Door knock alarm with timer

Contents: Abstract  Introduction  Circuit diagram
A) Construction B) Working  IC NE555 A) Design B) Operating mode C) Pin Diagram of NE555 D) Specifications  IC UM66 A) Pin diagram B) Melody generator circuit C) Applications  Transistor (BC547) A) Pin diagram B) Schematic symbol  Components A) Resistor B) Capacitor

C) Battery D) Speaker E) Piezo electric sensor F) Zener diode  Applications  Conclusion

I.

ABSTRACT:The alarm may be used in many ways, such as a sudden fear

or distressing suspense due to awareness of danger. It is an automatic device that serves to warn of danger, as fire, to arouse someone from sleep, or to call attention to a particular thing.

This circuit uses a thin piezoelectric sensor to sense the vibrations generated by knocking on a surface. The piezoelectric element plate is fixed at the centre of the door wing by using a cello tape. Apply a small quantity of adhesive at the edges between the plate and the door. Extend wires about 1-1.5 metres from the piezoelectric to the circuit. IC NE555 (IC1) is configured in monostable mode. When it gets an input pulse its output goes high for a period set by VR1, resistor R5 and capacitor C3. IC UM66 (IC2) is used as a melody generator. When the door is knocked at, the piezo plate generates an input pulse, which is amplified by transistor T1.

The amplified signal triggers the timer IC NE555 and its output pin 3 goes high to enable the melody generator. Music is heard from the speaker LS1. After the set time period, the melody sound stops. Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB and enclose in a suitable case. Fix the piezo element at the door and place the speaker in a central room inside the house

using long wires. The circuit works off 5-12V DC. The music time can be adjusted through VR1 by changing the R-C time constant of the timer.

 Introduction:This circuit generates an alarm sensing the vibration generated on knocking a surface. In some apartment buildings and class rooms that are not equipped with a doorbell, it may be hard to hear someone knocking on the front door. This circuit provides a means to activate a sound inside, whenever someone knocks on the door from outside. It uses readily available, low cost components whereas almost all commercial devices sold use a more expensive and power consuming circuit.

II.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Door knock alarm with timer:-

Circuit operation:Here a piezoelectric plate is used as the sensor. It can convert any mechanical vibration into electrical signal. The piezoelectric sensor plate is fixed at the centre of the door wing by using a cello tape. A small quantity of adhesive is applied at the edges between the plate and the door. Wires are extended from piezoelectric to the circuit.

NE 555 IC is configured in monostable mode. When it gets an input pulse, its output goes high for a period set by VR1, resistor R5 and capacitor C. When door is knocked at, the piezoelectric plate generates an input pulse, which is amplified by transistor T1. The amplified signal triggers the IC 555 and its output pin 3 goes high to enable the buzzer. After the set time period, the alarm stops. The circuit works at 5v-12v dc supply. The alarm time can be adjusted through VR1 by changing the RC time constant of the timer.

III. IC NE555 III (i). Design:The IC was designed in 1971 by Hans R. Camenzind. Depending on the manufacturer, the standard 555 package includes 25 transistors, 2 diodes and 15 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8-pin mini dual-in-line package The NE555 parts were commercial temperature range, 0 °C to +70 °C Low-power versions of the 555 are also available, such as the 7555 and CMOS TLC555. The 7555 is designed to cause less supply noise than the classic 555 and the manufacturer claims that it usually does not require a "control" capacitor and in many cases does not require a decoupling capacitor on the power supply.

III (ii).Pin Diagram of NE555:-

Pin

Name

Purpose

1

GND

Ground, low level (0 V)

2

TRIG

OUT rises, and interval starts, when this input falls below 1/3 VCC.

3

OUT

This output is driven to +VCC or GND.

4

RESET

A timing interval may be interrupted by Driving this input to GND.

5

CTRL

"Control" access to the internal voltage divider (by default, 2/3 VCC).

6

THR

The interval ends when the voltage at THR is greater than at CTRL.

7

DIS

Open collector output; may discharge a Capacitor between intervals.

8

V+, VCC

Positive supply voltage is usually between 3V and 15V.

III (iii).Operating mode of IC NE555:-

Schematic of a 555 in monostable mode

In the monostable mode, the 555 timer acts as a "one-shot" pulse generator. The pulse begins when the 555 timer receives a signal at the trigger input that falls below a third of the voltage supply.

The width of the output pulse is determined by the time constant of an RC network, which consists of a capacitor (C) and a resistor (R). The output pulse ends when the voltage on the capacitor equals 2/3 of the supply voltage. The output pulse width can be lengthened or shortened to the need of the specific application by adjusting the values of R and C.[5] The output pulse width of time t, which is the time it takes to charge C to 2/3 of the supply voltage, is given by

Where t is in seconds, R is in ohms and C is in farads. While using the timer IC in monostable mode, the main disadvantage is that the time span between the two triggering pulses must be greater than the RC time constant. III (iv). Specifications:These specifications apply to the NE555. Other 555 timers can have different specifications depending on the grade (military, medical, etc.). Supply voltage (VCC) Supply current (VCC = +5 V) Supply current (VCC = +15 V) Output current (maximum) Maximum Power dissipation Power consumption (minimum operating) 4.5 to 15 V 3 to 6 mA 10 to 15 mA 200 mA 600 mW 30 mW@5V, 225 mW@15V

Operating temperature

0 to 70 °C

IV. UM66:The UM66 is an electronic doorbell. It requires a botton for the door, a single transistor, a battery and a speaker. um66 is a melody generator cmos ic it is a three terminal ic pin no: 1 is set to ground, and pin 2 is Vdd pin 3 is the output melody signal this ic generally operates from 1.5 to 5 volts it is.

IV (i). Pin Diagram:-

Pin Description: -

Pin No 1 2 3

Function Melody output Supply voltage (1.5V - 4.5V) Ground (0V)

Name Output Vcc Ground

IV (ii). Melody Generator:Circuit diagram

Description:Here is a simple melody generator circuit you can make using an IC. The UM66 series are CMOS IC’s designed for using in calling bell, phone and toys. It has a built in ROM programmed for playing music. The device has very low power consumption. Thanks for the CMOS technology. The melody will be available at pin3 of UM66 and here it is amplified by using Q1 to drive the speaker. Resistor R1 limits the base current of Q1 within the safe values. Capacitor C1 is meant for noise suppression.

IV (iii).Applications: It will generate a music signal by taking a less voltage at its input side.we can use it in our commercial applications.  It placed inside a greeting card and operated off a single 3V flat button cell.

V.

Transistor:-

V (i).

Pin diagram of BC547:-

BC547 is an NPN bi-polar junction transistor. A transistor, stands for transfer of resistance, is commonly used to amplify current. A small current at its base controls a larger current at collector & emitter terminals. BC547 is mainly used for amplification and switching purposes. It has a maximum current gain of 800. Its equivalent transistors are BC548 and BC549. The transistor terminals require a fixed DC voltage to operate in the desired region of its characteristic curves. This is known as the biasing. For amplification applications, the transistor is biased such that it is partly ON for all input conditions. The input signal at base is amplified and taken at the emitter. For switching applications, transistor is biased so that it remains fully ON if there is a signal at its base. In the absence of base signal, it gets completely OFF.

V (ii). BC547 Transistor Circuit Schematic Symbol:-

Pin 1

Description
Emitter

2

Base

3

collector

FEATURES: Low current (max. 100 mA)  Low voltage (max. 65 V).

APPLICATIONS:-

 General purpose switching and amplification.

VI. Components:-

VI (i). Resistors VI (ii).Capacitors VI (iii).Battery

VI (iv).speaker VI (v).piezoelectric sensor VI (vi).Zener diode

VI (i). Resistor:A RESISTOR is a component of an electrical circuit that resists the flow of electrical current. A resistor has two terminals across which electricity must pass, and is designed to drop the voltage of the current as it flows from one terminal to the next. A resistor is primarily used to create and maintain a known safe current within an electrical component.

The following table shows the colors used to identify resistor values: COLOR Silver DIGIT MULTIPLIER TOLERANCE x 0.01 ±10% TC

Gold Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

x 0.1 x1 x 10 x 100

±5% ±100*10-6/K ±50*10-6/K ±15*10-6/K ±25*10-6/K ±0.5% ±0.25% ±0.1% ±10*10-6/K ±5*10-6/K ±1*10-6/K

±1% ±2%

VI (ii).capacitors:A CAPACITORS is a component that is used to store an electrical charge. When power is supplied to a circuit the capacitor charges up. When power is turned off the capacitor discharges its electrical charge slowly.

Capacitor Colour Code Table Temperature Coefficient (TC)

Colour

Digit Digit A B

Multiplier D

Tolerance

Tolerance

(T) > 10pf (T) < 10pf

Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White Gold Silver

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

x1 x10 x100 x1,000 x10,000 x100,000 x1,000,000

± 20% ± 1% ± 2% ± 3% ± 4% ± 5%

± 2.0pF ± 0.1pF ± 0.25pF -33x10-6 -75x10-6 -150x10-6 -220x10-6 ± 0.5pF -330x10-6 -470x10-6 -750x10-6

x0.01 x0.1 x0.1 x0.01

+80%,-20% ± 10% ± 5% ± 10% ± 1.0pF

VI(iii).Battery:-

The battery has both terminals in a snap connector on one end. The smaller circular (male) terminal is positive, and the larger hexagonal or octagonal (female) terminal is the negative . A nine –volt battery also called PP3 battery. This is a rectangular prism shape with rounded edges and a polarized snap connector at the top.

Applications: It is commonly used in pocket radios, smoke detectors, carbon monoxide
alarms, guitar effect units, and radio-controlled vehicle controllers.

VI (iv). Speaker:-

Speaker is used to here the noise of the alarm . speakers are found in devices such as radio and TV receivers, and many forms of music players.

VI(v).piezo electric sensor:-

The Piezoelectric effect is an effect in which energy is converted between mechanical and electrical forms . An example of this can be seen in piezoelectric speakers. (These are the cause of those annoying system beeps that are all too common in today's computers).

Piezoelectric sensor act as transducers which turn force, or mechanical stress into electrical charge which in turn can be converted into a voltage The sensor can be attached to a door, a cash box, cupboard, etc using adhesive. Piezo elements come in handy when you need to detect vibration or a knock. You can use these for tap or knock sensors pretty easily by reading the voltage on the output. They can also be used for a very small audio transducer such as a buzzer.

VI (vi).zener Diode:-

A Zener Diode is a special kind of diode which permits current to flow in the forward direction as normal, but will also allow it to flow in the reverse direction when the voltage is above a certain value the breakdown voltage known as the Zener voltage. A typical diode functions only in one direction (forward-bias). When subjected to reverse-bias, the junction will eventually break down under high enough voltage.

A zener diode works the same way, but breaks down at a very specific reverse-bias voltage. This is called its zener voltage. Because of this property, a zener diode can be used to regulate the voltage in a circuit. When inserted the opposite orientation as you typically expect a diode, it begins to conduct when the voltage across it reaches the zener voltage. Then the voltage stays at that level. Zener diode conducts just like an ordinary diode on forward bias. On reverse bias, leakage current flows through it. This leakage current increases with the reverse voltage. This leakage current will increase suddenly after a definite reverse voltage. This voltage is known as break down voltage of zener diode or zener voltage, and this sudden increase in current is known as zener current. For example, if a 6 volt capacity zener diode is connected in series with a 6 volt battery, then the effect of forward and reverse bias will be as follows: There will be current flow in the zener diode in the position shown in fig., but there will be no flow of current in the zener diode in the position shown in fig.. If now the battery voltage in the position of fig is raised, then there will be leakage current in the zener in the beginning. If reverse voltages are raised in steps, then on a definite reverse voltage there will be sudden rise in the current through the zener. In fig., the upper position of the graph shows the variations in forward current on forward voltage.

VII. Uses: Whenever AC mains supply fails, this circuit alerts you by sounding an alarm. It also provides a backup light to help you find your way to the torch or the generator key in the dark  LPG gas is supplied in pressurized steel cylinders. As this gas is heavier than air, when it leaks from a cylinder it flows along floor and tends to settle in low spots such as a basement. This can cause fire or suffocation if not dealt with. Here is a circuit that detects the leakage of LPG gas and alerts the user through audio-visual indications.  If the fridge door is left open for too long or hasn't closed properly, to stop food from spoiling. There are lots of other uses as well. A refrigerator or freezer door that is left open or ajar may cause the food contents to spoil.

Conclusion:Using a melody generator IC, like UM66, at the output of timer we can hear a melodious music when someone knocks the door. This circuit uses a piezoelectric plate to sense any mechanical vibration. Hence it avoids false triggering. The plate can be fixed on a door, cash box, cupboard etc using adhesive. With some small modifications this can also be used as burglar alarms and to safeguard motor vehicles. If a burglar touches the outside door knob this circuit will instantly emit a loud alarm to scare him away and alert you of the attempted entry.

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