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Task code 'EN 12'
The University of Petroleum and Energy Studies campus is situated at Bidholi, about 15 km from Dehradun. It is a very pleasant drive from the city as you pass the Indian Military academy and Forest Research institute. Close to campus is Jaspal Rana’s Shooting Academy. Auto rickshaws and vans ply everyday from the town to the campus. University is having three colleges managed in the Dehradun Campus 1. College of Engineering Studies Over 3437 Students 203 faculty members 2. College of Management Studies More than 1058 Students 77 Faculty Members 3. College of Legal Studies Over 640 Students 17+ dedicated Faculty So in total at a period of time University is having around 6000 people including students, faculty members, management staff and other staffs. And university is providing on campus hostel facility for around 600 students and another 600 students are staying in private hostels in and around campus. So every day 800 to 900 students are using the facility of public transport /own vehicles to travel a distance of around 12 km from Premnagar . The public transport which is available from premnagar to college is auto rickshaws and they charge an amount if Rs15/- per student. In addition to this the own vehicles of faculty members and other visitors comes all the way to college
Bio-Fuels pump for own vehicles of faculty 2. 20%. manufacturers have declared many of their models to be suitable for biodiesel.Biodiesel can be used in compression ignition engines either blended with fossil diesel or unblended (B100). For older models susceptible plastic and rubber components must be replaced by more resistant materials. Typical blends are B5. most diesel vehicles are able to run on blends of up to B20 with few or no modifications. B20. Biodiesel mixes easily and completely with fossil diesel at any concentration. and 30% biodiesel content respectively. Electric powered auto rickshaws for students with solar chargers for battery 1.The appropriate measures depend on the blending ratio of biodiesel with fossil diesel. Most original equipment manufacturers (OEM) guarantee a warranty of B5. and B30 with 5%. The automotive industry prefers blends of up to 5 percent biodiesel content (B5) for use in existing vehicle fleets because it enhances lubricity. Many OEM fear that . particularly if the vehicle was manufactured after the mid-1990s.2 km – about 25 mins Improvising on Transport System Two ways of improvisations suggested for a cleaner earth 1. especially of ultra-low-sulphur diesel. Today.Directions to University Of Petroleum and Energy Studies (B )UPES Campus (A) Prem Nagar 12. Bio fuel pumps It is also the first Energy University in the country to establish a working Bio-Fuels Research Laboratory (BRL) to conduct research in the production. as long as the pure product conforms to an approved quality standard. evaluation and utilisation of bio-fuels. Nevertheless.
the study of DELUCCHI (2003) shows an increase of GHG emissions for biodiesel from soybeans. But. 254 Fuel type (feedstock) Estimates of Fossil Energy Balance Biodiesel (palm oil) ~9 Biodiesel (WVO) 5-6 Biodiesel (soybeans) ~3 Biodiesel (sunflower) ~3 Biodiesel (rapeseed) 1. In the framework of the Carbon Labelling project which is supported by the European Commission.8 – 0.9 Emissions of Lipid Biofuels Greenhouse Gas Emissions The GHG balance for lipid biofuels mainly includes emissions of biofuel production. for biodiesel most studies show a net reduction in emissions. filters. energy balances are drawn up to illustrate the relationship between the input of fossil energy necessary for the production of the energy carrier and the usable energy contained.Nevertheless. Another concern expressed by the automotive industry is the higher viscosity of biodiesel. a co-product of biodiesel production. conversion technology.higher blend levels could degrade fuel lines.agricultural practices. reduces GHG emissions of biodiesel (DREIER & TZSCHEUTSCHLER 2001). reduction for RME produced in Germany. and seals and damage fuel injector orifices. 153f) and OECD/IEA (2004 p. since glycerin can be used to substitute technically produced glycerin.9 Biodiesel (castor) ~ 2. the higher the value. 20) mention that biodiesel from rapeseed is generally more favorable in regard of GHG emissions then pure rapeseed oil. A shortsummary of GHG studies is given by WWI (2006 p.For instance. 63f). up to 78 % reductions in CO2 are estimated by by using soybeans in the United States. site productivity. QUIRIN et al. However. no problems should be experienced. (2004 p.136 and MITTELBACH & REMSCHMIDT 2004 p.1. Also the estimates for net GHG emissions reductions from rapeseed-derived biodiesel range from about 40% to 70% when compared to conventional diesel fuel. as the process step of transesterification is not applied to PPO. especially at higher blends. Besides many studies showing GHG reductions for biodiesel. and finally on the design of the study.5 PPO 3-5 Diesel (crude oil) 0.9 – 2. (2007) promote 60% CO2equiv. The energy balance is better. This property could affect fuel flow and fuel spray in the combustion chamber. among other potential problems. some GHG emissions can be saved. the consideration of glycerin. The energy balances of lipid biofuels from different feedstock sources are shown in Table1 and compared to the energy balance of fossil diesel. For PPO far fewer studies on GHG balance exist. reductions depend on the type of feedstock. (2007) and JANSSEN et al. particularly in colder conditions. o-rings. as it was described Thus. Table 12: Estimated fossil energy balances of selected fuel types from several studies Table 1 summarised by WWI 2006 p. On the other hand.If the . As described in chapter 4. if proper care of fuel handling and use is adopted. RUTZ et al.
195). In the European Union limited emissions are carbon monoxide (CO). Although emission of biodiesel combustion is a complex result of fuel quality. ´have been observed in a detailed evaluation of emission results and potential health effects by the U. These substances can be divided into those which are limited by national authorities and those which are not limited. As crop prices are highly volatile. cultivation. Lower emissions of particulates. In particular. it can be summarized that most pollutants are generally reduced when compared to fossil diesel. such as eutrophication. Since the majority of available data was collected on heavy-duty highway engines. Economy of Lipid Bio fuels Despite continuous improvements in the production of lipid biofuels. Therefore mainly emissions of biodiesel are treated in the following sections. may be mitigated or even reversed by using waste vegetable oil as feedstock source (MITTELBACH & REMSCHMIDT p. This is due to the fact. that no emissions of ecologically relevant compounds during fertilizer manufacture. this data formed the basis of the analysis. studies on pure plant oil emissions are rare. Unlimited emissions for instance are aldehydes and various polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAH). Since the feedstock price for waste grease and oil is lower. but since processing is a smaller share of overall cost. It can be increased by organized collection practices as it is performed in Graz and other Austrian cities.feedstock source for biodiesel or pure plant oil is waste cooking oil. the cost of producing oil-seed derived biodiesel is dominated by the cost of the oil and by competition from high value uses like cooking.2% of diesel engine exhaust emissions are composed of more or less harmful substances to human health (MITTELBACH & REMSCHMIDT 2004 p. biodiesel is much more used and thus more studies on biodiesel emissions are available than for PPO. Currently the sale of glycerin improves the economies of biodiesel production . engine design and vehicle condition. EPA has surveyed the large body of biodiesel emissions studies and averaged the health effects testing results with other major studies. Furthermore the quantity of waste oils is limited. harvesting and oil recovery are considered for waste oils. CO and toxins can be observed. costs for biodiesel produced from these waste sources are lower. acidification and stratospheric ozone depletion. though technologies for PPO and biodiesel production from oilseed crops are already fairly mature (OECD/IEA 2004 p. that are associated with dedicated grown energy crops. nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). For lipid fuels from first generation feedstock the costs of oil crops are a major component of overall costs. sulfur. the overall production costs of lipid fuels are varying as well. relatively high production costs remain a critical barrier against commercial development. Toxic Exhaust Emissions The major part of engine exhaust streams consists of the components nitrogen. Only NOx emissions slightly increase (WWI 2006 p. During biodiesel production glycerin is received and can be sold as coproduct. This is especially valid in cases where the waste oil is free or where it even has negative prices. hydrocarbons. the GHG balance for these fuels is even greater than for all other lipid biofuels. about 0. However.The value of co-product sales largely influences the production costs of lipid biofuels. In contrast. Limited emissions Since the use of PPO is not yet widely promoted in Europe.278f). These reductions e. it is less significant than for ethanol.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 2002). too. due to its impurity. 185). additional processing costs for cleaning waste oils are needed.67). hydrocarbons (HC). carbon dioxide and water which are non-toxic.g. Also other negative effects. But. Similar to ethanol production also the production scale of biodiesel has significant impact on cost.
All we have to do is simply place it near a window or on top of your car's dashboard to absorb sunlight during the day. increasing supply of glycerine. smooth operation and stronger acceleration and require less maintenance than ICEs. Bulk & weight: Battery packs are heavy and take up considerable vehicle space. Electric motors provide quiet. Performance benefits. Electric vehicles convert about 59–62% of the electrical energy from the grid to power at the wheels—conventional gasoline vehicles only convert about 17– 21% of the energy stored in gasoline to power at the wheels. EVs have several advantages over vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICEs): Energy efficient. hydro-. Most EVs can only go about 100–200 miles before recharging—gasoline vehicles can go over 300 miles before refueling. however. face significant battery-related challenges: Driving range. . This only affects biodiesel production. while others feed power to the battery via the cigarette lighter/power socket. Recharge time. but not PPO production. Electricity is a domestic energy source. or wind-powered plants causes no air pollutants. could cause glycerine prices to fall near zero. Solar chargers feature solar panels on the face. Some solar car battery chargers connect directly to the battery. Autos which are running up and down from premnagar to UPES campus can be replaced or modified using Electric propulsion system.significantly. But since glycerin markets are limited. 1. Fully recharging the battery pack can take 4 to 8 hours. EVs do. EVs emit no tailpipe pollutants. which is caused by increased biodiesel production. Reduce energy dependence. Net production costs for PPO are lower since the expensive transesterification process in not applied for PPO. Battery cost: The large battery packs are expensive and may need to be replaced one or more times.* Environmentally friendly. although the power plant producing the electricity may emit them. biodiesel prices would increase drastically. In the case of collapsing glycerin prices. Electricity from nuclear-. solar-. Even a "quick charge" to 80% capacity can take 30 min. If we can maintain a range of around 100 km in one full charge of battery we can make 4 round trips so if we can modify 6 vehicles by electric propulsion system it will a very suitable alternative transport systems. since glycerine is only a co-product of biodiesel production. Electric Powered Vechicles Electric vehicles (EVs) are propelled by an electric motor (or motors) powered by rechargeable battery packs.
there's no additional cost. it's an eco-friendly way to maintain your vehicle. . Since they rely on energy from the sun. In addition. using a car solar battery to maintain a charge can help give you peace of mind that your car battery will work when you need it.Car solar battery chargers are a relatively inexpensive way to extend the life of your vehicle's battery. All in all.
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