CLASSIC

ARTICLE

This reprinted by Victor

issue paper, Tausk.

of

the “‘The The

Journal
Origin paper

ofPsychotherapy Practice and of the Influencing Machine
appeared in print in l9l9just

Research

includes in Schizophrenia,”
about the time

a
of

Tausk’s tragic suicide, although an earlier version had been presented the year before to the Vienna Psychoanalytic Group. In many ways this is an odd paper. It reflects Tausk’s great brilliance and at the same time conveys, through its careful and scrupulously documented footnotes, Tausk’s preoccupation with the influence between him and Freud concerning the psychoanalytic view of schizophrenia. Tausk draws heavily on Freud’s work at the time; however, he advances the psychoanalytic formulation ofthe central difficulty of schizophrenia a substantial step forward.

troubled relationship with Freud is documented in Paul Roazen’s BrotherAnimaL’ The paper “Origin of the Influencing Machine in Schizophrenia” was frequently referred to by Freud after Tausk’s death. And of Tausk’s
work, this paper is the most well known.

Tausk’s

The paper itself has many intriguing elements that reveal Tausk’s creativity. It provides an illuminating and interesting rationale for single case studies which isjust as modern today as in 1919. In addition, the paper is distinguished by its attempt to interpret and give meaning to a common schizophrenic symptom: in this case, the experience of being influenced by a distant machine. Tausk’s great achievement is to cleverly relate this symptom and its presumed meaning to psychoanalytic theory. In the effort, he humanizes the patient as he contributes to metapsychology. Indeed, it is his contribution to metapsychology and the understanding of schizophrenia in general that ensures the place of this paper in history. Tausk makes clever use of ideas of development, instinctual investment, as well
as repression and defense as he formulates the meaning of the influencing

machine. However, his most notable contribution is the idea that schizophrenia is due to a weakened ego, and he calls explicit attention to the specificity of the problem in maintaining boundaries between self and other, inside and outside, past and present. The notion of a weak ego with difficulties maintaining boundaries was taken up by Paul Federn and ultimately has become the centerpiece of modern psychoanalytic conceptualizations of schizophrenia. The paper is at times dense, and by today’s standards Tausk would require a good editor. However, the paper rewards careful reading with its brilliant insight into a vexatious illness. While the thrust of understanding schizophrenia clinically today lies in the integration of many different perspectives, the

paper reminds us that there can be value in making human contact with the person behind the disease. Although distorted by illness, the schizophrenic patient’s wishes and fears can be understood, Tausk asserts. This understanding can be used to assist the patient to cope with the illness and stay involved in the other aspects of treatment that are prescribed. Wiw H.
SLEDGE,

M.D.

R

E

F

E

R

E

N

C

E

1. Roazen

P: Brother

Animal.

New

York, Random

House,

1969

Translation

and

translator’s

note

repri nted

from

Psychoanalytic

Quarterly

2:519-556,

1933,

by permission.

VOLUME

1’

NUMBER

2 #{149} SPRING

1992

TAUSK

185

On the Origin of the “Influencing Machine” in Schizophrenia
VICTOR Translation from TALSK German
by Dorian Feigenbaum

[A translation of this article appearance in thelnternationale Psychoanalyse Victor Tausk (judge)

14 years after its and by his brilliant presentation Zeitschrift f#{252}r theory. The translation, undertaken the psychoanalytic serves tothe in a measure
author.

of the Freudian tofill a gap in in English,

requires a word of explanation. had been a distinguished jurist before he became a psycho-

literature D.F.] I

available

to discharge

a debt of gratitude

and journalist

analyst. Freud’s work found an immediate response in Tausk, who began the study of medicine late in life in order to equip himself more thoroughly for psychoanalysis. Although his tragic death in his forty-second year (July 3, 1919) prevented his contributing more than a mere handful of papers, he around Freud, in the creative period of psychoanalysis during the decade of the world war. His work covered a variety of subjects, such as alcoholic psychoses, schizophrenia, infantile sexuality, war neuroses, and psychoanalysis and philosophy. of his studies was “Beeinflussungsapparates” phrenie, read before the Vienna The last and most important Uber die Entstehung des in der SchizoPsychoanalytic The chine” following

considerations of of the

are based “influencing by a certain Although of the

upon matype of pardif-

a single

example complained

was one of the pioneers

schizophrenic ticular case

patient the structure

in this machine

fers materially, to the best of my knowledge, from all other varieties of apparatus of this sort, it is hoped that the present example will nevertheless facilitate psychoanalytic insight into the genesis and purpose of this delusional instrument. My example the is a variant-a very rare van-

Society devoted

(Jan. 6, 1918), discussed in an evening to the paper (Jan. 30, 1918) and published is a classic inpsychoanalytic-and presenting a brilliant

in 1919. This study psychiatric-literature,

ant-of objection to draw a single regarded based cation

typical influencing machine. The can of course be made that it is rash general conclusions from the study of case, as and that generalizations, scientifically valid, should to be be

analysis of a delusionaty formation, throwing out penetrating comments on such fundamental problems as projection, hallucination and narcissism,

on a larger mass of material. Myjustifiis that I have simply not encountered case material in support best cases of my of my knowlcontains no of the influsuch as would exist and Clinical only its only

any further

and anticipating libido development,
The translator, clinical separated Kraepelinian attracted studies them, a brief period

Abraham’s
as wellas at the University

formulation later studies of Vienna, the time

of the by others. of enjoyed to

conclusions, and that to the edge psychiatric literature descriptions of individual encing machine phenomenon, make general regular my paper descriptions features and clinical superfluous. of the functions

a classmate

in the last year

of friendship and-at psychiatiy-was

with him before the war
devoted ‘s enthusiasm to no small by Tausk degree

There apparatus,

are given

to psychoanalysis

as perfunctory

illustrations.

JOURNAL

OF PSW HOTHERAPY

PRACTICE

AND RESEARCH

and to discover by means and it appears levers. conclusions general the psychoanalytical postulate such probit is permissible from exceptional to see the lantern pictures. or by air-currents. machine or cinematois is the a magic case. Inquiry extraordinary causative factors has stimulated inquiry into those ordinarily countered. processes. method. It makes When this generally the patients to explain the machine. erections and seminal emissions. the of a symptom. such as cuand other abscesses. tion. on dow in the wall to be obtained. lems. erto sufficiently meaning. of boxes. vague hints and formulated. They the are cians by whom The manipulation obscure. inquiry typical Yet upon the significance of for the study of the dyPsychiatry has not hiththe origin. lays no stress individual symptoms namics of psychoses. is often called a Its construction but its function or “drainfeelings by one in the in the transmission of thoughts and or several It produces persecutors.” cannot be explained. utilized of the apparatus. forces known the discoveries progressive to explain All the the construcof their techthat are with the all to persecute the pabest of tient and is operated by enemies. Deviations types compel phenomenon through from the may It produces. for in part or following conclusions that the example will prove to justify them. and and significance of this variant been correctly conceived 2 The able schizophrenic of mystical to give only influencing nature. of my knowledge. The pictures gle plane. on walls and are unlike not typical three-dimensional. of the influencing marthe ma- investigated the purpose not employing it does not even in principle. as well as removes. patient has been treated. Patients endeavor tion of the apparatus nical the knowledge. graph. of the apparatus is likewise rarely having a clear idea however. consists ing off” of physIn such ambiguous that a given origin. cases. other while a deviation hand. by which persecuted. predominantly physi- to technology of mankind. wires. batteries. It is assumption be of diverse only when an unexpected departure from the accustomed occurs that one feels the necessityof investigating the uniformity which previously characterized the phenomenon at least had seemed to do so. that in part cannot they are strange and that magnetic. and because. are the patient VOLUME 1 #{149} NUMBER 2 #{149} SPRING 1992 . due to air-currents. derive types. the machine “suggestion-apparatus. of suggestion magnetism. interested only in general descrip- tions. regarded as inadequate velous powers of this patients feel themselves The main effects chine are the following: 1. or X-rays.186 INFLUENCING MACHINE psychiatry. It consists wheels. may be a winwhich the rule a clear and view is 2. are sensed as electrical. buttons. This is accomplished either by means electricity. It creates sensations be described. To the exclusively popularization functioning of the sciences. machine The patients of its construc- is a are 5. visual hallucinations an impenetrable from type. Variants and mixed forms stimulate into general types. machine It is also responsible rences in the patient’s taneous pathological The machine eruptions. 4. the latter are the male sex. thoughts and feelings by means of waves or rays or mysterious forces which the patient’s knowledge ics is inadequate to explain. cranks. motor phenomena example origin have body. The conformity of cases may have the ultimate effect of the barrier. that are intended to deprive the patient of his male potency and weaken him. the like. are seen on a sinor windowpanes. It is to be hoped taken as a basis for the only that the had or into often en3. serves other occurbody. because to the patient himself.

It is necessary influencing nal which stage started to assume. I do not believe that heretofore entire sequence in the development symptom pletely from the connection could have been studied in paranoia the patient invents in order lusions of grandeur). there is a group of patients that dispenses completely with any gratification of the need for causality. and complains simply of emotional tions within ality. I am in the position of the observer of plasmodia who notes various pathological forms stages of in the blood cells as developmental of growth. According influencing for causality same account through need for the secution inteiference. limbs. of inner themselves: However. sensations change. the ideas of persecution or influence may be seen entering into the construction of an influencing apparatus. also occur though he is never able to observe in any one blood corpuscle more than a single phase. Clinical the symptom of an influas analogous to the ideas of (which. espe- set in motion. There strange sensations for which astonishment. They longer facial have clearly are complaints face. of thoughts the complaint and feelings. an external thoughts. sensations. it is known. and or psychic mental power. in by the for instance. Its apas many observers state.” However. and that the latter is a subsequent pearance. ascribed to a foreign.” or “telepathic in- machine originates in the need that is inherent in man. change is no evidence of an originator. cranks turned. estranged. Recognition of the various symptoms as JOURNAL OF PS’KHOTHERAPY PRACTICE AND RESEARCH . originates from accompanied These feelings by a of per- tainty. that a large of all these ailto the influsensato be suggesfrom patients or hostile change influence. of patients originating but of a feeling become understand expression. although in advanced stages In some cases they may also be observed as well. purpose changes dominate pathological development. serves the of an explanation for the pathologic painful life idea of and and he that are felt as alien and the patient’s emotional to this view. of a change and extremities. The with the patient is often established of invisible which case machine only connection by means bed.TAUSK 187 of its operation. and to justify his decalls it “paranoia a single case. merely by suggestion psychiatry explains encing persecution machine or by telepathy. symptoms enemies. become are part “drained” from and of a similar of sensaThis of influhostile no face. does from strange in the skin. it may be stated with cerstrong probability. levers there cially. and I have no hesitation in maintaining that under especially favorable circumstances it may be possible to observe the entire series of developmental stages in a single patient Meanwhile. My own observations and those of other authors leave no room for doubt that these complaints precede the symptom of the influencing apparatus. and the for causality will probably who act apparatus also not but the persecutors medium of an fluence. Buttons are pushed. it is noteworthy number of patients complain ments ence the tions simply tion or without cause of of all physical telepathic ascribing Many these alien them of a machine. But I have observed between at least two stages (of somatica. and in others with that the sense of persecution the sense sensations are of change of estrangement. to their great other they simply see them. nature tions group ences force. personal “suggestion. the of dementia praecox. emanating consider estrangement. apparatus represents evolution with simple of the the that the termiof the of the com- in the symptom. thoughts or feelings being them or “foisted” upon them. therefore. to themselves. ala continuous cycle the intervention It is particularly of a foreign declared patients that their visions are not foisted them in any way but that. the changes physical and and strange psychic apparipersonor by which I shall present an example later). hostile some upon without power. of an early These stage feelings. not complain a foreign.” In other cases. of a loss or without the wires leading into his the patient is influenced when he is in bed.

such compulsion neurosis. through He felt electrical currents him. The same example has already been cited by Freud in another connection. in cance-that the currents end. as if she were being which had its cause in himself. The identification is obviously an attempt to project the feelings of the inner change on to the outer world. . I shall lar later case be now seen. Upon dis- attribution of these of intermediary of self-estrangereference. we as of influencing of any hostile powers This observation a thirty-four of insane throughout streaming year old man. literally. advancing to the foreground. she mainthat her eyes were no longer properly in her head but were entirely twisted and lover eyes. It constitutes inner an a bridge change external between the without external changes a kind person. declaring with thatwas he did his power! How and for what purpose this he refused to disclose. produced to another mania. reaches or substantiating the developmental process which I have assumed.188 INFLUENCING MACHINE stages of a unified developmental process is that this manifestation had a special signifi- rendered observation difficult not merely by inaccurate but by other factors as well. felt herself influenced by her tained placed out fact son that who lover in a singular manner.. This patient’s words. “Sich verstellt”-taken other. This patient did not merely tion. suddenly moved felt a thrust. up by a simulpsychoclinical paranoia. anxiety hysteria.2 and made feel and her conscious depending ical process the rapidity of the upon the individual the fact that her lover disguised that he had already ruined her as evil as himself. some of the stages may be missing altogether. very likely that in many cases of and in the development that in the one stage unconscious psyche. Ideas of reference in schizophrenia develop equally with or without the influencing apparatus.” TRANSLATOR. every sciousness. pathologdisposiof the delusion of reference. If we take into consideration the view held by Freud and myself that in objectchoice the mechanism of identification precedes the cathexis may regard the representing the proper by projection. was made ascribedhave I been able in the absence to which absence. of a significance or consecutively belonging as depression. or amentia. runs leaves gaps stage its course upon and the more subtle elements in the It not conanother and thus Finally. cite served a mysterious he refused any inforinstance. from her place. regarding which mation. At church of position. besides. but he soon came to the conclusion position between ment and the rounds out the feeling delusion of well. on to a distant persecutor proin the outer world). in the those in fact. he produced rent within himself. feelings cause to the of an and the power of earth through his legs. This and substantiates covering these currents in himself for the first time. case of herself persecuted and influenced. to observe of the are usually In but one case’ electrical currents apparatus in the whatsoever. Pasingle stages behind symptoms-each his morbid are covered secondary patient disposition. conceal from the observer development is. Miss Emma A. this was she attributed deceitful one day to the pershe her twisted an evil. he was (he admitted) somewhat astonished. case of Miss Emma stage in the development A. hers was a case of being influenced by identification with the persecutor. mean “moves himself from one place to an- VOLUME 1 #{149} NUMBER 2 #{149} SPRING 1992 .Josef H. which entered the the pride curthat the delusion of reference preceding the jection (namely. sis or neurosis group. tients conceal and correlative accordance Changes taneously another somatica a singuas will own in its with of feeling of paranoia having. and these clinical pictures. an inmate asylums at frequent intervals his life. especially 2 the Belgrade Neuropsychiatric Division.

The sensations changes in the psychical and functions own body. but later on they appear pictures). in addition. aggressiveness. producing erection. the phenomena that in some to be produced by the influencand that in other cases occur located the in the performance intestines of each and entrusted moseparate by hallucinatory projection occurrence to the external out awareness of an originator. if I am to be a paranoiac to be one not some years Staudenmayer-who. seclusiveness. at least. to at a very Since at this 7. influencing by suggestion. schematically cases appear ing machine without 1. or rather of a hostile object. and since. producing or draining off thoughts and feelings.). electricity. in this instance the patient himself (case Josef H. We may now summarize and describe 5. was declared rate considered any misand is by mebowel moveevery 3. first. and later accompanied by. Among the that may be stages of the given of the various delusion of reference. will certainly of love and illustrations forms or the case was to relinquish all crude of his abnormality. feelings of estrangement are ent. with awareness of Staudenmayer presented before Society taken. seminal emissions. note. hypnotism. by enemies. Feelings of inner change by projection of the inner to the inator outer world and belief in an origproduced by the paranoid mech- anism (causing pictures to appear. at (whose autobiography the Vienna Psychoanalytic ago) may be mentioned. and so forth. opment of the symptom. 6. who. and the psychoanalyst. such as naughtiness. the illness early age. not pres(seeing accompanied originator (case Emma accompanied occurrence by awareness of an external as a result of identification A. this stage either unrecognized or else is misIt is only at puberty. himself accompanied of the world. concealed discerned to make on he is able JOURNAL OF PS’YCHOTHERAPY PRACTICE AND RESEARCH . when speto the environment of the individual. an originator. inner withalis though existing within the nevertheless not the patient described movements ment to its his sensations during his from the beginning of the conclusion. usually unknown only vaguely At first. tion in the influencing concerned invention.). without awareness are of physical of one’s stage of of an originator.TAUSK 189 psychoanalytically. Feelings abnormal comes too. have no objection to the equating hate in this instance. within various parts In many cases this probably occurs before puberty. the concept of the devel- fantasies. Feelings of inner change accompanied by awareness of an originator. of inner change in the form sensations. pathological changes are not infrequently compensated by infantile peculiarities of character. Feelings of inner change attributed to the workings of the influencing machine manipulated the enemies are the patient later and by him. Feelings of inner change at first. age no exact reports can be obtained on inner conditions. simple sensations of inner change. Feelings of inner change single peristaltic motion coming to his awareness to the activity of special demons allegedly with tion. and so forth). in the beginning devoid of. who is exthe illof of of cial adjustments are required compelled pressions ness time. masturbation. We are here the the with the discovery. intellectual the objects up to its crystallizamachine. a sense of estrangement. that to the that surface. effecting bodily motions. We it. patient. and attributed 4. weakening potency. further development it is at this symptoms is stimulated. but for process it is unimportantwhether observed are hostile or friendly. (case Staudenmayer). dullness remains named. 2.

1915. the walls of which reveal gaps through (a) which it is possible influencing construction. moreover. tion of single not accompanied pearance they are components by the other the of the machine is simultaneous disapfor which components new The ordinary a very obscure of it are cases where machine large believes of the components substituted. after having dreamed of manipulating the machine. has parts In he un- of symbols. complicated ens. completely unimaginable. at the start. but has not the understanding itself. VOLUME I #{149} NUMBER 2 #{149} SPRING 1992 . is. f. In order to strengthen the inhibition. plaint of the schizophrenic causes erection. is at first completely the construction but encing apparatus. III. We must. use structures less solidly built. and the ejaculation difficult if not impossible. machines genitalia batory dreams described I may add. Psa. apparatus genitalia be is a proassumed that representation jected the influencing of the patient’s world. mt. leads to a dream fantasy which is favorable to discharge.3 an to conspiracy. I can state further of that these are dreams in my paper of escape. but the result is the same. This is how the hopelessly complex machine originates. Having solved the familiarizes relation between ideas of reference and the influencing apparatus. It may. with his hand on his genitalia. Victor: ZurPsychologie des al*ohol. The doubt that whenever an accurate deof the apparatus is demanded patient. Having studied machine dreams analytically over a long period of time. the unable to of the influhim- ways represent the genitalia. is. we may proceed to an examination of the latter without reference to its effects. plicated emphasized by Freud in which he stated that appearing in to the machine in dreams. This characteristic may be being simply added to the old ones. and enafter the pattern of Similarly. analogous to that of a dreamer who has a feeling of understanding. and of instinct dreams effects the in this dreamer manawak- discovered scription of the (b) The ways one. dream possesses except that the mechanism. the construction it is obvious that of the appathis feeling at best. psychoanalyst this machine cannot must for a moment in one of the comdreams al- be a symbol-a to the outer analogous in origin view recently his lectures. another fantasy is hastily substituted. and weak- machines Tausk. by means of which a new state of inhibition is induced momentarily. to the repudiated wish successive The gous alteration machine of semen is made The dream reacts for discharge with a an analointroduc- because its structure harmonizes perfectly with the function attributed to it. and a very al- apparatus a machine. reciprocally weakens his libidinal ner inhibition In machine interest. It is not necessary lantern which produces to discuss pictures the magic or images. drains The frequent comthat the apparatus off semen. knows their circle paranoid who they are. self with it gradually. that the always stand for the dreamer’s own and that the dreams are of a masturcharacter. and because it does not reveal any error of judgment beyond the fact of its nonexistence. therefore. &sch4/Iigungsdelir. rouses his intellectual interest. or rather a readiness ejaculate semen. I can fully confirm Freud’s statement. derstands ratus well. the symbol has been made complex. In this paper it is shown that whenever urge to masturbate. the patient to look inside. on alcoholic the type delirium. Each complexity draws the attention of the dreamer to himself.Ztsch. This rational superstructure is absolutely impenetrable. instead of being displaced by another one. more often than not.190 INFLUENCING MACHINE them larges the patient explain out. as far as I know.

few weeks later these limbs were not placed on the coffin lid in their natural form. and some later the patient herself became afflicted it. thoughts. disgusting and can make means of writing. The ulcer (lupus) now present on her nose was first produced time with of to rephuman on the nose of the machine. a half years she of an electrical though this herself understood She declares that has been machine form own mother. though likewise friends machine are why or how they disappeared she tell. Of explanation. The ing fact about the machine is that manipulated by someone ner. is the shape of a lid. She has practically nothabout the head. she feels the blow in the corresponding part of her own body. A utilizes rejected the apparatus to persecute suitor. It has the indeed. ence about through through through who her but now the any genitalia. The years She number old. neither does she know how it is connected with her. machine no longer possesses though cannot genitalia. of this diabolical does not know definitely how this machine is to be handled. the Those a slimy internal parts of the which organs machine are supposed of the consist electric resent body.TAUSK 191 ens potency only confirms this rate. The form trunk of occurrences. Ever since the machine lost its the patient has ceased to experiwith the apparatus. describing latter she gives only the apparatus is certain machine and (torso) sexual sensations. is Miss completely due to an Natalija deaf ulcer also to her. that is. male the Her and patient’s of a human form. for has among people. machine’s prohibited by body. use is smells. When. the analogy of the symptom production. heard. but will enlarge A. his courtship between Very she his prompted had refused trying a friendship soon after she felt that he was to bring about her by means of suggestion sister-in-law. hallucinations. but she vaguely thinks the result that the physicians submitted a mistaken diagnosis to her. sexual sensations were produced in her through manipulation of the genitalia of the machine. a college professor. purpose her accept failed. She JOURNAL OF PS CHOTHERAPY PRACTICE AND RESEARCH . She that for men there is a masculine representing the masculine women a female one. which will not only our hypothesis. who had influence not her her to the only she physicians. female of the this only by for six and under the influence made in Berlin. The patient her welfare at heart. the with head. the patient’s in under all details. for a great ear. reading or writing. of the it a student who handle the machine prosubstance in her nose. thirty-one of philosophy. symptom as well as the to psychoanalytic view. She became familiar which she had all kinds conversations auditory previously which she herself is subjected. his obvious being to use this influence to make him. She cannot see the head-she says that she is not whether sure about it and she does not know bears her own ing to report the machine mother. them At the as entirely first interview natural parts she described of the body. the apparatus deluding them into diagnosing other ailments than those with which she was afflicted. and disturb her while she is thinking. mother. all those came under apparatus. At an earlier stage. has patient formerly been of years. but were merely drawn on it in two dimensions. feelings. dreams. resembling the lid of a coffin and is lined with silk or velvet Regarding the limbs two significant explanations are given. he influence of the maherself but also her her friends. especially influence similar machines. not the also or of no to the police. duce machine in schizophrenia. and everything that outstandit is being accessibility of the dream interpretaand that unof the in a certain manoccurs to it happens tion is a step beyond the rationalizations the demand for causal connections derlie the usual clinical interpretation influencing now present strengthen materially. in the position they would occupy in the natural state of the body.. and herself. suggestion subjected chine. At any to a dream that it is by means of telepathy. When someone strikes this machine. however. The inner batteries. The man her. I can my example. by jealousy.

f. the “woman will without a head” in a dream represents the mother. away. We shall hear later in how remote a past she had first experienced sensations similar to those caused by the influencing apparatus. easily recognized despite many nonhuman characteristics. The physician raised her skirts and while he operated “below. She lies with her head towards me. as it seems to he concealed by the lower benches. inaccessible too. A further the the Dream of the Clinic. According to Published Freud. Psa. it may be said any that the deto provide detailed is analogous well-known the that persons in a state of infatuation feeling of having always known one-in reality they are merely rediscovering one of their old libidinal imagoes. P. the apparatus following the patient’s loss of her genital sensations. and vice loses its genitalia by the apparatus stated that her persecutor had recourse to the apparatus only when his attempt to influence her by suggestion failed. reason for machine repof a symp- genitalia but obviously. In form it resembles the patient herself. A few days before the night of the dream. It represents the projection of the patient’s body on to the outer world. especially with regard of of the the machine We genitalia. this sensations she was that she subjected to the had experito the appafact have the beloved taneously in the patient’s versa. and on she the senses the influence become could no longer understand This case provides a definite that a stage the influencing in the development all manipin the believing resents ulations corresponding the same undergone apparatus tom which as a delusion can also appear of reference.” she perceived the heap of white underclothes overhead. details It was from apparatus represents not only the patient’s visit she became that the analyst. dreams: I am seated on an upper bench in the surgical amphitheatre. to her. The peculiar construction of the machine great symbol substantiates our assumptions extent. I see both thighs and a heap of white towels and linens. On this occasion she was reclining on a couch. of the apparatus. This vague recognition obviously awakened in the patient old familiar enced before ratus. The patient clearly of her own body and in All effects and changes take place simulbody. but will be treated in another section of this paper. the dreamer called on a young physician who made advances to her. Thus.4 dreamer meant herself whose in the that substantiate head description the lid is lined this she it was when could of the with of a person detail significance as a projected apparatus-namely. In my analysis of clear she not that dreamt see. I see the woman only from her chest down. VOLUME 1 #{149} NUMBER 2 #{149} SPRING 1992 . I see nothing else clearly. 466. she sees of the woman in the dream. and the woman’s head remains invisible to her in the same way as she could not see her own head in the actual situation. proves conclusively that it is her own head. Applying the technique of dream interpretation patient’s to this inability case. The fact that she seems to have previously heard about the machine is also enlightening. may add to a to the that the scription of the head of the apparatus. At least.192 INFLUENCING MACHINE could no longer get and relatives. but I cannot see the head. arousing and feeling impossible the patient. Miss N. 111914. Ztschr. and especially her inability to decide whether it was her own head or not. performed part manner. Analysis of the dream reveals that the dreamer sees herself as the woman operated on. Just as much as she saw of herself in this situation. The basic reason for this in- terpretation not be discussed here. We know from analytic observations that the person not recognized in a dream is actually the dreamer himself. silk or velvet-may opinion. without this stage. in Int. that they was under he had compelled to obtain On and her only along with everyone’s to run any further third stated hostile her friends animosity. her whole person. the following results are unquestionably obtained from the patient’s report: the apparatus is distinguished above all by its human form. Below a woman is being operated on. it had possessed genitalia for as long a period as her genital sensations had lasted. and that each other.

is unable are removed. The origin of this rejection will be examined later. to be the genitalia however. the patient had declared that the apparatus did not possess any limbs at all. apparatus is a projection genitalia. patient. When the influencing machine of Miss Natalija A. The complex. of a psychic I realize JOURNAL OF PS’ICHOTHERAPY PRACTICE AND RESEARCH . very frequently feelings evoked That the intestines describe in by caressing appear such their in the nomenon there is a defense mechanism which has as its aim the protection of the conscious ego against the appearance or reappearance of undisguised fantasies. the a very ten- seems to be towards of this infantile interpreThis conclusion at with the the patient At the ported peared Several limbs that regarding its ontogeny is arrived help of the description given by of her influencing apparatus. ation that. the less does she recognize herself in it. very beginning the patient rethe limbs of the apparatus apposition. in the moreover. much or in lieu indulgence distortion. as fantastically deby other patients studied of Miss undertaken. then in this process. are eliminated a typical. said above. it was in a special stage of development.TAUSK 193 Women terms own form here. the patient Psychoanalytic the causative every factors distortion derlying herself. that the A failure It must taken notwithstanding the influencing may be merely inexplicable the developmental has obviously the the bold stages of the same significance appa- exception to the general unintelligible machine scribed and interpreted would defined influencing For want tiate dream. experience in such brings our hypothesis we shall start except the machine with the assumption that of secof. The to report how She states. unintelligible. in their natural form and weeks later. meaning the skin.’s that of forgetting tures. possible that proceedit without to the very will stop at a middle ing further. The patient obviously seeks not to recognize herself in the influencing machine and therefore in self-protection she divests it of all human features. viscera resemble In our case a verbal conception. we may may have be consider suggested into all that machine an a second itself to considerhas been of Miss manner: human lose their and flatten dimensional plane. eventually loses all human characteristics and influencing the limbs becomes machine. Nor would it have apto as been astonishing paratus had never recall ratus had she stated had any limbs. which. It is not too that the coffin origin of dream pica conclusion to draw machine is a product that origibeingto light Unphe- first have to be an explanation machine could be at hand material lid of the of such successive distortions and nally it had represented a human namely. It would not have been surprising if after a lapse of several weeks. It is very point. This superficial interpreta- tion may be associated with the information given directly or indirectly to school children to the effect complicated dency tation that the machine. end encing tion. in observing process of development and also in obtaining the patient herself I assume that this production known of the to clinical the machine as concerned specific inforregarding process will typical influobserva- of batteries although later is only of slight significance it will assume a profounder on. This mation from the genitalia. hypothesis that the reader. removed in the three-dito a two- I cannot through affirm that this apparatus all the stages of developend. the the ond the perhaps before of other rule. the limbs are they form 3 In the meantime. but will pass ment with the apparatus a manifestation of the progressive distortion undergone by the apparatus. is influencing patient’s hypothesis first. that the is obviously the limbs. in a word. she declared were drawn on the lid. that following mensional sure. to substanand N. consequently. In presenting this together how with. the less human the appearance of the delusion. first came to my attention. Natalija A. I was fortunate. First the genitalia.

another theory suggests differs and theory. The introduction of the omniscient God in the educational system becomes. when the child knows nothing through its own efforts but obtains all its knowledge from others: how to make use of its limbs. in in the seems no his the called which This now to a sympnamed is the the not the parents are powerful factors especially one’s served in excluded is one in the formation and of the most of the ego. since their content each leads to quite a different nately. and I should surprised if I were reproached with legerdemain. in which a strong belief exists was to discover that this second probably as valid as the first. the parents are supposed to know everything. indeed. In order the power of omniscience nature many children of to safeguard the success of education. actually power. inarticulated words.6 The sudden discovery that it is able to accomplish a task without the This Lies dren would fabricated who fall resist into in the the the first regular period year before of life elimination the are first nothing successful unusual. both became hypothesis and that that others know of the child’s thoughts.194 INFLUENCING MACHINE exacted of the reader. an ego ual boundaries. of practicing continually deception test their on incomprehensible Nevertheless. This problem will be touched upon again towards the tom “loss end of this paper. A sixteen-year-old the Wagner-Jauregg laughter whenever thoughts.” that thoughts. since. succeed in unmasking him God as a phan- VOLUME 1 #{149} NUMBER 2 #{149} SPRING 1992 . even its most secret thoughts. strivwhich in or consequence improbable worthless. and not infrequently specifically paternal. be familiar at the same We are familiar time in my own head. now ing for this caused the conception by the right may feeling to have be formed of guilt. wastes lie. Very soon the time arrives when recourse to the highest authority of omniscience becomes necessary. while lieved curred when I had Catamnesis individpatient in in gay for her for a long had beI must they oc- Clinic indulged she was asked revealed that she knew since that nating in an earlier period in life. to realize separate psychical entity. in the event that the child has been caught lying. Until the child has been successful in its first lie.” their child and I have symptom this period. who by misrepresentations to this do and God-an deity not submit unkept promises make the child obey and teach him to disguise transfer The him. its thoughts. teachers cannot but authority which they themselves have abandoned. sense this doubt that everything. Fortuitself which brings into immediate harmony both interpretations of the influencing apparatus. The developmental in the above-mentioned in which the right to privacy the symptom are know given their to the subsequently parents with to from thoughts. precludes with regard to his omniscience. At that period all is “given to” the child. children learn to lie from parents and upbringers. Attention may be in schizophrenia of ego boundaries. begins to enjoy the practice of lying. they mislead the training person into believing that they have had satisfactory evacuation. de facto. in chiland especially gestures of bodily by means of grimaces. secrets The from again.5 The “thoughts deduce others attributed complaint patient’s enclosed throughout neously tient “everyone” knows that his thoughts are own world head. which they can occurs be very observed early in infancy. to gain forbidden pleasure. all joy and all sorrow. a necessity. tom of the dethroned parental. I myself was unpleasantly prised not levity be or sur- of thinking. its language. when the latter. when. infantile and the them. she with her thoughts. the even to possibility this authority. The educator who allows herself to be deceived by the child must ultimately look to divine guidance in order to keep the child within the truth. his true purposes. carrying case does does out stage obfalls into not not yet yet establishing own will. and but occur that with are educators content the This impressions belief must know that patients that be origi- spread simultaThe he pais a heads longer of all persons. with this infantile stage accomplishments. Later on. and it is difficult to evaluate what share the child itself has in its being questioned beenjesting.

his thoughts. desires. or rather. at any rate. this libido organization must be considered a correlate. therefore. of this stimulus to a disa stage of distancing and intellect.” This organization of libido corresponds also to the stage of intellectual development in which the person considers all the sensory stimuli he receives as endogenous and immanent. thoughts others. which enables the individual to recognize his inner experiences as distinct from the outer stimuli-in other words. The next stage of an outward the attributing object. language the infant’s Having the and. mastery over is observable. possession reach goals their rotic him the stage of object finding as that of identification. world an he has not found his and. a special of the infant’s drives only gradually. from the the analysis to obtain to to of inability became of gratification or was seen to be due there is evolved at the same time the faculty of distinguishing between objectivity and subjectivity. and feeling with it. and along with objectivation and a specific urge whatever stimulates The developmental this a transfer of libido to the discovered. At this stage of development the psyche does not yet perceive that intervals of time and space exist between the object the that and tant from which the stimulus emanates and is then stimulus sensory response. hence of the of object finding. to regard inner experiences as internal and not to confuse them with the objects of sensory response. self-created. and an awareness of reality.TAUSK 195 help great of others is greeted by the child deal of surprise and excitement therefore. JOURNAL OF PS’CHOTHERAPY PRACTICE AND RESEARCH . considerations. exclusively libidinal relationships. not to the and vations narcissistic. received others reality. child’s along knew language from know has. have led organization probable. precedes recognized evident in whom of objects of pleasure. This peculiar organization of libido has been termed has been personality. if not a cause. is apt to meet with inhibitions. the sex than the instincts the the sex drive instincts upon and It is should developto be will which influence nourished. Freud emphasized that them. hardly have ment soon independent is established possible a greater of this To on take that awareness be sure. as a reaction aries. the his thoughts therefore. being. and to the outer what arouses world. that to this special How with It repre- a is stunted. of the “objectlessness. one and has exist to the of development projection of the there is no realization that At that period there nevertheless and drives. of self. adequate ego is unin his way to the outer able to develop 6 In the discussion conception obtained of its this that that paper others others at the Vienna its Psychoanalytic infant some has basis also Society. The neuhimself simply stands for what attracts in the outer world. however. outer world. whereas an awareness of the outer world. The libido in such cases own and espeto the chardirected towards it is attached objects of the theoretical the neurotic’s to his own ego other world. desires obtain no objects of the But for the time there is a stage world exist. and as a of critical authority for objectivation sex organs stage that has been This neurotics. the “objectless” period. significance that outer must not be underestimated. this symptom sents a regression infancy. As a safeguard kind to this psychical achievement. But this presents a problem: particular period far back stage of of infancy does it go? Obser- What causes the formation of the ego and. assumption that this libido dividuality. has its source as well as that in in the process thoughts “made” of learning from him the to speak. This correlative developmental process. and that. the ego the realization boundof in- cially those of Freud. as a distinct Theoretically we cannot ego begins to take form earlier psychical unit? assume that the than the time acterizes the beginning of psychical development. The latter comes with gratification and renunciation of instinctual drives. There are identification with the objects. it should be stated when therefore an ego.

it is clear that paranoia the functions of the other group of drives and by a simultaneous development of secondary relations. of the individual. anxiety. causes ego group of instinctual normally. or as we say. symptoms are forestall an otherwise of anxiety. which are to be regarded as attempts at self-cure and at adaptation to the functional disturbance by means of compensations and overcompensations.” are capable of being transformed into. and qualiprocess.” 4 We tion of the psyche quantitatively determined by the morbid may libido say that in the the case ego organization. In most cases the factor that turbances seems Thus. and this drives does not develop is paralleled by an arrest of that arise from the transference various stages of development ous results depending upon the ego to the libido. beginning with earliest infancy. and forproto re- to lie in lesions of the libido. from the ego-the is the intellect-and weapon of which are inhibitions of libido in and with varithe relation of points of inhibidisfixation-points. projection case tion? belongs measure of the and socially rep- in sexual urge pressing from the unIs it possible to regard the of the patient’s as an projection of own own body in the situahave to which which analogous would that libido and body. it is not difficult to that the impairment of the ego is by an impairment of the that libido. develop Howgradcases of psychosis homosexual in paranoia to be regarded as a defensive ego against an inopportune rehensible conscious. of Miss Natalija Naturally. The prohibition against finding object for the homosexual drive. To quote Freud. An due to displacement for an external stantly keep in mind that all inhibited drives tion is mistaken leads to more ness reactions tatively We paired or less marked with the “affective accompanying weak- of judgment. “It may be said that. and of their regression great at variety a given with regard moment manifested careful of consideration.7 that usually outer aphave of hence behaves neuropsychoses learned the from Freud libido that the projecis pear relative observe caused ever. in a certain theoretical sense. These tion are called. This of homosexual force leads be the within and is a defenthe emerges Libidinhibiin impaired psychiprojecwhich re- from these develop all mixed psychotic mations. later life. whenever there is a marked discordance between the diseased and the normal portions of the psyche. there occur regressions on the part of functions which have developed normally but which. abandon their normal level and retreat. cal process or in insanity. The existence of these partial cesses levels quires inhibitions of repression. for the purpose of adaptation. from Freud’s interpretation to repressed homoan reof be is a reaction sexuality. after Freud. the and In the in task of mastering an insane insanely. ually and insidiously. we may assume not so much a successive impairment ative inhibition. there may arise temporary or of different permanent clinical symptom types.196 INFLUENCING MACHINE inhibitions from the intellectual chief there side. from projection ego libido out to against that should as originating within. various formations During this retreat. with a history of previous psychic health. development of of libido and ego as a correlthe entire The one primarily. intellectual internal and one. the the to the defense patient’s subserve The cases in which inhibition endangers the intellect primarily are to be attributed to dementia. VOLUME 1 #{149} NUMBER 2 #{149} SPRING 1992 . measure onrushing inhibition which may libido organization. to the lower level of the impaired functions. instinctual drives In considering we must con- judgment. or being discharged as. which sults in an inhibition of the transference homosexual recognized remaining sive nounced with inal tion. of finds an imitself formed only in order inevitable development to facing world. Furthermore.

The patient was ambivalent towards her suitor. was made by Dr. I had been demonstrating Freud’s formula- JOURNAL OF PS’X HOTHERAPY PRACTICE AND RESEARCH . may in other cases be the reverse one. that itself position of the psychic homosexual describe ego produces In what in only one the symptoms follows we shall that of simple omit which paraconsidby the to sex be mechanism was discovered is necessarily We shall by Freud. She had rejected the proposal not without inner conflict and had vacillated between accepting and rejecting her suitor. the rejection. so that she felt that the patient he suggested might that her mother amenable to up a friendship his sister-in-law. Here nism of partial projection of ambivalent tendencies. A special contribution to the subject of the projection was which in this instance has I am merely calling attention mechanism. and projected one side of the conflict. tated to tolerate it as her extensive for the own. be more a later proposal on his part. albeit unconsciously. in brief. since only what is repressed is projected. Deutsch regarded the symptom as a projection of one of two tendencies present in every one of her patient’s actions-namely. She gave realization in action to the rejection. That a projection sen for the purpose of defense-a mechanism belonging to the primary functioning of the ego in the gives us reason dealing with 8 gression reaches a stage when homosexual object choice has not yet come under the prohibition of the ego and there is free homosexual libido which is only later subjected to repression at process of object findingto believe that we are here position of which intellectual is the behest of the cultural with the a libido demands The co#{235}val object own self. or in other words as her symptom. which also projection to the made as its mechaof me aware this principle. the tendency to do and the tendency not to do. to the effect that ambivalence produces repression. is. or too patient It is also mopto be neces- finding gression phenomenon which of the and which or by the has illness In an is achieved persistence and however. this thesis appears self-evident. In paranoia. eration which projection the the the Natalija. mechanism ashamed has been of it. the positive libidinal one. briefly from appears its strivings. effort to assume that this projection to the libido of the body and of the psychic ego.TAUSK 197 has become either too portune in its demands able sary only libido over. been for years onset or conis alreeffectively regressions. because it was. Once expressed. in so far as boundaries between the unconscious and the conscious still obtain. as well. mechanism. Dr. because this procedure in conformity with her ego. This has as its natural consequence the formulation mentioned above. A schizophrenic patient had the feeling that her friends always laid down their work when she herself began to work and that they sat down whenever she stood up. What appears as suggestion on the suitor’s part is nothing more than the projection of the patient’s own unconscious inclination to accept the proposal of marriage. that others were always performing the opposite of what she herself was doing. The choice. while she projected her inclination to accept the proposal on to the object of her conflicting desires and made it appear as the sensory effect of an influence on the part of the object. libido directed which the ego towards tries to get a person’s rid of by beginnings The noia. more- compensated cealed. while manifesting in action the negative side. fact ego of the libido of which ego-libido represents. The entire problem furnishes special justification for Bleuler’s term “schizophrenia. Helene Deutsch in her discussion of this paper at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. pertains not to the that. cho- uninhibited libido positions. discussed below in footnote 14. ways the libido of the psychic ego8 has facilithe defense against the bodily libido so to speak. attracted out Miss of harmony with object-libido and which is exemplified by the symptomatology of our patient. It has a corollary in another contention of Freud’s. This interpretation was confirmed by cases presented by other discussers.” and at the same time corroborates P#{246}tzl’s views The tion. present paper shows how. to reach the either by reof a vestigial up to the there formerly (Resterscheinung-Freud). The patient merely felt this: she could not possibly see it. On this occasion Freud proposed the formulation that it is ambivalence that makes the projection mechanism possible. of the ego. since she was blind. outcome. The and she patient strike reports: After she had with rejected here her suitor.

At this time. be the second phase of the prethe part identification the finding body. and I take the liberty of presenting this fact as proof of the correctness of Freud’s VOLUME 1 #{149} NUMBER 2 #{149} SPRING 1992 .198 INFLUENCING MACHINE projecting its own teristic of a period conflict jects. identification one’s as parts must with own organs. is cathected with the available libido. The projection of one’s in contending be traced back to the developmental stage in which one’s own body is the goal of the object finding. trauma is over and by that expression of However. everything that “happens” to him emanates psyche is the object own body but acting by outer later on into a psychic ual comes into in which libido and all available world as an organic unity ego are not yet separated. successive one’s run the and these and choice conceptions two found These by the processes intellect. simultaneously reproductive functions. is characit was still free from of other coincide with the psyche in occurs within and when the love-obthe dewhich the latter is be- ing within regarded projection. then. From we may say that sexual being. This process takes place by means of identification with one’s own body. regarded as part I am intentionally tion. although upon the postulated be discovered. projection within I do not but for my purpose as distinct. of the outer be preceded a narcissistic which world libido can only be by of by a stage posi- velopmental stage of object finding still individual’s still own body. this object find- Freud has already indicated nia is located at a stage even in his paper earlier than on the Schreber autoeroticism. But if the psychoanalytic theories previously employed are correct. from stage but must be regarded the time when-at of foetal life-cerebral the the in as psychological an indeterminable development of view of libido. in accordance with the psychic nature of the dance ego. This must be the time when the infant is discovering his body. and it is necessary sive stages of identification The object would. once this first no discontent arises to as sources of pleasure.e. libido is related to that or- ganic unity. and occur chosen either An object is ceding stage.. by the latter. of identification simultaneously they are or in sequence. narcissism develops. In this situation the individual is equally a sexual and an individual ing ego and being. that the libido in schizophreI arrive at the same conclusion by a differ- ent route. differentiating finding within one’s own organs then.9 participated in the of the outer world. then. may assuming phases own counter in object existence and by the libido. biography. when demands must naturally. thus discovered. The ego. with the function of individual in accororgans takes place. the intellectual awareness of this cathexis. born child is a with Freud’s a unified pleasure that receives all sensations of and pain from these separate parts. which does not deserve the name “ego” (i. autoeroticism results. I am. performlike the from his own body. contentions. a psychical self-protective organization) any more than does the cell. and is still groping for his hands and feet as though they were foreign objects. and. the birth-cry. This stage of the newly born child is biological up to the time of conception. This with the period body. to psychoanalytic that the individthat depends has still to of object tween object choice and object finding. to be body regarded may. I mean only libidinal cathexis. part by part. as the outer world. projection which to assume two succesand projection. By the former. point newly accord I am assumption that the individual’s first renunciation is the renunciation of the protection of the mother’s body imposed upon the libido and accompanied anxiety. pieced unity These together whole under cell that takes nourishment up to the time when it divides. his of stimuli arising in his upon it as if produced disjecta and the membra are systematized supervision of objects.

much normal cessful position tack of projection veloped to say primary that to discover It would just as the his body by not be too projection has been in suclibido the atde- considerable quantity of innate already present and is superimposed The condition of innate narcissism remains and flict their with attached for all time functions. first cathects the subject’s own body by the indirect way of projection. Nevertheless. Nevertheless the result is the same as in actively established identity-absolute world. takes place an accumulation so also because development anxiety and aegis pathological there has of all the of narcissistic libido ually acquired in the meantime. Hence. and world which he will soon discover within himself. a clash with himself he is in complete libido and not even and pos- nourishment stant struggle in various stinctual drives. but resembling it in character in so far as it isolates the individual from the outer world. of relationship is further time and and and may points as (etc. and alone of the The or in their arrested at as many tertiary development development far relation as to libido-so as the innate narcissistic one. qualitative. perstructures and eliminations. In the meantime. The struggle is carried on. relative and modal relations. understand velops with tic libido existence recognize since these are the to the greatest difficulrelation to the environwe must definitely life the ego dein the narcissis- analogous to the primary narcissism. indeed. chiefly in the sphere of excretory functions and of the autoerotic sources of pleasure.TAUSK 199 bring the infant into with the environment. problems are to be traced be used as a that throughout constant shiftings position. resulting in a great variety of character both concerns types of the and ego either symptoms. and is now cathected by libido. has not hesiin his Introdudoty Lectures. judgment. no objects. Is it not possible JOURNAL OF PS HOTHERAPY PRACTICE AND RESEARCH . and that the acquisiand inof tated to declare. self-satisfaction. that psychological back tion of narcissism is immanent in culture is conceivable only on the basis of intact born narcissism that serves as a source to intrauterine existence. These considerations may starting point schizophrenic for the explanation of various symptoms. the various which. secondary psychical formations then again into combination and produce suThese enter insolu- ble dynamic. projection of one’s own body may be regarded as a defense against a libido position corresponding the to the end of foetal existence and development. though here anachronistic. This stage did not come about because of that psychic activity which may be called identification. Let us suppose that the projection of one’s own body is a pathological repetition of that psychical stage when the individual was endeavoring means of projection. at first. Let us call this acquired narcissism. compensations. alteration first psychic the ego has undergone influence which again stage.) The by the so made secondary. session of the of his own outer world. entire problem elements of complicated space and one may call experience. faculties to the development and is in constant further stages with the assistance take place under that have been because the innate narcissistic had to be renounced under outer stimuli. The latter finds a narcissism on it. and returns by way of self-discovery to the ego. normally organs of conego of the grad- insoluble. spheres that give rise ties in the individual’s ment. and regeneration. beginning of extrauterine Freud. that man in his struggle for is constantly compelled to find and himself anew. but is present from the beginning. centering about degrees in relation it concerns every libido at different the homo This conself occurs inhetin pro-and knows nothing that part of the to various component times. each other-may become set up goals of regression there factors are primary. a decided of these under the stirrings. Let us designate no this outer stage ero-sexuality and different degrees vokes various reactions. regressive or fixated. It is this stage of identity that precedes the first projection for the purpose of object finding within one’s own body. In this situation the libido is directed outward.

a preformed fantasy. corresponds his own organs to himself. four A patient years old. Helene Deutsch. this stage of hallucinatory perceptions.200 INFLUENCING MACHINE that catalepsy. said to me: “I feel that into I am diapers constantly and then be- back into mother. and this cannot occur before the intellect has advanced to the stage of memory perceptions. an atavistic one.) VOLUME 1#{149} NUMBER 2 #{149} SPRING 1992 . first used by Gustav Gr#{252}ner. her bed and reported the case of stated as her justification a thirty-one-year- that “they were a baby of her. and as such it may be added to the “primal fantasies” postulated by Freud. The capacity for with memory perceptions is still inthe libido is already degraded to the with the consciousand this loss to locate his patient who stage and sets up a relation faculty as it exists. but nursing thinking first period of life. object finding and object choice. of does not occur equally in all psychical and relationships. process from as already of being the outer among the first be of egostated above. has and taught that that this. This symptom reproduces which one’s especially own body well the situation strange in and.” Does the terminal cate such The not also the “nursing reflex” in stages of general paralysis indicerea a regression to infancy?’0 psychic correlate of fiexibilitas and of that stage in which man regards himself as a part of the outer world. by it is preceded that has given up even the most primitive ego functions and has retreated in toto to the foetal and use in the simplest lation symptom. which represents tion of the outer world. phrenic. Freud’s reference shows how as a compensation for the bitterness of death. The expressed guage. to the same regarded at first as coming world before they of the into are ego. The fantasy of return to the uterus is. disintegrating psyche. part by outer forces. lacks consciousness of his own volition and of his own ego ‘0 boundaries. old female schizophrenic making and during the discussion who wet and soiled of this paper. men take for granted the bliss of existence in the uterus. and the schizophrenic by psychical death. becomes accounted so to speak. in itself representing a kind of objectivation. is the feeling that everyone ness of personality has been lost. then. of an outer May we not world dominated say that catatonic a complete rejecis a return to the severest catatonic refuge of a psyche Thoughts must consciousness stupor. the functions assimilated being dominated by an outside force? A similar instance is the symptom of having one’s limbs moved by someone. to the interchangeability of sexuality and death. fiexibilitas the stage when foreign. This fantasy appears symptomatically in schizophrenia as the pathological reality of the regressing. is shown in the patient’s inability intact psychical inventory. The Many coming patients younger are actually and smaller. but even thoughts are subjected. too. and to as as knows and is in possession of the thoughts of the patient. called attention to the significance of the mode of burial of Egyptian mummies. as far as I know. (“Mutterleibsphantasie “-an expression. Moreover. The regression.” On the same occasion Freud. To place the mummy in a case resembling the human body suggests the idea of the return to “mother earth. also belongs to the course. because state of its libido that world? it cannot even the the stage of hallucinations tures. though.” Dr. faculties thinking tact. a stage when actually appear in the outer of memory picthe perceptions world and are not maintain the reThe catatonic the negativistic is nothing else outer world stare of the schizothan a renunciation in “organ lan- regarded as internal occurrences. and to I shall the get embryonic stage-the lat- ter. The mummy returns to the mother’s body by physical. only as a threat of further illness. is a later Freud process. uterus? May not these symptoms be the ultimate unity before they can be an automatic egofunction. referring especially to the influencing machine of Miss Natalija. of the to nursing present ego functions the outer stages. as not man senses belonging cerea. that is. In the period here duplicated pathologically there are indeed no thoughts.” the return to the mother’s body in death. aware Now of this I am regression to infancy Shortly.

regression. my contentions and Freud’s in his paper. the oscillations of which correspond the oscillations of psychic narcissism and self-discovery with every ject libido. and let us contrast it with the narcissism that guarantees in the scious the unity and ism.” Oswald mentions in his book university professors emeritus on Great Men. There is nothing to the great dependence to renounce functioning of the organnew in calling attention of physical health.) This work appeared while the present paper was in proofs. Freud tells of a famous musician of the libido who disflows succumbed continuance We through stance tion must to his illness because of his creative work. They die. relations in so far as these depend upon degraded libido position. a separation by means of which the organs’ function is impaired or given up. the tendency to physical self-destruction. that. Psa.e. to this effect. to the narcisorganic uncon- or cathected ego.” nates. 1916/1917. the rejection and condemnation of the raison d’#{234}tre the psychic of person. In this case has with memory pertoo. retreated the intellect how to establish even by means is a relation to the of identification. The separation of libido from the psychic ego.. acquisition of the ego. in pure culture. and potency is lostall as a result of unconscious mechanisms. seeing in planes” represent development of the than the hallucinatory visual sense stage? 5 like a subthe integraby a libido to ob- tonus. (Translated in Coil. There occurs a consecutive separation of the libido from those organs which guarantee the functioning and the value of the physical individuality. see Freud: Metapsychologische Ergdnzung zur Traumlehre. brings with it the rejection of the physical person.e.’2 Upon resistance to illness I have stated and self-choice I’ that narcissistic repeat themselves this tonus depends the and death. but because they lose the love of life when they can no longer perform the duties they have loved. f. or in the reminder ally die of a “broken heart. still has no ego-boundaries world. VI. stage knows world. without projection. is the paradigm of the dependence of the organic upon the psychic narcissism. Melancholia is the illness. psyche set up against the his libido is now compelled the normal intellectual outer thereob- the guidance of conscience each new acquisition is either with libido and attributed and judgrejected. of the respective organic libido positions thus to be strictly is This which the conscious.TAUSK 201 declares that his thoughts and feelings are in new under ment. and fore ject the sion psyche’s ceptions. assume that the the entire body. the mechanism of which consists in the disintegration of psychic narcissism. constipation occurs. may undergo the patient hallucibehind the no longer outer The to the “picture of the still earlier and even of life itself. all people’s minds merely declares. perhaps (Freud’s view). 137-152. Love of life has discussion of this subject. Melancholia. Int. in words and concepts derived from the memory-reserve of a later developmental stage. upon of life. of which I had no knowledge at the time. closer and closer not perhaps a stage after they have been absolved of their duties even when they have previously been in the best of health. often die soon The libido of identification. tendency is due to the expressed to a destruction it is in re- vegetative. and that of the organism is effected approaching may mother’s womb. differentiated the persecution from fusal of nourishment or in activities inimical psychosis to life.. not of old age. i. These feelings and this mode of expresdepend ability This upon the intactness of the to operate faculty. in the renunciation of love for the psychic ego. menstruation ceases. I am pleased to be able to refer to the many points of agreement For further Ztschr. failure are of function essentially deliberate is to be traced i. Papers IV. Furthermore. love actuas what is called that one can and that. that his libido finds itself at the stage when it is still identical with the outer world. Let us call this narcissism. Hence appetite is lost. Melancholia specific JOURNAL OF PS’it HOTHERAPY PRACTICE AND RESEARCH . psychic sism. suicidal its structure unconscious.

‘4 Dr. and the theory would demand that these phylogenetic traces of function retain their capacity for being reactivated. Freud’s article Trauer and Melancholie [translated IV. or measure pathologically from its funcThis is to be the against that is. since psychoanalysis has already in many instances uncovered the roots of symptoms in the history of the species. and it actually allows the application of the theory of hypochondria to further special points in the psycho-physical make-up of men. While this paper was in proof. and perhaps only potential-in life of man a period-a not definitely determin- which proceed to an explanation of the mysterious “electrical currents” complained of by patients. It is perhaps a reminiscence of the sensation of the newly born being who enters the strange air of the external world out of the comfortable covering of the mother’s womb.3Coil. This influx of libido provides of dithe the of deinaway as incurable. to an unconscious ogously. so that a purposeful action may again be perstory.) of the patient’s into agonistic (In Meyrinck’s a limb the to apportion his motor impulses disintegrated by the split of his and antagonistic elements. Wiener med. This paraethesia may once have been a sensation that accompanied the first nerve and muscle functions. Analcathected by psychic narcis love come to consciousness from with the organ libido. single-tracked active formations. Wochenschrift XXXVII1916. This period may well be present in ontogenesis only as an “engram” of phylogenetic stages which comprised the origin of the now complex motor organs from the simplest. to move legs. it is true. of the erotogenic it was in connection catatonic stare is an ex- This involves zones. or for whom the VOLUME 1 #{149} NUMBER 2 #{149} SPRING 1992 .202 INFLUENCING MACHINE saved sicians many a man who was given an up influx by phyof or- degree of strength. . From this it may perhaps be possible. objects sism and object and vegetative role.e. its to the organ and of a transformation garlic narcissism predilection. by estraflgement 4 a defensive wherever the cathexis has reached a sufficient considered mechanism gen aufGntnd XXXVIII. It provides us with another idea to use in investigating problems in schizophrenia: perhaps this remarkable disease consists in just this-that the phylogenetic vestiges of function retain in many individuals an extraordinary capacity for being reactivated. Papers of identification. via ontogenesis. 152-173] appeared. Regression in schizophrenia would then be traceable to those “engrams” of the oldest era of the race. (Further discussion on this point in my paper Diagnostische ErUrterunder Zustandthilder der sogen. Krzegspsychosen. to which I refer in connection. that is. Whenever there occurs rects attention consciousness organ or estrangement. Psychoanalysis would have to make room for this conception. Potzl’s concept even able the activity of the antagonistic pair of forces was still automatic and had to be discovered and learned by the person himself as if from an alien outer world.) the Freudian principle on a certain inability of the erotogenicity occasion of organs. the feeling This is the mechanism This turning of organ relations which in normal life scribed by Freud as hypochondria. P#{244}tzl’s view does not contradict the assumption that the outer world may be eliminated as a result of regressive narcissistic libido. flux oflibido is followed by the of the ego -overcharged tions. DerFiuch derKr#{220}Ie[‘l’he Curse ofthe Toad”]. We must not shrink from this hypothesis. to suggests the hypothesis that there was in the one. i.’3 sciousness functions to a given there may organ as a site of also occur a conand organic are relegated functions.. This would be a special case of hypochondria and estrangement related to the antithetical pairs of forces with their respective specific consequences. Otto with P#{244}tzl suggested of his own (I do not remember to theories of others) whether that the a thesis or as an addendum pression volition formed. the milliped is unable moment he focusses his attention upon the activity of any one of his thousand is in harmony with the psychoanalytic theory that the regressive narcissistic ii- P#{244}tzl’s conception bido undergoes a pathological division with the cathexis of the individual functions of the psyche and the organs so that the agonistic and antagonistic portions of the purposefully directed antithetical pair of forces are brought into the reach of awareness by the disturbance of the equilibrium between their respective libido quantities and are deprived of automatic functioning.

’5 inflammation and may be interpreted produced like clitoris by an overfrom libidinal alteration pro- latter is replaced by its first . a very interesting and significant article by Steinach and Lichtenstern. Wochenschrift. p. The more energetic attempt the enmity is a new and at protection against into ation. are. No. After the completion Zeitschrift f. 1917. It is to be noted that take among precedence these organs pro- become enemies. cally altered (hypochondria). a defense The against duced 2. erections of the penis and flow of secretion resulting charging of organs. which realized there also appeared in the Internationale Ferenczi. objects or does its no matter outer whether world. Volume Psa.6. The specific word of the assumption organs should in the rejected unconscious libido. Von Krankheitsund Pathoneurosen Theory and Technique of Psychoanalysis bidinal cathexis of individual organs ble success. then. the these expectations. the form loving of one a sense (the of the feeling of esaffords protection. under the title Umstimmungen der Homosexualitlit durch Austausch der Pubert/itsdr#{252}sen (“Transformations of Homosexuality by Exchange of Puberty Glands”). himself) in the Strangers somatica) arising the pathological outer world. The narcissistic organ libido in schizophrenia may undergo a similar transformation. (paranoia from projection of alteration on to the of the alpower. as demonstrated by Abderhalden’s dialytic method. compelled three principal stages in the “influencing machine”: 1. is perhaps that one which comes to when he feels himself. When the present paper was completed. the the homosexual object latter and appears. 1918. are strongly supported from the organological standpoint by a re- ago by Fauser at Stuttgart on the presence of sexual secretion in the blood of dementia praecox patients. by the influx of libido into a given organ The feeling by rejection. Contributions to London. #{227}rztl. in paranoia. tactics of reduced are so to speak denied and eliminated as something alien to the wholly or partially cepted The sound by the sense organs ego. When. machine used to afflict the patient. there appeared in the M#{252}nchner mediz.78-89. of this paper an article by S.” in Further . while lying in bed. IV. The sense of internal We as a of in the receive an influx proper of libido sense physiological considertranin On the swellings basis of this assumption of organs often observed to distinguish history of the schizophrenia without without an actual oedema as equivalents of erection. one’s it conown of the parts. by a as aggression towards patient persecution. the estrangethe giving up of the estrangemerely it is an the ego. of estrangement whereby the organs or their produced pathologifunctions cathexis. New and important findings in this connection are to be expected from Steinach’s experiments. the entire body-appears as an outer enemy.TAUSK 203 anxiety feeling libidinal cerns body. (“Diseaseor Patho-Neuroses. The bed he first lay in. The estranged organ-in our case.5the patient’s consciousness These port psychological made some years assumptions garments. sient the genitals jection. (b) influencing and functions ac- of the pathological of the ostrich may be very easily of persecution ad absurdum. a 3. in the sense above 1926) described in which appears the assumption to be applied of the liwith nota- JOURNAL OF PS HOTHERAPY PRACTICE AND RESEARCH . Of not cause course. and which must ultimately be supplanted by other or more effective measures of defense. (a) by attribution teration to a foreign hostile by the construction of the machine as a summation of some or all of the pathologically altered organs (the whole body) projected outward. ment associated of strangeness with is hypochondria. trangement no longer libidinal drive towards is projected on to the reversal of direction. electrified by invisible wires. unconscious ment is not denial instance which libido position. The a destructive force but cathexis.

The fact that spatially distant evokes a on the part of the libido. The familiar. 7 and hence also family members-repa kind of constantly present family. will not be regarded as superfluous-we may return to the question of how even the ordinary. suitors. repulsed these persons are feeling of distance The transfer of libido extraordinarily knowledgment mand for normal ing the even as enemies. of libido is not the demand to members as requiring family overcoming of any great distance or any substantial sacrifice of narcissism. that another patient’s the patient’s group present of love objects-mother. physician. and situations. a transfer is what actually therefore. however. different the hostile appawho to an objecappear as love All these of threaten stantial a narcissistic demands for position object with libido their and objects-suitors. in normal whenever But strongly the narcissiscan- fixated. however. and looks upon the object as an enemy. must clarify this point. this herself transfer the subjects To these form of them object to but and between narcissistic and object lievery object demanding a transfer is regarded as hostile irrespective of persons of libido with them. compelled to share subjected to the influencing trast to paranoia. only unwillingly cannot normal performed. and in being In con- the persecuted organized into this conspiracy and not the a passive conis of the passive following are them normally. It is to be noted.204 INFLUENCING MACHINE 6 It is not at all surprising that ratus is handled by persons tive observer are the cannot lovers. These It subare. clinically in its typical body. simply give way. to physicians. it withdraw not but regard this demand made by love objects as inimical. in the not case of Miss be difficult VOLUME 1. may fact that the influencing sponds to a regressive the important distinction sexes bido. close not counted but among his fate machine. form can as was answer influencing be a projection true should machine of the patient’s Natalija. its sex. This also holds for separatlibido. only with persons are in my identification. who work observations I do the not know why machine male. because up Our patient. persecutors are spiracy. sensuousness. persons deal with libido occurs tic libido. Of this phenomenon explanation may be offered: It is noteworthy that the all persons who patient. strong demand for the acof an object position as a deself-denial. NUMBER 2 #{149} SPRING 1992 . too but with demand This these is objects and with to regard lovers and them as hostile. apto circle of acquaintanceship the physicians who are However. whereas closest cluding father resent Now. In establishing an identification with these persons the patient follows a well-trodden path. Spatial distance beloved threatens the object leads people ultimately to themselves and give up the object. the family members are those love obwho because of their presence from the patient’s life object choice our choice her own Normally. her love objects in a she has not cathected family-are persecutors cuted. To have to love at a distance is a difficult task. associated body. the This nature. par distance is felt as an themselves. so are subjected by identificastill applies far as she for of the identifying be explained machine is not by the corre- psychic stage in which between the beginning of the to the narcissistic tion. jects influencing exclusively persecutors live at some distance from the the persecuted belong to the and-inimagoes of the may be due to faulty Further investigations observation or to chance. To those demanding much from her she can only react with the paranoid mechanism to those demanding less. with respect felt either patient in fate. which does not appear sufficiently to force her to revolt inimical against to the patient the cathexis of After this long digression-which I hope. that heterosexual objects can pear as persecutors in contradiction Freud’s theory of the exclusively homosexual genesis of paranoia. friends among the the of the perse- conditions.

7together of rhyming and nearly rhyming words. I have myself fantasy originates neuThe construction of the influencing ap- in the form of a machine therefore a projection of the entire body. The is overdetermined of male conceived narcissistic patients. and hence a representative of the pregenital lost the picture epoch. which is “drained off” from him. if we make of the estab- of Miss N. picture use. intrauterine sition that the person feels himself to be a genital. The the child.TAUSK 205 to discover. too. The symptom is also to be as regression to a stage of diffuse organ libido and is in most cases of the genital as a representation has been retained in the psychical of sexuality apparatus.Ns ToR This renunciation of the genitalia is felt by the male schizophrenic as a loss of virility. JOURNAL OF PS\t HOTHERAPY PRACTICE AND RESEARCH . corresponding to the infantile notion of boys that there is only one kind of genital. such the cases. The proof of this identification derived from symbolic language has already been given in the dream of “the woman without a head. or else as a direct transformation into a woman. The identification’8 in the perhaps during as previously expression which to explain the typical we may avail ourselves influencing maof the following represented pregnancy. representing his virility. The geni- is renounced. in which the is equated machine. 16 “Like fox from alopex”-a student parody on etymological derivations consisting of the stringing . The paratus represents now narcissistically extremely observed in cathected. a genital. than the body from is explicable Coprophagia which they is inhibited by the thought that the excreta are nothing else come. non-genital stage. and this all the more because the machine’s lack of genitalia stands for the pregenital-in a certain sense. revealed encing fantasy probably of the patient’s closed is the with genital impotence. wholly The nothing raised fact that the machine but a representation to primacy in no way in dreams is of the genital contradicts the refusing satisfaction. I have observed an attack of castration anxiety while catheterizing a schizophrenic who refused to empty his bladder. Thus his retention of urine appears as a refusal to yield semen. namely their own. (mother’s content pletely of into body) the the complex and man’s desire genital from usually has the to creep comwhich he came.” footnote 4 above. with the batteries.’7 by the lack machine and the find trunk batteries patient mother The same situation is of genitalia in the influintrauterine with mother dome-like The lid the en- idea of his own and of the body machine. The castration complex is often combined with the infantile identification of semen with urine resulting from urethral eroticism. The patient ideational content has indeed not of his past life. with the of identificaof the father) formation possibility that it is in schizophrenia a symbol of the entire body conceived as a penis. (“wei instead Fuchs aus alopex”)’6 genitality lished. lends further support zone-in which the Such fantasies are also strongly infantile. He maintained that I was practicing coitus with him by means of the catheter and that I had emptied him of all his semen. with a to the suppo- fantile stage determines tion of the meanwhile libido into the pregenital entire entire found body body in is a libidinal is a genital. and that those of women are the result of castration and really represent a loss of the genital. the machine sive substitutions If we do not want to assume that has been established by succesof the parts of the patient’s associated tal. case tion to content himself with The entire individual Further. which fact that the child that is. considerations: The regression of libido to the early in- are perhaps herself.-T. cases of the re-transformagenitally centralized stage. chine. sexually rosis. The patient’s by the narcissistically rooted conception that feces and urine not 18 playing with excrement are parts of the body. father the road (the penis in the symptom any lesser is in this a penis.

but dominates it. a mode of expression.’9 It is no longer subordinated the will of the ego. and been the ordinary influencing machine has to science. period of the older of of representa- a language prior to in this expression are communicated. a dream.206 INFLUENCING MACHINE It is therefore used as a means tion.” a projection of the genitalia. tion is shortly and mysterious that erection is of the ego. “I am wholly a genital. scious its the machines produced by man’s projections of man’s bodily structure. human tion that form of the influenclike the machine in is now of the of is in the nothing language of the later but: “I am sexuality. cause the pathological cipitately upon remote is also noticed patient. The evolution by distortion apparatus corresponds into a machine to the development context is. supports the assumption felt to be a thing independent part of the outer world not mastered. abolished. VOLUME 1 #{149} NUMBER 2 #{149} SPRING 1992 . or-expressed in the language of the genital period-into of the aims a genital. concepts-on the one hand.” has of course to be translated into guage ing owes early is a projec- to the actual It is possible that the apparatus its existence were stages suited libido conditions. of the first subordinated simply the gradually. early the possible or stages. that the machine form of the influencing apparatus originated through successive distortions of the influencing apparatus that represents the projection of the body. But the contradiction between time of erection. boys we are when reminded they become of the astonishment for aware by the between recognized apparatus connection of Miss N. and. influencing not that the by observers Thus process phases early not and the seized too of existence. a completely And the fact that the erecconceived as an exceptional feat. ordinary influencof to in the not form formed the fact machine that its bepreIt not as the lost two the pathological process which converts the ego into a diffuse sexual being. ‘9 Indeed. on the other hand. ingenuity Man’s and created in the image of man are unconingenuity seems to be unable to free itself from relation to the unconscious. genital is merely a symbol of a sexthan social the symbolism and The than picture. of the ego a machine and independent to a to Here. too. genital But the This the test lanany expression. stages reported and evaluated were foreign will. that the machine ing apparatus represents. which phenomena existing means Here uality means then.

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