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13th International Conference on AEROSPACE SCIENCES & AVIATION TECHNOLOGY, ASAT- 13, May 26 – 28, 2009, E-Mail: asat@mtc.edu.eg Military Technical College, Kobry Elkobbah, Cairo, Egypt Tel : +(202) 24025292 – 24036138, Fax: +(202) 22621908

**An Investigation on the Internal Flow in Simulated Solid Rocket Motor Chamber/Nozzle Configuration
**

M. Nasr*, A. M. Hegab** , W. A. El-Askary*, K. A. Yousif* Abstract: This paper describes numerical, analytical and experimental investigation of acoustic wave propagation in a simulated Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) chamber. The experimental study is carried out on a square-cylinder cross-sectional channel with two equally permeable sidewalls. An endwall disturbance is imparted using a moving piston located at the head end while the exit end of the channel is opened to the atmosphere. Moreover a convergent and convergent-divergent nozzle is changeable fixed at the exit end of the channel to study the behavior of the complex wave interactions mechanism at different nozzle areas. The unsteady, compressible, two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in a laminar regime are numerically solved by predictor-corrector MacCormack scheme. Axial acoustic velocity field generated by the end wall disturbances interacts with steady sidewall injection to generate rotational flow field through the channel. As a result, a steady vorticity is generated at the sidewall and then is convected toward the centerline by the transverse component of the total velocity. Furthermore the time-independent, compressible NavierStokes equations with laminar effects are solved. An analytical solution for pure acoustic flow is derived from the reduced form of the full Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical and analytical solutions are compared with the experimental data. The comparisons show reasonable agreement between these three approaches. Moreover, the results show that, the geometry of the variable area parts has significant effect on the generated complex wave pattern inside the chamber. Keywords: Solid Rocket Motor chamber, Permeable sidewalls injection, Internal cavity, Solid rocket nozzle.

Nomenclature

bn C'o Cp Cv Et H H' K L

*

wave number speed of sound, m/s specific heat at constant pressure specific heat at constant volume total energy dimensionless channel half-height channel half-height, cm thermal conductivity dimensionless channel length

Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufiya University, Shebin El-Kom, EGYPT ** Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufiya University, Shebin El-Kom, EGYPT, Corresponding author: hegab2002us@yahoo.com, Tel. 012-7858517 1/24

Paper: ASAT-13-PP-12 L' M n P Patm P'o % P Pr Re T T'o t t'a u U'o v V'inj x X' y channel length, cm Mach number wave number index static pressure atmospheric pressure stagnation pressure, pa dimensionless pressure perturbation Prandtl number Reynolds Number temperature stagnation temperature, K time acoustic time, L'/ C'o axial speed reference axial speed, m/s transverse speed reference injection speed, m/s axial coordinate dimension axial coordinate transverse coordinate

Greek symbols γ ratio of specific heat δ aspect ratio ε transient axial velocity amplitude μ' dynamic viscosity, pa.s ρ density ρ'o stagnation density, Kg/m3 ω frequency Subscripts ' dimension quantities o stagnation value injection inj

1. Introduction

The current work is devoted to examine the time-dependent flow field in a porous channel with endwall disturbance to describe the effect of adding convergent and convergentdivergent area parts at the open end on the complex wave pattern inside the chamber. The presence of sidewall injection with traveling acoustic waves inside long slender square crosssectional channel can lead to a rotational flowfield that are decreed by the system geometry. These waves can, in turn, interact with the solid boundaries to generate acoustic and vortical wave resulting in complex flow patterns. In the hope of elucidating the nature of the resulting flowfield, an experimental investigation was conducted by Brown et al. [1]. They used nitrogen gas injection through uniformly sintered bronze plates inside a cylinder chamber. In their facility, acoustic waves are generated from an external rotary valve that controlled the flow exiting the chamber. Their results verified the accuracy of the analytical model suggested by Culick [2] for the mean flowfield and also provided substantial data for the resulting acoustic field. Independently of 2/24

constant diameter cylindrical ducts and ducts whose cross-section area varies axially. Shocks like waveforms existed in constant diameter ducts are caused by the generation of higher harmonics through efficient non-linear coupling with the fundamental mode. Erickson et al. in generating the CO2 gas to mimic the chamber's transpiring wall. rotational Culick's solution [2]. weakly viscous internal flow sustained by mass addition through the side wall of a long narrow cylinder. pure sinusoidal motion and resulted in acceptable validation between numerical and experimental results. a process that resembled the combustion of propellant. thin compared to the radius of the cylinder but larger than that obtained by Flandro [6]. pressure gradient forces and viscous diffusion. transient vorticity in the boundary layer compared to the weaker steady vorticity associated with the inviscid. a novel investigation facility was built by Ma [3] to simulate similar flow conditions in a rectangular chamber. The objective of that work was to determine the effect of duct shape on resulting oscillations amplitude. [7] is used to describe the initiation and evolution of intense unsteady vorticity in a low Mach number. That experiment employed the sublimation of carbon dioxide. He studied the impact of a small axial pressure gradient. with amplitude that is damped by viscous effects. It was also demonstrated that there are parameter ranges of Mach number. Ma [3] didn’t verify the occurrence of generating turbulence. Unfortunately.Paper: ASAT-13-PP-12 the work given in [1]. A mathematical model formulated by Zhao et al. Dunlap et al. The new mechanism led to higher pressure amplitudes. The intense vorticity is formed at walls and is convected into the entire chamber by the steady radial velocity. In contrast. Barron et al. wave form. [5] presented an experimental verification for the cold flow simulation of rocket chamber flow field based on Culick's analysis [2] of steady state flow. This induces much lower relative energy content in higher harmonics in that duct and hence decreases the excitation of harmonics. A linear equation for axial velocity contains a balance of convection. The results indicated that the wave generator produced many non-harmonics waves with many higher fundamentals that make the interpretation of the complex mechanism is difficult. Reynolds number and driving frequency for which vorticity is really confined to weakly viscous acoustic boundary layer. Flandro [6] observed intense. The results of Dunlap et al. harmonic content. The solution described a shear wave convecting away from the wall. and identify duct shapes that produce large amplitude oscillations for a given energy content. The results showed that the higher amplitude pressure oscillations can be forced in horn like shaped ducts as opposed to cylindrical ducts. Flandro [6] provided an early assessment of the importance of vorticity in acoustic boundary layer. the work by Ma [3] had experimental difficulties in measuring acoustic pressure and velocity. [4] introduced an improvement to Ma's experiment by utilizing a Scotch-yoke mechanism to replace the slider-crank mechanism. varying harmonically in time. 3/24 . [8] presented analytical study concerning forced gas-dynamic oscillations in closed. in that experiment. the non-linear coupling between the fundamental mode and its harmonic was weak in ducts whose cross sectional area varies axially (horn-like ducts). Moreover. The amplitude and the distribution of the vorticity are impacted by weak viscous and nonlinear effects. on the viscous process occurring adjacent to a surface from which a steady spatially uniform injection occurs. [5] revealed that the inviscid flow field solution gives accurate results as long as the Reynolds number is sufficiently large to ensure that viscous effects are small compared with pressure gradients.

The main goal was to understand the heat transfer and temperature dynamics that accompany the co-existing acoustic and rotational velocity disturbances. the mean flow differs significantly from classical Culick's solution [2] and computational results. It is observed that the unsteady vorticity across the chamber is sensitive to small changes in flow dynamics and the maximum amplitude of the vorticity increases as the throat height is decreased. weaken pressure wave intensity and oscillation levels. the radiated part of energy delivered by the piston to the atmosphere depends on the tube end configuration. For a course porous surface (1/4'' honeycomb).Paper: ASAT-13-PP-12 The structure of turbulence in a channel flow with a fully transpired wall has been investigated experimentally by Deng et al. It may be worth mentioning that accurate matching of both numerical and analytical solutions requires that the motor parameters be chosen within specified limits and the corresponding criteria was shown to be practical. The internal flow-field forming in the combustion chamber of SRM was analytically studied by Majdalani et al. It was found that the boundary conditions on the porous surface are very important to the internal core flow evolution and flow pattern. the mean velocity profiles are very close to laminar solution for a considerable downstream length and that profiles agree well with Culick [2]. 4/24 . [1]. A combined geometric configuration is considered in which a straight cylinder is connected to a tapered cone and the gases are injected perpendicularly to the surface. They concluded that the sidewall injection angle has significant effect on the internal flow field and vortex shedding in SRM. They concluded that. under resonant conditions was studied experimentally by Sileem and Nasr [11]. They concluded that the taper effect is more pronounced as the gases move away from the head end due to the increasing cross-sectional area. even though large turbulence intensity was observed. For small inclination angles the whole interactions between shear layer and vortex shedding were decreased and hence decreased the wall vorticity. which lead to the increase of pressure fluctuation levels. [13]. However. The noticed difference between results of the open-end tube and that when variable area portions are added presumably attributed to the deviation of the natural frequency of the variable area cases from that of the open end tube case. The influence of adding variable area portions to the open end of a circular constant-area tube on finite amplitude wave deformation and radiation. The mean flow approaches its asymptotic limit in sufficiently long cylinders. Air is sucked into the channel through the top honeycomb by high pressure direct drive blower. The aim of that experiment was to study the effect of the porous surface boundary conditions on the core flow development and flow structure in the channel. Also. the larger angles enhanced the influence of wall vortex shedding at the rear end of the chamber. with small pore size (1/8'' honeycomb). Also the effect of adding variable duct to the open end on the internal flow-field was considered. Large gradients at the sidewall imply that there is an unexpectedly heat transfer which may influence the combustion zone above the burning propellant even though the fluid injection is isothermal. On the contrary. The selection of the injection velocity was followed from the experimental work of Brown et al. the time history of pressure amplitude increases as throat height decreases. The results showed that surprisingly large transient temperature gradient is presented at the sidewalls and the interior of the channel. Similar experimental investigation to that of [12] used for studying the influence of solid propellant inclination angle through small-scale cold flow simulation was presented by Nguyen et al. [12]. The experiments were conducted on a cold gas experimental setup. [9]. Hegab [10] presented numerical study that describes the transient flow dynamics generated in a SRM's chamber model with time-dependent mass injection.

Convergent and convergent-divergent nozzles are changeably added to the open end of the square crosssectional area channel. narrow chamber with endwall disturbance.5 cm apart from square cross-sectional area channel end. an analytical solution to the two following cases. Action MA01720. The detailed dimensions of those parts are given in Table (1). It consists of the following parts: an oscillating piston [2. The square cross-sectional area channel has permeable sidewalls to inject a guided-steady state flow into the channel.412 ×10−6 . The injected air flows through two similar hoses which connected to two similar injection ducted guided-blade ducts to obtain uniform injection steady velocity at both sides of the channel. Also the analytical solution of the reduced form of Navier-Stokes equations is considered. where the lower one is 5. The uncertainties of the measured pressure shown here are estimated according to the procedures given by Coleman et al. The second case. Data Instrument. the present work focuses on experimental and theoretical studies for the unsteady flow in a simulated SRM interior cavity. accuracy ±1%] connected to Data Acquisition System (DAS) and desktop computer through a Labview software. Experimental Setup The cavity of SRM is represented by square-cylinder chamber of axial length 44 cm and cross section height of 2. From the mentioned review it is noticed that. The general arrangement of the experimental set-up layout is shown in Fig. Wall pressure time histories are recorded at two locations along the channel. 2.45 %. single phase electrical input and suitable for variable speed through a pulley-belt system. analytical. These pressure histories are measured using Capacitance Pressure Transducer [model SA. The number of revolution of AC motor can be changed (from 3610 rpm to 4774 rpm) by voltage regulator. [15] found to be within ±2. two dimensional. The reading error of U-tube manometer which is used to measure the injected flow rate by an orifice meter is ±0. The numerical solution of the laminar.5% for a confidence interval of 95. The first case is in which straight duct with endwall disturbance at the head end and without sidewall mass injection.5 cm diameter and 1. USA 0-100 psi. Moreover.5 cm apart from the Top Dead Center (TDC) and the upper one is at 19.25 mm and the total uncertainty of the measured flow rate is equal to 1.5 cm. the effect of exit geometry on the acoustic flowfield generated in SRM cavity with/without sidewall mass injection did not take the sufficient attention.Paper: ASAT-13-PP-12 Hegab and Nasr [14] studied experimentally and numerically the propagation of acoustic waves (which is generated by oscillating piston) in a long. The variable speed piston oscillates to generate the acoustic disturbance at one end of the channel and the other end is open to atmosphere. 5/24 . duct contributes steady sidewall mass injection from permeable walls and endwall disturbance. The cavity is represented by square-cylinder chamber with permeable sidewalls. and the computational results using the two-four explicit predictor-corrector MaCcormack scheme. 1 HP. Therefore.9 cm stroke] driven by an electric AC motor of YC90S-2 type.1. The data are recorded in files and plotted as will be shown later. compressible and steady/unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for the same geometry are considered to validate the experimental work. 2900 rpm. convergent and convergentdivergent nozzles are changeable installed at the exit end of the channel. They illustrated a reasonable comparison between the experimental. Their study includes also.

U-tube manometer Fig. Length Exit height.Desktop computer 14.27 ----------ConvergentVariable area 14 3.0.1.AC motor 17.Air from atmosphere 2.65.Electrical power supply 9.Oscillating piston 15.Pressure measuring holes connected by capacitance pressure transducer 12 – To DAS 13.C (17) (16) (15) ( 1) 2 (5) head end (8) Y 2H ′ X 2 H t′ h 2 H e′x L ′ L c′ L c′d 1.Injection air flow through duct with guide blades 7.65. convergent.725 0.Square channel (test duct) 8. Throat height.1 The experimental test-rig components Table (1) Detailed dimensions of straight.1.Pulley-belt system 16.0.Controlled voltage circuit and constant voltage power supply device 10-Distribution board 11.Reciprocating compressor 3.Orifice meter 5-Two perforated plates 6.D.95.Voltage regulator 18.C (14) B.) 4.Air reservoir (volume 500 lit.5 ----------Convergent Variable area 5 0.78.8.D.95.27 6/24 .5. and convergent-divergent area channels. Part type (cm) 2H'ex (cm) 2H'th (cm) Square Duct Constant area 44 2.Paper: ASAT-13-PP-12 (1) (2) (3) (4) (18) (9) (7) (11) ~ (10) (8) (6) (5) (13) T.

as follows: ′ ′ M = U o′ /C o′ . Time is nondimensionalized with respect to the axial acoustic time t a′ = L ′/ C o′ . The characteristic axial flow Mach number. p = ρT The non dimensional form of the total energy is represented by (2) ² v ² ²γ (γ − 1) [u + ( δ ) ] Εt = ρCv Τ + Μ 2 (3) Where.T y = ∂Τ ∂y (4) 7/24 . δ = L ′ / H ′ . The aspect ratio is defined as the ratio of the channel length to the half-height of the channel. The velocity and temperature gradients read. Ε = ⎢ ⎢ Μ ρuv ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣Εt ⎦ ⎡ M ρv ⎤ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ Μ ρ uv − u y Μ δ ² / Re ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ . two dimensional parabolized Navier-Stokes equations describing both dynamics and acoustic in a perfect gas within a square-cylinder channel. Prandtl number and flow Reynolds number are defined respectively. F = ⎢ Μ ρv ² + δ ² p /(γ Μ ) ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ Τy γΜ δ ² ⎥ ⎢ Μ u Ε t + Μ (γ − 1)up ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ Μ v [ Ε t + (γ − 1) p ] − Re . E and F are column vectors given by [16] (1) ⎡ Μ ρu ⎡ρ ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ ρu ⎥ ⎢ Μ ρu ² + p ⎢ ⎥ Q= γΜ ⎢ ρv ⎥ . ∂Q ∂Ε ∂F + + =0 ∂t ∂x ∂y Where Q. Pr = μ ′C po /k ′ . respectively. where prime quantities refer to dimensional values. The characteristic length scales for the axial and transverse variables are chosen to be the axial length of the channel L ′ and the half-height of the cross section H ′ . ρo (the total stagnation density) and T o′ (the total temperature). Pr ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The dimensionless form of the equation of state for a perfect gas is.The characteristic axial velocity U o′ is related to the characteristic side′ wall injection velocity of the fluid V inj through the global mass conservation. Mathematical Model The mathematical model is based on solving the unsteady. respectively. uy = ∂u ∂y . Cv and γ are the specific heat at constant volume and the specific heat ratio. The gas is initially stationary with a reference-state defined by Po′ ′ (the total pressure).Paper: ASAT-13-PP-12 3. Re = ρoU o′ L ′/μ ′ The governing flow equation can be written in its dimensionless form as follows. The ′ associated sound speed is found to be C o′ = (γ Po′ / ρo ) .

2. unsteady. In the third. two solution techniques including numerical as well as analytical methods are used. The second. Culick [2] and Hegab [10] showed that the axial velocity distribution is independent of viscosity when Reynolds number is sufficiently large. The same boundary conditions for the case (1) are applied except that. At the head end. Numerical Method An accurate flow-field time history in SRM chamber can be obtained using finite-difference scheme which shows the evolution of the flow variables in the axial and transverse directions after many acoustic wave cycles. applied by Kirkkopru et al. developed by MacCormack [18] is used to descretize the two-dimensional.2.1.a Boundary Conditions There are three kinds of boundary conditions used in this study. developed by Gottlieb and Turkel [19]. but the crosswise velocity is taken to be the injection velocity V'inj. compressible. is highly-phase accurate and therefore suitable for describing many wave cycles and wave interaction problems.e. At the interior points. The first. They will be discussed in the following subsection. Navier-Stokes equations. which is a fourth-order variant of the fully explicit MacCormack scheme. 3.a Analytical Solution for Case (1) In this case a steady uniform injection from the sidewalls of square-cylinder channel is considered. transverse velocities and static pressure: u π y = Χ cos[( ) × (1 − )] Uo 2 H 8/24 (5-a) . At the head end. This method. V'inj=0. case (1) in which the air is injected uniformly across the sidewalls of the channel and the head end is closed while the other free end is open to atmosphere. x=0. variable area nozzles are changeably added at the open end. 0) =V'inj and v'(X'. At the sidewalls. 2H') =-V'inj.1. the pressure is taken as an atmospheric pressure and the other parameters are extrapolated using zero gradient at exit. predictor corrector scheme. case (2) of the boundary conditions is concerned with studying the internal flow field when only acoustic waves are generated at the closed end while the other free end is open to atmosphere. The present study employs higher-order accuracy difference equations to minimize the impact of numerical diffusion which was found to affect the results obtained from the second order explicit MacCormack code. The variable area nozzles are also included at the free end. u=ε sin (ωt). case (3) of boundary conditions the air is injected uniformly across the sidewall of the chamber and acoustic waves are generated at the head end while the other free end is open to atmosphere. Also. at the head end (x=0). v'(X'. Near the boundaries. At the sidewalls. the second order explicit predictor-corrector scheme. u=v=0. Culick [2] derived the following equations for axial. [20]. Also variable area nozzles are added to the channel free end.Paper: ASAT-13-PP-12 In general δ>>1.1273 m/s) 3. i. While. The same boundary conditions for the case (1) are applied except that. x=0 the no slip boundary conditions are applied. Hegab [21] used the same numerical method in similar problems with good numerical predictions. the no slip condition is applied for the streamwise component of velocity. the Navier-Stokes equations are descretized using the TwoFour explicit. at the duct exit. (v=v'/V'inj. the streamwise velocity is considered in the form u=ε sin (ωt). see Hegab [17]. M<1. Analytical Solution 3. 3. the no slip condition is applied also to the velocity components at sidewalls. u= v=0. Re>>1 and Pr=O(1) In the present work.

t ) can be obtained using the following equation [20]: % ∂ u% ( x .t ) = − γ ∂t ∂x (7) The boundary condition at the duct head end. x ) = εγω(x −1)cos ωt − ∑ 2εω (cos ωt − cosbnt )cosbn x 2 n =0 b n ∞ (8) The solution for resonance case can be also found in [20] as: 1 % u (x . t ) 1 ∂p (x . The analytical approach is based on the reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations using asymptotic techniques [9. t ) = γεω cos(ωt ) (x − 1) − γ 2 cos b *t − b n *t sin b *t cos b * x n n n ( ) (9) Where b n * = ω and ε represents the wave amplitude 4. The second category of the results (case (2)) considers the same channel with endwall disturbance 9/24 . x=1 reads p=1. b n = (n + 1/ 2)π with n as the wave number index. t ) = ε sin ωt − { sin(b n *t ) + t cos(b n *t )}sin(b n *x ) bn * % p (x .b Analytical Solution for Case (2) In the case (2). The perturbation % pressure p ( x . ω is the forced frequency and bn* is the wave number at resonance conditions.Paper: ASAT-13-PP-12 v π y = − sin[( ) × (1 − )] Vinj 2 H Po − P = (Χ / L )2 Po − P atm (5-b) (5-c) Where Uo is the center line dimensionless velocity at the channel exit. endwall disturbance is fitted at the duct head end while the other end is open to atmosphere. the effect of adding convergent and convergent-divergent area nozzles to the end of the duct is considered. The first category of the results (case (1)) deals with the steady state internal flow generated by a steady mass addition from the two sidewalls of the square-cylinder channel (nozzless duct). 3. Moreover. 14 and 20]. and Po is the dimensionless stagnation pressure at the channel head end. Results and Discussions The present results are classified into three categories.2. Integrating equation (7) yields the pressure perturbation in the form [20]: % p (t . The final solution for pressure and velocity is as follows: The non resonance acoustic solution for axial velocity is: % u (x . t ) = ε sin ωt + ∑ 2 n =0 ∞ εω ω ( sin ωt − sin b n t ) sin b n x for ω≠bn* b − ω 2 b n2 2 n (6) Where bn is the wave number.

5 X' / L' 0. air is injected uniformly across ′ the sidewalls of the square chamber with V inj = 0. 1. Figure 4 shows transverse velocity at different axial locations for the same conditions given in Fig. the analytical solution is proved to be the best choice to simulate such flowfield case when the air is injected uniformly along the sidewall.6 0.00005 1. the analytical solution and the results obtained using the commercial code Fluent [22] at different axial locations is shown.9 1 Fig.00030 1. This deviation is attributed to the increase in the axial velocity due to the mass accumulation at aft end and in turn makes the flow to be convected towards downstream as soon as it is injected from the walls. The comparison between the numerical and analytical approaches with the experimental data shows reasonable agreement. The numerical and analytical results are almost coincides in the all domain. the static pressure reaches its maximum value at the closed duct head end at ( X ′ / L ′ = 0 ) and gradually decreases toward the channel exit. 2 for experimental.00040 1.Paper: ASAT-13-PP-12 at the head end. 3. In Fig. The last category (case (3)) deals with the channel as in the second category with the presence of uniform injected air from permeable sidewalls. In such case. while small deviation occurs near the duct inlet and exit.00010 1.2 0.00000 0 0.00015 1.[1-persent code] 10/24 . 3.7 0. The axial pressure distribution along the chamber wall is shown Fig. It is noticed that. 3 have been shown also in [10]. the axial velocity distribution across the channel height from the present numerical code.4 0.00035 Numerical 1 Analytical Experimental data P ' / P 'a t m 1.1 0.00045 1.1273m / s and the head end is closed while the other free end is open to atmosphere (nozzless duct).00050 1. The development of the velocity profiles is attributed to the mass addition from the walls as axial distance increases.8 0. Consistent results for Fig. 2 Static Pressure distribution along the duct wall for nozzless duct without acoustic (case (1)).00025 1.3 0. However. numerical and analytical solutions as in case (1).00020 1. like the gasification of propellant in SRMs. while variable area nozzles are added changeably at the channel exit. It is noted that the velocity profiles are found to be very close to the laminar velocity profiles and symmetrical about the centerline.

0 -0.2 0.25 0.1 0. The effect of adding convergent area nozzle on the static pressure distribution along the wall of the channel for case (1) is shown in Fig.0 0 1 2 3 U' (m/s) 4 5 6 7 Fig.6 0.0 X=0.15 0.3 0.1 0.6 0. 4 Transverse velocity distribution for nozzless channel without acoustic (case (1)).5 Y ' /2 H ' 0.0 0.5 0.2 0.8 0. It is appeared that the static pressure decreases slowly through the channel and then it decreases with strong gradient through the nozzle due to the flow acceleration in the nozzle.75 X=0.7 Numerical 1 Numerical 2 Analytical Y ' /2 H ' 0.8 0.1 0.7 X=0.9 0.5 0.4 0.9 0.95 Analytical X=0.65cm and its converging length about 5 cm. 3 Transverse axial velocity distribution at different axial locations for nozzless duct without acoustic (case (1)).3 0.[1-persent code.Paper: ASAT-13-PP-12 1.4 0.0 -0. The convergent area nozzle has total height at ′ exit of 2H ex = 0.1 -0. The over-prediction of the experimental results with numerical may be related to uncertainty of the experimental data.15 Fig. 11/24 .05 0. 5.05 v'(m/s) 0. 2-Fluent code] 1.

Furthermore. 6 and 7.1136 Fig.003 1. L'c=5 cm and V'inj=0. 2H'ex=0. many harmonics are introduced into the acoustic velocity and pressure fields as discussed by Barron et. That may be attributed to the wave attenuation due to the boundary layer development on the duct sidewalls and acoustic streaming. These Figures demonstrate the pressure time history at two dimensionless distances from the head end or to be more precise from the top dead center of the piston ( X ′ / L ′ = 0. al [4].6 0.004 P ' / P 'a t m 1.125 and 0. 2H'in=2. axial location and the nozzle geometry on the generated acoustic field inside the interior cavity. 12/24 . the amplitude of the measured static pressure oscillation decreases as the axial distance increases downstream.65 cm. 5 is presented.8 1.Paper: ASAT-13-PP-12 L' L'c H' H'e x 1. (case (1)).557 ) and constant dimensionless forced frequency ω=0.000 0.2 0. Moreover.5 cm.1273 m/s. The main purpose of this set is to describe the effects of forced frequency. using slider-crank shaft mechanism can’t produce a pure sinusoidal piston motion.65. a comparison between the experimental and numerical results for nozzless duct at the same dimensional flow characteristics as in Fig. Moreover.0 0.001 1. The second set of the results for case (2) discusses the internal flowfield due to endwall disturbance using reciprocating piston at the head end of the channel along with and without a convergent nozzle added at the end of the channel. there is small deviation in the static pressure mean value and the phase angle between the experimental and numerical results. it is found that. Since the piston movement is not purely sinusoidal. The reasons behind these deficiencies may be related to the sudden change of cross-sectional area from circular duct (in which the piton moves) at the TDC to the square cross-sectional channel.4 X'/L' 0.002 1. higher harmonic oscillations are seen in the experimental data which represents the eigenfunction mode contributions.0 1. 5 Static Pressure distribution along the wall of duct ended by convergent nozzle. In Figs. It is observed that.005 Experimental Numerical 1 1.

13/24 .000 0.004 P ' / P 'a t m 1.996 0.000 0.008 N umerical 1 Experimental 1.557 (case (2)).125 (case (2)).Paper: ASAT-13-PP-12 R c′ ω′ L c′ u ′ = ε sin ω′t ′ Y X head end 2H ′ L′ 1. ω =0. 7 Pressure-time history for nozzless channel fitted by forced oscillation.004 P ' / P 'a t m 1.045 and X'/L'=0.992 0 20 40 t 60 80 100 Fig. ω = 0. 1.045 and X'/L'=0. ε =0.996 0.008 N umerical 1 Experimenta l 1.65.992 0 20 40 t 60 80 100 Fig. ε =0. 6 Pressure-time history for nozzless channel fitted by forced oscillation.65.

0 0.557 and δ=20. 8 Pressure-time history for nozzless channel fitted by forced oscillation. There are small deviations in both phase and amplitude between the numerical and analytical results.1. M=0.Paper: ASAT-13-PP-12 Figure 8 represents a comparison between analytical and numerical solutions for the pressure time history at ω=1. ε=0. 1.960 0.980 0.1 1.125. X'/L'=0.9 0. 9 at ω=1. Similar trend was found by Hegab [10].040 Analytical 1. the results show good agreement in amplitude and phase 1. 14/24 .125 and δ=20.020 P ' / P 'a t m 1. This deviation may be related to the assumption with the analytical solution that considers an incompressible.4 1.55.1 ((case (2)).3 1.5 0 10 20 t 30 40 50 Fig.940 0 20 40 t 60 80 100 Fig.7 0. 9 Pressure-time history for nozzless channel fitted by forced oscillation.1.55.6 0. ω =1.8 0.1 (case (2)). X ′ / L ′ = 0.000 0.1.2 Numerical 1 Analytical P ' / P 'a t m 1. During one complete cycle of the piston.557. inviscid flow and linear system. X'/L'=0. A comparison of the analytical and numerical results near resonance frequency for pressure time history is presented in Fig. ω =1. the acoustic wave completes two round trips across the channel length as discussed by Sileem and Nasr [11].1.5 1. ε=0.1 and ε =0.1 and ε =0. M=0. For t≤10. X ′ / L ′ = 0.060 Numerical 1 1.

125 and ε =0.1 u ' / U 'o 0 -0.52 and 0. Similar results were previously noticed by Hegab [21]. While for t>10 the analytical solution shows linear growth with time rather than beats with the numerical solution. It is observed that. 11 Axial velocity time-history for nozzless channel fitted by forced oscillation. increasing the forced frequency leads to an increase of the axial velocity amplitude with the same phase angle.2 -0.1 (case (2)).3 0 20 40 t 60 80 100 Fig.65. Data are recorded at X ′ / L ′ = 0.1 -0.2 Analytical 0.2 Analytical 0.52.2 -0.125 and ε =0. 10 and 11.65. ω =0.1 u ' / U 'o 0 -0.3 Numerical 1 0. X'/L'=0. X'/L'=0.Paper: ASAT-13-PP-12 between numerical and analytical approaches. who discussed this phenomenon and gave interpretation to this trend as the nonlinearity effect with the numerical solution. respectively.1 (case (2)). 0. 0.3 0 20 40 t 60 80 100 Fig. ω =0.1 -0. The effect of forced frequency on the axial velocity time history is introduced in Figs. 10 Axial velocity time-history for nozzless channel fitted by forced oscillation.3 Numerical 1 0.125 and ω=0. 15/24 .

90 Y '/2 H ' 0. 40 and 78. ω =1. show the acoustic axial velocity across the channel at x=0.1 (case (2)).50 u' / U'o Fig.00 0.80 0.90 Y ' /2 H ' 0.1 and (case (2)).Paper: ASAT-13-PP-12 Figures 12 and 13.5.80 0. 16/24 .00 0. Baum [23] noticed an overshoot of the axial velocity at the edge of acoustic boundary layer and showed that.1 at four times t=10. 1.5 1 1. X'/L'=0. M=0. 20. 13 Transverse axial velocity distribution for nozzless channel fitted by forced oscillation. Rotational flow is considered to be confined in that region. ω =1.60 t=10 t=20 t=40 t=78 0.25 and ε =0.5 2 Fig.70 0.5 0 0. X'/L'=0. 1. 12 Transverse axial velocity distribution for nozzless channel fitted by forced oscillation.50 -1 -0. acoustic boundary layer thickness and axial velocity overshoot at its edge are strongly influenced by mean flow Reynolds number and frequency of oscillations.25 and 0.5 0 u' / U'o 0.5 and ε =0.60 t=10 t=20 t=40 t=78 -1 -0.5.5 2 0. The explanation is related to the interaction between the duct sidewalls and the acoustic wave motion.1 and ε=0.5 for ω=1.5 1 1. One can observe the presence of the acoustic boundary layer development at the same location with different boundary layer thickness.5.70 0.

2H ex = 0. total throat and exit heights are ′ ′ ′ Lcd = 14cm .000 0.992 0 20 40 t 60 80 100 Fig. 2H th = 0.125 (case (2)). 14 and 15. respectively.125) has higher amplitude with deviation in the mean value compared to nozzless duct.52.Paper: ASAT-13-PP-12 The effect of installed convergent and convergent-divergent nozzles at the end of the channel on the complex wave interaction mechanism inside the chamber is illustrated experimentally in Figs. 17/24 . It may be attributed to the decreasing of the flow area at the nozzle exit which leads to a reduction in transmitted energy waves from nozzle exit and hence increases the interactions between incident and reflected waves from boundaries which in turn increases the pressure amplitude.52 and X'/L'=0. 14 Pressure-time history for channel fitted by forced oscillation ended by convergent nozzle. It is shown that.045.65 cm) and nozzless channel at ε =0.008 Nozzless channel Channel ended by convergent nozzle 1.996 0. respectively. while the convergent-divergent nozzle length. and the ′ convergent nozzle length and total exit height are Lc′ = 5cm .(2H'ex=0. the static pressure amplitude for channel ended with nozzles (at x=0.004 P ' / P 'a t m 1.65cm and 2H ex = 3cm . ω =0. 1. The nozzle and nozzless results show higher harmonic oscillations as discussed by Barron et. The angular frequency is taken to be ω=0.65cm . The exit height for the convergent area nozzle is equal to the throat height of the convergent-divergent area nozzle with an equal converging length. al [4].

Sileem and Nasr [11] and Hegab [10] have noticed similar trend in their results.Paper: ASAT-13-PP-12 1. the significant difference between the convergent and convergent-divergent nozzle results is presumably related to the deviation of the natural frequency producing by adding variable area portions at the end of the duct. 2H'ex=3 cm)and nozzles channel at X'/L'=0. 16 for case (3). (2H'th=0. Also. the steady sidewall injection reduces the pressure amplitude significantly.65. 15 and 16). 18/24 .004 P ' / P 'a t m 1. It is shown that. the flow is injected through porous surface on the duct sidewalls across two parallel perforated plates which act as jet velocity through the generated flow field and hence attenuate the acoustic energy especially when that energy is nearly small and the effect of exit from the nozzle doesn’t play an explicit role in the pressure amplitude. The sidewall injection ′ velocity is V inj = 0. The effect of adding convergent and convergent-divergent nozzle at the open end of the channel with sidewall mass addition is shown in Fig. the effect of adding convergent-divergent nozzle results in higher amplitude in static pressure but still lower amplitude compared with that of convergent nozzle.996 0. (Compare Figs.1273m / s and endwall disturbance at the head end with ω=0. ω =0.125.000 0.65 cm. it is noticed that. 15 Pressure-time history for channel fitted by forced oscillation ended by convergent-divergent.52 and ε =0.008 Nozzless channel Channel ended by convergent-divergent nozzle 1. Moreover.992 0 20 40 t 60 80 100 Fig.045 (case (2)). It may be explained that.

The effect of adding convergent nozzle by different exit heights on the energy content in PSD is shown in Fig. It is shown that. 0.996 0. for no air flow injection.992 0 20 40 t 60 80 100 Fig. It is shown from this figure that.045 and X'/L'=0. This is an indication of small wave deformation.95 and 0.65.008 Nozzless channel Channel ended by convergent nozzle Channel ended by convergent-divergent nozzle 1. Figure 18 shows the effect of throat height on the pressure time history for duct ended with convergent-divergent nozzle. Higher harmonics of very small energy content could be noticed before and after the main frequency. higher harmonics increases as the exit height of the convergent nozzle decreases.Paper: ASAT-13-PP-12 1. ε =0. 19 for nozzless channel and without injection. 16 Pressure-time history for nozzless channel. at the same forced frequency and axial location. which is mainly due to off-resonant situation caused by the exit area reduction. channel ended by convergent nozzle and convergent-divergent at forced frequency ω =0.004 P ' / P 'a t m 1. with deceasing the exit height of the convergent nozzle. the gas oscillates at the same frequency of the piston (79. decreasing the exit height of the convergent nozzle increases the amount of reflected waves which in turn increases the wave's interactions and energy content. decreasing the throat height increases the pressure amplitude but still smaller than the effect of adding a convergent nozzle with the same throat heights.27. ω= 0. The effect of the exit height on the acoustic flowfield generated in the duct ended by convergent nozzle (without air flow injection) is shown in Fig.125 (case (3)).6 HZ).125 . the pressure amplitude increases. Moreover. It is clearly seen by decreasing the exit height causes an increase in the amount of reflected acoustic energy which in turn interacts with the incident waves from the piston and hence enhances the pressure amplitude.65cm .52 and different exit heights. It is concluded that. It is concluded that. 20. 19/24 . This confirms the aforementioned understanding of the mechanism of wave amplitude increasing. 2H ex = 1.000 0. The power spectrum density (PSD) is calculated from the experimental data for case (2) and is shown in Fig. 17 for case (2) at ′ X ′ / L ' = 0.

ε =0. ε=0.000 0. 20/24 .004 P ' / P 'a t m 1.996 0.996 0.Paper: ASAT-13-PP-12 1.27 cm 2H'th=0.65.045 and X'/L'=0.992 0 20 40 t 60 80 100 Fig.008 2H'ex=1. 17 Pressure-time history for the channel ended by convergent nozzle at different exit heights at forced frequency ω =0.125 (case (2)).65 cm 1.65 cm 1.95 cm 2H'th=0. 1.95 cm 2H'ex=0.000 0.992 0 20 40 t 60 80 100 Fig.125 (case (2)).045 and X'/L'=0. 18 Pressure-time history for the channel ended by convergent-divergent nozzle at different throat heights at forced frequency ω=0.27 cm 2H'ex=0.008 2H'th=1.52.004 P ' / P 'a t m 1.

respectively. (3) and (4). Moreover.0002 2H'ex=1. The maximum and minimum pressure amplitudes for nozzless channel.0002 0.95 cm 2H'ex=0. channel ended by convergent nozzles and convergent-divergent nozzles are shown in tables (2). installing convergent-divergent nozzle at the channel end increases the energy content of the wave. 0. PSD for channel ended by convergent-divergent nozzle is shown in Fig.00016 2H'ex=0. 19 Power spectrum density for nozzless channel at X'/L'=0.27 cm 0. Moreover. 20 Power spectrum density for channel ended by convergent nozzle at X'/L'=0.125 (case (2)).00016 P SD 0. decreasing the throat height increases the PSD at the same frequency. 21/24 . Also the frequency deviation for the three throat heights may be result from the difference of the natural frequency between the nozzless channel and channel ended with convergent-divergent nozzle.Paper: ASAT-13-PP-12 0. It is obvious that.65 cm 0.125 (case (2)). 21. higher harmonics are clearly seen in this figure.00012 8E-005 4E-005 0 0 40 80 ω 120 160 200 Fig.00012 PSD 8E-005 4E-005 0 0 40 80 ω 120 160 200 Fig. It may be related to energy dissipation and transfer from the fundamental mode to its higher harmonics.

0026 1.0052 Pmin 0.9951 0.725 cm 2H'ex=5.99517 Pmax 1.9956 22/24 Pmax 1.9952 0. 21 Power spectrum density for channel ended by convergent-divergent nozzle at X'/L'=0.65 cm 2H'th=0.65 cm Pmin 0. 2H'ex=1.52 0.00012 8E-005 4E-005 0 0 40 80 ω 120 160 200 Fig.99732 0.0002 2H'th=1.00382 1.0028 2H'ex=0.99612 0.0027 1.52 0.78 cm ω 0.0033 2H'ex=0.99633 0.0029 1.63 0.65 Pmin 0.99618 Pmax 1.00498 1.27 cm 2H'th =0.95 cm Pmin 0.9955 0. ω Pmin Pmax 0.63 0.9955 0.63 0.0041 1.27 cm ω 0. Table (2) The maximum and minimum pressure amplitudes for nozzless channel.0042 Pmin 0.00388 1.995 0. 2H'th=0.0038 1.99405 1.0038 1.9953 0.00016 2H'th=0.99745 Pmax 1.0049 1.27 cm and and and 2H'ex=3 cm 2H'ex=8.00527 Table (4) The maximum and minimum pressure amplitudes for channel ended by convergent-divergent nozzle.99599 0.99737 0.99525 0.0039 1.00395 .99512 0.0032 Table (3) The maximum and minimum pressure amplitudes for channel ended by convergent nozzle.65 Pmin 0.125 (case (2)).00425 1.00275 1.65 0.003 1.95 cm 2H'th=1.99515 0.95 cm 0.99521 Pmax 1.Paper: ASAT-13-PP-12 0.52 0.99472 Pmax 1.65 cm P S D 0.

Vol. R. 8.. pp. Vol. F. 2000. 2. No. Ma.M. R. of Sound and Vibration. 12.E. USA. Jan 8-11. Ph D. J. NV. Blackner.G.. Willoughby. Van Moorhem. pp. 281-297. the effect of convergent-divergent nozzle existence at the end of the channel shows wave interaction mechanism. 247-285. W. "Rotational Axisymmetric Mean Flow and Damping of Acoustic Waves in a Solid Propellant Rocket". 1996. 1974.. of Fluid Mech. G. Thesis. pp. "Flow-Field in the Combustion Chamber of a Solid Propellant Rocket Motor". R.. pp. 4. 1974. Flandro.. "A Novel Investigation of the Oscillatory Field over a Transpiring Surface".G.. 1986. Vol. The following statements could be drawn from the current study: 1. R. 3. the flow injected through the porous sidewall attenuates the generated acoustic field throughout the channel. 3. Markopoulos. 235. "A Simulation of the Flow Near a Burning Propellant in a Solid Propellant Rocket Motor". Vol. University of Utah. A.T. Q. B. D.. Willoughby. "Solid Propellant Acoustic Admittance Corrections". References: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Brown.1440-1442. Barron. Dunlap.C. N. Zhao. AIAA paper 2001-1099. pp. Acknowledgment This work is supported by the Science and Technology Development Fund (STDF) through the project ID-108. "Finite Amplitude Acoustic Waves in Variable Area Ducts".Paper: ASAT-13-PP-12 5. and Zinn..S. and Dunlap. 23/24 .K.R. pp. and Hermsen. Conclusions The effect of adding convergent and convergent-divergent nozzles at the end of squarecylinder channel on the internal flow field is studied experimentally. 4. No. USA. Culick. 39th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit. and Majdalani. P. Reno. 36. of Sound and Vibration. Adding a convergent nozzle at the end of the channel leads to partially transmitted acoustic waves at the duct exit and the remained are reflected from the solid walls. 413. R. These acoustic waves interact with the steady sidewall injection to generate vorticity across the chamber.. No.. P. The flow field in the channel is generated by either steady mass addition from sidewalls and/or endwall disturbance.. 2.5. The internal acoustic flowfield is highly affected by some parameters such as forced frequency. The flow is highly rotational near walls and it then weakens until reaching the core region as demonstrated in case (2). J. AIAA journal. 2. J. Kassoy. T. J. Vol. 1990. Salt Lake City. J. AIAA Journal. The latter increases when the exit height decreases and hence increasing the wave amplitude. Vol. Finally. No. "Acoustically Generated Vorticity in an Internal Flow". Y. Erickson. the whole flow is found to be subsonic laminar. Moreover. 6.. No.1462-1464.W. which is completely different than that with either nozzless or convergent nozzle existence. For the considered injection mass rate.. 10.. 297-312.. K.. of Propulsion and Power. analytically and numerically.. "Coupling between Acoustic Velocity Oscillations and Solid Propellant Combustion". and Kirkkorpru. boundary conditions treatment and exit area geometry.. The generated rotational flow may impact the burning rate in the real solid rocket motor propellant.A. 428-438.

Menoufiya Univ.. (2006). 2008. C. No. AIAA J. Lebanon. 379-409. USA. [19] Gottlieb. 213-223. J. 1976. Reno. M. Dec.69-354. J. A. 2008. "Engineering Application of Experimental Uncertainty Analysis". University of Colorado at Boulder.. "The Effect of Viscosity in Hypervelocity Impact Crating".. Vol. No. K.... and Turkel. 27th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit. Vol. “Investigation of Flow Turning Phenomenon Effects of Frequency and Blowing Rate”.M. 2009. Jan.D. Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Fluid Dynamics & Propulsion. Egypt. "Dissipative Two-Four Methods for Time-Dependent Problems". 1888-1896.. No. 24/24 .. and Tomkinson. 33. Vol. USA [23] Baum. [13] Nguyen. J. [20] Kirkkopru. Egypt. and Glenn S. No. D. "Vorticity Generation and Acoustic Resonance of Simulated Solid Rocket Motor Chamber with High Wave Number Wall Injection". New York. "Unsteady Vorticity Fields in a Long Narrow Channel with Endwall Disturbances and Sidewall Injection". C.. 39th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit.. 4.. No. Kassoy. [17] Hegab. Z. Mech. and Zhao... Alexandria. 38. 18-21.H.42. No. pp. Power Engineering Dept. User's Manual. of Computers & Fluids. EG-220. [22] Fluent-6...1998. F.M. Alexandria Engineering Journal.. AIAA paper 2001-1019. Ohio. AIAA paper 1989-0297. M. D. April.. Cincinnati. Fluent Inc. pp. ICFDP9-265 December 18-21. Vol. pp. 10. of Propulsion and Power. 9th International Congress of Fluid Dynamics & Propulsion. Addrian. Jan.D.W. 1996.. 703- 723. No. 2. R. W. R." Structure of Turbulence in Channel Flow with a Fully Transpired Wall". pp. 8-11. [10] Hegab. Q. "Computational Fluid Dynamics". of Propulsion and Power. AIAA Hypervelocity Impact Conference. Egypt. T.W.3. [21] Hegab.. carried out at Center for Combustion Research.. 646-654. 6. J. and Saad. 24.M. and Doam. Alexandria. 136. 1969.4.Paper: ASAT-13-PP-12 [9] Deng. . 30. McGraw-Hill. USA. No2. and Nasr. [12] Majdalani. [14] Hegab. pp. 1258-1269. Ph.A. 1995. Mathematics and Computation. A.D. [18] MacCormack. J.D.. and Nasr. "An Experimental Study of Finite Amplitude Oscillations in Ducts: The Effect of Adding Variable Area Part to the Open End of Constant-Area Resonant Tube". [15] Coleman. [16] Anderson. Sams IV O. of Propulsion and Power. "Analysis of Injecting Wall Inclination on Segmented Solid Rocket Motor Instability". 2007. USA .. [11] Sileem. NV. Int. 23.R. pp. Inc. A.. Vol.C. "Unsteady Vorticity Generation and Evaluation in a Model of Solid Rocket Motor". E.K.. " Vorticity Generation and Acoustic Resonance of Simulated Solid Rocket Motor Chamber with Transient Sidewall Mass Injection". 9-12.M. "Mean Flow Approximations for Solid Rocket Motors with Tapered Walls". pp. 2008. NY.. USA. Vol..26.. Vol. 12. 2003. A.J.. J. Plourd. J. 1995.C. "Study of Acoustic Phenomena in a Solid Rocket Engines". J. Reno. A. S. NV. Thesis.. 445-456.

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