Types of Muscles Skeletal Produces voluntary movement Striated Smooth Involuntary Not striated Cardiac Restricted to the heart Striated Skeletal Muscles General Organization Muscle fibbers (cells) are arranged in bundles Endomysium Connective tissue between muscle fibers Perimysium Sheath surrounding the bundles Epimysium Connective tissue around the entire muscle

Attachments Fleshy attachment Scapular muscles Tendon attachment Fibrous bands of collagen that attach muscles to bone Can also be a flat sheet - "aponeuroses"

Most muscles have attachments to 2 bones Origin Less mobile Insertion More mobile Head Distinctive division in muscle that have separate origins

Functional Attachments Flexor/Extensor Can serve two purposes Adductor/Abductor Adduction = move toward median Abduction = move away from median Sphincter Pylorus of stomach Cutaneous Superficial fascia Agonist Primary movers Antagonist Oppose primary action Synergist Oppose undesired actions Identification Origin + Insertion = Function

Superficial Muscles

Deep Muscles

Division of Muscles Types

Physiology of Skeletal Muscle Skeletal muscle fibers are very specialized cells that are present at birth and do not multiply. Individually, they can increase in size. Muscular development is by an increase in the SIZE (not number) of individual muscle fibers. Skeletal muscle fiber is made up of... Type I fibers Contract slowly - "slow twitch" Can contract for long periods Type II fibers Contract fast - "fast twitch" Are more susceptible to fatigue

Definitions Sarcomere: fundamental unit of contraction within the cell Sarcolemma: endoplasmic reticulum that fills the space between myofibrils Myosin: protein molecule contained in thick myofilaments Actin: protein molecule contained in thin myofilaments Exercise Physiology How does the muscle contract at the cellular level? Requirements:

Motor nerves Muscle fibers Energy Communication(!) The Motor Neuron Specialized cell that triggers muscle contraction The axon ends at the neuromuscular junction of the muscle finer

Electrical Trigger Cellular communication Action potential Cellular movement of sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) ions Depolarization of nerve ending Release of Neurotransmitter Cellular communication Acetylcholine Receptors on muscle fibers

Depolarization Axon of nerve Sarcomere Acetylcholine Receptor Mitochondria of muscle fibers

For Muscle Contraction... There must be propagation of the signal (depolarization) over the entire muscle fiber. This propagation travels along the T tubules of the sarcolemma AND releases calcium (Ca+) When calcium comes into contact with the myofibrils of the muscle, the thin and thick myofilaments slide on each other causing CONTRACTION

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