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Continuous Distributions

Normal Probability Distribution


f(x)

Statistical Methods

x
Usha A. Kumar, IIT Bombay

Characteristics of the Normal Probability Distribution

The shape of the normal curve is often illustrated as a bell-shaped curve. Two parameters, (mean) and (standard deviation), determine the location and shape of the distribution. The highest point on the normal curve is at the mean, which is also the median and mode.
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Statistical Methods Usha A. Kumar, IIT Bombay

Characteristics of the Normal Probability Distribution


The normal curve is symmetric. The standard deviation determines the width of the curve: larger values result in wider, flatter curves. The total area under the curve is 1 (.5 to the left of the mean and .5 to the right). Probabilities for the normal random variable are given by areas under the curve.
Statistical Methods Usha A. Kumar, IIT Bombay

Normal Curves for Different Means and Standard Deviations


=5

=5

= 10

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Statistical Methods

Usha A. Kumar, IIT Bombay

Standardized Normal Distribution

A normal distribution with a mean of zero, and a standard deviation of one Standardized Normal random variable

=1

=0

the number of standard deviations which a value is away from the mean

Z=

Usha A. Kumar, IIT Bombay

Statistical Methods

Standard Normal Distribution

Any linear function of a normal random variable is also a normal random variable.

Statistical Methods

Usha A. Kumar, IIT Bombay

Z Table
Second Decimal Place in Z Z 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 2.00 3.00 3.40 3.50 0.0000 0.0398 0.0793 0.1179 0.3159 0.3413 0.3643 0.3849 0.4772 0.4987 0.4997 0.4998 0.0040 0.0438 0.0832 0.1217 0.3186 0.3438 0.3665 0.3869 0.4778 0.4987 0.4997 0.4998 0.0080 0.0478 0.0871 0.1255 0.3212 0.3461 0.3686 0.3888 0.4783 0.4987 0.4997 0.4998 0.03 0.0120 0.0517 0.0910 0.1293 0.3238 0.3485 0.3708 0.3907 0.4788 0.4988 0.4997 0.4998 0.04 0.0160 0.0557 0.0948 0.1331 0.3264 0.3508 0.3729 0.3925 0.4793 0.4988 0.4997 0.4998 0.05 0.0199 0.0596 0.0987 0.1368 0.3289 0.3531 0.3749 0.3944 0.4798 0.4989 0.4997 0.4998 0.06 0.0239 0.0636 0.1026 0.1406 0.3315 0.3554 0.3770 0.3962 0.4803 0.4989 0.4997 0.4998 0.07 0.0279 0.0675 0.1064 0.1443 0.3340 0.3577 0.3790 0.3980 0.4808 0.4989 0.4997 0.4998 0.08 0.0319 0.0714 0.1103 0.1480 0.3365 0.3599 0.3810 0.3997 0.4812 0.4990 0.4997 0.4998 0.09 0.0359 0.0753 0.1141 0.1517 0.3389 0.3621 0.3830 0.4015 0.4817 0.4990 0.4998 0.4998

Statistical Methods

Usha A. Kumar, IIT Bombay

Normal Distribution
Example : A certain type of storage battery lasts, on average, 3.0 years, with a standard deviation of 0.5 year. Assuming that the battery lives are normally distributed, find the probability that a given battery will last less than 2.3 years.

Statistical Methods

Usha A. Kumar, IIT Bombay

Normal Distribution
Example : In an industrial process, the diameter of a ball bearing is an important component part. The buyer sets specifications on the diameter to be 3.0 0.01 cm. The implication is that no part falling outside these specifications will be accepted. It is known that in the process, the diameter of a ball bearing has a normal distribution with mean 3.0 and standard deviation 0.005. On an average, how many manufactured ball bearings will be scrapped?
Statistical Methods Usha A. Kumar, IIT Bombay

Normal Distribution
Example : The grades of an examination are known to be normally distributed with a mean of 60 and standard deviation of 8.

If the top 10% qualify for a scholarship, what is the minimum grade for this scholarship? What will be the percentage of students failing in the examination if the minimum grade for passing is 40?
Statistical Methods Usha A. Kumar, IIT Bombay

Normal Approximation to the Binomial


If X is a binomial random variable with mean = np and variance 2 = npq, then the limiting form of the distribution of Z = (X ) / as n is the standard normal distribution.
Statistical Methods Usha A. Kumar, IIT Bombay

Normal Approximation to the Binomial

The approximation is excellent when n is large and fairly good for small values of n if p is reasonably close to . Working rule : If both np and nq are greater than or equal to 10, the approximation is adequate. For a given n, the approximation is best for p = and deteriorates as p moves away from .
Statistical Methods Usha A. Kumar, IIT Bombay

Normal Approximation to the Binomial


Example: In a large lot of transistors produced by the Sunny Corp., it is known that 10 percent are defective. A certain retailer purchases 100 of these transistors from Sunny. What is the probability that more than 15 of them are defective?
Statistical Methods Usha A. Kumar, IIT Bombay

Normal Approximation to the Binomial


Example : A bank arranges a training programme for 400 probationary officers each year. 80% of the candidates complete the programme successfully, as it is known from experience. What is the probability that the 330 existing positions will not be filled by the successful probationary officers?
Statistical Methods Usha A. Kumar, IIT Bombay