Vargas Museum Education Guide

Over  Rizal:  Monuments  to  a  Hero  
GF  Lobby,  Landings,  Third  Floor  Galleries  and  Library   Exhibit  runs  until  August  17,  2011  

  Using  the  Education  Guide   This  educational  guide  aims  to  help  teachers   and  students  in  viewing  the  exhibition  and  to   facilitate  incorporating  the  exhibition  to  their   lessons.   It   consists   of   two   major   parts:   first,   Rizal   as   a   Monument,   and   second,   Rizal   as   Public   Art   /   Sculpture.   Included   in   each   of   these   two   divisions   are   Pre-­‐visit   Activities,   which   prepares   students   prior   to   the   actual   visit,   Actual   Visit   Activities   and   Guide   Questions,   which   functions   as   guide   throughout   the   course   of   the   visit,   and   Suggested   Post-­‐Visit   Activities,   which   serves   as  optional  activities  to  process  the  museum   viewing  experience.    

About  the  Exhibition     The   exhibition   features   the   numerous   monuments   installed   in   honor   of   the   National   Hero   all   over   the   Philippines   and   abroad.  Images  from  personal  and  institutional  collections,   works  of  contemporary  artists  (Denis  Lagdameo,  Kawayan   de  Guia,  and  Manny  Migriño),  film,  documents  and  archival   materials   survey   the   various   forms   and   styles   through   which   Rizal’s   image   is   articulated,   and   explores   the   multitude   of   meanings   and   sentiments   evoked   by   his   ubiquitous   presence   in   public   spaces   as   well   as   in   the   Filipino’s  consciousness.       I. Rizal  as  Monument     Themes:   Memory  and  Remembrance   Individual/Personal  and  Collective  Memory   Nationalism     Pre-­‐visit  Activities:     1. Conduct  a  brief  review  of  the  biography  of  Jose  Rizal   and   highlight   key   events   in   his   life,   from   his   childhood   in  Laguna  to  his  execution  in  Luneta.     2. Assign   students   to   read   the   eighth   chapter   of   Rizal’s   Noli   Me   Tangere   to   set   the   frame   for   relating   memory   and   recollection   to   nationalism,   and   to   serve   as   background   for   the   Enchantment   of   Affinities   exhibition.   Discuss  the  chapter  with  the  students  in  class.     3. Ask  students  to  think  about  how  Rizal  looks  like  in   monuments  that  they  see  in  public  spaces  as  well  as  in   images  from  books,  postcards,  coins,  and  other  objects.   Ask   them   to   enumerate   the   features   that   make   them   recognize  a  particular  figure  as  that  of  Rizal.     Actual  Visit  Activities  and  Guide  Questions:     1. What  specific  events  or  episodes  in  Rizal’s  life  story   can   you   identify   in   the   photographs   of   monuments   in   the   exhibition?   Choose   one   and   narrate   this   particular   incident  or  stage  in  Rizal’s  life  story.  

Glossary  of  Terms     Art  Deco   Art   Deco   is   a   style   that   first   flourished   in   1920s   focusing   on   linear   symmetry.   Streamlined   forms   and   simplified   lines   and   shapes   are   some   of   its   characteristics   that   influenced   styles   in   visual   arts,   architecture,   fashion   and   design.   New   materials   such   as   plastic   and   glass   also   became   widely  used  with  Art  Deco.     Beaux-­  arts   Beaux-­‐arts  is  a  neo-­‐classical  expression  mainly  in   architecture  and  design  that  originated  in  France   in   the   late   19th   century.   It   is   characterized   by   classical   forms,   symmetry,   and   rich   ornamentation,   oftentimes   built   or   executed   in   a   grand  scale.     Landmark   Landmark   is   originally   a   geographical   feature   that   can   aide   in   pointing   an   estimation   of   a   certain   location.   Nowadays,   a   landmark   can   be   any   physical   structure   that   serves   as   indicator   for   a  certain  place/space/location.     Monument   A   monument   is   a   structure   built   to   commemorate   a   person,   important   place   and   event.   It   instills   memory   and   remembrance,   sometimes   to   the   point   of   veneration   for   a   certain   person   or   historical  event.  

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Vargas Museum Education Guide

  2. Look  at  the  series  of  sculptures  titled  R1–  R13  (2011)  by  Denis  Lagdameo  installed  on  the  Third  Floor   overlooking   the   Landing   Gallery.   How   do  you  interpret  the  repetitive  miniature  of  the  Luneta  monument  of   Rizal  in  various  colors?  What  about  the  absence  of  an  actual  Rizal  statue  on  the  pedestals,  but  with  a  golden   silhouette  of  Rizal  in  its  place  on  different  sides  of  the  obelisks?     3. Compare   and   contrast   the   work   of   Lagdameo   with   the   two   other   representations   of   Rizal   at   the   Ground   Floor  Lobby  Gallery  by  contemporary  artists,  namely,  Kiri  Dalena’s  Monument  to  Rizal  (2010)  and  Kawayan   de  Guia’s  Dugo’t  Barya  (2005).  Examine  the  media  used  in  the  two  works  as  well  as  their  iconography.     a. Dalena’s   work   is   constructed   from   scraps   of   wood   and   wire   mesh.   What   can   you   say   about   this   representation   of   Rizal   in   which   the   hollow   framework   is   not   only   exposed   but   is   the   statue   itself?   How   do   you   interpret   this   representation   of   Rizal   as   opposed   to   the   statue   of   a   heroic   persona   with   a   polished   veneer?   What   about   the   iconography?   How   does   the   figure   resemble   the   numerous   representations  of  Rizal  in  the  exhibition  so  that  it  can  still  be  identified  as  a  Rizal  statue?     b. De   Guia’s   work,   on   the   other   hand,   is   a   paper   mache.   Identify   the   iconographic   features   of   Rizal   which   the   artist   followed   in   crafting   this   work.   Look   closer   at   the   surface   and   try   to   read   the   printed   texts.  Can  you  identify  the  source  of  the  pages  used  in  the  paper  mache?  What  do  you  think  does  this   say  about  the  role  of  Rizal’s  writings  in  reinforcing  his  lingering  presence  in  Philippine  society?  In  what   ways  do  Rizal’s  writings  help  keep  his  memory  and  legacy  alive  in  contemporary  times?       c. The  title  of  de  Guia’s  work  is  Dugo’t  Barya.  Do  you  notice  the  small  slit  on  the  book  Rizal  is  carrying?   This  statue  of  Rizal  is  meant  to  be  a  huge  coin  bank.  What  do  you  think  does  a  coin  bank  in  the  form   of  a  Rizal  figure  suggest?  How  does  this  relate  to  the  writing  of  the  nation’s  official  narrative?  

  4. The   execution   of   Rizal   played   a   pivotal   role   in   Philippine   history.   Rizal’s   death   served   as   catalyst   to   national  awakening  during  the  last  years  of  Spain’s  colonial  rule  over  the  emerging  nation.       a. View   the   monuments   of   Rizal   depicting   his   execution.   What   similarities   and   differences   can   you   see   in  these  monuments  which  portray  a  single  historical  event?  What  emotions  and/or  moods  are  evoked   in  you  upon  seeing  images  of  Rizal  being  executed?     b. Look  for  two  other  materials  in  the  exhibition  depicting  this  incident  in  Rizal’s  life:  the  photographs   of   the   diorama   at   the   Ayala   Museum   and   the   actual   execution   of   Rizal   at   the   Vargas   Library   and   Archives.  Compare  and  contrast  these  two  images  vis-­‐à-­‐vis  the  representations  of  Rizal’s  execution  in   the  monuments.       c. Take   a   look   at   the   vitrine   in   the   library   showcasing   the   rivalry   between   two   Americans,   Albert   Yearsley   and   Edward   Gross,   in   making   the   first   full-­‐length   feature   film   about   Rizal.   Read   the   excerpt   taken  from  the  forthcoming  book  of  Nick  Deocampo  and  browse  through  the  reproductions  of  archival   materials  documenting  the  race  for  the  first  Rizal  movie.     i. Why   do   you   think   there   was   such   an   intense   rivalry   between   the   two   American   filmmakers  in  translating  Rizal’s  life  story  into  moving  pictures?     ii. Since   the   Yearsley   and   Gross   films,   numerous   other   films   followed   which   dramatize   and   reenact   Rizal’s   execution   as   a   national   tragedy.   In   what   ways   does   film   as   a   popular   medium   help   enhance   Rizal’s   place   in   Philippine   history   and   revitalize   his   presence   in   the  memory  of  the  nation?  

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Vargas Museum Education Guide

  5. Visit   the   other   exhibition   at   the   Third   Floor   South   Wing   Gallery   titled   Enchantment   of   Affinities   by   a   Madrid-­‐based  Filipino  artist,  Kristoffer  Ardeña.       a. Watch  the  video  projected  at  the  end  of  the  gallery.  What  do  you  see  in  the  video  installation?     b. The   olive   oil   and   the   soy   sauce   being   mixed   in   a   pan   are   presented   as   possible   metaphors   for   the   colony   and   the   empire.   How   is   the   relationship   between   the   colony   and   the   empire   described   in   the   video  through  the  behavior  of  the  olive  oil  and  soy  sauce  when  mixed?  What  is  the  effect  of  the  mixture?     c. The  title  of  the  exhibition  was  taken  from  the  phrase  “el  demonio  de  las  comparaciones”  in  the  eighth   chapter   of   Rizal’s   Noli   Me   Tangere.   In   the   said   chapter,   the   novel’s   main   protagonist,   Ibarra,   is   confronted  by  various  images  while  traveling  in  a  street  in  Manila.  Upon  seeing  a  botanical  garden,  he   recalls   the   botanical   gardens   of   Europe,   igniting   a   comparison   between   the   lifelessness   of   his   homeland   and  the  vitality  of  the  empire  and  its  other  colonies.       i. In   this   particular   scene   in   Rizal’s   novel   from   a   chapter   aptly   titled   Memories,   how   did   memory  and  recollection  affect  the  main  protagonist?  What  thoughts  and/or  emotions   were  triggered  in  him  upon  remembering  places,  persons,  and  events?       ii. As  an  indio  or  native  who  has  travelled  to  Europe,  how  do  you  think  did  Ibarra  feel  upon   realizing   the   stark   contrast   between   the   more   progressive   life   in   other   places   and   the   backward   condition   in   his   homeland?   Was   he   enchanted   by   the   allure   of   the   empire   and   thus  convinced  to  maintain  his  affinity  with  Europe  and  its  culture,  or  was  he  appalled   by   the   fate   of   his   homeland   which   in   turn   made   him   sympathize   and   identify   with   his   fellow  indios?       d. Conversing  with  the  video  installation  are  reproductions  of  images  from  Misterios  de  Filipinas,  a  19th   century   Spanish   novel   by   Antonio   del   Canto,   and   some   works   by   Filipino   artists   from   the   Vargas   art   collection.     i. Look   at   the   reproduction   of   the   illustrations   from   the   novel.   These   images   created   by   Spanish  artists  are  meant  to  depict  the  Philippines  during  the  Spanish  Colonial  Period.   Are   the   images   accurate   or   imaginary?   Are   they   in   accordance   with   your   own   idea   of   how  the  Philippines  looked  like  during  that  time?  Point  to  specific  details  that  made  you   say  so.         ii. Turn  to  the  paintings  by  Vicente  Genato,  Ricardo  Gloria,  and  Alfredo  Carmelo.  Who  are   being  represented  in  their  works?       e. The  Enchantment  of  Affinities  and  Over  Rizal  exhibitions  gather  various  subjectivities  held  together   by   their   common   displaced   sensibilities:   Ardeña,   a   Filipino   artist   living   and   working   in   Madrid   and   Oviedo;  del  Canto,  a  Spanish  novelist  who  sets  his  literary  piece  in  faraway  Philippines;  and  Ibarra  and   Rizal,  who  straddles  both  the  realms.       i. How   did   the   encounter   between   the   Self   and   Other   affect   the   various   personalities   mentioned  above?  How  was  it  manifested  in  their  works  or  their  actions?       ii. Take   a   look   at   the   photographs   of   Rizal   monuments   overseas   which   underscore   Filipino   diaspora   in   the   age   of   globalization.   How   do   you   think   this   present-­‐day   increase   of   displaced  sensibilities  among  Filipinos  affect  our  sense  of  belonging  to  the  nation?    

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Vargas Museum Education Guide

  6. Look  for  photographs  in  the  exhibition  with  people  consciously  posing  with  Rizal  monuments.  In  these   photographs,   we   find   an   overlapping   of   the   personal/individual   memory   as   people   take   snapshots   of   themselves   for   posterity,   and   the   collective   memory   of   the   nation   as   people   choose   to   be   photographed   with   a   prominent   figure   in   Philippine   history,   relating   themselves   as   individuals   to   a   collective   body   in   which  they  belong.         a. Describe  the  people  in  the  photographs.  How  do  they  pose  beside  a  Rizal  monument?  What  do  their   behaviors  reveal  about  how  we  regard  the  national  hero?       b. Compare   these   photographs   with   Manny   Migriño’s   work,   Becoming   (1999).   How   do   you   interpret   the   juxtaposition   of   a   familiar   image,   the   Luneta   monument   of   Rizal,   with   images   of   anonymous   persons?         7. A   section   in   the   exhibition   located   at   the   Third   Floor   deals   with   representations   of   Rizal   with   other   heroic  figures  in  Philippine  history.       a. Who  are  these  personalities  and  can  you  identify  their  contributions  and  roles  played  in  forging  the   Filipino  nation?         b. How  are  they  depicted  with  Rizal?  Did  the  representations  follow  the  same  set  of  conventions  like   Rizal’s?     c. Why   do   you   think   these   monuments   included   other   figures   with   Rizal?   How   do   these   representations   contribute   to   the   collective   memory   of   the   nation?   How   important   is   the   official   narrative   of   the   nation,   with   its   set   of   characters   and   personalities,   in   fostering   a   sense   of   identity   among  the  members  of  the  nation?     Suggested  Post-­‐visit  Activities:     1. Conduct   a   film   showing   of   the   more   recent   films   about   Rizal,   such   as   Marilou   Diza-­‐Abaya’s   Jose   Rizal   (1998),   and   Mike   de   Leon’s   Bayaning   Third   World   (2000).   Assign   students   to   write   a   reflection   paper   about  the  movies  in  relation  to  the  Over  Rizal  exhibition.       2. Divide   the   class   in   groups.   Assign   each   group   to   prepare   a   short   skit   narrating   a   particular   event   in   Rizal’s  life  or  a  scene  in  Rizal’s  novels.       II. Rizal  as  Public  Art  /  Sculpture     Themes   Landmark   Art  Deco   Beaux-­‐arts     Pre-­‐visit  Activities:     1. Ask  students  to  research  about  the  terms   beaux-­arts  and  art  deco.   In   class,   discuss   the   stylistic   features   of  each  and  some  common  examples,  especially  their  manifestations  in  the  Philippines.      
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Vargas Museum Education Guide

2. Ask   to   think   of   popular   landmarks   in   the   Philippines   as   well   as   in   other   parts   of   the   world.   Ask   them   to   bring  a  picture  of  it  and  discuss  in  class  their  significance.       Actual  Visit  Activities  and  Guide  Questions:     1. Look   at   the   schematic   diagram   of   a   typical   Rizal   monument   at   the   Ground   Floor   Lobby   Gallery.   Take   note   of   the   parts,   stylistic   features,   and   other   information   indicated   on   the   diagram.   Try   to   look   for   these   features   and/or   any   deviations   from   them   in   the   monuments   that   you   are   viewing   in   the   exhibition.  Choose  one  Rizal  monument  and  discuss  it  in  class  in  relation  to  the  schematic  diagram.     2. As  a  public  sculpture  which  functions  as  a  national  symbol,  the  representation  of  Rizal  is  governed  by   certain   norms   and   conventions.   But   some   Rizal   monuments   have   ventured   off   from   the   archetype,   manifesting   certain   idiosyncrasies   as   individuals   or   groups   have   taken   liberty   in   interpreting   the   image   of  the  national  hero.     a. Look   for   the   images   of   Rizal   statues   in   Catbalogan   City,   Samar,   Ilocos   Norte   Provincial   Capitol   in   Laoag   City,   and   the   Rizal   monuments   in   which   the   hero   is   wearing   a   barong   tagalog   at   the   Third   Floor.   How   did   these   examples   deviate   from   the   archetypal   Rizal   monument   in   the   schematic   diagram?         b. Look  for  other  monuments  of  Rizal  in  the  exhibition  which  you  find  odd  or  peculiar.    What  do  you   think  of  these  representations  of  Rizal  are  trying  to  express?  To  what  extent  do  you  think  an  artist   or  benefactor  can  modify  the  norms  and  conventions  in  building  a  Rizal  monument?     3. What  beaux-­arts  and  art  deco  motifs  can  you  see  in  the  monuments  of  Rizal?  Focus  on  the  section  on  the   Third  Floor  North  Wing  Gallery  about  Rizal  monuments  with  allegorical  figures.  What  concepts  and/or   abstract   ideas   do   you   think   are   being   represented   by   these   figures?   Choose   one   monument   of   Rizal   and   discuss  the  possible  meanings  in  relation  to  Rizal’s  significance  in  Philippine  society.     4. Look   at   the   photographs   of   the   entries   in   the   Rizal   Monument   Competition   launched   in   1905,   from   which   the   template   for   Rizal   monuments   was   taken.     How   did   each   design   entry   interpret   Rizal?   Are   there   any   similarities   and/or   differences?   Pay   attention   to   the   allegorical   figures   that   the   artists   included  in  their  designs  and  interpret  their  meanings.     5. If  you  were  a  judge  in  the  said  competition,  which  would  you  chose  as  a  winner?  Justify  your  choice  and   discuss  it  in  class.     6. Aside  from  housing  the  remains  of  the  National  Hero,  the  Rizal  monument  in  Luneta  also  functions  as   an   important   landmark.   It   is   where   Kilometer   Zero   is   located,   from   which   distances   in   Luzon   and   other   parts  of  the  country  are  measured.     a. When  you  hear  the  word,  Luneta,  what  ideas  and/or  images  come  up  to  your  mind?       b. View  the  film  installed  at  the  Third  Floor  Landing  Gallery  titled  Luneta   (1954)  starring  Nida  Blanca   and  Nestor  de  Villa,  and  the  blown-­‐up  picture  of  a  scene  from  the  movie  Big  Shot  (1956)  featuring   Charito   Solis   and   Nestor   de   Villa.   How   did   Luneta   as   a   marker   of   place   figure   in   the   two   movies?   How   important   is   Luneta   in   the   narratives   and   how   do   you   think   it   affects   the   audience   watching   the  two  films?     Suggested  Post-­‐visit  Activity:  

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Vargas Museum Education Guide

  1. Design  Your  Own  Rizal  Monument     a. Suppose  you  were  commissioned  to  design  a  new  Rizal  monument.  Draw  a  study  of  your  design  in   the  form  of  a  schematic  diagram  similar  to  the  one  you  saw  in  the  exhibition.  You  may  incorporate   the   common   features   found   in   Rizal   monuments   or   go   against   them.   Present   the   drawing   to   the   class.     b. Aside  from  drawing  a  schematic  diagram,  you  may  also  present  your  design  or  concept  in  the  form   of  a  collage.  Cut  out  various  images  of  Rizal  and  other  figures  from  newspapers  and/or  magazines   and   paste   them   together   on   a   paper   to   come   up   with   a   composite   Rizal   monument.   Present   your   design  to  the  class.  


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