The Equine Cardiovascular System | Heart Valve | Atrium (Heart)

The Cardiovascular System

Anatomy Heart Vessels Pulmonary vs. Systemic circulation Arterial system Venous system Lymphatics The Cardiovascular System Distributes blood to the tissues of the body and to the lungs for exchange of gases. Blood transports nutrients and oxygen. Removes waste products via the blood. And lymphatics!

Artery = away from the heart Vein = to the heart The Heart

Hollow muscular organ Operates as a pump Lungs - low pressure Body - high pressure Where is it in your body? In the centre of the chest slightly to the left Where is it in the horse's body? The base is directed cranio-dorsally (up and towards the head) Is attached by large arteries, veins, and the pericardial sac The apex is directed ventrally Partially surrounded by the pericardium. The pericardium creates a closed space around the heart. This closed space contains a small amount of fluid, "pericardial fluid". The Heart Wall

Pericardium - sac around the heart Epicardium - continuous with the pericardium Myocardium - cardiac muscle Endocardium - layer of simple, squamous endothelial cells Myocardium

Involuntary Stiated muscle fibres Sarcoplasm Myofibris Sarcoplasmic reticulum T tubules Sarcolemma Has unique structures called "intercalated discs" at the ends of muscle cells. Intercalated Discs Where 2 cell membranes meet is called a gap junction.

The gap junctions provide mechanical attachment and allow electrical transmission between muscle cells. This allows the "action potential" to be easily spread through the cardiac muscle. Therefore, the cardiac muscle can function on an electrical and mechanical level as a single unit - called a syncytium. This allows cardiac muscle cells to contract by action potential, not nerve stimulation. The Heart Divided Left Side High pressure system Systemic circulation Right Side Low pressure system Pulmonary circulation The Left Side of the Heart Left atrium Left ventricle Left atrioventricular valvae Between atrium and ventricle

Also called bicuspid/mitral Aortic valve To the aorta Semilunar valve Has cup-like leaflets The Right Side of the Heart Right atrium Right ventricle Right atrioventricular valve Between the atrium and ventricle Also called the tricuspid Pulmonary valve To the pulmonary artery Semilunar valve Has cup-like leaflets Heart Valves Semilunar valves Aortic Pulmonary A/V valves Left side (Bicuspid) Right side (Tricuspid) Between the atrium and ventricle Has 2 attachments: At the junction of the atrium and ventricle Free margin is attached to the wall of the ventricle by chord tendinae (fibrous cords) Chordae tendinae are attached to the papillary muscles Prevent the valve from going into the atrium during contraction

During Contraction...

Left Side Left ventricle contracts Sends blood through the aorta to the body Aortic valve is open A/V valve must close so that blood doesn't back flow into the atrium Right Side Right ventricle contracts Sends blood through the pulmonary arteries to the lungs Pulmonary valve is open A/V valve must close so that blood doesn't back flow into the atrium SYSTOLE During Relaxation... Left Side The pulmonary veins deliver blood to the left atrium from the lungs The A/V valve is open Blood moves from the atrium through the A/V valve and fills the left ventricle Right Side The vena cava delivers blood to the right atrium from the body The A/V valve is open Blood moves from the atrium through the A/V valve and fills the right ventricle DIASTOLE The Cardiac Cycle

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