Janaka and others, who attain knowledge,

even while being house-holders, their attainment of knowledge is due to renunciation in a prior life. Hence,
not even the suspicion of the inconstancy of unseen potency (resulting) from renunciation, in the case of knowledge.
there
is

2*12

Others,

however,
:

declare

its

subservience

to

knowledge (thus) in the text "Calm, tranquil, quiescent" etc., renunciation as understood by the wojxj

NEED FOR RENUNCIATION

34?

"quiescent" is included in the four means to knowledge; in the commentary on the aphorism sahakary-antaravidhih,
it is

declared:

"For

those

who possess
i.e.,

that, ie.,

for those
is
is

who

possess knowledge,

for ascetics, there

prescribed mauna (excellence of knowledge), which the third in relation to balya and panclitya"; for, in

the text "Therefore, let the

brahmana having acquired
understood for the ascetic
;

panditya"

etc., eligibility is
' '

from the earlier words they lead a life of mendicancy" further, it is said in the Varlika, "There is competency for what comes at the end of the Ihree Vedas, only for those who have abandoned activity without any residue, those who desire to overcome transmigration and those who desire to know the unity of the self ". For these reasons, the unseen potency from renunciation is a special qualification of him who is competent for the

'

means

to

knowledge such as hearing (study) of the

Vedanta.

however, (say) thus: since it is said in the Viv aroma, "Renunciation, being a subsidiary to
others,,

Yet

243

hearing
self

(study)
its

etc.,

produces knowledge
subservience
to

of

the

as

fruit",

its

knowledge
etc.,

consists in the generation of hearing (study)

free

from any other

activity

;

for,

when

there

is

a visible

channel (of utility), an unseen (channel) should not be assumed. If the non-indolent, intelligent, heroic man

can attain to hearing (study) etc., in the intervals of karma, even though stationed in other orders of life
(but that of the ascetics), then, a restrictive injunction has to be admitted, that hearing (study) etc., should

48

CHAPTER hi

be brought about only by holding to the ascetic's order 12 among the four orders of life.
2-14

Now, on both

these views,

how

is

there practice of

the hearing (study) etc. of the Vedanta by ksatriyas and vaisyas? For, renunciation is competent for the

brahmana
"
the

(alone), because of the use of the word " " (brahmana in texts about renunciation, such as Let

brahmana attain non-attachment", "Let the brahmana rise above ", " Let the brahmana renounce ", and because of the saying in the Vartika: " For the reason that the word brahmana is used in the text to make known the specially competent person, there is no prescription of renunciation for ksatriyas and
vaisyas
".
:

M41
"Or

If this be urged, some reply (thus)
else, let
life,

from the

text

one renounce even from the student's
or

order of

from the house

(-holder's) or the forest

(-dweller's)", which

makes no

distinction (of caste)

supported by the traditional Code "Let him renounce from the house (-holder's order), be he
is

and

brahmana, ksatriya or vaisya, (for) these four orders
(of life) are for (all) the three castes ", there results

competency for renunciation even for ksatriyas and
vaisyas; the use of the

word "brahmana",

therefore, in

other texts
it is

implicative of the three (castes). Hence that in the Vartika itself, after the expression
is

of

the
12

view of the Bhasya in the verse

(above

turbed

study

Renunciation does have the visible result of securing undisand so on. But those who have not renounced may

occasionally gain knowledge even in the intervals of karma.
this out, there is

To

rule

a niyama-vidhi as to renunciation.

SOLE COMPETENCY OF THE BRAHMANA TO RENOUNCE 349
cited)

about

special

competency,
his
is

there

is

shown

in the succeeding

verse
there

own view
ciation

that

Vartikakara's) competency for renun(the

even
that

for ksatriyas and vaisyas:

"For

the

reason

Scripture the renunciation of all the three (castes), without distinction, the use of the word 'brahmana' is for the purpose
is

there

declared

in

of implying
establish the

(all

the three)'

7 .

This

is

how

these

coming about of the practice of hearing
for those (two castes).

(study)

etc.,

brahmana alone for, the word " " brahmana is used in more than one text prescribing " brahmana " is renunciation; and though the word not used in the prescription of renunciation cited from
;

Others, however, renunciation is for the

say

thus

:

competency

for

3- 142

the Jtibala-sruti,

(none the less) relates to the brahmana in the text "He who wears no sacred thread
it

at the stage of renunciation,

how

is

he a brahmana ?",

which assumes competency for the brahmana alone, as
established by other texts.

(Further), in accordance

* with the principle of the virodM-'dhikaram, 1 only that sense of the traditional Code should be apprehended

as does not conflict with Scriptural texts.

As

for the

saying of the Vdrtika that renunciation is competent for all, that relates to the renunciation of the knower ;
it

does not, in conflict with the view of the Bhasya, have for purport the declaration of competency for
13

The maxim

is to

the effect that where there

is conflict

between

gruti

and smrti, the

latter is to be disregarded, while in the absence of

conflict,

a sruti in support of smrti

may

be inferred, though non-existent.

350
all,
iii

CHAPTER
respect

III

of

the

renunciation

by

the

dis-

knowledge. For, in the next verse, restrictive rules about competency are denied only in the case of the renunciation of him who
tressed

one

who

desires

knows, which (renunciation)

made by one liberated (even) while embodied, after the dawn of the knowledge " If of Brahman: knowledge which cuts at the root
is

of all competency be attained, on the strength of what may one lay down rules of competency in respect of

renunciation?"
the practice
;

Thus, renunciation

is

of

hearing

(study)

subsidiary to etc., only for

brahmanas for ksatriyas ami vaisyas, competency for hearing (study) etc. is not dependent on that Thus is upheld the practice of (renunciation). hearing (study) etc., by those two (castes). On the
view that renunciation
etc., it is

is

needed for hearing (study)

not possible, verily, to lay
etc. is

down a

rule that

all

hearing (study)
tion)
;

for, in the case of those

dependent on that (renunciawho have attained the

nature of divine beings by saguna meditation, which brings about release in stages, there has necessarily
to

be predicated non-dependence on renunciation for hearing (study) etc.; for, since for divine beings there is no possibility of engaging in karma, there

cannot result for them renunciation consisting in the

abandonment of that (karma).
2*143

Yet " words

others, however, say thus: he, of

whom,

in the

He who is

well-established in

Brahman

attains

immortality ", Scripture being well-estaor ending in Brahman, that is to say, being blished,

declares

NON-ELIGIBILITY IN

THE PRINCIPAL SENSE OP THE KATRIYA ETC.

351

fixed therein,

which consists in not engaging in any
for

other activity,

him there

is

eligibility,

in the

principal sense, for hearing (study) etc.; for, constant enquiry is prescribed in such texts of the traditional

Code as " Going or standing, aiwake or

asleep,

he whoso

mind

not directed to the enquiry (into Brahman) is said to be dead", "Spend thy time in reflection on the
is

Vedanta, right up to sleep, yea, right up to death". And this being well-established in Brahman does not come about for those who remain without renunciation,
in other orders of
life,

because of distraction due to the

performance of duties prescribed for each one's order (of life) hence, for ksatriyas and vaisyas, devoid of renunciation, there is no eligibility in a principal sense
;

for hearing (study) etc. For these (castes), in whose case there is no prohibition as for the sudra, there
is,

rather, as in the case of

widowers

etc.,

permission for

such hearing (study) etc., as will bring about knowledge in another body, because of eligibility merely in a nonprincipal sense; this is on the principle enunciated in the Bliasya on the section antara ca'pi tu taddrsteh
:

"Further, knowledge, which has a visible result, makes any one who seeks it eligible for hearing (study) etc. even by the mere absence of prohibition". Nor
be said that, in the said section, the eligibility recognised for widowers etc., who do not belong to any order of life, is in the principal sense ; for, it is made clear by the aphorist himself in "Better
it

can

than
to

this,

an

however, is the other (i.e., belonging asrama), because of indicatory marks"

that their eligibility is non-principal.

Nor may

it

be

352
objected that what
is

CHAPTER

III

mentioned
etc.,
14

is

not their eligibility

at all for hearing (study)

but the fact of their acts

favouring knowledge;

for, that is

opposed to the

already cited BMsya on that section, to the effect that knowledge has a visible result. (It may be objected
that) if there be eligibility in a non-principal sense for

ksatriyas and vaisyas, because of absence of renunciation, then, for the

same reason, there would be

eligi-

bility only in a non-principal sense for divine beings

hearing (study) etc.; and it would necessarily have to be said of those who, after having attained divine bodies through saguna meditation that
too, in respect of

brings about release in stages, practise hearing (study) etc., that they should be reborn as brahmanas, in order
to be capable of renunciation, for the purpose of

know-

ledge; hence, there would be conflict with such texts

and aphorisms as " He, who

attains the

world of

Brahma does not

return again",

"

Because of the decla-

ration of non-return", and so on. This too may not be said ; for, since for divine beings there is no distraction

through karma to be practised, the not engaging in any
other activity results of itself in their case; hence, because of the authoritativeness of the teaching which
prescribes saguna meditation as producing release by stages, eligibility in the principal sense is admitted for

those (divine beings) even in the absence of renunciation.

1H431

Now, by those who are
sense, the inquiry into the
14

a non-principal Vedanta has to be undereligible in

Through some apflrva result

POSSIBILITY OF FRUITION IN

ANOTHER BIRTH

353

taken for the purpose of the visible result of understanding the sense of the statements (therein), in the

same way as the unprescribed inquiry
15

into other

sacred teaching; how, then, can it serve towards the attainment of knowledge in another birth? It is not,
indeed, proper to hold that the inquiry of to-day is the cause of the realisation on a different day of what is

inquired into; remote indeed is the possibility of the causation of that in another birth.

(Now), the hearing (study) undertaken even by
are eligible in the principal sense has but a visible result, realisation being a visible result; it
ascetics
is

who

" determined (however), in the section Even here, if " there is no active obstruction, that being seen that this (hearing), which does not generate its fruit in this
birth,

because

of

obstruction

by

a

variety

of

prarubdha-karma, does generate
birth, the obstruction being

its fruit in

another
be so,

removed;

this

may

even in the case of that (hearing etc.) undertaken by those eligible in a non-principal sense. This too, may not
be said for, on the view that hearing combined with the
;

other subsidiaries inculcated by the sacred teaching is the object of an apurva-vidhi, it generates an apurva

leading up to the result; or, on the view that it is the object of niyama-vidhi, it produces the adrsta conse-

quent on the restrictive complementation (niyama) ; and it is proper to hold that that (adrsta), like the
adrsta,
15

which brings about remembrance of another

Like the inquiry into the NySya &c.

S

I

45

354
birth,

CHAPTER
rouses

III

impressions belonging to a former existence, and links up the inquiry, which is at their root, with subservience to knowledge in another birth
hearing, however, which
inculcated by Scripture
is

;

devoid of the subsidiaries
here, devoid of renuncia-

(i.e.,

tion), cannot generate the adrsta; whence, ihen, the intelligibility of its subservience to knowledge in

another birth?

For, there

is

undue extension

(of

principle) in recognising that, in the absence of

an

adrsta to link up, the functioning of means of knowledge in one birth is the cause of realisation in another birth.
2-1432

The reply is: the hearing (study) that has to be performed by him in whom has arisen the desire to
know, though he be qualified but in a non-principal sense, is prompted by the apiirva generated through the former practice of sacrifice etc., for the sake of
knowledge, which (practice) generates the channel, The very same apurva viz., the desire to know.
functioning up to the stage of the fruit, viz., knowledge, links up the hearing (study) effected by it, as subservient even to knowledge in another birth in this there On the view that there is no is nothing unintelligible.
;

injunction in respect of hearing (study) etc., since even that hearing (study) which is performed in the wake of renunciation does not generate any unseen potency,

the fact that, where there are obstacles, it causes knowledge in another birth alone has to be explained
16 only thus.

16
earlier.

That

is

to say,

through the apdrva of

sacrifice etc.

performed

POSSIBILITY OF FRUITION IN

ANOTHER BIRTH
:

355
2-1433

The preceptor, 17 however, says thus

this is the only

explanation possible even on the view of there being a restrictive injunction (in respect of hearing etc.) for,
;

prior to the attainment of fruit by the repeated practice of hearing (study), the unseen potency, consequent on
the restrictive complementation, does not, for the most part, arise. For, that has to be accomplished by the
exclusive practice of hearing (study), characterised by The repetition until the attainment of the fruit.
restriction to hearing (study),

which generates the un-

seen potency consequent on that restrictive complementation, cannot, verily, be accomplished by the bare

commencement of the hearing (study), which ought
be repeated
restrictive
till

to

the attainment of the fruit

;

in such a

case (indeed), the unseen potency consequent

on the

generated by that (much of hearing), might be considered to arise, even
is

complementation which

prior to the repetition of hearing (study) till the attainment of fruit, Since it is only as characterised by
repetition that hearing, in the
is

same way as pounding,

a means to the
is

fruit, prior to the origination of that

thing which
baseless.

the

means

to the fruit, the talk of the
is

accomplishment of that restrictive complementation

Further, if the restrictive complementation were secured even with the bare commencement of

hearing (study) or pounding, even with that would be secured the observance of 18 the teaching of restrictive complementation; hence it would follow that even though it were not repeated there would be no defect.
17
J.8

Vivara^a-'carya.
I.e.,

confonpity

to.

356
2-144

CHAPtER in

Some, however, say thus to the hearing (study) of the Vedanta, though it has a visible result, there belongs the origination of an unseen potency of its own, on the
:

From the daily authority of such statements as this hearing (study) of the Vedanta, conjoined with devo' '
:

tion,

and gained through serving a preceptor, one

obtains the fruit*bf eighty krcchras". Because of the force of (such) statements, the subservience to two ends
is

intelligible,

in

the same

way

as the ceremonial

kindling of fire, which serves to purify the fire, yet because of being enumerated among the ceremonies

which purify a man, serves that latter purpose too. Thus, the subservience of the means, viz., hearing (study), reflection and contemplation, to knowledge in a hereafter, is only through the might of the unseen
potency generated by daily hearing (study).

30

^Thus, the attainment of knowledge is through the channel of the practice of the means hearing (study), reflection etc. There being agreement among all in this

matter, Bharatitirtha, in the Dliyanadipa, declares yet

another means to the attainment of knowledge. There are seen such statements of Scripture and the tradi-

"That cause is to be " That comprehended through sankhya and yoga ", state which is reached by sankhya, that is reached by yoga too." Hence, in the same way as the sankhya,
tional Code, as the following:

which

word a means

the inquiry into the Vedanta, denoted by the hearing (sravana) and aided by reflection etc., is
is

to the attainment of knowledge, even so is the/

contemplation of the Nirguna Brahman, denoted by the

word yoga.

Nor may

it

be objected that there

is

no

CONTEMPLATION OF THE NIRQUtfA
contemplation at all of the Nirguna. For, in the Saibya-prasna of the Prasmpanisad, contemplation is

He, again, who contemplates the Supreme Person with this very " etc. The Nirguna syllable OM of the three matras
:

taught of the Nirguna alone, in the words

' '

designated as the object of sight, in the next text about the fruit of contemplation, "He

Brahman, that

is

who
that
tion

sees the (Supreme Person,

who

is

higher than this

collective soul
itself,

(Hiranyagarbha), resting in the city",

not anything else, is the object of contemplaeven in the text about contemplation; for,

seeing and contemplation, which are effect and cause, are confined to the same object. This sense is recognised by the author of the Bhdsya and others in the section on
the object of sight (Iksati-karma). The contemplation of the Nirguna is elaborated even elsewhere, in other Scriptures like the Tapanfya, the Katha-valli etc.

Further,

it is

shown by the aphorist himself,

in the

quarter (of the Sutras) relating to the combination of attributes, which is commenced for the purpose of

determining the

attributes to be

contemplated (in

different meditations), that, even in the case of the Nirguna, there is combination of positive attributes like

knowledge, bliss
etc.,

etc.,

as

shown

in the aphorism, "Bliss

since they belong to the subject", and of negative attributes like non-grossness etc., (as shown) in the aphorism "But the (denials of) conceptions concerning

the imperishable (aksara) are to be comprehended, on account of the equality and of the object being the same,
as in the case of the upasad; this has been explained ".

58

CHAPTER

111

Now,

if it

be said that, where there
bliss,

is

combination
is

of attributes like

what

is

contemplated
:

not the

no (we reply) for, contemplation is possible in the form "I am that impartite, homogeneous Brahman qualified per accidens by bliss etc., and

Nirguna at

all,

non-grossness etc.," without detriment to the attributelessness (of

Brahman).
because of the text

Now,

if it be said that,

"

Know

that alone to be

Brahman, not this which is contemplated here", the Supreme Brahman is not the object of
contemplation, no (we reply) for, then, because of the " text It is, verily, other than what is known ", it would
;

follow that It cannot be the object of knowledge either. If it be said that, since Its being the object of knowledge
is

known from other texts, the text about not being known signifies not being really an object of knowledge
(over against a subject), then, since contemplation
is

thereof

well

known from

the Atharvana-sruti

etc.,

even the text about Its not being an object of contemplation signifies its real nature (as not an object over

And thus, they for whom, in accoragainst a subject) " dance with the text, Of which many are not able even
.

to hear'

hearing (study) etc. do not result, because of dullness of intellect or failure to obtain an eminent
,

7

preceptor skilled in explaining the principles (of interpreting Scripture), those persons, having obtained a superficial understanding of the unity of the self and
learnt by adhyayana, an intuition of the contemplated attain by Nirguna Brahman, even without an inquiry into that (#edajuta), through the practice of the contemplation,

Brahman, through the Veclanta
stages to

CONTEMPLATION OF THE NIRGUtfA

359

of Nirguna Brahman, ascertained from preceptors whose knowledge extends only to traditional practice ;
this (contemplation) is declared in the

Prasnopanisad

of its observance, etc., and the teaching of the mode which lies scattered in many branches (of the Veda), in the writings of sages, in codes like the Brahma, VasistJia, etc., and in other works like the Panclkarana, is brought together, in the same way as the teaching

about agnihotra
sdtras.

brought together) in the KalpaOn the analogy of the illusion that does not fail
(is

to accord (with experience in practice),

even contempla-

tion

may

in

some cases lead

to true knowledge, at the

time of fruition.
five

On

being asked by one

cowries in one's hand

"How

who conceals many copies are

there?", if a person replies "five cowries", even in the absence of basic evidence in the nature of knowledge of
the particular

number which should be

the basis for

framing the answer, (that reply) of the nature of an
arbitrary supposition yet happens to be true. Even thus, contemplation of Nirguna Brahman does not

stand

in

need

of

the the

indubitable
object as

basic

evidence

which

discriminates

of

the

nature

(contemplated), and is to be performed in dependence on the teaching of contemplation alone, in the same way
as the contemplation of the small ether within the heart etc. ; yet, the intuition of its own content, which the

contemplation of the Nirguna generates, in the same
19 This work, attributed to SaAkaracarya, starts with premising an inquiry into samadhi and ends with saying that samadhi consists in remaining rooted in non-difference, holding firmly, "I am the self, the I am Brahman itself". witness. > not ignorance or its products, but " For the present context, the emphasis is on the word
.
.

360

CHAPTER

III

way

as the contemplation of the

small

ether

etc.,

necessarily relates to a true content, even like the intuition generated through

means of knowledge like hearing
is

(study) the two)

etc.
:

This, however,

the difference (between

for the person devoid of obstacles, the intuition of Brahman comes about soon, through the channel of

hearing (study)

etc.;

hence the path of sankhya

is

the

better alternative.

Through contemplation, however,

(the intuition comes) with delay ; hence the path of yoga
is

the inferior alternative.

Now, on both of

these views,

what

is

the (specific)

instrument for the intuition of
4-1

Brahman?

Some say

that

it is

but deep meditation consisting

in the repetition of a cognition; for, this exists as contemplation from the very first in the path of yoga,

and

as contemplation succeeding reflection in the path of sankhya. Nor is it that there is no evidence of its

being instrumental to the intuition of Brahman; for, " there is the text Thereupon he perceives that partless

one

contemplation is settled to be the instrument in the love-lorn swain's

by contemplation";

further,

intuition of the absent adored one; moreover, in the sections "Up to death, for then too it is thus seen

There is option, the results being (in Scripture) ", and non-different ", in the case of those who contemplate
the small ether
is
etc.,

"

admitted that

as (identical with) themselves, it through deep meditation there is
is

intuition of the
4-11

Saguna Brahman that

contemplated.

Now, deep meditation not being enumerated among the means of valid knowledge, the intuition of Brahman

DEEP MEDITATION AS THE KARAtfA

36

1

generated thereby cannot be valid knowledge. Nor can validity result through the non-sublation of the content,
as in the case of the supposititious knowledge of the particular number of cowries, which happens to accord

(with fact, only) in the manner of the crow causing the fall of the palm-fruit for, that which is not based on valid evidence cannot be valid knowledge the activity
;

;

of supposition, like the activity of contemplation, being a mental act other than cognition, validity is not

admitted of
content
is

it,

as in the case of desire, even

where the

not sublated.

Not

so

(we reply)

;

for,

though not based on

4-12

established means of knowledge, validity is intelligible, as in the case of that modification (vrtti) of maya,

which belongs to Tsvara; 20 further, there is agreement (between the two cases) in respect of non-sublation of
content

deep meditation on cither of the paths is based on the understanding of the identity of the self and
;

resulting from the Vedanta, whether subto inquiry or not; and jected hence, even the intuition
is based on means of valid knowledge. It has indeed been said by the author of the Kalpataru " The immediate cognition
:

Brahman

of

Brahman generated by deep meditation

generated by contemplation of the knowledge generated by Vedanta texts does not become delusive 21 because 22 of the strength of the basic means of Nor knowledge.
20

ISvara

is

on the analogy of the

said to be omniscient. There must be a vrtti for vrtti of the internal organ for the
jlva.

Him.

maya
21

A

vrtti of

is

therefore postulated and the postulation

is valid.

22

Like the love-lorn swain's intuition of the absent adored, I.e., the Vedanta texts,

S

I

46

CHAPTER
is

III

there the contingence of validity being extrinsic; 28 for, the purity of the basic (means of knowledge) is considered only for refuting (the possibility of)

exceptions
4- 2

".

Others, however, say thus: the mind alone is the instrument of the intuition of Brahman, because of

such texts as

" This subtle
is

mind", "(This)
etc.
;

be understood by the seen by the concentrated intellect"
self is to

for, there is settled of it instrumentality in respect

I ", of the valid knowledge consisting in the psychosis in the case of the conditioned self. It is taught to be
thus even in the following words of the Pancapadikavivarana: " Of the internal organ, which is the means
of the knowledge of the cogniser
etc.,

"

of a nature

opposed
text

to the

dream-world"
his

etc.
'all

"He

thinks (in dreams)

Moreover, in the this is but myself,
(i.e.

I

am

all,' this is

supreme world

enjoyment),"

the instrumentality of the mind is accepted even in the intuition of Brahman in dreams, there being no other

instrument (active) then. Deep meditation, however, is of service as an auxiliary to the mind. For, there is " the saying of the Bhdmati: The internal organ, aided

by maturity of contemplation of the sense of the

text,

manifests in the case of the immediately experienced denotation of the thou 24 its being the denotation of the
4

that,*

through

adjuncts."

negation of the respective Even in the text " (Becoming) pure of

the

23 The Vedantins, unlike the Naiyayikas, hold that the validity of a cognition is self-revealed, not revealed by something other than that, e.g., an inference based on practical efficiency.

24

In the Upani$adic text "That thou art/'

THE MIND AS THE KARANA
intellect

363

through clarity of knowledge, thereupon he perceives that partless one by contemplation ", contemplation is accepted only as the cause of mental " concentration signified by clarity of knowledge". Deep meditation is not, however, of itself the instrument; for its instrumentality in respect of knowledge
not settled anywhere and the instrumentality of the mind itself as aided by deep meditation being intelligible even in the case of the intuition of the adored by the
is
;

lover

and

so on,

it is

not proper to assume another
is)

instrument of knowledge (whose instrumentality not settled.

Yet

others, however, say thus: (1) because of the

4.3

declaration of release while embodied (jivaiimukti), on the rise of the intuition of Brahman, immediately after
instruction by the preceptor, in such texts as
verily,

"

To him,

this", "He shows what is beyond "That person knows who has a preceptor, darkness", for him there is delay only so long (as he is not released from the body)", (2) because of the declara-

who knows

tion of the non-expectancy of

say) contemplation, in the text

any other (instrument, " Those who have well ascertained the purport of Vedanta lore " etc., and (3) because of the declaration of Brahman as knowablo " through the Upanisads alone, in the text That person " propounded in the Upanisads etc., only the major texts of the Upanisads are instruments for the intuition
of

Brahman, not the mind; for

the intuition of

Brahman

is

instrumentality to denied by the text " That
its
".

which

is

not thought by the mind

(text) relate to the

Nor does this immature mind; for, all mind ia

364

CHAPTER

III

" That understood in the complement of the text by

which the mind, they say,

is

thought."

be objected that the instrumentality of verbal testimony too is denied in respect of that

Nor may

it

Brahman, by the text) "That which is not expressed by speech' '; for, even those who maintain the instrumentality of mind have to admit of verbal
(intuition of

testimony that

it is

instrumental to the mediate cogni-

tion of the non-particularised (Brahman) ; in confor" That from which words return mity with the text

together with the mind, failing of attainment ", this (other) text should be said to have for purport the
denial of instrumentality in respect of that (intuition) for verbal testimony, through its primary significance
consisting in the comprehension of the sense expressed by the word; hence there is not opposition to its

instrumentality in respect of that, through secondary implication consisting in what is related to the

expressed (sense).

Nor may it be said that the instrumentality of the mind too, as established by the text " By the mind alone
to be seen ", cannot be set aside; for, the instrumental case (in "by the mind") is intelligible even on
it is

being a cause (not the distinctive cause), since concentration thereof is needed even in the generation of intuition through verbal testimony; for,
its

account of

(usage) is seen in hears with the mind"
this

"He
etc.;

sees with the mind,

he

the the

declaration of the

instrumentality of the

mind by

Bhasyakara in the

IMMEDIACY OF COGNITION THROUGH SABDA
gloss

365

on the Gltd

is set

forth to express a view different

(from his own).

25

Now, even

thus, it

may

immediate cognition testimony whose nature
is

be said, the generation of not consistent with verbal
it

5.1

is

to

generate mediate

cognition.

To
itself

this

some say thus: verbal testimony, though

devoid of capacity (therefor), does give rise to immediate cognition, when favoured by (the presence
of)

the mirror, viz., the mind, which has attained concentration on Brahman through the host of

impressions generated by the repetition of the cognition preceded by the hearing" of and reflection on the sacred
teaching; this is assumed in the same way as that the oblation made in the fire consecrated by the purifiin the sacred teaching generates an unseen result; for, there is the authority " of sacred teaching (here too) He who knows the self
crosses sorrow"; the superimposition of agency etc., which is immediate, cannot cease in the absence of

catory ceremonies laid

down

immediate cognition of the locus (the self) since in respect of Brahman propounded in the Upanisads no other means of knowledge can apply, if immediate
;

cognition be not originated even from verbal testimony, impossibility of release would follow. Others, however, establish it thus, in conformity with what is seen it is seen that an intuition of the lost
:

5 2
.

damsel
25

is

generated by the mind, when in conjunction
is

Presumably the view

that of the vrttikara

who comes

in for

criticism so often in the &<lrlraka-*bh&$ya t

ggg

CHAPTER

III

with intense meditation, though by

itself

it

is

not

capable of (creating) anything external; hence, the generation of immediate cognition even by verbal
testimony, as in conjunction with contemplation, stands to reason.
5.3

others, however, say thus what is called the immediacy of cognition consists in its having for content

Yet

:

an object which is immediate, .since 110 other explanation (of that immediacy) is possible. Nor does the immediacy of the object consist in its being the content of immediate cognition, so as to involve reciprocal
dependence rather does
;

it

consist in the non-difference

(of the object) from the intelligences of the respective individuals (who cognise) thereisnoiion-pervasion (of the definition) in respect of any case, since the internal organ and its properties (pleasure, pain etc.), being posited in the witness, are non-different therefrom; and
;

for the pot
is,

posited in the intelligence outside, there because of the manifestation of non-difference of the
etc.,

intelligence outside
tive

from the

intelligences of the respec-

individuals, as effected by the psychoses, nondifference from those (individual intelligences). Nor does immediacy result for merit, demerit and impres.sions,

there being no distinction in respect of their being posited in the witness, in the same way as the internal organ and its properties like cognition; for

'they

while it imperceptible, is admitted only of a perceptible inert substance that there is immediacy when there is non-difference from
(merit
etc.)

are

intelligence.

And

thus, since

(Brahman)
all

is

ever non-

different

from the

intelligences of

persons, and since

IMMEDIACY OP COGNITION THROUGH

ABDA

367

(knowledge from verbal testimony) has for content an immediate object as stated by Scripture itself in the " That " immediate Brahman" in the text words Brahman which is direct, immediate ", the declaration
of immediacy of the knowledge of Brahman through verbal testimony stands to reason.

even

The Advaitavidyacarya, however, says thus

:

the

5-4

immediacy of cognition does not consist in (its) having an immediate object for content, for, it does not cover the cognition, immediate in nature, of the happiness which is of the self's nature, since self -luminosity is denied to be that which consists in having itself, for
content rather
;

thus) just as in the case of respective objects immediacy of the object consists in the nondifference from such intelligence as is favourable to
(is it
:

26 even so the empirical usage in respect of itself, of cognition consists in the non-difference immediacy

of

the

intelligence,

favourable

to

the

respective

empirical usages, from the respective objects. And thus, tliis immediacy is an attribute of intelligence
alone, not, however, an attribute of the psychosis of the internal organ, like the attribute of being inferential

knowledge.

Hence

it is

27

that there is immediacy in
is

respect of the witness whose nature
26
All objects being superimposed

to illumine
always

on

intelligence, they are

yet they are not always immediately present; hence the qualification "favourable to empirical usage in respect of itself, i.e., at the stage when it is defined by a psychosis whose sphere ia
non-different therefrom;

the particular object.
27 Because immediacy is an attribute of intelligence, not of a psychosis; on the latter view, happiness etc., being witness-revealed, not psychosis-revealed, could never be Immediate,

CHAPTER
happiness
(resulting

III

etc.,

from
is to

objects),

and of the

intelligence

which
dicted

is

illumine the happiness of the nature of the self. Nor is this contra-

whose nature

by the

experience

(of

immediacy)
;

in

the

psychoses of the senses, in respect of pot etc. for, it is intelligible that that experience has for content the

immediacy present
psychosis.

in the intelligence as defined

by the

Now, the immediacy (here) declared in the case of the cognition and its object, is unduly wide, as applying to the psychosis, viz., verbal knowledge having for its sphere the heart etc., (which are within the body and

do not require the going forth of a psychosis), as
also

the

content
there

of be
at

that

perchance, of the psychosis and the content (as there may well be, both being within the body), the manifestation

if for, (knowledge) some time a conjunction
;

of the non-difference of the psychosis-defined intelligence from the content-defined intelligence could

If this be urged, no (we reply) for, a mediate psychosis is not capable of removing the

not be avoided.

;

ignorance investing the content-defined intelligence ; hence, for the content-intelligence obscured by ignor-

ance there

is

no manifestation of non-difference from

the non-obscured psychosis-defined witness-intelligence ;

hence there
it is

is

no

28 possibility of immediacy.

Hence

that though, in the stage of transmigration, there is in fact non-difference of the jiva from Brahman, there
28

Either for the heart
Is

etc.,

cognitions, of the nature of intelligence defined

which are mediate, or for the mediate by & verbal psychosis etc,,

whose sphere

the heart

etc.

IMMEDIACY OP COGNITION THROUGH SABDA
is

369

no immediacy thereof; for, there is the difference effected by obscuration due to ignorance.

Nor thus does there result lack of omniscience (for Brahman), there being for Brahman too no immediacy
of the jiva; 29 for, since ignorance
is

not an obscuring

agent in respect of Isvara,

does not bring about in Him (cognition of) difference from the jiva; the ignorance, which is an obscuring agent in respect of a particular person, brings about in respect of that person
it

alone, (cognition of) the difference

from its own locus. 30

Hence

it is

that,

when by

Caitra's cognition his igno-

rance of the pot is removed, Maitra's ignorance, which has not been removed, brings about the difference of the

(from himself) in respect of Maitra alone; consequently there is no unintelligibility
content-intelligence

of Caitra's experience of the immediacy of the pot.

Now, if thus immediacy, which consists
festation of non-difference
doifined

in the mani-

between

intelligence

as

by the psychosis and as defined by the content, be brought about by the removal of the ignorance present in the intelligence defined by its own content, it could not be what brings (the immediacy)
about the removal of ignorance; hence, knowledge as such (not immediate cognition) would be what

removes
reply)
29
;

If this be no (we ignorance. said, for (of the knowledge that removes ignorance)
this very

On

ground of the existence of difference effected by
is

obscuration due to ignorance.
30

intelligence,

That is, difference whose counter-correlate which is the locus of that ignorance,
I

the object-defined

S

47

370
there
is

CHAPTER

III

the qualification that that cognition alone, which, when arising, does, because of the excellence of its cause, arise only as in conjunction with its
content,

removes

ignorance,

since
thus,

sense-cognitions
since

are of this

character.

And

Brahman-

though arising from verbal testimony, arises only as in conjunction with its own content, cause viz., Brahman-intelligence which is the material
knowledge,
of
all,

its

capacity

to

remove ignorance, and

its

immediacy, because of the resolution of difference grounded on that (ignorance), with the removal of
ignorance
these are quite intelligible.
thus,

should there not be immediacy through the removal of primal ignorance even by the knowledge of that (Brahman) generated by the

Now,

why

Vedanta learnt through repetition (adhyayana) ? Nor may it be said that that is not what removes ignorance,
since
for,
it is

not of the nature of certitude of existence

even thus, that (ignorance) being removed by

him who has performed the hearing (study

indubitable knowledge through verbal testimony for of the

Vedanta), there would follow the futility of reflection If this be said, no (we reply) for, though etc.
;

indubitable knowledge

be present as the result of hearing (study), ignorance is not removed, because of the obstacle, the defect of mental distraction; in the

may

removal of this (obstacle), the practice of the content
of the restrictive injunctions

contemplation

is fruitful

;

and and in the case of one who has
as to reflection

conquered mental distraction by the practice of reflection etc., in a former existence, the (realisation of the)

COGNITION OF POT

&c.

AND IGNORANCE OF BRAHMAN 371
is

immediacy of Brahman through the bare teaching
(certainly) to be recognised.

Now, even thus, in the case of him who has performed contemplation, why should there not be removal of ignorance concerning Brahman, through the knowledge of pot etc., in the same way as through the knowledge of Brahman? Nor may it be said that,
since that (knowledge) has not Brahman for content, there cannot result therefrom removal of ignorance

6-1

concerning Brahman; for, of such psychoses of the intellect as "'the pot is real ", it is admitted that

Brahman

as reality is the content.

Nor may

it

be said

that when, by the psychosis with the form of pot etc., ignorance relating thereto is removed, the intelligence
defined thereby shines forth as reality even by selfmanifestation and that this (intelligence) is not the

content of a psychosis in the form of pot etc.; for, if it were not (the content), then, knowledge \vould

have the pot for content, while ignorance would have
for content the intelligence defined thereby; consequently, by the knowledge, which has a different content, there could not be the removal of that ignorance for, the pot is not the content of ignorance since there
;

can be no obscuration in respect of what is inert. Nor may it be said that though the psychosis, in the form of pot etc., have for content the intelligence
defined thereby, there cannot result therefrom the removal of primal ignorance, since it has not the form of impartite bliss; for, that form is absent even from
the

generated by the Vedanta. Verily, or bliss-ness is not present there as a impartite-ness

intuition

872

CHAPTER

III

mode, as (otherwise) there would result detriment to the Vedantas having an impartite sense consisting in the generation of valid knowledge whose sphere is not
the relational

Nor may

it

be said that there

is

a

restriction as to the removal of that (primal ignorance) that knowledge alone which is generated by the

by

Vedanta; for, when there does exist other knowledge too, whose nature is settled to be the bringing about of
the removal of ignorance,
it is

any such
even the

restriction.

Nor

not possible to effect may it be said that since

defined intelligence, psychosis in the form of pot

whose content
etc.,

is

the

has not for content that which
ignorance,
viz.,

is

but posited, it the content of primal
is

the true, undefined intelligence,
is

and

that consequently there

the

form of pot

etc.,

not for the psychoses, in even the settled cause (of removal)

consisting in having the

same content as the ignorance
though the defining element defined is of the nature of nonis

desired to be removed
there be posited, what

;

for,

is

posited intelligence, which

the content of primal
it

ignorance j

if this (too)

were posited,

would be inert

like pot etc.,

and could not be the content even of modal ignorance; consequently, modal ignorance should be
said to have for content the non^posited intelligence, which is the content of primal ignorance; and even the

which removes that (modal ignorance) should necessarily have that (non-posited intelligence) for content hence, even on this view, the
cognition of pot
etc.,
;

contingence of the removal of primal ignorance by that (modal knowledge) cannot be helped.

SENSE-PSYCHOSES CANNOT GRASP BRAHMAN.

373
6-2

To
is

this the preceptor replies thus

:

intelligence

not the content of a psychosis generated by the sense " of sight etc. for it is taught by such texts as His form does not stand within the range of vision; no one
;

perceives him with the sense of sight ", "The selfexistent forced the senses outward; therefore they

perceive what is without, not the self within ", that it is incapable of being perceived by the sense of sight etc., in the same way as primal atoms etc. there is also the
;

qualification

"Him who

is

propounded

in

the

Upanisads ". Nor is there conflict with the statement " The nature of Brahman being settled of the Vartika
to be such as

ever

"

cognitions whatsoetc.; for, that has for purport the being known

may

be

known by

all

in a figurative sense by the psychosis (in the form) of pot etc., since, when the psychosis in the form of

pot etc. arises, obscuration is dispelled, and Brahman, of the nature of self -luminosity and reality, becomes, like the pot itself, the object of empirical usage, in the

words " the

pot is real ". And the dispelling of obscuration by the cognition of the pot etc., is intelligible even because of the latter having pot etc,, for content;
are also the content of ignorance, since modal ignorances are experienced to have pot etc. for
for,

pot

etc.

content, in

"I know not the pot by cognition of the pot,
;

ignorance of the pot

is

destroyed ".

Nor may
etc.) it is

be said that there (in the case of pot not meet to recognise ignorance, the function
it

of obscuration being absent, while the non-manifestation of that (pot etc.) is intelligible even because of the

374

CHAPTER

111

obscuration of the intelligence that should reveal it and is detfined by it; for, though, in the manner
indicated, being directly the content of ignorance is denied of the inert, yet being indirectly the content of

admitted, in that for the luminosity of intelligence as defined by the inert there is obscura-

ignorance

is

tion

by ignorance, and that thence

results for the inert,
intelli-

though conjoined to the eternal luminosity of

gence, the capacity for such empirical usage as

"It

does not exist, it is not manifest "; for, that which is obscured by ignorance directly or indirectly, it is the having of that as content by a cognition, which

what causes removal of that ignorance. 31 Nor does it follow from this that, since in the manner
constitutes

stated pot etc.

the contents of primal ignorance too, there should be the removal of primal ignorance even with the intuition of pot etc, ; for, on the strength

may be

of the result (we conclude that) effective-ness in the removal of that (primal ignorance) belongs to that

(knowledge) alone, which has for its content what other than the effects of that (primal ignorance). 32

is

Or

else,

the inert is not
;

a content of primal

ignorance at all but the respective inert things are the contents only of the modal ignorances located in the
defined intelligence as, otherwise, if the intelligence of
31 For knowledge and ignorance to be opposed, it is enough that there should be some identity of content; the content need not be the same in
all respects.

32 The content of primal ignorance, other than its own effects, is Brahman; and primal ignorance can be removed by Brahman-knowledge alone, since we see from the event that it is not removable by any know-

ledge short of that.

THE INERT
(i.e.,

IS

THE CONTENT OP MODAL IGNORANCES 375

defined by) a piece of sandal wood be manifested by a psychosis of the sense of sight, there would result immediacy even for the smell associated with that,
while, if that (intelligence) be not manifested, there would follow non-manifestation even of the existence

and colour of the sandal-wood. Nor may

it

be said that

because of the manifestation of the intelligence defined by the existence and colour of sandal-wood, through a psychosis of the sense of sight, these two are revealed,
while, because of the non-manifestation of intelligence defined by the smell, in the absence of a psychosis of the

nature of smell, the latter is not revealed for, intelli33 the properties of a gence cannot exist twice over; single substance, which are pervasive of the whole of
;

their locus, cannot each define intelligence separately, 34 since any more than they can define ether separately
;

these (properties) are revealed even by the intelligence defined by the substance which is their locus, in the same

way

as nacre-silver (is revealed)

by the

intelligence

defined through the this-element of nacre, from the manifestation of that (intelligence) there would follow

the revelation of smell too, and from the non-manifestation of that (intelligence) there would follow the nonrevelation

even of
is

colour

etc.

Nor

is

there

any

restriction that smell is revealed in that intelligence
alone,

associated with a psychosis of the nature of smell; for, the word " revealed " signifies only what is conjoined with illumination; in the case of what is
33

which

As

defined

by colour and again as defined by

smell.

34 Ether is not delimited in one way by the smell of the pot. in another way by its .colour and in a third way by its configuratiin; so too of
intelligence.

376

CHAPTER

III

conjoined with unobscured illumination, therefore, the assumption of non-revelation would be self-contradictory, even in the absence of a psychosis with that form; (and) it is impossible to say of the manifested

the material cause of smell, that it is not conjoined to smell. Therefore, in the same way as, when there is for Caitra a psychosis in the form
intelligence,
is

which

of pot, there

is

removal of the obscuring ignorance for

him

alone,

and consequently revelation of the content

(pot) for him alone, not for another, even so, through the psychosis in the forms of the respective contents,
there

removal of the respective obscuring ignorances alone, and consequently, there is no immediacy for any other content for immediacy is admitted only for those
is
;

which

are

not

obscured,

because
hence,

of

their

nonof

difference

from

intelligence;

differences

modal ignorance have to be predicated of the one

intelli-

gence, through differences in the content as through differences in the cogniser; modal ignorances having

thus the respective inert things as contents, there is no unintelligibility whatever in psychoses with the form
of pot etc. removing modal ignorances; nor does it follow that they should remove primal ignorance
(as well).

Nor does

it

follow, even thus, in the case of

the psychosis in the form "I", whose content is the jiva, that it should remove primal ignorance for, the
;

content of that

but the non-intelligent element associated with the self-luminious intelligence even the
is
;

recollection

"I

am

he " has but for content the quali-

fication of the self-luminous intelligence

by

earlier

and

later temporal properties, along with* the qualification

RESTRICTIVE INJUNCTION OP VEDANTA STUDY

377
intelli-

of

it

by the internal organ, and hence,
its content,

it

has not

gence for
x

Some, however, admitting that psychoses with the form of pot etc. have for content intelligence as defined

6-3

by the respective objects, say thus: it is said in the " Vdrtika All means of knowledge being possible (in the
case of
fruit
'

Brahman), because of its being the locus of the of all means of knowledge, there is the statement
to be
',
;

heard in order to restrict (the means) to " in conformity with the restrictive the Vedanta injunction of the Vedanta, signified by the text about the obligation to hear (study), it is that knowledge of Brahman, which is generated by the Vedanta alone, that, in conjunction with the unseen potency due to the restriction, removes unhindered the ignorance about Brahman hence, there is no possibility of its removal
it is
;

by the cognition of pot

etc.

Others, however, say thus: that knowledge alone, which is generated by texts like " That thou art " and

6-4

pertains to the non-difference of the jiva from Brah-

man, removes primal ignorance, since primal ignorance has that non-difference for its sphere hence, there is no possibility of its removal by the cognition of pot etc., which has for sphere the bare existence of intelligence. 35
;

the non-difference taught by the means of knowledge, which makes known the truth, were other than intelligence, duality would result, that,
it

Nor may

be said that

if

therefore, intelligence itself is non-difference,
35

and

that,

Not

the

non-difference

of

jiva-intelligence

from

Brahman-

intelligence.

S

I

48

378

CHAPTER

III

consequently, the cognition of pot etc. which has that too for (intelligence) for its sphere, has non-difference do not, indeed, declare a difference in its sphere.

We

respect of content,
30

when we speak of the " knowledge

of

non-difference";

rather does the knowledge of nondifference consist in having intelligence for content

through a special relation sni generis, under the control 37 on the two of special causes, such as the reflection " " That substrates, which are the expressed senses of " there is no distinction in ".

and

Thou

Though

respect of having for sphere the qualification, the
substrate

and their

relation, yet, for the

knowledge as

qualified, the

which

is

property of being knowledge as qualified, other than the comprehension of an aggregate,

consists in having for its sphere those very three, (but)

through a special relation sui generis, under the control of special causes, such as the knowledge of the qualification (as qualification)
;

or again, doubt

is

different

from

the arbitrary supposition "This has the property of a post as well as that of a man;" (in neither
38

case)

is

there

of

content.

difference ascertained in respect Similarly, in respect of pot etc., the
is

a

knowledge
36
I.e.,

" This

that

pot" has

the

pot

for

we

of the existence

distinguish knowledge of non-difference from knowledge of intelligence, not in respect of content, but in respect

of mode.

37 Consideration of the incompatibility of apposition between the expressed senses, and resort to secondary implication by abandoning part of the expressed sense. 38

as qualified
relation.

Whether as between doubt and supposition, or between knowledge and knowledge of the qualification, substrate and their

KNOWLEDGE OF INTELLIGENCE AND OF NON-DIFFERENCE 379
content through a special relation sui gmeris ; and this alone constitutes the knowledge of its nondifference, differentiated

from the knowledge generated
;

by the mere word "pot"

etc.

for there

is

not ascertained

any non-difference other than this. Cognitions of nonexistence and similarity are linked by relations sui generis to the locus and counter-correlate with the locus
;

a special relation sui generis, viz., the relation of support and what is supported; with the counterthere
is

correlate (there is another special relation, viz.,) the relation between correlate and counter-correlate; in

these

and other ways, there are assumed secondary distinctions among relations sui generis. Even so, in the case of psychoses which are conjoined with their
contents by a relation sui generis, viz., the relation of content and cogniser of the content, conjunction and 39 (as relations) in respect of the identity being too wide
content, when it is not possible to establish a difference" in respect of content, it is possible to maintain reciprocal distinction as between knowledge of non-difference

(and knowledge of intelligence as such), through the assumption of secondary distinctions even in the settled relation sui generis. And thus, since it is not admitted of Brahman-knowledge that it has for its sphere some
relation called non-difference, there is no detriment to the impartiteness of the sense of the Vedantas.
content, since it

psychosis were in a relation of bare conjunction with the is in such conjunction even with the eye-ball etc, the latter too would become contents of the psychosis; if it were in a relation
39
of identity, such objects as pot could never be cognised, since they are not identical with the psychosis, which is a modification of the internal organ; else, it would follow that the internal organ is the content of tha psychosis with the form of the pot etc.

If the

80
6-5

CHAPTER

III

Now, the removal of primal ignorance by Brahmanknowledge stands to reason as little as by the knowledge of pot etc. for, what is effective in the removal is con;

flict

consisting in not suffering the continuance of that,

while, for the effect, there is no such conflict with its material cause; if this be said, no (we reply); for

though such

between the effect and the cause, there does exist here such conflict, caused by knowledge and ignorance having the same
content; further, such conflict is seen even as between the effect and the cause, as between conjunction (of a cloth) with fire and the cloth. Nor may it be said that

conflict be not seen elsewhere

according to the teaching of

thfe

on the conjunction (of the cloth) with

parts being disjoined 10 the desfire,

truction of the cloth results only from the destruction of the conjunction, which is the non-intimate cause,

and not from the conjunction with fire for, since even in the burnt cloth, there is seen the continuance of the earlier configuration, while disjunction of parts is not
;

there

seen as in the case of a pot pounded with a hammer, is no evidence for the assumption of disjunction of parts and the like. Nor does it stand to reason

that, threads too being burnt in that case, the destruction of the cloth results from the destruction of the intimate

cause; for, the burning of the cloth being seen to be simultaneous with that of the filament, threads etc., it

not proper to assume a sequence; further, .since lower down41 there is no destruction of parts, in the
is
40 The reference nature of destruction.
is

to the

Nyaya -Vaige$ika teaching about the
for,

41 /.<?., below the dyads or dvya^ukas; primal atoms, are indestructible.

the parts thereof, the

DESTRUCTION OF THE FINAL PSYCHOSIS

381

case of those parts, destruction should be said to result only from the conjunction with fire.

Now,

let this

be
is

so.

Even

thus, this

Brahman-

7-0

the destroyer of ignorance with all its developments, how could it be destroyed, there being no other destroyer?

knowledge, which

If
the

this

be

powder
while

water,

just as asked, some sa(y thus of the clearing nut mixed with causing the precipitation of the mud
:

7-1

already conjoined (with the water) causes its own precipitation as well, even so, Brahman-knowledge

superimposed on the self, while removing the whole of the universe superimposed earlier, removes itself as
well.

Others, however,

cite,

in respect of the removal of

7-2

oneself after the removal of others, the analogy of water consumed by the heated metal 42 ; yet others,

however, cite here the example of the burnt up a heap of graps* 43

fire

that has

there any restrictive rule that destruction is generated by something other than the counteris

Nor

73

correlate, since there is

no ground (for such a rule),

and

since there is inconstancy in such destruction as that of the fuel-less fire. Nor may it be said that,

since

there

would be undue extensiveness in the

generation of destruction by the counter-correlate alone,
42
43

The water, while removing the
That
is to say,

heat,

removes

itself f<& well.

the

fire,

after

removing by combustion what can

be so removed, dies out and removes

itself.

CHAPTER

III

some other cause should necessarily be
fire,

stated,

and

that,

even in the case of such destruction as of the fuel-less
there are other causes such as time, unseen potency, the Lord's desire; for, undue extensiveness is not

understood (by him who urges that as a defect here). There is no undue extensiveness in the sense that no
other cause would be needed even for the destruction
of pot etc. ; for non-requirement of another cause is not declared in respect of all destruction. Nor does it (undue extensiveness) help to establish the need for

another cause even

respect of the destruction of BraJiman-knowledge, on the analogy of the destruction of the pot, as on that analogy it should help to
111

establish even the need for hitting with a
is

hammer. Nor

there undue extensiveness in the sense that because

of agreement in respect of being destruction of knowledge, the destruction of the knowledge even of pot etc.,

would need no other cause; for, though for the destruction of fire which has fuel a visible cause such as
sprinkling water
is

needed, that

is

not needed for the
;

destruction of fire which ha^s no fuel again, though for

the destruction of u waking cognition there
44

is

needed

another special quality of a contrary nature, that is not needed for the destruction of the cognition immediately

preceding sleep; even so, though for the destruction of knowledge which does not remove primal

ignorance there is need for another cause, yet for the destruction of the knowledge which does remove (that
ignorance), that (cause) not being needed is intelligible.
44

Of the soul, that

is to say,

another cognition.

DESTRUCTION OF THE FINAL PSYCHOSIS

383

Nor

is

there undue extensiveness in the sense that if

another cause be not needed, there would be destruction even at the moment succeeding its own origin for, this is a contingency of the acceptable the entire universe
; ;

superimposed on Brahman being consumed at the
very moment succeeding the rise of that (knowledge), it is admitted that that (knowledge) which is included
in that (universe) is also consumed even then; further, on the analogy of the destruction of the fuel-less fire,

there

no opposition to the destruction of Brahmanknowledge too being generated by other causes like time, unseen potency or the Lord's desire; for, what is admitted is not that, after the removal of the entire universe, there is the removal of Brahman-knowledge,
is

the solitary residue; and, in the moment prior to the simultaneous consumption of all, existence does belong
to time,

whether as the relation between intelligence and nescience or as an independent substance, to the unseen potency, whether as the grace of the Lord or
as a special quality of the internal organ, and to other (such causes). Nor may it be said that, if a cause

other than knowledge be needed here (for destruction), there would result the non-illusoriness of Brahman-

knowledge, since illusoriness
that (definition)
is

is

admitted to consist in
;

removability by knowledge alone

for the

meaning of

removability by knowledge, while not being removable by any accessory not conjoined with knowledge; even the text "No other path" etc.

has but this purport. Therefore, the analogy of the fire that has burnt up what was to be burnt up is
certainly appropriate.

384
7-4

CHAPTER

III

Some, however, say thus: Brahman-knowledge, which is of the nature of a psychosis, is not what

removes ignorance and the universe based thereon for, because of the rule that ignorance is removable by
;

illumination, its removability by an inert psychosis is not possible ; what removes it is, rather, the luminosity

of intelligence associated with that (psychosis) though, in its own nature, as the witness of that ignorance etc.,
;

cannot remove that, yet, as associated with the psychosis of the nature of the impartite, its capacity
it

to

remove that (ignorance
is
etc.,

etc.)

is

intelligible;

for,

there

the saying of the wise:

reveals grass

burns

it

"The sun's light, which also, when conjoined with a
is to

burning glass; that analogy

Thus, just as fire while burning up villages, cities etc., burns up that faggot too, even so the luminosity of the impartite
intelligence, associated

be applied here". associated with some one faggot,

with the

final psychosis, 45

while

rooting out the entire universe, is capable of removing that (psychosis) as well ; hence there is no unintelligibility
7.5

whatsoever in the destruction of
:

that,

Brahman-knowledge Others, however, say thus removes ignorance alone, since there is direct opposition
only as between knowledge and ignorance; as for the universe, its destruction results from the destruction
of
its

material cause

46
;

thence alone the destruction of

Brahman-knowledge too, which is included in that universe. Nor would the illusoriness of the universe
45
46

That

is

to say, the intuition of

Brahman.

Ignorance.

POSSIBILITY OF JIVAN-MfjKTI

385
;

be unintelligible, if it be not removable by knowledge not directly for, though the removal of the universe is

generated by knowledge, it is generated by the destruction of ignorance, which in turn is generated by

knowledge;

for,

it

is

recognised

that

illusoriness

consists in removability

by knowledge alone, whether

directly or indirectly.

And
etc.,

the appearance of a body even after the rise of the intuition of the truth,

thus

is intelligible

in the case of one
for,

who

is

released while embodied:

even after the rise of the intuition of the truth, it is intelligible that, because of the obstruction due to prarabdha-karma, there may persist a trace of
nescience,

which (trace) is the material cause of the persistence of prarabdha-karma and its effect, the appearance of the body etc. If, like ignorance, the universe too were directly removable by the intuition of Brahman, this would not be intelligible; for, where
there exists
its opposite,

the intuition of

Brahman, the

existence of prarabdha-karnm being itself impossible, that (karma) cannot be an obstruction to the removal of (all) trace of nescience.

END OF CHAPTER THREE.

S

I

49

CHAPTER
Now, what
is

IV.

this

trace
is

persistence of which there Some say that it is an element of the projective

by the release while embodied?
of nescience,

M

energy of the primal nescience endowed with both
obscuring and projective energies, this (element) being the cause of the persistence of prarabdha-kanna, the
present body
etc.
it is

the impression left behind by nescience, comparable to the smell of garlic, which persists in the vessel which contained garlic, (even

Others say that

1-3

after being) cleansed.

Yet others say that it is but primal nescience itself which persists, on the analogy of the burnt cloth (which
retains its configuration).

1-3

The preceptor, Sarvajnatman, 1 however, mentions
this (following) too as a view: there

1- *

cannot be the

persistence even of a trace of ignorance, on the rise of the intuition that is opposed to it; hence, the sacred

teaching about release while embodied
1

is

only for the

According to a writer in the IHQ, VII, 301, the expression in the

text should be rendered as "the preceptor of Sarvajfiatman" i.e., Suresvara. But the construction is tortuous, while the information about

there

Sarvajnatman's guru was one Devesvara and warrant for equating him with Sure^vara. It would appear from a Ms. of the Pramanalak$anam, a work of Sarvajnatman's, that the author's parama-guru was Devananda, not gankara, and that Devananda's teacher was rethlnanda. Nowhere does this approximate
SureSvara is no
is

incorrect.

sufficient

to

the SaAkara, SureSvara, Sarvajnatman, tradition. Archaeological series, Vol. II, pp. 144-146.

See

Travancore

388

CHAPTER

IV

purpose of eulogising the injunction to hear (study) and so on; for, there is no purpose in the sacred teaching setting forth release while embodied. Therefore, for him who has perf oiined contemplation, there
is,

by the mere rise of the intuition of Brahman, the removal of ignorance with all its effects and its
2

impressions.
2-0
2-1

Now, what

is this

removal of ignorance?

It is but the self, says the author of the Brahmasiddhi. Nor is there futility of knowledge, since that
(self) is eternally existent;
for, that

(knowledge)

is

sought, since, in the absence of knowledge, nescience, the cause of evil, being existent, evil too would continue ;
further, the removal of nescience, though (such removal is) of the nature of the self, is Avhat is effected

by knowledge, according
the existence of one, there

to the definition
is

"

When

oil

the existence of another at
is
is

the next instant, when, in the absence of that, there the absence of that (other), that (latter) is what
effected

by that (former) j" for, the said definition applies in that where there is knowledge, the next instant there is the removal of nescience, which
(removal) is of the nature of the self, while in the absence of that (knowledge), there is the non-existence
2

The commentator, Acyuta Kr9ananda, seeks

to

make

out that, on

though avidya is destroyed, its impressions may persist, just as trembling etc. may continue for a while even after the rope is known to be but a rope. Such a view which is indistinguishable from that of para 3 2, except perhaps, in that impressions on the latter view cannot bind, is in substance that of Ma$(}ana Migra, as set forth in the
this view,

BrahmasiddhL

NATURE OP AVIDYA-NIV1JTTI
of that, consisting in (the presence of) correlate, nescience.
its

389
counter-

of nescience is certainly (something) other than the self. That is not real, as non-duality

The removal

2-2

would (otherwise) be abandoned; nor is it unreal, as (then) that could not be effected by knowledge; nor of a nature, real and (yet) unreal, because of contradiction; nor indeterminable, since the indeterminable has a beginning and has, as a rule, ignorance for its material cause, so that there would follow, even in
the persistence of its material cause, viz., ignorance, and the possibility of its removal by knowrelease,

ledge; rather
:

is it

a

mode

other than the above-said

four modes thus says Anandabodha Acarya.

The removal of

nescience, like nescience (itself), is

2-3

certainly indeterminable.

Nor

is

there the contingence

of non-release because of the rule that where there is
persistence of that (removal), there is persistence of its material cause, ignorance, as well; for, there is no

evidence for the persistence of that (removal) ; for, just as origination is a modification of existence relating to
the
is

first

instant alone,

it is intelligible

that removal too

a modification of existence relating to the last instant alone. Hence it is that just as there is the usage in

the present tense "is originated" only in reference to the first instant of that origination, which, earlier and

referred to as belonging to the future or the past, in the words "will be originated" or "originated", even so, there is the usage of the present tense in "is
later, is

$90

CHAPTER
is

IV
7 '

removed, perishes,

destroyed

in reference to the last

instant alone of the removal, which, earlier

and later,

is

referred to as belonging to the future or the past, in the words "will be renioved" or "removed". If, however,
the removal were to persist, then, even in reference to a pot long since destroyed, there would be the usage "is

now destroyed" and

on; for, the conjugational suffixes signify the sense of relation to present time etc., as attaching to the sense of the stem.
so

Now, let it be that these (suffixes) signify the sense of relation to present time etc., as attaching to what is the subject or object of the sense of the stem and is the
locus of the

number expressed by

(the suffixes) them-

present time etc., as attaching to the operation, which is favourable to the sense of the stem and is signified by themselves; thus,
selves, or the sense of relation to

since there is no relation to present time in the case either of the subject of the act of destruction, viz,, the

pot long since reduced to dust, or in the case of the operation favourable to the destruction thereof, there
is

not the above-mentioned defect of undue extensive-

ness; if this be said, no (we reply) ; for, on the first (alternative), even in reference to a pot already origi-

nated,

there

would

result

the

usage

"is

(being)

originated", since the pot, the subject of the act of
origination, belongs to the present tim'e ; on the second
(alternative), in the
flatulence,

body torpid with constipation and

when an

effort is

made

to rise,

though rising

may not occur, there would (still) result the usage "it rises", since for the operation of the nature of effoii,

REMOVAL AS A MODIFICATION OP EXISTENCE

391

which
time.
is

is signified

by the
vis;.,

suffix

and

is

favourable to the

sense of the stem,

rising, there is relation to present

Therefore, the sense of the conjugational suffix the relation of present time etc., as attaching to the
;

sense of the stem alone hence, if destruction should be permanent, it would be difficult to avoid the usage "is

(being)

removed" even

in the case of the pot long since

removed.

broken by a hammer etc., there be recognised a variety of non-existence, which is called destruction, which has that (pot) as counter-

And if in the case of a pot

permanent and has the ground etc. for its locus, then, when the heap of potsherds has hpen removed or when, even without its removal, there is not seen any
correlate, is

special configuration in the potsherds distinguishing

them from the shards of a jug or

basin,

why

should

there not be the perception of that (non-existence) ? If it be said that the destruction of pot etc. is to be

inferred from the special configuration of the pot-

sherds

etc.,

and
is

the inference
to the time

not perceived, then, since from that possible of a destruction which belongs
is

when

the

hammer
its

falls,

and which, being
has the

like origination a modification of existence,

counter-correlate for

locus, there does not result

from
is

which persists subsequently and of the nature of a non-existence resting in the same
this a destruction

locus as the counter-correlate.

respect of the ground that it is in the words " On this ground, the pot has been

for the usage in the locus of destruction,

As

destroyed

", that, like

(the usage)

"

On

this ground;

392

CHAPTER

IV

the pot has been originated ", is intelligible as having for content the locus of the counter-correlate, as

conjoined to a modification of existence; as for the usage of the non-existence of the pot on the

ground,
like

after

the
as

destruction
to
its
is

of

the

pot,

that,

usage pot being taken

the

noja-existence,
intelligible

on

the

away,

as based
;

absolute non-existence as related to distinct
it

on times and

need not be assumed to have destruction for content. 3
it

be said "This being so, since even the usage of the non-existence of the pot prior to its origination has its If
function fulfilled by absolute non-existence, there would be no antecedent non-existence either", let that too not
be.

2-31

Now,
define
basis

thus,

it

will

no longer
the

be

possible
is

to

prior time of antecedent
as

as

time

which

the

non-existence
is

and
of

subsequent
destruction;
earlier
its

time
what,

that

which

the
the

basis

then,

would

be
?

basis
it

of

and

later in regard to time

Let

have for

sphere

usage

some unanalysable (indefinable) attribute, like the " " in the case of a counter-correlate
of pot
etc.
;

there were admitted a permanent destruction, of the nature of non-existence, it would have to be said of the property of being destruction
if

being for even

etc.,

and

so

on,

(present)

in

these,

analysable (indefinable). Nor is it being destruction is certainly analy sable, as
3
It is

that they are unthat the property of
it is

of the
be

not a persistent

mode

of non-existence, as

it

is liable to

removed by the pot being brought back, in the case of tho pot that was
taken away.

NATURE OF PRAGABHAVA

Ac.

393

nature of originated non-existence ; for, in respect of the pot, which is the antecedent non-existence of
destruction, there
its

would
4

result the property of being
is it

own

destruction.

Nor

that there

is

intended
;

non-existentiality of the nature of the seventh category for it would follow that even in respect of the antecedent

non-existence of the pot, there would result nonexistence of the property of destruction, and thence it would follow that the usage in the case of the pot, when
it exists,

belongs to the period subsequent to that of antecedent non-existence, would be baseless. Nor
it

that

is

the destruction of antecedent non-existence some;

thing other than the counter-correlate in that case, on the same principle, the antecedent non-existence of destruction too would be other than the countercorrelate; consequently, even for the destruction of

antecedent

non-existence there would be another antecedent non-existence; of that too there would be some destruction; of that too there would be another

antecedent non-existence; there would thus result the assumption of uiievidenced infinite destructions and antecedent non-existences.

Nor

is it

possible to define

the property of being destruction in

any other way without involving self-dependence. That it is thus with antecedent non-existence too has been elaborated elsewhere. Therefore, there is not antecedent noiK
existence
earlier ; nor subsequently is there nonexistence due to destruction; in the middle alone, there

4 The pot is originated and it is non-existence, as the antecedent non-existence of destruction; hence, it would follow that the pot is its own destruction, if the latter be taken to be originated non-existence.

S

1

50

394
is

CHAPTER

IV

for a time the superimposition of pot etc., endowed with modifications of existence in the nature of

indeterminable origination, sustentation and destruction.

And

thus, the

removal of nescience too

is

a modi-

fication of existence, present in the instant

immediately succeeding the rise of the intuition of Brahm'an hence, it does not persist in release; consequently, there is no
;

defect in

its

being indeterminable:

thus

says

the

Advaitavidyacarya.

241

Now, if thus the removal of nescience be momentary, release would not be a permanent human
goal.

The

If this be said, (we reply) deluded art thou. removal of nescience is acknowledged to be accom-

plished by knowledge, not, indeed, because it is of itself the human goal, since it is other than both happiness and the absence of misery; but the manifestation of im'partite bliss and the destruction of the misery of

transmigration

result

on

the

destruction

of

the

nescience which obscures the impartite bliss and causes the misery of transmigration; hence, it is as subserving these that it (the removal of ignorance) is acknow-

ledged to be accomplished by knowledge.

The preceptor, Citsukha, however, says thus even
:

the non-existence of misery in release is not of itself the human goal; since in every case the non-existence
of misery

subsidiary to happiness, as being the nonexistence of obstacles to the manifestation of the
is

happiness that alone is of

is

of the nature of the
the

self,

happiness
all

itself

human

goal;

others

HAPPINESS ALONE THE HUMAN GOAL

when it is subsidiary thereto ; therefore, possible even for the knowledge of the instrumentality
are
to happiness to be the cause of that (removal), it is not

proper to assume of the non-existence of misery that
it is

of itself the

human

goal, and, in order to cortipre-

hend the prompting to activity in respect of the means thereto, assume (besides) that what prompts (the removal) is knowledge of instrumentality to what is desired, this being more prolix by the introduction "G " Nor would the of being the content of desire.
reverse position follow that the non-existence of misery is alone the intrinsic human goal, while happiness is

desired as subsidiary thereto; for, activity is seen in respect of blame-worthy acts like (prohibited) sexual
intercourse,

which generate momentary happiness,

though accomplished with long-standing misery; there, if the non-existence of misery contemporaneous with
the

momentary happiness were the human

goal, the

experience of long-standing misery for the sake of that would be unintelligible. Nor is there parity of defect, even if momentary happiness be the human goal; for,
in the case of happiness, which is of the nature of an existent, superiority and inferiority are established in

and consequently, for the sake of some very superior happiness, though for a moment, the
experience,

experience of misery for a long time
5

is

intelligible;

When

it is

of instrumentality to happiness,

possible to define the cause of the removal as knowledge it is uneconomical to define it as instru-

mentality to what is desired, introducing the new element, viz., content of desire; nor do the facts require such cumbrousness, for, the absence of misery is not an intrinsic human goal and cannot of itself prompt the
removal.

396
while, in the

CJHAPTER IV
case

of the non-existence of misery,

superiority and inferiority are not possible. Therefore, in release, even the removal of the misery of trans-

migration

removal of nescience, subsidiary to happiness; hence, it is only the attainment of undefined bliss that is of itself the hum'an goal.
is,

like the

34

being of the nature of the inner (self), is eternally attained! True; undefined bliss, though eternally attained, is yet. made non-

Now, undefined

bliss,

were, in the state of transmigration, by nescience, which, while obscuring that, exhibits objects of a nature contrary thereto ; hence it becomes an
existent as
it

object not achieved; 011 the removal of that (nescience), the projection of all evil being got rid of, it is attained

as

were, like the forgotten golden ornament round one's neck; hence, its attainment is figurative: thus say
it

some.

3.3

Others, however, say thus: in the state of transmigration, there is established for all the cognition "For

me

unexcellable bliss does not exist'

7 ,

because of obscu-

ration by ignorance, whose nature it is to be capable " it of the empirical usage does not exist, it is not manifest "j hence, there persists, as long as nescience
persists,

posited non-existence of the bliss of Brahman, as the basis of that (cognition) ; and, on the removal of nescience, it too ceases, because of being

a

based on that; consequently, in conforaiity with the
definition

"when, on the
"
etc.,

the next instant

existence of one, there is at the being attained of that (bliss)

IS

ATTAINMENT FIGURATIVE

?

397

is

certainly

primary (in

sense, not secondary or figura-

tive).

Yet
cognised

others, however, say thus: since
is

what

is

not

3-31

not a

human
is

goal,

and

since, in the state of

transmigration, there

no immediacy for undefined

bliss, though real (even then), that is not the
' '

goal.

human Nor may it be said There is immediacy even then,
is

through the knowledge which
self,

of the nature of the
1

since that
is

which

ever non-different from the happiness of the nature of the self; as for immediate
is
7

cognition through a psychosis, that does not exist even in release' 6 For, immediacy does not consist many
.

non-difference

from the

intelligence

favourable to

empirical usage in respect of itself; for, when there is the manifestation of intelligence as defined by pot,
for the smell too of pot, which is non-different therefrom, there would result immediacy; rather (does it
consist in) non-difference therefrom! of
is

an object that

not obscured.
is

And

thus, since the element of non-

obscuration
the truth,
it

present only when there is intuition of stands to reason that the human goal, the
is

immediacy of unexcellable happiness,
knowledge.

attained by

Some

others, however, say thus let it be that
:

imme-

3.33

diacy consists in

any non-difference from

intelligence

favourable to empirical usage. Even thus, because of the might of ignorance, there is superimposed the
difference of intelligence from bliss, in the same way as the difference of the jiva (from Brahman) ; hence, in
6

There being no psychoses at that stage.

398

CHAPTER

IV

the state of transmigration, there is no immediacy of undefined bliss, any more than there is immediacy of
the intelligence of one person for another person; on the removal of ignorance, however, the difference of intelli-

gence from
that (bliss)

bliss
;

being resolved, there is immediacy for consequently there is for it the property of
state

being accomplished by knowledge.
.

Now, for him who has turned away from the

of the jlva, because of the resolution of external adjuncts on the rise of knowledge, is there the attainment
of the state of the Lord (Isvara)
subsistence
?

Or

is

there

mere

as

pure intelligence
is (as

?

This has to be

discriminated.
4-1

on the view of a single jlva (alone), on the rise of knowledge for him, there is resolved the entire world of difference, such as the distinction between the jlva and the Lord, (the whole of which is) posited by the ignorance of that one ( jlva)
follows)
:

The reply

;

therefore, there
1-21

is

but subsistence as pure intelligence.

When
released,

the view of

many
rise

jivas is admitted

and a

distinction is recognised between the

though on the

bound and the of knowledge for some one,

the universe produced by his nescience is dissolved, the world of differences, that such as yet

between
nesciences

jlva

and
other
that,

the

Lord,
the

produced

by

the

of

persons
like

persists.
jlva,

on
is is

the

view

Even thus, the Lord too

a variety of reflection, for the released one there but subsistence as pure intelligence, which is the
;

prototype (of which jiva and the Lord are reflections) for, where there are reflections of one in many external

RELEASE AS ATTAINMENT OF BRAHMAN
adjuncts, on the resolution of one adjunct, it is meet that the reflection therein should subsist as the prototype alone; hence, the attainment of the nature of

another reflection
possible.

the nature of Isvara) is not If that were possible, the attainment some(i.e.,

times even of the nature of another reflection that is a jiva, would be difficult to avoid; consequently there

would be the contingence of fresh bondage for the released, as on the view of (the jiva as a) definition (of pure intelligence). That is why on the view of many jlvas, the view of (the jiva as a) definition is not
supported; for, when there has been release intelligence) as defined in a particular way, and
(for

when

another internal organ attaches to it as so defined, there would be contingence of fresh bondage. 7
This position is neither clear nor sound. The jiva is pure intelli7 gence as defined by the internal organ etc. When there is release of what is defined by one internal organ, with that disappears the distinction of

what

It is pointless to suppose that another is defined. attach to intelligence as defined by the internal organ of the released jiva; for, in release, the internal organ as what defines has

defines

and what

internal organ

may

Should bondage result from the contact of intelligence with another internal organ, there is no reason to hold that the jiva now bound is the one that
disappeared, as also the jiva in the form of defined intelligence.

was

released. One may say that it is the body which defines intelligence. Because of the association of the internal organ with intelligence thus defined, there is bondage. Though this association vanishes in release, the intelligence defined by that same body may get associated with another internal organ; hence fresh bondage. Such a view has at least two
defects:

And even

where the body persists and defines. assumes that the jiva is intelligence as defined by the body alone, whereas it is intelligence as defined by the internal organ as well. When this is realised, surely the jiva that is bound afresh (sic) cannot be said to be the very jiva that was released. The view that mukti
it

applies only to jivanmukti,
it

here,

is LSvara-bhava-'patti is restated in the Siv&dvaitanirnaya, (pp. 115-120) where, however, this statement about the avaccheda-vada does not recur. And by the time he came to write the Parimala, the DIksita himself seems to have veered round to avajccheda-vada; see the last paragraph of tfce

on

I, i f 4,

CHAPTER
4-22

IV

the view, however, that the jiva is a reflection, while the Lord is in the position of the prototype and

On

pure intelligence

is

common to

both, there is recognised

for the released one, until the release of all, attainment of the nature of the Supreme Lord, characterised by
omniscience, agency in respect of
the possession of desires
all,

lordship over

all,

which come true and

so on.

When there

are reflections of one face in

many

mirrors,

on the removal of one mirror, the reflection therein 8 subsists but as the prototype, not as the mere face,
since even then the face is not rid of the property of

being a prototype, which

occasioned by the proximity of other mirrors; similarly, when the one Brahmanintelligence is reflected in the many adjuncts, when on
is

the rise of knowledge in one reflection

its

adjunct

is

thereby resolved,

it

must necessarily be that that

reflection subsists as the prototype.

4*221

Nor

is

lordship over

all,

characterised by such

attributes as possession of desires
unintelligible,

which come
there

true,
is

since

for

the
is

released

no,

nescience;

for,

though there

no nescience for him,

there do exist the nesciences of other persons then

bound.

Truly, the Lord's lordship and characterisation by such attributes as possession of desires which come true are not produced by His own nescience, since
is flawless;
10

He

rather should

all this

be recognised to

be produced by the nesciences of bound persons.
8
9
I.e.,

without reflection, actual or possible.

These attributes are manifestations of nescience.
Lit., free

10

from

afljana,

another

name

for nescience.

RELEASE AS ATTAINMENT OF ISVARA'S STATUS

401
4-222

Nor does
from the

there follow non-difference of release

saguna meditation, since, even. for those who meditate on the saguna, there is declared " As a man's union with the Lord, in such texts as resolve is in this world, so shall he be on leaving this", " in the manner in which one
fruit of

respective

that" and so on.

Since for those

who

contemplates contemplate the

saguna there is no intuition of the impartite, there is neither the removal of nescience nor the resolution of
individuation
tion
is
etc.,

grounded thereon since the obscura;

not removed, there
bliss.

is

no manifestation of
is

equality with the Supreme Lord in respect of enjoyment, on the principle " enunciated in such aphorisms as With the exception of

impartite

For them there

the world-operations, (the Lord) being the topic (where those operations are referred to) and (souls)

not being proximate (to that context)" and " And on account of indication of equality in respect of enjoy-

ment alone "; they are also capable of creating by their mere resolve resplendent bodies, organs, damsels etc.,
to subserve their

enjoyment; yet theirs is not the unlimited lordship, characterised by freedom in respect
of the creation, destruction
to the released, however,
etc.

of the entire universe

;

who have

attained the state

of the Lord, in all respects, 11 all this belongs; great
11

The word "nissandhibandha"

is

mean "sarvatmana, wholly, in all respects". where this idea is made clear otherwise in the
twice,

explained by the commentator to It occurs once again later, sentence. The word occurs

in the form "nissandhibandhana", in the Nai$karmyasiddhi (sambandhokti to II, 18 and III, 6). The Candrika and Sarartha explain it as "free from sublating cognition (badhaka-pratyaya-r&hita)", This is

not adopted in the present translation,

SI

SI

402
therefore
fruit of
is

CHAPTER

IV

the distinction (between release

and the

saguna meditation).

4-223

or i s there the contingence of fresh bondage for the released, if they attain the state of the Lord, since ignorance, association with misery and so on are
]tf

declared for the

Supreme Lord

in such incarnations as

Raghunatha

;

for, that

has for purport only the acting

of these (ignorance etc.,) by the Lord, like an actor, in order to uphold the rule made by Himself as to the
non-futility of the curses of sages, and to create faith somehow in the curse of Bhrgu etc.; 12 otherwise, there

would be

with the Scriptural declaration of His being eternally released, unrestrictedly free, without an equal or superior and so on. Therefore, on the view that the Lord is the prototype, there is no flaw
conflict

in the released
till

having the status of
all.

tTie

Supreme Lord,

the release of

4*2241

This view alone
the

is

in conformity with Scripture,

Sutra, the First, in the chapter on the

(Vedanta-)

BMsya
harmony

etc.

It is thus.

(of Scriptural

12

In the

Brahmanda Purana

is

narrated the following story: in a

protracted battle

between the devas and the asuras, the latter being hard took refuge in the hermitage of Bhrgu, where Bhrgu's wife gave pressed them sanctuary. Visnu who came in hot pursuit did not respect the laws
of sanctuary but killed both Bhrgu's wife and the asuras. Bhrgu who saw this on his return was exceedingly wroth and cursed Visnu to be

born on the earth in various forms and to suffer, Hence the incarnations. Here, we are told that Tgvara put up with the curses so that the words of righteous indignation from his well beloved sages might not be falsified.

Ardent Saivas, however, see in this incident a proof of the inferiority of And Appayya takes up the same position in works like the Rdm&yariasdrasangrahd. In such works Visnu appears not as the Saguna Brahman, but as just inferior to him. Another proof of 8LS being an
Visnu.
early

work

of our author's]

RELEASE AS ATTAINMENT OP ISVARA'S STATUS
texts),

403
is
is

there

is

the section

" The small (ether
".

Brahman), because of what follows

Here

it

determined that the small ether mentioned in such texts " there is the of in this as

Now,

city

Brahman,

abode,

the small lotus; small is the ether within that", is neither elemental ether nor the jlva, but the Supreme

Lord, because of the two reasons,

the subsequent " Both heaven complementary texts which proclaim and earth are contained within it ", "As large as this " It ether is, so large is that ether within the heart ",
viz., (i)

is

the self free

from

sin, free

from

old age, deathless,

griefless,

hunger-less, thirst-less,

possessing

desires

which come true, purposes which come true", and
the property of being the support of heavens, earth and so on. (Then) in the discourse between Indra and
(ii)

Prajapati, which comes immediately after (the teaching of) the meditation on the small ether, in the words

" the self free from sin "
self

etc.,

there

is

introduced the

be taught and is associated with the eight qualities beginning with freedom from sin. Then there is the teaching of the jlva who in waking is
is to

which

present as the seer in the eye, as stated in the text "The person who is seen in the eye is the self", who has attained the dream-state, as stated in the text " He who

moves about happy in dreams, he
a

is

the self ",

who has

attained the sleeping state, as stated in the text

"When man being asleep, reposing and at perfect rest, sees no
is

dreams, that

the self", and who has passed beyond the three states, as stated in the text " That serene
being, arising

from

this body, is manifested in his

own

form, as soon as he has approached the highest light j

404

CHAPTER
the highest person.

IV

he

is

"

Hence, the eight qualities

beginning with freedom from sin exist in the jiva too. Consequently, that is not determinative of the small
ether being the

Supreme Lord.

For, in the recurrences
9

(of the teaching) "He who in dreams' etc., it is said " in each recurrence This itself I shall explain to you " further hence there is no room to object that the jiva
;

is

the content of the second

and subsequent recurrences
is

alone, because of the express m'arks of the jiva such as

dreaming, while
recurrence.

Brahman

the content of the

first

This doubt

being raised,
it

it is

taught,

by the

aphorism "If

be said that from the subsequent chapter (the jiva appears to be meant) that (which is referred to there is the jiva, in so far) as its true nature

has become manifest ", that the jiva ascertained in the fourth recurrence is that whose true nature has been
manifested through being released from
bonds, not that tainted by the difference incidental to the state of
all

transmigration; for, such properties as the possession of purposes which come true are sublated in this
(latter state)
;

the m'ention of the three states

is

for the

understanding of their subsidiariness to the teaching of the fourth recurrence, through the mention of their
respective
defects.

The

aphorist,

who

gives

this

explanation, clearly declares that for the released (soul) expounded in the fourth recurrence there is

attainment of the state of the Lord; for, in the absence of that, possession of purposes which come true and
go

on would be inconsistent even in release; and,

if the

RELEASE AS ATTAINMENT

Otf

IVARA'S STATUS

405

enumerated eight properties existed even elsewEere than in the Lord, there would not be gained any answer
to the objection raised.

The commentator (Sankara)

too states very clearly that for the released there is attainment of the state of the Lord endowed with attri-

commentary on) that aphorism: "Hence, that non-absolute form of the jlva, established by nescience, tainted by the flaws of agency, enjoyership, attachment, aversion and the rest, united to manifold evil by the dissolution of that, what is opposed thereto, viz.,

butes, in (the

Supreme Lord, possessed of the properties of freedom from sin etc., is attained
through knowledge.

the true nature of the

"
4-2242

Even

in the chapter showing the absence of conflict
texts or with reason)
13

(among
section

(it is thus).

The

"A part,
is

because of the declaration of differe-

introduced for the purpose of establishing the relationship of part and whole, as between the jlva

rence

"

and the Lord, who are understood to be in the relation of the helped and the helper, being respectively the
agent in various acts and he who causes the performance of various acts, because of such texts as "He, verily,

he wants to lead up from these worlds, to perform good deeds he verily causes those, whom he wants to lead downwards, to perform evil
causes those,
;

whom

deeds ". In that there is the statement of an objection " If the jlva be admitted to be a part of the Lord, then, from his experience of the miseries of transmigration,
:

there would be experience of misery for the
13

Lord

Chapter

II of the S&tras.

406
too, in the

CHAPTER

IV

same way as in ordinary experience, by the pain present in thfe hand, foot or some other part, there
experience of pain for Devadatta, of whom that is a part; and thence, for those who have attained that,
is

there will result greater misery; better than that would be the prior state of transmigration; hence, it would follow that perfect knowledge is fraught with evil ".

and by the answer which accepts the non-confusion effected by the relationship of prototype and reflection, made clear in the
this (statement of objection)

By

Bhdmatl
Lord.
4-2243

etc.,

the commentator has
is

made

it

clear that

for the released there

attainment of the state of the

Even

in the chapter which deals with the

means 14
is

(it is thus). established in
15

The
the
is

illusoriness of the

dream-world

section:

" In

the

intermediate

place,

there

creation; (Scripture) indeed declares

There, it being doubted if the jiva is the of the illusory dream-world, the aphorist creator says, in the aphorism " But by meditation on the
that which is hidden (is

that".

made manifest)

;

Supreme, from Him,

indeed, proceed bondage and its opposite ", that, though the possession of purposes which come true and so on

pertain to the jiva because of non-difference from the

by the defect of nescience, creatorship in respect of the dream-world is not possible for him; the commentator explains the view of that aphorism thus: " That, again, which is
14
15

Lotfd, yet, since they are obscured

Chapter
7.e.,

III,

in dreams.

RELEASE AS ATTAINMENT OP ISVARA'S STATUS
obscured,
is

407

manifested in some beings alone, who, having their ignorance dispelled by strenuous meditation on the Supreme Real, attain perfection by the
grace of the Lord, just as the power of clear vision is recovered by the potency of medicine, on the removal
of the obscuring film
in all beings ".
;

(it is)

not (manifested) naturally

By

their recognition of the manifesta-

tion of the possession of purposes
so
on,

which come true and
clear that for the

(properties) which serve in the creation of
etc.,

dreams
Lord.

both these have
is

made

it

released there

attainment of the state of the Supreme

in the chapter about the fruit 16 (it is thus). In respect of the Scriptural text " is manifested in his

Even

4-2244

own form" whose content is the released one, there the desire to know in what form the manifestation
intended to be described.

is

is

In the aphorism " In the

form of Brahman (thinks) Jaimini, because of the reference etc.," (we are told that) this is the view of Jaimini: manifestation is in that form of Brahman
1

(the description of which) begins with freedom

from

sin, ends with possession of purposes which come true, and includes omniscience and lordship over all, (as

seen)
etc.,

from the reference in " That self, free from sin" and the making known of lordly powers in " He

moves about there laughing, playing, rejoicing with women or vehicles" etc. In the next aphorism "In
the nature of intelligence alone, that being the nature of the self; thus another view is (says) Audulomi
",
J6

Chapter IV,

408

CHAPTER IV

introduced that, since the true nature of the self is understood to be intelligence alone, from such texts as

"Thus,
but
is

has neither inside nor outside, a mass of intelligence alone ", manifestation is
verily, this self

in that

form

alone.
it

view

"

In the aphorism stating the

final

Though

be thus, because of the reference to

and the existence of the

qualities mentioned earlier, there is absence of conflict; so (thinks) Badarayana ",

the aphorist says there is no conflict (between the above two views), since, though from the view-point of truth (the released self) is intelligence alone, yet from the

empirical view-point of the person in bondage, there is the possibility of the above-mentioned host of properties

which are understood from the reference etc., and are wholly of Hie nature of maya, and since therefore
there
is

no

conflict

between the two Scriptural

texts.

says this) and by the commentator, who interprets the three aphorisms in the sense mentioned, it is clearly recognised that for the released

(By

the aphorist

who

there
4-2245

is

the attainment of the state of the Lord.

The author of the Bhdmatl too and those whe came after him adopt in this sense alone the group of
aphorisms supported by Scriptural texts and the above cited statements of the revered commentator.

4-2246

stand to reason to say of this extensive host of aphorisms and statements from the commentary
it

Nor

does

supported by Scripture that

it is

an assumption for

argument's sake, in the manner stated in Sanksepar ' i sarlraka. What the aphorist says about the embodied
one, that his lordly powers, being obscured by ignorance,

REFUTATION OP DVAITA VIEW OF RELEASE

409

are manifested by contemplation, that, for reasons already mentioned, is stated only as an assumption
(for argument's sake)".

Therefore, since it has necessarily to be admitted that for the released there is attainment of the state

4-23

of the Lord, the impossibility of this is itself the defect in the view that the Lord is a reflection. Thus, the

" author of the Kalpatarw says: What is reflected in maya is not (that which is) attained by released ones".

The same

impossibility constitutes the defect in the

view of a single jiva and in the view of absolute
difference of the jiva (from the Lord).

stated by som'e dualists that though because of difference being absolute there is not in release the attainment of the Lord by the jiva, even
is

As

for what

4-231

then there

from

the possibility of the properties of freedom sin etc., as for the Lord, and that thus there is
is

no contradiction that is absurd; if that were so, since freedom from sin etc. would belong to the jiva (too),
they could not be distinctive marks of Brahman; hence, there does not result an answer to the (stated)
objection; consequently, there
is

conflict

with the

be said that from the subsequent chapter (the jiva appears to be meant) that (which is referred to there is the jiva, in so far) as its true
it

aphorism "If

nature has become manifest "; further, in the aphorism

"In

form of Brahman, (thinks) Jaimini", in the case of (1) the qualities of freedom from sin etc. present in the jiva, and (2) the laughing etc., mentioned by the
the
text

"

laughing,

playing,

152

rejoicing",

which

are

410

CHAPTER

IV

considered even by the opponents to be the sense of the word "etcetera" in "because of the reference etcetera"
(of the

same aphorism), there would be

conflict

with

the mention (of these) as of the nature of Brahman. On the view of difference, those properties being real,
there would be conflict with the recognition by the " " aphorism stating the ifinal view Though it be thus
1

etc.,

that released jivas are but intelligence alone, as " In stated in the aphorism the form of intelligence
etc.;

alone"

there would also be conflict with the

(the aphorism) having approached (the supreme light), there is manifestation (of the self's own nature) " etc. There, indeed, in

section beginning with

"On

the text

" (He) is manifested in his own form manifestation in some adventitious form is not declared; for, there would result the futility of the words "in his own"; of that adventitious form in which he is mani-

"

fested, it cannot be said that it is his

own; therefore,

because of the use of the
self, it is

word "own" signifying one's established that the manifestation intended to
is

be declared

only in one's

own

eternally established

form, not through some (adventitious) attribute. Further if this freedom from sin etc. were adventitious to
the jiva in release, there would be conflict (1) with the denial of an adventitious form in release, in (the

aphorism)

"On
is

having

approached

(the

light), there

etc., and (2) with the freedom from sin etc., that they are obscured in bondage and manifested in release,

manifestation "

supreme

declaration, in respect of in

(the aphorisms) "But by supreme, that which is hidden (is

meditation

on

the

made manifest) " etc..

REFUTATION OF DVAITA VIEW OF RELEASE

4H

be said that from the subsequent chapter is referred (the jiva appears to be meant) that (which to there is the jiva, in so far) as its true nature has
it

and " If

become manifest"

;

hence they should be said to be

eternally established; consequently, the illusoriness of bondage is difficult to avoid. Eternally established free-

indeed, the absence of sin always. Nor in the case of him who is in fact always devoid of sin

dom from
is

sin

is,

there the possibility of a relation to sin or a relation to agency and enjoyership based thereon being

absolutely real.

And
Lord

thus, even non-difference of the jiva

from the

is difficult to

avoid, since there is
is

no

reality for

the bondage which

opposed to their non-difference
besides, the statement that

taught by Scripture; and

the eternally established possession of desires which come true is obscured for the transmigrating person

would not

tit

in.

Nor

is

opponents that there

is,

recognised even by the as persistent in the state of
it

transmigration and as having something for its sphere, some non-futile purpose, which is (yet) obscured;
rather has
it

to be explained thus alone, that the Lord's

eternally established, unrestricted possession of desires true, that itself is obscured in the case of the jiva, not being presented as his, because of the non-

which come

manifestation of non-difference from the Lord, in the staite of transmigration; thus, it is the story of (the
carter

who turned up
,

at) the toll-house at break of

day.

17

17

The story behind the maxim
off into

is

that a carter, to evade paying

toll,

drove
it,

the fields and by-ways in the Uark, but, as luck would have found himself approaching the toll-house at break of day.

412
4.28111

CfiAfTER IV

be said, freedom from sin consists not in the absence of sin, but rather in the possession of

Now,

it

may

a power that obstructs the origination of sin, even when one performs acts that cause sin; hence, not through
this being eternally established is there the contingence

of the illusoriness of bondage;

similarly,

even the

possession of purposes which come true is to be defined 18 as of the form of a power; consequently, there is not
the contingence of non-difference
4-23112
so
(

from the Lord.
'

xve r

P^y)

5

^ 01< >

^lei e

is

no authority for

assuming such a souse fur the words.
obstructs the

The power that
9

generation of sin cannot indeed, be assumed for the sake of non-origination of sin, in the

stage of going round in the migratory cycle; for, at that time, the origination of that (sin) is acceptable. That

ever after the rise of knowledge, there is non-clinging, even because of the might of knowledge, is shown by
the aphorism On the knowledge of this, (there are) the non-clinging and destruction (respectively) of

"

subsequent and earlier
Scripture)".

sins, this
this,
;

Even from

being declared (by the non-clinging of sin

in release too is intelligible

hence, the assumption of a

power
those

is

in vain.

who

Therefore, it is established that by conform to the cited Scriptural texts and
viz.,

aphorisms this must be supported,
release of
all,

that,

till

the
all

released jivas attain perfectly
is

and in

respects that which

not opposed to their real nature
is

as bare intelligence, and

the state of the

Supreme

Lord, that
18

is qualified
cornea into being

by unrestricted lordly powers
and
is

Which

not eternally established,

CONCLUSION

413
(all of)

and a host of other

attributes suitable thereto

which are produced by the nesciences of the persons in bondage, and is the manifestation of (still)
unexcellable bliss.

To Ranganija Makhin, the learned preceptor, the
the Visvajit sacrifice enjoined (in the son of the performer of the SarvatoScripture), mukha-maha-vrata, the devotee of Him who wears the

performer

of

moon on His
Diksita.

head, there

is

a son known as

Appa
(1).

has written this compendious exposition of the rudiments of the different final positions (of advaitins),
following Scriptural basis as well as tradition, after having studied all the works, made clear to him by a

He

mere portion of the (preceptor's) constant skill in clear
exposition.
(2).

If there be anything here erroneously set down by me, in ways other than those of the (respective) final positions, may that be looked upon with grace

by scholars skilled in
tradition 1

the

examination

of

right
X3)-.

END OF CHAPTER FOUR
OF THE ASTRASIDDH&NTALE6ASA$QRAHA.

HERS ENDS THIS BOOK.

ERRATA
Read
attempt
another's
in

manifested
revati-rks

of

aradupakaraka
sannipatyokaraka

through
gabda-'rthah
to be

known

Sank^epagarlraka

Jabalaavuti

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