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SOCIAL STUDIES HOLIDAY HOMEWORK
BY: MANISH ANGURANA CLASS: 7TH ‘B’ ROLL NO: 18 DATE: 22 OCT 2012
These include a number of famous women saints.Bhakti movement The Bhakti movement is a Hindu religious movement in which the main spiritual practice is loving devotion among the Shaivite and Vaishnava saints. The bhakti saints largely rejected the hereditary caste system and its emphasis on prescribed ritual. poetry and music. Shortly after. Chaitanya (1486–1534) 5. often attracting thousands of followers. Tulsidas (1511-1637) 4. Ravidass (1450–1520) 3. There was no grouping of the mystics into Shaiva and Vaishnava devotees as in the south. The considerable influence of the bhakti saints continues up to the present time. Their preference for the spirit of the law rather than its letter enabled many followers of apparently lower birth to participate. Surdas (1479–1584) 2 . the Bhakti movement has its own importance to save Hinduism. Shaivism also has its bhakti traditions and during roughly the same period 63 Nayanars (bhakti poets) wrote songs that now form the twelve books of the Tirumurai. The Islamic rulers were pressing public to convert religion from Hindu to Isllam. The Bhakti movement was counter to the prevalent caste ideology which was dividing Hinduism. purity of heart and an attitude of selfless service. few of which are: 1. Kabir (1440.1518) 2. stressing instead the need for morality. a great devotional renaissance swept through the entire sub-continent. The movement was spontaneous and the mystics had their own versions of devotional expression. So. There are numerous bhakti saints associated with the bhakti movement. They expressed their sentiments through song. Bhakti initially flourished in South India through the great Vaishnava saints known as the twelve Alvars (6th–9th centuries). The Bhakti movement originated in ancient Tamil Nadu and began to spread to the north during the late medieval ages when north India was under Islamic rule. and especially from 1500 onwards.
Although Muslim in background. feeding of the hungry and the rights of women. They speak truth about God's love. Kabir wrote poems. and often take up themes such as the protection of the oppressed. These poems and songs are revelations of the True God to the peoples of India. and His hope for all of India. songs and proverbs reflecting a keen insight into the relationship between God and humanity.Kabir Kabir was a "truthseeker" who proclaimed the love of God and the brotherhood (and sisterhood) of all human beings. He came from an Islamic heritage and lived in a Muslim-dominated area of north India in the early 15th century. For the last 500 years. His salvation. Many of his poems are focused on equality and justice. his writings reflects an understanding of God's love and grace consistent with Scripture. A weaver by trade. 3 . Kabir's writings have been recited by millions of North Indians.
Venerated in the region of Uttar Pradesh as well as the Indian state of Maharashtra. a thinker. His devotional songs were included in the Sikh holy book. a theosophist. He also said that one need not to hide his caste or leave his low profession to reach God. the Adi Granth. yet ecumenical in that it tended to promote crossing of sectarian divides in the name of a higher spiritual unity. Guru Ravidass elevated the status of the labour by emphasizing on the fact that honest labour is empowering. He was a socio-religious reformer. Ravidas was subversive in that his devotionalism implied a leveling of the social divisions of caste and gender. a traveler. There is also a larger body of hymns passed on independently that is claimed and attributed to Ravidas by some. Guru Arjan Dev. He opened a frontal attack against the system of Untouchability. a humanist.Ravidass Guru Ravidass was a North Indian Sant mystic of the bhakti movement who was active in the 15th century. by the fifth Sikh Guru. He became a model for his fellow beings to overcome the hierarchical barriers of Brahminical social order and to establish Begumpura . a poet. his devotional songs and verses made a lasting impact upon the bhakti movement. 4 .a state without fear and sorrows. He was a shoemaker.He taught that one is distinguished not by one's caste (jāti) but by one's actions (karma) and that every person has the right to worship God and read holy texts. a pacifist and a spiritual figure before whom even headpriests of Benaras lay prostrate to pay homage.
culture and society in India is widespread and is seen to date in vernacular language. he is best known for being the author of the epic Ramcharitmanas. popular music.Tulsidas lived permanently and died in the city of Varanasi. Indian. A composer of several popular works.The impact of Tulsidas and his works on the art. and television series.The Tulsi Ghat in Varnasi is named after him. a retelling of the Sanskrit Ramayanain the vernacular Awadhi. the composer of the original Ramayana in Sanskrit. Tulsidas was acclaimed in his lifetime to be a reincarnation ofValmiki.Tulsidas Tulsidas was a Hindu poet-saint. and world literature.He founded the Sankatmochan Temple dedicated to Hanuman in Varanasi. a folk-theatre adaption of the Ramayana. the divine devotee of Rama.Tulsidas started the Ramlila plays. 5 . believed to stand at the place where he had the sight of Hanuman. Hindustani classical music.He is also considered to be the composer of the Hanuman Chalisa. Ramlila plays. reformer and philosopher renowned for his devotion for the god Rama. a popular devotional hymn dedicated to Hanuman.He has been acclaimed as one of the greatest poets in Hindi.
Specifically. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (was a Vaishnava saint and social reformer in eastern India (specifically present-dayBangladesh and states of West Bengal. Bihar. known as Gaudiya Vaishnavas.Sri Krishna Chaitanya was a notable proponent for the Vaishnava school of Bhakti yoga (meaning loving devotion to Krishna). worshipped by followers of Gaudiya Vaishnavism as the full incarnation of Lord Krishna. Jharkhand.Chaitanya Founder of Bengali Vaishnavism. His influence still extends through various groups including the Hare Krishna movement. 6 . he worshipped the forms of Krishna. revere him as an Avatar of Krishna in the mood of Radharani who was prophesied to appear in the later verses of the Bhagavata Purana. Assam. popularised the chanting of the Hare Krishna maha mantra and composed the Siksastakam (eight devotional prayers) in Sanskrit. based on the philosophy of the Bhagavata Purana and Bhagavad Gita. whose followers express devotion through singing and dancing. and Orissa ofIndia) in the 16th century. He was later considered a dualavatar of Radha and Krishna. His line of followers. Manipur.
000 are extant. This movement represented a grass roots spiritual empowerment of the masses.Surdas Born blind. He is considered a saint and so also known as Sant Surdas.The philosophy of Surdas is a reflection of the times. poet and musician. out of which only about 8. known for his devotional songs dedicated to Lord Krishna. 7 .His fame was wide spread though he never left his native land. Surdas is said to have written and composed a hundred thousand songs in his magnum opus the 'Sur Sagar' (Ocean of Melody). Sant Kavi Surdas was a 15th century blind saint. Surdas' works are some of those credited with raising this dialect to a literary status.His compositions are in Braj Bhasha a dialect of Hindi that was considered crude at the time. He was a follower of Vallabha. a name which literally means the "slave of melody". He was very much immersed in the Bhakti movement that was sweeping North India. even the Mughal emperor Akbar paid homage to him. he became renowned for his beautiful songs glorifying Krishna.