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Looking back thru the history of mgt, one can trace stories of people that have shaped and re shaped the org. History can also help us understand todays mgt theory and practice and see what worked and what didnt work a. Present your conceptual and operational definition of mgt. Explain why efficiency and effectiveness are important to mgt. Cite org examples. Mgt can be defined as: -group of people -process -science Define efficiency and how it works in org. Define effectiveness and how it works. Relevance of the output to its clientele. Give specific examples b. Discuss the evolution of mgt theory. In your discussion, include the major contributions of the theorists and practitioners in each school of thought. What environmental factors influenced the development of each school? Framework (Bartol and Martin) Pre-classical Classical Scientific mgt Administrative Mgt Bureaucratic Mgt behavioral Early behaviorist Human relations Behavioral science approach quantitative Operations mgt MIS Mgt science contemporary Systems approach Contingency Emerging views

c. Explain the relevance of mgt theories in the content of the current global environment. Be able to identify the major features of mgt theories and the relevance to the current global changes. Socio cultural Economic Legal-political environment Discuss issues in globalization -sexual harassment -work diversity 2. Every strategic plan takes off from a vision mission of an org. all else that follows are directed by these VMOs. Unless clearly stated, understood and accepted by the constituents, organizational performance will be prejudiced. Vision long term, formulate mission from vision.

Discuss difference and the relationship of these two components of strategic mgt. In context of VMOs, what time horizons Long term, 5-10 years. Discuss strategic planning. Start with environment scanning (SWOT). 3. Elaborate. a. Discuss nature and characteristics of strategic planning and strategic mgt. benefits and advantages in org and in the practice of mgt. 4. Should there be distinction between mgrs and leaders? Discuss major theories of leadership. Managers holding position in org. Leaders rise up in situations that need Theories of leadership -leaders are born -contingency theory -behavioral theory of mgt Contingency theory -path goal -transformational theory -Blanchard theory Distinguish leadership and followership. Leadership role is to be a negotiator. 5. Discuss features of info mgt technologies and their impact in org and employees. What primary factors to consider in designing IT system. Identify indicators to prove effectiveness of such IS. Design IS that will be effective in org. Describe operations mgt as an aspect of control. 6. Discuss understanding of corporate social responsibility. Compare and contrast Carneigies view and those of Friedman. Describe how organizations can go green. From light green to dark green, from compliance to being an advocate. 7. Discuss forces for and against change in org today. Qualify which among these changes should org closely monitor and be prepared for. 3 factors change affects change in people, structure, approach. Discuss.

8. Discuss evolution of major schools of mgt thought. Please include in your discussion the, major proponents of each school and contribution. Discuss global environment, discuss challenges and opportunities. 9. Scope, functions, roles, and competencies of manager. Planning, organizing, staffing, leading, controlling. Interpersonal, informational, decisional roles. Competent in what? 10.Discuss nature and characteristics of strategic mgt. Give meaning and the process. 11.Discuss SWOT in consideration of global climate. Discuss strength in socio cultural. Cite a company and discuss how it will compete in the global market. 12.How e-commerce can give competitive advantage in global market? 13.Discuss understanding of diversity in org. What are the benefits and challenges to the org and practice of mgt.? Diversity in age, religion, race Affirmative action done by org to get rid of discrimination. Be careful not to create another kind of discrimination to people who used to be of advantage.


Process of measuring performance and taking into action to ensure desired result - Has positive and necessary role in mgt - Ensure that right things happen at the right way and right time 1. Establish objectives and standards Methods in controlling: 1. Feed forward control before - Employed before work activity - Ensures obj are clean, proper directives are established 2. Concurrent during -what happens during work process 3. Feedback control after - Quality of end result MBO Process MBO (Management by Objective) -structured process of regular communication, jointly act goods, review results. Managing Technology Innovations (Strategic Issues) Role of Mgt: - Innovation Encouragement of new product devt - Maintains one division just fpor the devt of product - Offer new product every 6 months (one or two ingredients, change in packaging) Ensure technology is being used effectively with consumers in mind - Acceptance of consumer of product made - Go into external scanning - Impact of stakeholders in innovation - Determine the trend - Identify end users - Make market research - Experiment new product Internal scanning - Is the company ready - Does corporation encourage risk taking and tolerate mistakes - Are people considered with new ideas or protecting turf *with change comes resistance Resource allocation Issues: - R and D Time to Market issues - How long will it take (short 4years) Outsourcing Technology:

Low significance to competitive advantage Suppliers has proprietary technology

MANAGING CHANGE IN THE ORG 3 factors affected: People, Technology, Structure People Employ Organizational Development Process used if there are problems due to changes - Hire outsiders to assess and provide solutions (consult) - Expensive - 3 years Process: 1. Identification of Problem 2. What strategy to use to solve problems 3. Make people cohesive, work together Technology Resistance may occur - Explain the change - Are they willing to learn? Orgl Structure - May be first to be affected - From centralization to decentralization, bureaucratic structure to extra bureaucratic (task forces) you get the best from other divisions (temp) Organizational Change Management - Not uncommon for org to choose to conduct a project that will have impact on the org itself. - Examples: o New time and attendance system o New email system (transition from paper to electronic requisition) o Change from primarily print to primarily electronic media o Introduction of new technology o Distribution of workers in new office space - Upper mgt undertake sthese projects - Move sforward on basis that it is in everyones nest interest - Mgt team must be aware of extent to which projects may introduce orgl change, then deal with the issue - Process: o Education tell them about it o Participation/involvement o Coercion? - Change in the customers or within the org itself serious concern of mgt team Organizational Change org-wide change - Includes changes to organizational culture, business

What provokes org change? - Mgt adopts strategy to accomplish some goal - Major outside driving force o Substantial cuts in funding - Evolve life cycle from traditional government to e-government - Transition to a new chief executive, when his/her personality affects the whole comp Org go through four stages on way to achieving their strategic objective: 1. Denial 2. Resistance to a certain degree 3. Exploration possibilities 4. Renewal freezing-unfreezing *From current state, over time, productivity dip, but make sure to work towards to the attainment to desired state CONCEPTS OF DEVELOPMENT Evolution form purely economic, to social economic - A multi dimensional process involving reorganizational Three Objectives of Development: 1. Raising peoples living levels, i.e. incomes, consumption, level of food 2. Creating conditions conducive to peoples growth 3. Increase freedom of choice by enlarging range of their choice variables Millennium Development Goals (8) 1. Raise living levels 2. Reduction of maternal health and infant mortality 3. Aids and malaria 4. Sustainability 5. Globalization Alternative Interpretations of Development - Development as economic growth - Development as modernization o Social change - Development of distributive justice o Improving basic needs o Target groups: farmers, un/underemployed Sustainable development - a development that is likely to achieve lasting satisfaction of human needs and improvement of quality of life ROLE OF MGT IN DEVT 2 things considered: development of mgt, mgt of development Devt of Mgt internal

- Org in order to respond to needs of community - Bottom-up approach Mngt of devt external GLOBALIZATION Three inter-related factors - Managers now operate in a much closer proximity o Technology allows people to share voice and videos o Attitude refers to a new open attitude about practicing tech globally Global perspective - Parochialism 0 views the world solely thru its own eyes and perspective o Own is better - Ethnocentric attitude o Best approaches and practices are those of home country - Polycentric attitude o Mgrs in host country know the best work approaches and practice for running their business o Varies from country to country - Geocentric attitude Does not consider home or host, but consider what is best for that location Regional alliances - European union o 12 members in 92 o No travel document required o No barriers to travel, employment - NAFTA - ASEAN - WTO o 95 o Evolved from GATT(gen agreement on tariffs) Types of global org - MNCs o Managed from base in home country o ethnocentric - TNCs o Host country Ho org go global - Exporting, importing, franchising, foreign subsidy GOVERNANCE GOVERN EXERCISE POWER OR AUTHORITY OVER TERRITORY, SYSTMES, ORG Governance focuses on formal and informal actors involved 3 Actors in Governance:

1. State wielder o0f power a. Provide legal and regulatory framework, enabler b. Principal actor c. Encourage citizens to act by liberating them from fear of military reprisals when they criticize policies or served marginalized groups d. Assure private firms that policies are fair and not subject to caprice 2. Civil Society a. Complex citizens and groups outside government but works in public area arena b. NGOs, VOs c. Attempts to represent the interests of inarticulate and the excluded so they may raise their own voice 3. Market or Economy a. Creates wealth for distribution b. Harness capabilities and resources of the strong c. Powerful during election 8 major characteristics of good governance - Participatory - Transparent - Responsive to needs of stakeholders - Conscientious - Equity and exclusiveness - Effective - Accountable Process pushing for good governance 1. Globalization 2. Environment movement 3. Consolidating peace