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1.INTRODUCTION

An electrical battery is one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Since the invention of the first battery in 1800 by Alessandro Volta, batteries have become a common power source for many household and industrial applications. Batteries are represented symbolically as

Fig. 1a Symbolic view

Fig. 1b conventional battery

Electrons flow from the negative terminal towards the positive terminal. Based on the rechargeable nature batteries are classified as a. Non rechargeable or primary cells b. Rechargeable or secondary cells Based on the size they are classified as a. Miniature batteries b. Industrial batteries Based on nature of electrolyte a. Dry cell b. Wet cell

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2012 Battery is the most important part of any electronics device which provides power

to the device in absence of electricity. Chemical energy is converted into electrical energy by many electrochemical batteries or dry cells.There are two kind of batteries available. First one that can not be charged and second is that can be charged many times when it stops providing power to the electronic device.Batteries increase the weight of electronic device. According to some new researches carbon nano tubes were suggested that provide the best idea of making electronic batteries. In electricity, a battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Since the invention of the first battery (or "voltaic pile") in 1800 by Alessandro Volta and especially since the technically improved Daniell cell in 1836, batteries have become a common power source for many household and industrial applications. According to a 2005 estimate, the worldwide battery industry generates US$48 billion in sales each year, with 6% annual growth. A battery is a device that converts chemical energy directly to electrical energy. It consists of a number of voltaic cells; each voltaic cell consists of two half-cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte containing anions and cations. One half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which anions (negatively charged ions) migrate, i.e., the anode or negative electrode; the other half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which cations (positively charged ions) migrate, i.e., the cathode or positive electrode. In the redox reaction that powers the battery, cations are reduced (electrons are added) at the cathode, while anions are oxidized (electrons are removed) at the anode.The electrodes do not touch each other but are electrically connected by the electrolyte. Some cells use two half-cells with different electrolytes. A separator between half-cells allows ions to flow, but prevents mixing of the electrolytes. Each half-cell has an electromotive force (or emf), determined by its ability to drive electric current from the interior to the exterior of the cell. The net emf of the cell is the difference between the emfs of its half-cells, as first recognized by Volta. Therefore, if the electrodes have emfs and , then the net emf is ; in other words, the net emf is the difference between the reduction potentials of the half-reactions.

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The electrical driving force or across the terminals of a cell is known as the terminal voltage (difference) and is measured in volts. The terminal voltage of a cell that is neither charging nor discharging is called the open-circuit voltage and equals the emf of the cell. Because of internal resistance,the terminal voltage of a cell that is discharging is smaller in magnitude than the opencircuit voltage and the terminal voltage of a cell that is charging exceeds the open-circuit voltage. An ideal cell has negligible internal resistance, so it would maintain a constant terminal voltage of until exhausted, then dropping to zero. If such a cell maintained 1.5 volts and stored a charge of one coulomb then on complete discharge it would perform 1.5 joule of work.In actual cells, the internal resistance increases under discharge, and the open circuit voltage also decreases under discharge. If the voltage and resistance are plotted against time, the resulting graphs typically are a curve; the shape of the curve varies according to the chemistry and internal arrangement employed. As stated above, the voltage developed across a cell's terminals depends on the energy release of the chemical reactions of its electrodes and electrolyte. Alkaline and zinc carbon cells have different chemistries but approximately the same emf of 1.5 volts; likewise NiCd and NiMH cells have different chemistries, but approximately the same emf of 1.2 volts.On the other hand the high electrochemical potential changes in the reactions of lithium compounds give lithium cells emfs of 3 volts or more.

Battery lifetime Primary batteries


Disposable (or "primary") batteries typically lose 8 to 20 percent of their original charge every year at room temperature (2030C).This is known as the "self discharge" rate, and is due to non-current-producing "side" chemical reactions which occur within the cell even if no load is applied. The rate of the side reactions is reduced if the batteries are stored at lower temperature, although some batteries can be damaged by freezing. High or low working temperatures may reduce battery performance. This will affect the initial voltage of the battery. For an AA alkaline battery, this initial voltage is approximately normally distributed around 1.6 volts. Discharging performance of all batteries drops at low temperature. College of Engineering Kidangoor Page 3

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Secondary batteries
Storage life of secondary batteries is limited by chemical reactions that occur between the battery parts and the electrolyte; these are called "side reactions". Internal parts may corrode and fail, or the active materials may be slowly converted to inactive forms. Since the active material on the battery plates changes chemical composition on each charge and discharge cycle, active material may be lost due to physical changes of volume; this may limit the cycle life of the battery.

Rechargeable batteries.
Old chemistry rechargeable batteries self-discharge more rapidly than disposable alkaline batteries, especially nickel-based batteries; a freshly charged nickel cadmium (NiCd) battery loses 10% of its charge in the first 24 hours, and thereafter discharges at a rate of about 10% a month. However, newer low self-discharge nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries and modern lithium designs have reduced the self-discharge rate to a relatively low level (but still poorer than for primary batteries). Most nickel-based batteries are partially discharged when purchased, and must be charged before first use. Newer NiMH batteries are ready to be used when purchased, and have only 15% discharge in a year. Although rechargeable batteries have their energy content restored by charging, some deterioration occurs on each chargedischarge cycle. Low-capacity NiMH batteries (17002000 mAh) can be charged for about 1000 cycles, whereas high-capacity NiMH batteries (above 2500 mAh) can be charged for about 500 cycles. NiCd batteries tend to be rated for 1000 cycles before their internal resistance permanently increases beyond usable values. Under normal circumstances, a fast charge, rather than a slow overnight charge, will shorten battery lifespan.However, if the overnight charger is not "smart" and cannot detect when the battery is fully charged, then overcharging is likely, which also damages the battery. Degradation usually occurs because electrolyte migrates away from the electrodes or because active material falls off the electrodes. NiCd batteries suffer the drawback that they should be fully discharged before recharge. Without full discharge, crystals may build up on the electrodes, thus decreasing the active surface area and increasing internal resistance. This decreases battery capacity and causes the "memory effect". These electrode crystals can also penetrate the electrolyte separator, thereby causing shorts. NiMH, although similar in chemistry, does not suffer from memory College of Engineering Kidangoor Page 4

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effect to quite this extent. A battery does not suddenly stop working; its capacity gradually decreases over its lifetime, until it can no longer hold sufficient charge.

An analog camcorder battery [lithium ion].


Automotive leadacid rechargeable batteries have a much harder life.Because of vibration, shock, heat, cold, and sulfation of their lead plates, few automotive batteries last beyond six years of regular use. Automotive starting (SLI: Starting, Lighting, Ignition) batteries have many thin plates to provide as much current as possible in a reasonably small package. In general, the thicker the plates, the longer the life of the battery.They are typically drained only a small amount before recharge. Care should be taken to avoid deep discharging a starting battery, since each charge and discharge cycle causes active material to be shed from the plates. "Deep-cycle" leadacid batteries such as those used in electric golf carts have much thicker plates to aid their longevity. The main benefit of the leadacid battery is its low cost; the main drawbacks are its large size and weight for a given capacity and voltage. Leadacid batteries should never be discharged to below 20% of their full capacity,because internal resistance will cause heat and damage when they are recharged. Deep-cycle leadacid systems often use a lowcharge warning light or a low-charge power cut-off switch to prevent the type of damage that will shorten the battery's life.

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1.1 Terminologies 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 Accumulator - A rechargeable battery or cell Ampere-Hour Capacity -The number of ampere-hours which can be
delivered by a battery on a single discharge

Anode - During discharge, the negative electrode of the cell is the anode. During

charge, that reverses and the positive electrode of the cell is the anode. The anode gives up electrons to the load circuit and dissolves into the electrolyte.

1.1.4

Battery Capacity - The electric output of a cell or battery on a service test

delivered before the cell reaches a specified final electrical condition and may be expressed in ampere-hours, watt- hours, or similar units. The capacity in watt-hours is equal to the capacity in ampere-hours multiplied by the battery voltage.

1.1.5

Cutoff Voltage final - The prescribed lower-limit voltage at which battery

discharge is considered complete. The cutoff or final voltage is usually chosen so that the maximum useful capacity of the battery is realized.

1.1.6

C - Used to signify a charge or discharge rate equal to the capacity of a battery

divided by 1 hour. Thus C for a 1600 mAh battery would be 1.6 A, C/5 for the same battery would be 320 mA and C/10 would be 160 mA.

1.1.7

Capacity - The capacity of a battery is a measure of the amount of energy that it

can deliver in a single discharge. Battery capacity is normally listed as amp-hours (or milli amp-hours) or as watt-hours.

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1.1.8

Cathode - Is an electrode that, in effect, oxidizes the anode or absorbs the

electrons. During discharge, the positive electrode of a voltaic cell is the cathode. When charging, that reverses and the negative electrode of the cell is the cathode.

1.1.9

Cycle - One sequence of charge and discharge.

1.1.10

Cycle Life - For rechargeable batteries, the total number of charge/discharge

cycles the cell can sustain before its capacity is significantly reduced. End of life is usually considered to be reached when the cell or battery delivers only 80% of rated ampere- hour capacity.

1.1.11

Electrochemical Couple - The system of active materials within a cell that

provides electrical energy storage through an electrochemical reaction.

1.1.12

Electrode - An electrical conductor through which an electric current enters or

leaves a conducting medium

1.1.13

Electrolyte - A chemical compound which, when fused or dissolved in certain

solvents, usually water, will conduct an electric current.

1.1.14

Internal Resistance - The resistance to the flow of an electric current within

the cell or battery.

1.1.15

Open-Circuit Voltage - The difference in potential between the terminals of a

cell when the circuit is open (i.e., a no-load condition).

1.1.16
point.)

Voltage, cutoff - Voltage at the end of useful discharge. (See Voltage, end-

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1.1.17

Voltage, end-point - Cell voltage below which the connected equipment will

not operate or below which operation is not recommended.

1.2 Principle of Operation of cell


A battery is a device that converts chemical energy directly to electrical energy. It consists of a number of voltaic cells. Each voltaic cell consists of two half cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte containing anions and cations. One half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which anions (negatively charged ions) migrate, i.e., the anode or negative electrode. The other half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which cations (positively charged ions) migrate, i.e., the cathode or positive electrode. In the redox reaction that powers the battery, cations are reduced (electrons are added) at the cathode, while anions are oxidized (electrons are removed) at the anode. The electrodes do not touch each other but are electrically connected by the electrolyte. Some cells use two half-cells with different electrolytes. A separator between half cells allows ions to flow, but prevents mixing of the electrolytes.

fig.1.2 principle of operation Each half cell has an electromotive force (or emf), determined by its ability to drive electric current from the interior to the exterior of the cell. The voltage developed across a cell's terminals depends on the energy release of the chemical reactions of its electrodes and electrolyte. Alkaline and carbon-zinc cells have different chemistries but approximately the same emf of 1.5 volts. Likewise NiCd and NiMH cells have different chemistries, but approximately the same emf of 1.2 volts. On the other hand the high electrochemical potential changes in the reactions of lithium compounds give lithium cells emf of 3 volts or more.

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1.3 Types of batteries


Batteries are classified into two broad categories. Primary batteries irreversibly (within limits of practicality) transform chemical energy to electrical energy. When the initial supply of reactants is exhausted, energy cannot be readily restored to the battery by electrical means. Secondary batteries can be recharged. That is, they can have their chemical reactions reversed by supplying electrical energy to the cell, restoring their original composition. Primary batteries: This can produce current immediately on assembly. Disposable batteries are intended to be used once and discarded. These are most commonly used in portable devices that have low current drain, are only used intermittently, or are used well away from an alternative power source, such as in alarm and communication circuits where other electric power is only intermittently available. Disposable primary cells cannot be reliably recharged, since the chemical reactions are not easily reversible and active materials may not return to their original forms. Battery manufacturers recommend against attempting recharging

primary cells. Common types of disposable batteries include zinc-carbon batteries and alkaline
batteries. Secondary batteries: These batteries must be charged before use. They are usually assembled with active materials in the discharged state. Rechargeable batteries or secondary cells can be recharged by applying electric current, which reverses the chemical reactions that occur during its use. Devices to supply the appropriate current are called chargers or rechargers.

Fig.1.3a Primary cell College of Engineering Kidangoor

Fig.1.3b Secondary cell Page 9

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1.4 Recent developments


Recent developments include batteries with embedded functionality such as USBCELL, with a built-in charger and USB connector within the AA format, enabling the battery to be charged by plugging into a USB port without a charger USB Cell is the brand of NiMH rechargeable battery produced by a company called Moixa Energy. The batteries include a USB connector to allow recharging using a powered USB port. The product range currently available is limited to a 1300 mAh.

Fig. 1.4 USB cell

1.5 Life of battery


Even if never taken out of the original package, disposable (or "primary") batteries can lose 8 to 20 percent of their original charge every year at a temperature of about 2030C. [54] This is known as the "self-discharge" rate and is due to non-current-producing "side" chemical reactions, which occur within the cell even if no load is applied to it. The rate of the side

reactions is reduced if the batteries are stored at low temperature, although some batteries can
be damaged by freezing. High or low temperatures may reduce battery performance. This will

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affect the initial voltage of the battery. For an AA alkaline battery this initial voltage is approximately normally distributed around 1.6 volts. Rechargeable batteries self-discharge more rapidly than disposable alkaline batteries, especially nickel-based batteries a freshly charged NiCd loses 10% of its charge in the first 24 hours, and thereafter discharges at a rate of about 10% a month. Most nickelbased batteries are partially discharged when purchased, and must be charged before first use.

1.6 Hazards related to batteries 1.6.1 Explosion

A battery explosion is caused by the misuse or malfunction of a battery, such as attempting to recharge a primary (non-rechargeable) battery, or short circuiting a battery.

1.6.2

Corrosion

Many battery chemicals are corrosive, poisonous, or both. If leakage occurs, either spontaneously or through accident, the chemicals released may be dangerous

1.6.3

Environmental pollution

The widespread use of batteries has created many environmental concerns, such as toxic metal pollution. Battery manufacture consumes resources and often involves hazardous chemicals. Used batteries also contribute to electronic waste.

Americans purchase nearly three billion batteries annually, and about 179,000 tons of those end up in landfills across the country.

1.6.4

Ingestion

Small button/disk batteries can be swallowed by young children. While in the digestive tract the battery's electrical discharge can burn the tissues and can be serious enough to lead to death. College of Engineering Kidangoor Page 11

Paper battery

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2. PAPER BATTERY

Energy has always been spotlighted. In the past few years a lot of inventions have been made in this particular field. The tiny nuclear batteries that can provide energy for 10 years, but they use radioactive elements and are quite expensive. Few years back some researchers from Stanford University started experiments concerning the ways in which a copier paper could be used as a battery source. After a long way of struggle they, recently, concluded that the idea was right. The batteries made from a plain copier paper could make for the future energy storage that is truly thin. The anatomy of paper battery is based on the use of Carbon Nanotubes tiny cylinders to collect electric charge. The paper is dipped in lithium containing solution. The nanotubes will act as electrodes allowing storage device to conduct electricity. Its astounding to know that all the components of a conventional battery are integrated in a single paper structure; hence the complete mechanism for a battery is minimized to a size of paper. One of the many reasons behind choosing the paper as a medium for battery is the welldesigned structure of millions of interconnected fibers in it. These fibers can hold on carbon nanotubes easily. Also a paper has the capability to bent or curl. You can fold it in different shapes and forms plus it as light as feather. Output voltage is modest but it could be increased if we use a stack of papers. Hence the voltage issues can be easily controlled without difficulty. Usage of paper as a battery will ultimately lead to weight diminution of batteries many times as compared to traditional batteries. It is said that the paper battery also has the capability of releasing the energy quickly. That makes it best utilization for devices that needs burst of energy, mostly electric vehicles. Further, the medical uses are particularly attractive because they do not contain any toxic materials.

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Fig.2 paper battery

By dipping an ordinary piece of paper into ink infused with carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires, scientists have been able to create a low-cost battery or supercapacitor that is ultra-lightweight, bendable and very durable. The paper can be crumpled, folded or even soaked in acidic or basic solutions and still will workStanford University scientist Yi Cui had previously created nanomaterial energy storage devices using plastics, but his new research showed that a paper battery is more durable because the ink adheres more strongly to paper. Coating a sheet of paper with ink made of carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires produced a highly conductive storage device that could be used in a multitude of application."These nanomaterials are special," Cui said. "They're a one-dimensional structure with very small diameters. "The small diameter helps the nanomaterial ink stick strongly to the fibrous paper, making the battery and supercapacitor very durable. The paper supercapacitor may last through 40,000 charge-discharge cycles at least an order of magnitude more than lithium batteries. The nanomaterials also make ideal conductors because they move electricity along much more efficiently than ordinary conductors.

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The flexibility of paper allows for many clever applications. "If I want to paint my wall with a conducting energy storage device," Cui said, "I can use a brush." In his lab, he demonstrated the battery by connecting it to an LED (light-emitting diode), which glowed brightly.Like batteries, capacitors hold an electric charge, but for a shorter period of time. However, capacitors can store and discharge electricity much more rapidly than a battery.

A paper supercapacitor has the advantage of a high surface-to-volume ratio and may be especially useful for applications like electric or hybrid cars, which depend on the quick transfer of electricity.Cui predicts the biggest impact may be in large-scale storage of electricity on the distribution grid. Excess electricity generated at night, for example, could be saved for peak-use periods during the day, while wind farms and solar energy systems could also employ the new storage technology."This technology has potential to be commercialized within a short time," said Peidong Yang, professor of chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley. "I don't think it will be limited to just energy storage devices," he said. "This is potentially a very nice, low-cost, flexible electrode for any electrical device."Cui's work appears in the paper Highly Conductive Paper for Energy Storage Devices, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

3. CARBON NANOTUBES

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure. Nanotubes have been constructed with length-to-diameter ratio of up to 132,000,000:1, significantly larger than any other material. These cylindrical carbon molecules have novel properties, making them potentially useful in many applications in nanotechnology, electronics, optics, and other fields of materials science, as well as potential uses in architectural fields. They may also have applications in the construction of body armor. They exhibit extraordinary strength and unique electrical properties, and are efficient thermal conductors. Their name is derived from their size, since the diameter of a nanotube is on the order of a few nanometers (approximately 1/50,000th of the width of a human hair), while they can be up College of Engineering Kidangoor Page 14

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to 18 centimeters in length (as of 2010). Nanotubes are categorized as single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs). In theory, metallic nanotubes can carry an electric current density of 4 109 A/cm2 which is more than 1,000 times greater than metals such as copper, where for copper interconnects current densities are limited by electro migration. In paper batteries the nanotubes act as electrodes, allowing the storage devices to conduct electricity. The battery, which functions as both a lithium-ion battery and a super capacitor, can provide a long, steady power output comparable to a conventional battery, as well as a super capacitors quick burst of high energy and while a conventional battery contains a number of separate components, the paper battery integrates all of the battery components in a single structure, making it more energy efficient. Carbon nanotubes have been implemented in Nano electromechnical systems, including mechanical memory elements(NRAM being developed by Nantero Inc.)

Fig 3. Carbon nanotubes

Carbon nanotubes are classified into two Single wall nanotubes Multy walled nanotubes Double walled nanotubes

Most single-walled nanotubes (SWNT) have a diameter of close to 1 nanometer, with a tube length that can be many millions of times longer. The structure of a SWNT can be conceptualized by wrapping a one-atom-thick layer of graphite called graphene into a seamless cylinder. The way the graphene sheet is wrapped is represented by a pair of indices (n,m). The integers n and m denote the number of unit vectors along two directions in the honeycomb College of Engineering Kidangoor Page 15

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crystal lattice of graphene. If m = 0, the nanotubes are called zigzag nanotubes, and if n = m, the nanotubes are called armchair nanotubes. Otherwise, they are called chiral. The diameter of an ideal nanotube can be calculated from its (n,m) indices as follows

where a = 0.246 nm. SWNTs are an important variety of carbon nanotube because most of their properties change significantly with the (n,m) values, and this dependence is non-monotonic (see Kataura plot). In particular, their band gap can vary from zero to about 2 eV and their electrical conductivity can show metallic or semiconducting behavior. Single-walled nanotubes are likely candidates for miniaturizing electronics. The most basic building block of these systems is the electric wire, and SWNTs with diameters of an order of a nanometer can be excellent conductors. One useful application of SWNTs is in the development of the first intermolecular field-effect transistors (FET). The first intermolecular logic gate using SWCNT FETs was made in 2001.A logic gate requires both a p-FET and an n-FET. Because SWNTs are p-FETs when exposed to oxygen and n-FETs otherwise, it is possible to protect half of an SWNT from oxygen exposure, while exposing the other half to oxygen. This results in a single SWNT that acts as a NOT logic gate with both p and n-type FETs within the same molecule.Single-walled nanotubes are dropping precipitously in price, from around $1500 per gram as of 2000 to retail prices of around $50 per gram of as-produced 4060% by weight SWNTs as of March 2010.[citation needed] Multi-walled nanotubes (MWNT) consist of multiple rolled layers (concentric tubes) of graphene. There are two models that can be used to describe the structures of multi-walled nanotubes. In the Russian Doll model, sheets of graphite are arranged in concentric cylinders, e.g., a (0,8) single-walled nanotube (SWNT) within a larger (0,17) single-walled nanotube. In the Parchment model, a single sheet of graphite is rolled in around itself, resembling a scroll of parchment or a rolled newspaper. The interlayer distance in multi-walled nanotubes is close to the distance between graphene layers in graphite, approximately 3.4 . The Russian Doll structure is observed more commonly. Its individual shells can be described as SWNTs, which can be metallic or semiconducting. Because of statistical probability and restrictions on the College of Engineering Kidangoor Page 16

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relative diameters of the individual tubes, one of the shells, and thus the whole MWNT, is usually a zero-gap metal. Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNT) form a special class of nanotubes because their morphology and properties are similar to those of SWNT but their resistance to chemicals is significantly improved. This is especially important when functionalization is required (this means grafting of chemical functions at the surface of the nanotubes) to add new properties to the CNT. In the case of SWNT, covalent functionalization will break some C=C double bonds, leaving "holes" in the structure on the nanotube and, thus, modifying both its mechanical and electrical properties. In the case of DWNT, only the outer wall is modified. DWNT synthesis on the gram-scale was first proposed in 2003 by the CCVD technique, from the selective reduction of oxide solutions in methane and hydrogen. The telescopic motion ability of inner shells and their unique mechanical properties permit to use multi-walled nanotubes as main movable arms in coming nanomechanical devices. Retraction force that occurs to telescopic motion caused by the Lennard-Jones interaction between shells and its value is about 1.5 nN. TorusCarbon nanotubes are the strongest and stiffest materials yet discovered in terms of tensile strength and elastic modulus respectively. This strength results from the covalent sp2 bonds formed between the individual carbon atoms. In 2000, a multi-walled carbon nanotube was tested to have a tensile strength of 63 gigapascals (GPa). into the ability to endure tension of Further studies, conducted in 2008, revealed that individual CNT shells have strengths of up to ~100 GPa, which is in agreement with quantum/atomistic models. Since carbon nanotubes have a low density for a solid of 1.3 to 1.4 g/cm3,[31] its specific strength of up to 48,000 kNmkg1 is the best of known materials, compared to high-carbon steel's 154 kNmkg1. Under excessive tensile strain, the tubes will undergo plastic deformation, which means the deformation is permanent. This deformation begins at strains of approximately 5% and can increase the maximum strain the tubes undergo before fracture by releasing strain energy. Although the strength of individual CNT shells is extremely high, weak shear interactions between adjacent shells and tubes leads to significant reductions in the effective strength of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube bundles down to only a few GPas.[32] This College of Engineering Kidangoor Page 17

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limitation has been recently addressed by applying high-energy electron irradiation, which crosslinks inner shells and tubes, and effectively increases the strength of these materials to ~60 GPa for multi-walled carbon nanotubes[30] and ~17 GPa for double-walled carbon nanotube bundles. CNTs are not nearly as strong under compression. Because of their hollow structure and high aspect ratio, they tend to undergo buckling when placed under compressive, torsional, or bending stress. The above discussion referred to axial properties of the nanotube, whereas simple geometrical considerations suggest that carbon nanotubes should be much softer in the radial direction than along the tube axis. Indeed, TEM observation of radial elasticity suggested that even the van der Waals forces can deform two adjacent nanotubes.Nanoindentation experiments, performed by several groups on multiwalled carbon nanotubes and tapping/contact mode atomic force microscope measurement performed on single-walled carbon nanotube, indicated Young's modulus of the order of several GPa confirming that CNTs are indeed rather soft in the radial direction.

Properties
Hardness Standard single-walled carbon nanotubes can withstand a pressure up to 24GPa without deformation. They then undergo a transformation to superhard phase nanotubes. Maximum pressures measured using current experimental techniques are around 55GPa. However, these new superhard phase nanotubes collapse at an even higher, albeit unknown, pressure. The bulk modulus of superhard phase nanotubes is 462 to 546 GPa, even higher than that of diamond(420 GPa for single diamond crystal). Kinetic properties Multi-walled nanotubes are multiple concentric nanotubes precisely nested within one another. These exhibit a striking telescoping property whereby an inner nanotube core may slide, almost without friction, within its outer nanotube shell, thus creating an atomically perfect linear College of Engineering Kidangoor Page 18

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or rotational bearing. This is one of the first true examples of molecular nanotechnology, the precise positioning of atoms to create useful machines. Already, this property has been utilized to create the world's smallest rotational motor.Future applications such as a gigahertz mechanical oscillator are also envisaged. Electrical properties Band structures computed using tight binding approximation for (6,0) CNT (zigzag, metallic) (10,2) CNT (semiconducting) and (10,10) CNT (armchair, metallic). Because of the symmetry and unique electronic structure of graphene, the structure of a nanotube strongly affects its electrical properties. For a given (n,m) nanotube, if n = m, the nanotube is metallic; if n m is a multiple of 3, then the nanotube is semiconducting with a very small band gap, otherwise the nanotube is a moderate semiconductor. Thus all armchair (n = m) nanotubes are metallic, and nanotubes (6,4), (9,1), etc. are semiconducting. However, this rule has exceptions, because curvature effects in small diameter carbon nanotubes can strongly influence electrical properties. Thus, a (5,0) SWCNT that should be semiconducting in fact is metallic according to the calculations. Likewise, vice versazigzag and chiral SWCNTs with small diameters that should be metallic have finite gap (armchair nanotubes remain metallic). In theory, metallic nanotubes can carry an electric current density of 4 109 A/cm2, which is more than 1,000 times greater than those of metals such as copper, where for copper interconnects current densities are limited by electromigration. Because of their nanoscale cross-section, electrons propagate only along the tube's axis and electron transport involves quantum effects. As a result, carbon nanotubes are frequently referred to as one-dimensional conductors. The maximum electrical conductance of a singlewalled carbon nanotube is 2G0, where G0 = 2e2/h is the conductance of a single ballistic quantum channel. There have been reports of intrinsic superconductivity in carbon nanotubes.Many other experiments, however, found no evidence of superconductivity, and the validity of these claims of intrinsic superconductivity remains a subject of debate.

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Paper battery Optical properties EM Wave absorption

2012

One of the more recently researched properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) is their wave absorption characteristics, specifically microwave absorption. Interest in this research is due to the current military push for radar absorbing materials (RAM) to better the stealth characteristics of aircraft and other military vehicles. There has been some research on filling MWNTs with metals, such as Fe, Ni, Co, etc., to increase the absorption effectiveness of MWNTs in the microwave regime. Thus far, this research has shown improvements in both maximum absorption and bandwidth of adequate absorption. The reason the absorptive properties changed when filled is that the complex permeability (r) and complex permitivity (r), shown in the equations below, have been shown to vary depending on how the MWNTs are called and what medium they are suspended in. The direct relationship between r, r, and the other system parameters that affect the absorption sample thickness, d, and frequency, f, is shown in the equations below, where Zin is the normalized input impedance. As shown in the equation below, these characteristics vary by frequency. Because of this, it is convenient to set a baseline reflection loss (R.L.) that is deemed effective and determine the bandwidth within a given frequency that produces the desired reflection loss. A common R.L. to use for this bandwidth determination is 10 dB, which corresponds to a loss of over 90% of the incoming wave. This bandwidth is usually maximized at the same time as the absorption is. This is done by satisfying the impedance matching condition, getting Zin = 1. In the work done at Beijing Jiaotong University it was found that Fe filled MWNTs exhibited a maximum reflection loss of 22.73 dB and had a bandwidth of 4.22 GHz for a reflection loss of 10 dB. Thermal properties Main article: Thermal properties of nanostructures All nanotubes are expected to be very good thermal conductors along the tube, exhibiting a property known as "ballistic conduction", but good insulators laterally to the tube axis. Measurements show that a SWNT has a room-temperature thermal conductivity along its axis of about 3500 Wm1K1;compare this to copper, a metal well known for its good thermal conductivity, which transmits 385 Wm1K1. A SWNT has a room-temperature thermal College of Engineering Kidangoor Page 20

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conductivity across its axis (in the radial direction) of about 1.52 Wm1K1, which is about as thermally conductive as soil. The temperature stability of carbon nanotubes is estimated to be up to 2800 C in vacuum and about 750 C in air. Current applications Current use and application of nanotubes has mostly been limited to the use of bulk nanotubes, which is a mass of rather unorganized fragments of nanotubes. Bulk nanotube materials may never achieve a tensile strength similar to that of individual tubes, but such composites may, nevertheless, yield strengths sufficient for many applications. Bulk carbon nanotubes have already been used as composite fibers in polymers to improve the mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of the bulk product. Easton-Bell Sports, Inc. have been in partnership with Zyvex Performance Materials, using CNT technology in a number of their bicycle componentsincluding flat and riser handlebars, cranks, forks, seatposts, stems and aero bars. Zyvex Technologies has also built a 54' maritime vessel, the Piranha Unmanned Surface Vessel, as a technology demonstrator for what is possible using CNT technology. CNTs help improve the structural performance of the vessel, resulting in a lightweight 8,000 lb boat that can carry a payload of 15,000 lb over a range of 2,500 miles.Amroy Europe Oy manufactures Hybtonite carbon nanoepoxy resins where carbon nanotubes have been chemically activated to bond to epoxy, resulting in a composite material that is 20% to 30% stronger than other composite materials. It has been used for wind turbines, marine paints and variety of sports gear such as skis, ice hockey sticks, baseball bats, hunting arrows, and surfboards. Other current applications include: tips for atomic force microscope probes in tissue engineering, carbon nanotubes can act as scaffolding for bone growth

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4. FABRICATION OF PAPER BATTERY

The materials required for the preparation of paper battery are a. Copier paper b. Carbon nano ink c. Oven The steps involved in the preparation of the paper battery are as follows Step 1: The copier paper is taken. Step 2: carbon Nano ink which is black in color is taken. Carbon nano ink is a solution of nano rods, surface adhesive agent and ionic salt solutions. Carbon nano ink is spread on one side of the paper. Step 3: the paper is kept inside the oven at 150C temperature. This evaporates the water content on the paper. The paper and the nano rods get attached to each other. Step 4: place the multi meter on the sides of the paper and we can see voltage drop is generated.

Fig 4. Fabrication process

After drying the paper becomes flexible, light weight in nature. The paper is scratched and rolled to protect the nano rods on paper.

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5. WORKING OF PAPER BATTERY

The battery produces electricity in the same way as the conventional lithium-ion batteries that power so many of today's gadgets, but all the components have been incorporated into a lightweight, flexible sheet of paper. The devices are formed by combining cellulose with an infusion of aligned carbon nanotubes. The carbon is what gives the batteries their black color. These tiny filaments act like the electrodes found in a traditional battery, conducting electricity when the paper comes into contact with an ionic liquid solution. Ionic liquids contain no water, which means that there is nothing to freeze or evaporate in extreme environmental conditions. As a result, paper batteries can function between -75 and 1500C.The paper is made conducting material by dipping in ink. The paper works as a conductive layer. Two sheets of paper kept facing inward act like parallel plates (high energy electrodes). It can store energy like a super capacitor and it can discharge bursts of energy because of large surface area of nano tubes.

Fig.5 working of a paper battery

Chlorine ions flow from the positive electrode to the negative one, while electrons travel through the external circuit, providing current. The paper electrode stores charge while recharging in tens of seconds because ions flow through the thin electrode quickly. In contrast, lithium batteries take 20 minutes to recharge.

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6. ADVANTAGES
The flexible shape allows the paper battery to be used small or irregularly-shaped electronics: One of the unique features of the paper battery is that it can be bent to any such shape or design that the user might have in mind. The battery can easily squeeze into tight crevasses and can be cut multiple times without ruining the battery's life. For example if a battery is cut in half, each piece will function, however, each piece will only contain 1/2 the amount of original power. Conversely, placing two sheets of paper battery on top of one-another will double the power. The paper battery may replace conventional batteries completely:

By layering sheets of this paper, the battery's voltage and current can be increased that many times. Since the main components of the paper battery are carbon nanotubes and cellulose, the body structure of the battery is very thin, "paper-thin". Thus to maximize even more power, the sheets of battery paper can be stacked on top of one another to give off tremendous power. This can allow the battery to have a much higher amount of power for the same size of storage as a current battery and also be environmentally friendly at the same time. Supply power to an implanted pacemaker in the human body by using the electrolytes in human blood: An improvement in the techniques used in the health field can be aided by the paper battery. Experiments have taken place showing that batteries can be energized by the electrolyte emitted from one's own blood or body sweat. This can conserve the usage of battery acid and rely on an environmental friendly mechanism of fueling battery cells with the help from our bodies. The paper battery can be molded to take the shape of large objects, like a car door:

As stated earlier, the key characteristics that make the paper battery very appealing are that it can be transformed into any shape or size, it can be cut multiple times without damaging it, and it can be fueled through various ways besides the typical harmful battery acid that is used in the current day battery.

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7. LIMITATIONS

Presently, the devices are only a few inches across and they have to be scaled up to sheets

of newspaper size to make it commercially viable. Carbon nanotubes are very expensive, and batteries with large enough power are unlikely

to be cost effective. Cutting of trees leading to destroying of the nature.

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8. APPLICATIONS

Pace makers in heart (uses blood as electrolyte)

Used as alternate to conventional batteries in gadgets

Powered smart cards RF id tags

Smart toys, children sound books

E-cards, greetings, talking posters

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9. CONCLUSION

We have discussed the various terminologies, principle of operation of a battery and recent developments related to it. The life of a battery is an important parameter which decides the area of application of the battery. Increased use of batteries gives rise to E-waste which poses great damage to our environment. In the year 2007 paper battery was manufactured. The technology is capable of replacing old bulky batteries. The paper batteries can further reduce the weight of the electronic gadgets. The adaptations to the paper battery technique in the future could allow for simply painting the nanotube ink and active materials onto surfaces such as walls. These surfaces can produce energy.

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10. REFERENCE Thin, Flexible Secondary Li-Ion Paper Batteries Liangbing Hu, Hui Wu, Fabio La Mantia, Yuan Yang, and Yi Cui Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305. David Linden Handbook of batteries http://spectrum.ieee.org/tag/paper-thin+battery http://www.designboom.com/weblog/cat/16/view/8426/paper-battery.html http://www.humantouchofchemistry.com/new-battery-as-thin-as-paper-and-spread-like-avirus.htm http://spectrum.ieee.org/nanoclast/semiconductors/nanotechnology/nanostructured-paperleads-to-printable-ultracapacitors http://spectrum.ieee.org/semiconductors/nanotechnology/printed-power-sources-for-carsand-consumer-gadgets

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