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# EE 336 Lab Report # 2

## Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Daytona Beach, FL 32114

I. Abstract One objective of this experiment is to become familiar with additional components that are utilized circuits. These components are categorized by linear and non-linear devices. Examples of non-linear devices are light bulbs and light emitting diodes. Another objective is to compare experimentally derived data for voltages and currents through these components, with theoretical values that are calculated and compare them to physically represent the difference in the categories. A circuit was created using a variable voltage source; a resistor, a breadboard, and either a light emitting diode or a light bulb, and then values were obtained by using digital multimeter, for the current and voltage various components. A final objective was to analyze nonlinear devices using the load line analysis. The objectives of this experiment were met by a low percent error between theoretical and measured values for the components of current and voltage sources as well as representing the linear and non-linear functions for the different components. II. Introduction Identifying linear and non-linear components can immensely impact the means by which data can be calculated and as well as analyzed. Linear devices, such as resistors, have inputs, such as voltage, that are linearly related with the outputs, such as current. Non-linear devices do not follow this linear relationship and vary from temperature dependent outputs to exponential related outputs. Ohms Law can be used to express the linear relationship between voltage and current for linear devices such as resistors. Ohms Law states: V=IR Where, V= voltage I= current R = resistance If this equation is rearranged to follow the standard linear equation of a line form (y = mx + b), where (m) is the slope of the line, we obtain: Resistors like other linear devices are considered Ohmic devices, meaning their voltage and current change proportionally to each other. By plotting I (current) versus V (voltage), we obtain the following graphical representation of the linearity:

Figure 1: Graph Representing the Proportionality of Linear Devices between Input and Output

Although this lab does not include this topic, it is important to note that linear components obey the superposition principal. The superposition principal states that the output for a circuit F(x), with a linear combination of signals ax1 (t) + bx2 (t), applied to it, F(x) is equal to the linear combination of the outputs due to the signals x1(t) and x2(t) applied separately. In equation form: F (ax1 + bx2) = aFx1+bFx2 Since circuits containing linear components follow the superposition principal, calculations are often simpler, more precise and easier to accomplish by hand or using simple tools such as calculators. Since non-linear components do not obey the superposition principal, calculations often need to be approximated if accuracy is desired. Often times, computer software programs such as LTSpice can be used to simplify the calculations for circuits containing non-linear devices. A light-emitting diode (LED) is one such non-linear device. The relationship between the output and input of the device varies exponentially. An LED is a semi-conductor light source. They are often used as indicator lights for devices and are increasingly being employed for other lighting functions. The electronic symbol for an LED is:

Figure 2: Electronic Symbol for A Light-emitting Diode Where the anode is the positive terminal (usually visible by the longer wire extending from the bottom of the LED) and the cathode is the negative terminal (shorter wire). Although there are various programs and techniques used to analyze non-linear devices, the load line analysis is a common graphical method used when the devices experience direct current. This analysis represents the limitations various parts of the circuit place on non-linear devices. A load line is the result of a linear circuit connected to the non-linear device. By plotting both the load line and the non-linear device response on a Current vs. Voltage graph, the operating point is identified. The operating point is the intersection between the load line and non-linear device response line. The significance of the operating point is that the responses from the circuit containing both the non-linear and linear devices and the circuit containing only the non-linear device match at this point. Essentially at the operating point, a non-linear device behaves like a linear device.

## Figure 3: Example Graph Showing Load Line Analysis

By applying Kirchhoffs Voltage Law to the circuit containing both the linear and non-linear components the following equation is found:

Where, Vs = Voltage from Source I = Current through resistor R = Resistance VNLD = Voltage from non-linear device Then boundary conditions are applied, Yielding the two points needed for the load line.

## III. Procedure __________ CIRCUIT 1

Figure 4: Circuit 1 Configuration for Experiment 1. Circuit 1 pictured in Figure 4 was assembled. 2. The DMM was used to measure the actual resistance of R1 the value was recorded. 3. The power supply was varied from 0 V to +10.0 V in increments of 1 Volt and the corresponding VR and IR values were recorded. 4. The data recorded for the resistor was plotted in an IR vs. VR graph to obtain the resistance. (slope= 1/R1) This experimental resistance value was compared with the measured value.

__________ CIRCUIT 2

Figure 5: Circuit 2 Configuration for Experiment 1. Circuit 2 pictured in Figure 5 was assembled. 2. The power supply was varied from 0 V to +20.0 V in increments of 2 Volts and the corresponding VLamp and ILamp values were recorded. (L: light bulb) 3. The data recorded for the light bulb was plotted in an ILamp vs. VLamp graph. __________ CIRCUIT 3

Figure 6: Circuit 3 Configuration for Experiment 1. Circuit 3 pictured in Figure 6 was assembled. 2. Load line equation (equation for the loop) was written for circuit in Figure 6 by applying Kirchhoffs Voltage Law. 3. Load line equation was used to determine the two points needed for the load line, labeled A and B. Load line was plotted, thus, determining the operating point Q1 __________ CIRCUIT 4

## Figure 7: Circuit 4 Configuration for Experiment

1. Circuit 4 pictured in Figure 7 was assembled. 2. Voltage across the light bulb and current through the circuit were measured and recorded. 3. Actual value for Q1 was measured and this value was compared to the theoretical value calculated in Circuit 3 4. Resistor was changed to 1 K and to 2.2 K and the load line analysis process was repeated for each new resistor. __________ CIRCUIT 5

Figure 8: Circuit 5 Configuration for Experiment 1. Circuit 5 pictured in Figure 8 was assembled with the diode in the forward configuration. 2. The power supply was varied from 0 V to +4.0 V in increments of 0.5 Volts and the corresponding VDiode and IDiode values were recorded. 3. The voltage was recorded for the diode when it first lit up. 4. The data recorded for the diode was plotted in an IDiode vs. VDiode graph.

__________ CIRCUIT 6

Figure 9: Circuit 6 Configuration for Experiment 1. Circuit 6 pictured in Figure 9 was assembled. 2. Load line equation (equation for the loop) was written for circuit in Figure 6 by applying Kirchhoffs Voltage Law. 3. Load line equation was used to determine the two points needed for the load line, labeled C and D. Load line was plotted, thus, determining the operating point Q2

__________ CIRCUIT 7

Figure 10: Circuit 7 Configuration for Experiment 1. Circuit 7 pictured in Figure 10 was assembled. 2. Values measured and recorded for ILED through the circuit and VLED across the LED. 3. Experimental Q2 was found and compared to theoretical Q2. 4. Resistor was changed to 1 K and to 2.2 K and the load line analysis process was repeated for each new resistor.

IV. Result Analysis Table 1: Voltage and Current for R1 (820 ) From Circuit 1 Voltage (Vs) Vr (V) Ir (mA) 0 0.00 0.00 1 1.05 1.00 2 2.23 1.97 3 3.36 2.96 4 4.42 3.99 5 5.47 4.95 6 6.61 5.94 7 7.69 6.94 8 8.80 7.93 9 9.81 8.90 10 10.94 9.94 Table 2: Voltage and Current Measurements for Resistors From Circuit 4 Resistor VQ1 IQ1 () (V) (mA) 820 1000 2200 8.83 10.2 9.2 12.06 10.5 9.5

Table 3: Voltage and Current Measurements for Light Bulb From Circuit 2 Voltage(V) VLamp ILamp 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 2.16 4.18 6.27 8.25 10.26 12.18 14.11 15.93 17.7 19.75 0 4.27 6.44 8.25 9.87 11.33 12.66 13.89 14.94 16.02 17.17

Table 4: Voltage and Current Measurements for LED From Circuit 5 Voltage VDiode IDiode (V) (V) (mA) 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 0.00 0.51 1.05 1.55 1.99 2.52 3.10 3.53 4.15 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.90 38.8 71.3 100 145

Table 5: Voltage and Current Measurements for Resistors From Circuit 7 Resistor VQ2 IQ2 () 820 1000 2000 1.67 1.69 1.64 2.45 2.19 1.03

## I-V Graph for R1 (820 )(Circuit 1)

12 10 8 Ir (mA) 6 4 2 0 0.00 5.00 Vr (V) 10.00 15.00 y = 1.1027x + 0.0236

I-V Graph for Light Bulb With Load Line for R2 (Circuit 4)
25 20 15 Current (mA) 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 Voltage(V) Non Linear Device Load Line

Q1

Figure 11: Current vs. Voltage for R1 Showing Linear Relationship I-V Graph for Light Bulb (Circuit 2)
25 20 15 Ir (mA) 10 5 0 0 5 10 Vr (V) 15 20 25 Current (mA)

Figure 14: Load Line Analysis for Light Bulb with R2 I-V Graph for Light Bulb With Load Line for R3 (Circuit 4)
25 20 15 Load Line 10 5 0 Q1 Non Linear Device

NonLinear Device

Figure 12: Current vs. Voltage for Light Bulb Showing Non-linear Relationship

## I-V Graph for Light Bulb With Line for R1 (Circuit 3)

30 25 20 15 Ir (mA) 10 5 0 0 5 10 Vr (V) 15 20 0 25 24.39

20 Voltage(V)

40

## Figure 15: Load Line Analysis for Light Bulb with R3

Figure 13: Load Line Analysis for Light Bulb with R1 and Q1 as green triangular point

160 140 120

I(diode)(mA)

Current(mA)

## 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 Voltage(V) 5 Series1 Load Line Q2

Figure 16: Current vs. Voltage for LED Showing Non-linear Relationship I-V Graph for LED With Load Line for R1 (Circuit 6)
160 140 120 Current(mA) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 2 4 6 0 Voltage(V) Series1 Load Line Q2

Figure 18: Load Line Analysis for LED with R2 I-V Graph for LED With Load Line for R3 (Zoomed)
Current(mA) Hundreds 0.1

0.05

## Table 6: Q1 Values for Resistors with Percent Error (Light Bulb)

Resistor 820 1000 2200 Q1 Theoretical V (V) 8.83 10.20 9.20 Q1 Experimental I (mA) v (V) 12.37 9.63 10.50 9.25 9.50 9.40 % Error I (mA) 12.58 10.80 10.70 Voltage 8.66 9.76 11.81 Current 1.64 2.81 2.15

## Table 7: Values for Resistors with Percent Error (LED)

Resistor 820 1000 2200 Q2 Theoretical V (V) I (mA) 1.67 2.45 1.72 2.19 1.64 1.03 Q2 Experimental V (V) I (mA) 1.69 2.54 1.69 2.19 1.61 1.20 % Error Voltage 1.10 1.75 1.84 Current 3.60 0.00 15.24

Circuit 1 Analysis: R1DMM = 887 Ohms From Figure 11: y=mx+b m = slope = ( ) R1 = R1 = R1 = 906.86
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Circuit 3 Analysis: For R1 by KVL for load line equation: VS = IR + VNLD At boundary condition 1 where I = 0: VNLD = VS At boundary condition 2 where VNLD = 0: I= Circuit 4 Analysis: (Light Bulb) Refer to Table 6 for the theoretical and experimental Q1 values. Also, the percent error for these values can be found in the table. Percent error was calculated in the same procedure as for R1.

Circuit 6 Analysis: (LED) Refer to Table 7 for the theoretical and experimental Q2 values. Also, the percent error for these values can be found in the table. Percent error was calculated in the same procedure as for R1.

Lab Questions:

Figure 20: Circuit for Lab Questions 1. The circuit as shown in Figure 20 contains a non-linear element. The voltage across the element (VA) is equal to the current through the element (I) squared. Write KVL and solve for VA. By KVL: (-Vs) + (+IR) + (+VA) = 0 (-12) + I + I2 = 0 I2 + I 12 = 0 (I + 4)(I 3) = 0 Therefore, I = 3. I = -4 is rejected because that will make the value of VA to be equivalent to 16 V, which has a greater voltage than the voltage source. By using voltage divider rule, the voltage across the 1 resistor is 3 V. Therefore, VA = 9 V 2. What size resistor will result in the current I = 2A? (-Vs) + (+IR) + (+VA) = 0 (-12) + (2R) + (4) = 0 2R = 8 R=4

3. Do the characteristic curves of each non-linear component agree with the theoretical behavior predicted? Elaborate your answer. Yes. Both curves obtained prove the non-linearity of both devices. The LED curve obtained also followed an exponential function where there is very little increase at the beginning voltages, which then increased exponentially with increase in voltage. The graph obtained from the light bulb, shows that initially there was an almost horizontal starting slope to a very steep slope due to temperature effects in the light

bulb as it heated. As the voltage increased, the change in resistance became smaller because the bulb was reaching a constant temperature. 4. What happens to the voltage drop across the LED if the resistor values were changed and how would it affect the current in the circuit? There would be a greater voltage drop if the resistance in the circuit were increased. This results in a smaller current to pass throughout the circuit.

V. Conclusions Generally, we have learned the effects of linear and non-linear devices through this experiment. Through careful analysis in the different behaviors of these devices, we are able to gain a better understanding of how circuits can either be simplified or complicated depending on necessity. We also noted that although linear devices and non-linear devices have different output/input functions, the non-linear devices can be manipulated to simplify the calculations. However, throughout this experiment, there were some minor inaccuracies between theoretical and measured values. We concluded that these inaccuracies can be contributed to either component affects, such as the resistance present in the breadboard and wires, the efficiency of the devices itself, or to improper equipment handling on our part. A correct handling technique and using more efficient components might reduce inaccuracies in the experiment in the future. VI. Statement This experiment was efficient in demonstrating differences in linear and non-linear devices. The teaching assistant provided all the necessary assistance when asked. However, we felt that the amount of measurements/calculations was too great. We believe that simplifying this experiment may allow for more thorough analysis of either the light bulb or LED, instead of skimming briefly over both.