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1.Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………….2 2.The evolution of publicity………………………………………………………………………4 3.The difference between publicity and advertising……………………………………………...6 3.1.The principle of advertising………………………………………………......7 4.The media department…………………………………………………………………….........8 4.1.Television advertising / Music in advertising……………..………………….8 4.2.Radio advertising / Online advertising……………………………….………9 4.3.Other types of advertising………………………….………………………..11 5.Publicity and privacy………………………………………………………………………….12 5.1.The Benetton Group: Unconventional advertising……………………..…....14 5.2.Benetton’s most controversial advertising campaigns……………………....15 6.Criticism of advertising……………………………………………………………………….18 7.Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………….23 8.Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………………..24
Publicity is the deliberate attempt to manage the public's perception of a subject. The subjects of publicity include people (for example, politicians and performing artists), goods and services, organizations of all kinds, and works of art or entertainment. From a marketing perspective, publicity is one component of promotion which is one component of marketing. The other elements of the promotional mix are advertising, sales promotion, direct marketing and personal selling. Examples of promotional tactics include:art exhibitions,event sponsorship,arrange a speech or talk.make an analysis or prediction,conduct a poll or survey,issue a report,take a stand on a controversial subject,arrange for a testimonial,announce an appointment,invent then present an award,stage a debate,organize a tour of your business or projects,issue a commendation. Publicity ensures the connection between products or services and people. For its efficiency, the public campaigns need to coincide with the products and to correspond with the people’s needs in expressing and sustaining a competitive advantage. The advantages of publicity are low cost, and credibility (particularly if the publicity is aired in between news stories like on evening TV news casts). New technologies such as weblogs, web cameras, web affiliates, and convergence (phone-camera posting of pictures and videos to websites) are changing the coststructure. The disadvantages are lack of control over how your releases will be used, and frustration over the low percentage of releases that are taken up by the media. Publicity draws on several key themes including birth, love, and death. These are of particular interest because they are themes in human lives which feature heavily throughout life. In television serials several couples have emerged during crucial ratings and important publicity times, as a way to make constant headlines. Also known as a publicity stunt, the pairings may or may not be according to the fact. Publicity comprises advertising, of course; it comprises the radio, the moving picture, magazine articles, speeches, books, mass meetings, brass bands, parades; everything involved in the expression of an idea or of an institution-including the policy or the idea expressed. 2
The evolution of publicity
The public agency MC. Coanor Eriksson sustains that publicity is a truth well told, also, the National Association of Marketing offers a definition of publicity - “it is a disinterested communication, a persuasive information regarding products or ideas usually paid by identified sponsors for the purpose of transmission by means of mass communication” Historians consider that advertising has its beginning in greek and roman civilizations. In 1472 in England appears a leaflet which announce the Londoners the appearance of a new prayer book that can be purchased from the church.
A leading role in advertising was occupied Benjamin Franklin who was the first person who designed the frame in multiple sizes used to capture the attention but had an important role also in the usage of images.In June 1844 appears the first magazine advertisement in Southern Magazine. The foundation, in 1926, of the radio studio, helped the advertisers to reach the national audience rates. An important factor in the evolution of advertising was the appearence of television, in 1941. The development of advertising and all the spent money were extraordinary phenomena once with the transition to mass production and the advertisments offered the consumers comfort,style and luxury. In the early '50s the existence of a vigorous consumer society had an effect on the americans and consumer's purpose was to reach the level 3
of social leadership by buying products in order to keep pace with the ever-changing and moving society. At the beginning of the 70’s appears a new advertising strategy in which the strong parts of the publicity became as important for the sponsors too.One of the ads that had a huge success was the Wolkswagen slogan: “Think you’re little ,think you’re ugly” . In the middle 80’s the Americans witnessed to series of ads in cosmetic and fashion industry which sustained the idea “my generation”.This period is considered to be the “the era of the marketing war”.
The difference between publicity and advertising
An old adage says: "Advertising you pay for, publicity you pray for". That's because publicity has at least ten times the credibility of advertising. Advertising is a form of communication used to encourage or persuade an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to continue or take some new action. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common. The purpose of advertising may also be to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful. Advertising messages are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed via various traditional media; including mass media such as newspaper, magazines, television commercial, radio advertisement, outdoor advertising or 4
direct mail; or new media such as blogs and websites and text messages. Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through "branding," which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate certain qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Advertising is a content you pay to present. Publicity refers to free content about you that appears in the media - what others say about you. Publicity can result when an article you write is published, or when information you give to an editor convinces him/her to feature a story about you. Over time, these stories help create a favorable impression of your product or services. Publicity is often called free publicity because it should be just that – free. It’s only free if an impartial journalist has written about your business, without receiving any payment for it.
If you have to pay for the media coverage, then that’s advertising (even if it’s editorial you’re paying for).The difference between advertising and publicity is the way the message is delivered, and the credibility of that delivery. When you advertise, it’s you delivering your message. When you get publicity, your message is delivered by someone else. It’s got as much credibility and power as a customer testimonial. The other difference is the amount of control you have over your message. When you advertise you have 100% control; when it’s free publicity you have very little control over what the journalist writes. That’s another reason why messages delivered through publicity have more credibility.
The Principle of Advertisement Advertisement is an encapsulated communication about a product (good/services), a clearly designed, concise, aesthetically appealing and content-wise accurate communiqué 5
intended to effectively persuade the target audience(viewers/listeners/readers) to arrive at a decision as desired by the advertiser often concerning the product (goods/service). Usually the aim of an advertisement is to increase the sales of a product introduced into the market. The advertisement will speak about the salient features of the product on offer and the benefit the customer/consumer can derive out of the product. It can also educate the target audience about the various other details such as the products cost, availability, usage modalities, problems that may arise whiles using it and the probable solutions to those problems etc. Advertisement also is used to inform a mass of audience about various socially relevant factors such as employment, upcoming events, contests or elections or a host of other such events. Now newer media of advertisements are emerging and growing. Internet based media like social networks, web portals, trade portals etc. are some of those. Marketing managers conceptualize special event simply to coercively communicate product related sales communications. Normally the advertisements are prepared in such a way that they attract the attention of the intended parties easily. Thoughtfully constructed copy (words/diction of an advertisement), interesting visual or pictures, attractive colours and designs, a uniquely arrived at theme, the central steam of thought, etc. arouse interest of the customers, and help to retain the interest.
The media department
Virtually any medium can be used for advertising. Commercial advertising media can include wall paintings, billboards, street furniture components, printed flyers and rack cards, radio, cinema and television adverts, web banners, mobile telephone screens, shopping carts, web popups, skywriting, bus stop benches, human billboards, magazines, newspapers, town criers, sides of buses, banners attached to or sides of airplanes ("logojets"), in-flight advertisements on seatback tray tables or overhead storage bins, taxicab doors, roof mounts and passenger screens, musical stage shows, subway platforms and trains, elastic bands on disposable diapers,doors of bathroom stalls,stickers on apples in supermarkets, shopping cart handles (grabertising), the opening section of streaming audio and video, posters, and the backs of event tickets and supermarket receipts. Any place an "identified" sponsor pays to deliver their message through a medium is advertising.
Television advertising / Music in advertising The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format, as is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during popular TV events. The annual Super Bowl football game in the United States is known as the most prominent advertising event on television. The average cost of a single thirty-second TV spot during this game has reached US$3.5 million (as of 2012). The majority of television commercials feature a song or jingle that listeners soon relate to the product. Virtual advertisements may be inserted into regular television programming through computer graphics. It is typically inserted into otherwise blank backdrops or used to replace local billboards that are not relevant to the remote broadcast audience. More controversially, virtual billboards may be inserted into the background where none exist in real-life. This technique is especially used in televised sporting events. Virtual product placement is also possible. An infomercial is a long-format television commercial, typically five minutes or longer. The word "infomercial" is a portmanteau of the words "information" & "commercial". The main objective in an infomercial is to create an impulse purchase, so that the consumer sees the presentation and then immediately buys the product through the advertised toll-free telephone number or website.
Radio advertising Radio advertising is a form of advertising via the medium of radio. Radio advertisements are broadcast as radio waves to the air from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. Airtime is purchased from a station or network in exchange for airing the commercials. While radio has the limitation of being restricted to sound, proponents of radio advertising often cite this as an advantage. Radio is an expanding medium that can be found not only on air, but also online. According to Arbitron, radio has approximately 241.6 million weekly listeners, or more than 93 percent of the U.S. population.
Online advertising Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web for the expressed purpose of delivering marketing messages to attract customers. Online ads are delivered by an ad server. Examples of online advertising include contextual ads that appear on search engine results pages, banner ads, in text ads, Rich Media Ads, Social network 7
advertising, online classified advertising, advertising networks and e-mail marketing, including email spam.
Product placements Covert advertising, also known as guerrilla advertising, is when a product or brand is embedded in entertainment and media. For example, in a film, the main character can use an item or other of a definite brand, as in the movie Minority Report, where Tom Cruise's character John Anderton owns a phone with the Nokia logo clearly written in the top corner, or his watch engraved with the Bulgari logo. Another example of advertising in film is in “I, Robot”, where main character played by Will Smith mentions his Converse shoes several times, calling them "classics" , because the film is set far in the future. I, Robot and Space balls also showcase futuristic cars with the Audi and Mercedes-Benz logos clearly displayed on the front of the vehicles. Cadillac chose to advertise in the movie The Matrix Reloaded, which as a result contained many scenes in which Cadillac cars were used. Similarly, product placement for Omega Watches, Ford, VAIO, BMW and Aston Martin cars are featured in recent James Bond films, most notably Casino Royale. In "Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer", the main transport vehicle shows a large Dodge logo on the front. Blade Runner includes some of the most obvious product placement; the whole film stops to show a Coca-Cola billboard.
Press advertising Press advertising describes advertising in a printed medium such as a newspaper, magazine, or trade journal. This encompasses everything from media with a very broad readership base, such as a major national newspaper or magazine, to more narrowly targeted media such as local newspapers and trade journals on very specialized topics. A form of press advertising is classified advertising, which allows private individuals or companies to purchase a small, narrowly targeted ad for a low fee advertising a product or service. Another form of press 8
advertising is the Display Ad, which is a larger ad (can include art) that typically run in an article section of a newspaper.
Billboard advertising Billboards are large structures located in public places which display advertisements to passing pedestrians and motorists. Most often, they are located on main roads with a large amount of passing motor and pedestrian traffic; however, they can be placed in any location with large amounts of viewers, such as on mass transit vehicles and in stations, in shopping malls or office buildings, and in stadiums. Mobile billboards are generally vehicle mounted billboards or digital screens. These can be on dedicated vehicles built solely for carrying advertisements along routes preselected by clients, they can also be specially equipped cargo trucks or, in some cases, large banners strewn from planes. The billboards are often lighted; some being backlit, and others employing spotlights. Some billboard displays are static, while others change; for example, continuously or periodically rotating among a set of advertisements.
Other types of advertising In-store advertising is any advertisement placed in a retail store. It includes placement of a product in visible locations in a store, such as at eye level, at the ends of aisles and near checkout counters (aka POP—Point Of Purchase display), eye-catching displays promoting a specific product, and advertisements in such places as shopping carts and in-store video displays. The street advertising first came to prominence in the UK by Street Advertising Services to create outdoor advertising on street furniture and pavements. Working with products such as Reverse Graffiti, air dancer's and 3D pavement advertising, the media became an affordable and effective tool for getting brand messages out into public spaces. The celebrity branding is the type of advertising which focuses upon using celebrity power, fame, money, popularity to gain recognition for their products and promote specific stores or products. Advertisers often advertise their products, for example, when celebrities share their favorite products or wear clothes by specific brands or designers. Celebrities are often involved in advertising campaigns such as television or print adverts to advertise specific or general products. The use of celebrities to endorse a brand can have its 9
downsides, however. One mistake by a celebrity can be detrimental to the public relations of a brand.
Publicity and privacy
In every civilized society individuals are entitled to have certain rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech or a right of private property, and are believed to have a right to live their lives according to their own will and understanding. One of such individual rights is a right of privacy, that is – the right to live a life of partial or full isolation or publicity, depending on an individual’s choice. However, just as with any other individual rights, there is a question of the extent to which such a right should be exercised before it interferes with the rights of other individuals or public good. This question would not be of a much concern to an ordinary member of society, for, as one may argue, every person in normal intellectual condition would be able to recognize the difference between the matters which should be made public or remain private in a life of any human being. However, when this matter concerns a person subjected to excessive public and media attention, such as a politician or a celebrity, it becomes a topic that spurs hot debate. First, let us examine the reasons which may cause media to wish to cover private lives of politician and/or celebrities, and the difference between the two. The reason for covering the private life of a celebrity may be as simple as a desire to draw the public attention to the mass media source; generated by the interest any celebrity provokes due to his/her fame. Likewise, 10
media benefits from covering the private lives of famous politicians. Moreover, due to the politicians’ unique roles of public representatives in the government, journalists may wish to draw negative attention to their undesirable behavior and assume the position of a critic of their activities. To both, politicians and celebrities, media attention can be beneficial as well as disadvantageous. For example, in order to maintain their fame and draw attention to their activities celebrities must maintain a constant high-degree public interest in them and their achievements in whatever field they work in. For instance, it is not unusual for a pop-singer to act in a film or to produce one’s exclusive line of clothing or perfume. Their outstanding achievements in record-business make it possible for them to take advantage of one’s fame and spread one’s popularity to another field of activity. In such case media attention is a necessary tool for becoming popular and maintaining it. It is not a secret that a well-timed coverage of a scandalous private life event can be quite useful to provoke even greater public interest in a celebrity and advance his/her fame and career. As for the politicians, favorable coverage of their private life can win even greater public support and be just as beneficial to their development of their careers. Moreover, some political figures encourage media interest in their private lives by engaging in interviews together with their family members or close friends. One way or another, people that decide to take on a career path of a public figure must be prepared for excessive media attention, positive and negative alike. While skillful use of media and public relations tools can move forward their career significantly, undesirable and/or unfavorable coverage of a public figure’s private life can hamper their reputation and harm not only their professional life but also cause emotional distress in their personal lives. It seems almost impossible to eliminate media attention that is drawn to the private lives of politicians and celebrities since it is highly unlikely for general public to lose interest in the private matters of a successful public figure. From the arguments given above one can conclude that media attention not only can be beneficial, but also seems unavoidable. However, the logic as well as a general concern for an individual’s well-being calls for the development of some middle-ground ethical policies regulating the degree to which the media shall intrude with the private lives of famous political, sport or show business figures.
The Benetton group: Unconventional advertising
Benetton Group is engaged in the manufacturing and distribution of clothing, undergarments, shoes, cosmetics and accessories. Benetton also licensed its brand name for a number of products like sunglasses, stationery, cosmetics, linens, watches, toys, steering wheels and knobs for automobile gearshifts, golf equipments, designer condoms, luggage and designer pagers, etc. The group’s principal brands included United Colors of Benetton (UCB), Sisley, Play Life, Nordica, Prince, Rollerblade, and Killer Loop.
The early years The Benetton family (comprised of three brothers and a sister) established the Benetton chain in a small Italian town in 1955. To support his family, Luciano Benetton (born 1935), dropped out of school to sell apparel. His sister Guiliana (born 1937) worked as a knitter in a local factory. Recognizing the potential or a new business, Luciano and Guiliana decided to start their own apparel company. They started off small by selling sweaters and as the business grew, the remaining two brothers joined in the activities of the company. Each of the four siblings took responsibility for one aspect of the business—Luciano concentrated on marketing; Guiliana directed the design department; Gilberto (born 1941) handled administration and finance; and Carlo (born 1943) managed production. As business picked up, the company entered into an agreement to open a store for the exclusive marketing of apparel. The first store was opened in 1969 and was an immediate success.
Oliviero Toscani era Until the 1980s, Benetton advertisements were of the traditional form and largely focused on its products and logo (stylized knot of yarn with word Benetton printed under it, contained within a dark green rectangle). In 1982, Luciano Benetton hired Oliviero Toscani, a prominent fashion and advertisements photographer to head the advertising department of the company. 12
Toscani’s initial advertisements were conventional in style showing groups of young people wearing Benetton clothing. Luciano and Toscani soon realized that Benetton advertisements had to stand apart from the rest of the competition and also from the standard practices of the advertising industry. They decided to promote Benetton as a “life style accessory” and not as a clothing brand. Toscani’s first theme featured teenagers and kids from culturally diverse nations.
Benetton’s most controversial advertising campaigns Oliviero Toscani was the man behind some of the most controversial advertising campaigns in history. Toscani’s work for Benetton was sometimes poignant, usually controversial and always memorable. Most of Benetton’s advertisements that were released during the Toscani years shocked the world, but many created a dialogue and etched Benetton’s logo into our minds. Not bad considering no Benetton garment ever made a significant appearance in any of Toscani’s ad campaigns. In the midst of the Gulf War, Benetton decided to push a few buttons by releasing an advertisement that featured an image of a war cemetery. The ad caused controversy before it was ever even published, only one publication agreed to print it. In the fall of 1991, Benetton once again tried to provoke conversation on the stereotypes of good and evil with an advertisement featuring an angel and the devil. Officially, the company said they were aiming to “feature images from the real world which have some social and universal relevance, in order to break through the barrier of indifference which often surrounds these issues”. What the campaign actually did was create unprecedented outrage and controversy. 13
A priest kissing a nun was one of many advertisements that depicted religious and sexual conflict for Benetton. The fall 1991 ad campaign of a not-so-platonic kiss between a priest and a nun clad in an old-fashioned habit immediately sparked controversy across the world. Benetton stated that the ad was merely “the affirmation of pure human sentiment".
In the spring of 1996, Benetton released an advertisement which featured an image of three almost identical “human” hearts with the words 'white', 'black', and 'yellow' as captions. Protesters cried that the photo, which was taken by Oliviero Toscani, was one of Benetton's most racist. In actuality, the hearts were pig hearts.
Criticism of advertising
While advertising can be seen as necessary for economic growth, it is not without social costs. Unsolicited commercial email and other forms of spam have become so prevalent that they have become a major nuisance to users of these services, as well as being a financial burden on internet service providers. Advertising increasingly invades public spaces, such as schools, which some critics argue is a form of child exploitation. Advertising frequently uses psychological pressure (for example, appealing to feelings of inadequacy) on the intended consumer, which may be harmful. Criticism of advertising is closely linked with criticism of media and often interchangeable. Critics can refer to advertising's: audio-visual aspects (cluttering of public spaces and airwaves) environmental aspects (pollution, oversize packaging, increasing consumption) political aspects (media dependency, free speech, censorship) financial aspects (costs) ethical/moral/social aspects (sub-conscious influencing, invasion of privacy, increasing consumption and waste, target groups, certain products, honesty) As advertising has become prevalent in modern society, it is increasingly being criticized. Advertising occupies public space and more and more invades the private sphere of people. “It is becoming harder to escape from advertising and the media. Public space is increasingly turning
into a gigantic billboard for products of all kind. The aesthetical and political consequences cannot yet be foreseen.” Hanno Rauterberg in the German newspaper Die Zeit calls advertising a new kind of dictatorship that cannot be escaped. Ad creep (increase of advertising) says, "There are ads in schools, airport lounges, doctors offices, movie theaters, hospitals, gas stations, elevators, convenience stores, on the Internet, on fruit, on ATMs, on garbage cans and countless other places. There are ads on beach sand and restroom walls. “One of the ironies of advertising in our times is that as commercialism increases, it makes it that much more difficult for any particular advertiser to succeed, hence pushing the advertiser to even greater efforts.” Within a decade advertising in radios climbed to nearly 18 or 19 minutes per hour, on prime-time television the standard until 1982 was no more than 9.5 minutes of advertising per hour, today it is between 14 and 17 minutes. With the introduction of the shorter 15-second-spot the total amount of ads increased even more. Ads are not only placed in breaks but also into sports telecasts during the game itself. They flood the Internet, a growing market . Other growing markets are product placements in entertainment programming and movies where it has become standard practice and virtual advertising where products get placed retroactively into rerun shows. Product billboards are virtually inserted into Major League Baseball broadcasts and in the same manner, virtual street banners or logos are projected on an entry canopy or sidewalks, for example during the arrival of celebrities at the 2001 Grammy Awards. Advertising precedes the showing of films at cinemas including lavish ‘film shorts’ produced by companies such as Microsoft or DaimlerChrysler. "The largest advertising agencies have begun working to co-produce programming in conjunction with the largest media firms",creating Infomercials resembling entertainment programming. Opponents equate the growing amount of advertising with a "tidal wave" and restrictions with "damming" the flood. Kalle Lasn, one of the most outspoken critics of advertising, considers advertising “the most prevalent and toxic of the mental pollutants. From the moment your radio alarm sounds in the morning to the wee hours of late-night TV microjolts of commercial pollution flood into your brain at the rate of around 3,000 marketing messages per day. Every day an estimated 12 billion display ads, 3 million radio commercials and more than 200,000 television commercials are dumped into North America’s collective unconscious”. In the course of his life the average American watches three years of advertising on television.
Whole subway stations in Berlin are redesigned into product halls and exclusively leased to a company. Düsseldorf has "multi-sensorial" adventure transit stops equipped with loudspeakers and systems that spread the smell of a detergent. Swatch used beamers to project messages on the Berlin TV-tower and Victory column, which was fined because it was done without a permit. The illegality was part of the scheme and added promotion. Christopher Lasch states that advertising leads to an overall increase in consumption in society; "Advertising serves not so much to advertise products as to promote consumption as a way of life”. “Advertising has an “agenda setting function” which is the ability, with huge sums of money, to put consumption as the only item on the agenda. In the battle for a share of the public conscience this amounts to non-treatment (ignorance) of whatever is not commercial and whatever is not advertised for. Advertising should be reflection of society norms and give clear picture of target market. Spheres without commerce and advertising serving the muses and relaxation remain without respect. With increasing force advertising makes itself comfortable in the private sphere so that the voice of commerce becomes the dominant way of expression in society. Advertising critics see advertising as the leading light in our culture. Sut Jhally and James Twitchell go beyond considering advertising as kind of religion and that advertising even replaces religion as a key institution. "Corporate advertising (or commercial media) is the largest single psychological project ever undertaken by the human race. Yet for all of that, its impact on us remains unknown and largely ignored. When I think of the media’s influence over years, over decades, I think of those brainwashing experiments conducted by Dr. Ewen Cameron in a Montreal psychiatric hospital in the 1950s. The idea of the CIA-sponsored "depatterning" experiments was to outfit conscious, unconscious or semiconscious subjects with headphones, and flood their brains with thousands of repetitive "driving" messages that would alter their behavior over time….Advertising aims to do the same thing." Advertising is especially aimed at young people and children and it increasingly reduces young people to consumers. For Sut Jhally it is not “surprising that something this central and with so much being expended on it should become an important presence in social life. Indeed, commercial interests intent on maximizing the consumption of the immense collection of commodities have colonized more and more of the spaces of our culture. For instance, almost the entire media system (television and print) has been developed as a delivery system for marketers, and its prime function is to produce audiences for sale to advertisers. Both 17
the advertisements it carries and the editorial matter that acts as a support for it celebrate the consumer society. The movie system, at one time outside the direct influence of the broader marketing system, is now fully integrated into it through the strategies of licensing, tie-ins and product placements. The prime function of many Hollywood films today is to aid in the selling of the immense collection of commodities. As public funds are drained from the non-commercial cultural sector, art galleries, museums and symphonies bid for corporate sponsorship.” In the same way effected is the education system and advertising is increasingly penetrating schools and universities. Cities, such as New York, accept sponsors for public playgrounds. “Even the pope has been commercialized … The pope’s 4-day visit to Mexico in …1999 was sponsored by FritoLay and PepsiCo. The industry is accused of being one of the engines powering a convoluted economic mass production system which promotes consumption. As far as social effects are concerned it does not matter whether advertising fuels consumption but which values, patterns of behavior and assignments of meaning it propagates. Advertising is accused of hijacking the language and means of pop culture, of protest movements and even of subversive criticism and does not shy away from scandalizing and breaking taboos (e.g. Benetton). This in turn incites counter action, what Kalle Lasn in 2001 called ‘’Jamming the Jam of the Jammers’’. Anything goes. “It is a central social-scientific question what people can be made to do by suitable design of conditions and of great practical importance. For example, from a great number of experimental psychological experiments it can be assumed, that people can be made to do anything they are capable of, when the according social condition can be created.” Advertising often uses stereotype gender specific roles of men and women reinforcing existing clichés and it has been criticized as “inadvertently or even intentionally promoting sexism, racism, heterosexualism, ableism, ageism, et cetera… At very least, advertising often reinforces stereotypes by drawing on recognizable "types" in order to tell stories in a single image or 30 second time frame.” Activities are depicted as typical male or female (stereotyping). In addition people are reduced to their sexuality or equated with commodities and gender specific qualities are exaggerated. Sexualized female bodies, but increasingly also males, serve as eye-catchers. In advertising it is usually a woman that is depicted as: a servant of men and children that reacts to the demands and complaints of her loved ones with a bad conscience and the promise for immediate improvement (wash, food) 18
a sexual or emotional play toy for the self-affirmation of men a technically totally clueless being that can only manage a childproof operation female expert, but stereotype from the fields of fashion, cosmetics, food or at the most, medicine
as ultra thin doing ground-work for others, e.g. serving coffee while a journalist interviews a politician A large portion of advertising deals with the promotion of products in a way that defines
an "ideal" body image. This objectification greatly affects women; however, men are also affected. Women and men in advertising are frequently portrayed in unrealistic and distorted images that set a standard for what is considered "beautiful," "attractive" or "desirable." Such imagery does not allow for what is found to be beautiful in various cultures or to the individual. It is exclusionary, rather than inclusive, and consequently, these advertisements promote a negative message about body image to the average person. Because of this form of media, girls, boys, women and men may feel under high pressure to maintain an unrealistic and often unhealthy body weight or even to alter their physical appearance cosmetically or surgically in minor to drastic ways. The EU parliament passed a resolution in 2008 that advertising may not be discriminating and degrading. This shows that politicians are increasingly concerned about the negative impacts of advertising. However, the benefits of promoting overall health and fitness are often overlooked. Men are also negatively portrayed as incompetent and the butt of every joke in advertising.
Publicity and advertising took a very important place in contemporary society. There is no successful business affair without a proper public campaign. Basically the throwaway type of society requires publicity and advertising. It is necessary to have a method to promote the variety of services and products nowadays. The only problem consists of the way the publicity is brought to the people as it may contain wrong information or it may get abusive sometimes. There are cases when it is provided the wrong message or it may become discriminating for a certain group of people. However, the controversial type of advertising is the one that is effective in the contemporary society considering that, people, generally are attracted to the taboo subjects. In my opinion, publicity has to be done very carefully in an originally and a funny mode to avoid misunderstandings as we all know that humor has the quality to suppress the intensity of the offence of any kind and at the same time to engage the potential clients into the purchase of a certain product or service. Publicity and advertising are the foundation of today’s world. It is compulsory to encourage such qualities as being open minded, creative and original, things which are possible to achieve by publicity, but we shouldn’t step out of the decency and moral limits.
www.wikipedia.org www.fashionist.ca Clow, Kenneth E. ; Baack Donald (2007) – Integrated advertising, Promotion and Marketing Communications, Pearson Education. Allison J.Murray - First essays on advertising (1926) ,London C.Palmer.