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When setting out a road design which incorporates either horizontal or vertical curves (or both), there are many considerations that must be undertaken. Some things to consider before beginning are: What is the road to be used for? What vehicle types will be using the road? What terrain will the road be traversing? What speed limit will the road be rated at? All of these considerations will affect the way that horizontal and vertical curves will be applied to final design. The Road Design Module in Surpac will assist you to create a centreline for a road which will store other information related to the curves within the description fields.
There are many types of curves all of which can be used in road design. Simple Curve
A simple curve is a curve of constant radius from one tangent line to another. This curve type does not allow for transitions from the straight to the maximum curvature and should only be used in situations where vehicle velocity is at a minimum.
Broken Back Curve
A broken back curve is essentially two simple curves in the same direction with a tangent line in between them. The two curves to not need to be of the same radius of curvature. Again, this shows an instant transition from the tangent to the maximum curvature.
A reverse curve goes from one simple curve to a second simple curve turning in the opposite direction without a tangent line between them. The tangent point of the first curve coincides with a tangent point of the second curve. Compound Curve
A compound curve is two or more curves turning in the same direction where each curve has a different radius. Again there is no transition from the tangent to the maximum curvature and in the above example the maximum curvature increases at some point along the curve. Spiral Between Tangent and Circular Curve
This is the most common form of curve creation in Road Design. A spiral (or transition) exists between the tangent and the circular curve. This allows the vehicle to gradually increase its radius of curvature as it travels around the corner until it reaches maximum curvature.
The double spiral is similar to the previous example however there is no circular curve between the two transitions. This means that the curve will gradually increase in curvature until it reaches maximum curvature at which point it starts to gradually decrease in curvature until the tangent is reached.
Vertical Curves All of the above mentioned curve types can exist in the vertical plane to traverse across undulating terrain. Further Road Design Terminology Line of Sight .
This assumes that the value of m is usually small in comparison to R. However. Superelevation The effect of centrifugal force on a vehicle as it passes through a curve must be countered by raising the outer edge. the sight distance AS (or C) can be summarised in the following equation. The outer edge is raised incrementally through the transition curve until the beginning of the circular curve where it remains constant until the exit transition curve where the outer edge is incrementally lowered. The calculation of supereleveation takes into account a number of factors including vehicle velocity. however C is not the true stopping distance given that cars travel on either the inner or the outer lane. The general equation for approximating the superelevation is: . From the picture above. it is common practice to raise the outer lane to level (with the centreline) before beginning the superelevation. This is a practical equation and is not the exact equation. weight of the vehicle and a coefficient of friction between the tyres and the road surface. The result of this equation errs on the side of safety and is commonly used in Road Design.Safety requirements dictate minimum sight distances in zones where passing is permitted and in non-passing zones to allow adequate stopping distance if there is an obstruction on the roadway. This process is known as superelevation. Roads are slightly more complicated that railway conditions and a road normally does not have a level cross section to allow water to drain away to road edge.
8m/sec2 e is the superelevation in radians and f is the coefficient of friction (nominally 0.35 on bitumen for 50km/h.Where V is the velocity in metres per second R is the radius of the curve in metres g is gravity = 9.25 for 80km/h and 0.12 for 100km/h). 0. .
. the terrain is very mountainous.Exercise Design and compare 3 road design options The boss has asked you to design and compare the costs of building a road from the mine at point A to the processing plant at point B in the picture below. As can be seen.
dtm into graphics and then drag the file 3choices1. 1. Another takes us out to the west along a valley and the third option attempts to follow a contour and minimise the hills involved. We will first look at the direct route. . Three road choices exist. Drag the file topography1. the first road takes us in a direct line from the mine to the processing plant.After careful consideration.str into graphics. three possible paths were chosen that might be suitable.
Save the file again for Road2. 5.dtm into the Viewport. Road2 and Road3. 2. Drag the file Road1. Using the string numbers as a guide we will call them Road1.Vertical Alignments We will first separate the roads into different files for convenience.str into the Viewport and rotate the view similar to that shown below. 1.str with string range 2 and Road3. .str with string range 3 Reset the Graphics and drag the file Topography1. 3. 6. Reset the graphics Drag the file 3choices1. 4.str into the Viewport Go to File >> Save >> String/DTM File and save the file as Road1 making sure the range field has string 1 only in it as shown below.
The form will ask which layer you the DTM you wish to drape the string over lies in and gives the option of whether or not to interpolate new points into the string. The result should look something like the following (note that the DTM has been re-coloured to make the image clearer). there is no need to do any horizontal alignment on the centreline. . This must be done as this will ensure that all of the string will match the exact DTM surface.We need to rotate into this orientation to make it easier to select the road alignment in graphics. Apply this form. The Horizontal alignment tools are related to horizontal curves only and will be explored on the other two alignments. Select Road Design >> Drape Segment over DTM and graphically select the road alignment string. We can now get rid of the topography file. As this is a straight line road. When you drape a string over a DTM a new point is created wherever the string crosses a triangle boundary. 7.
. The result is a split screen showing the original string and its associated profile. Fill in the form as shown below. This is like generating a section of the draped string except the horizontal axis is taken as the distance from the starting point (or chainage). This way it does not matter how the string bends in the horizontal plane.8. 9.dtm layer. Select Edit >> Layer >> Delete and delete the topography1. Select Road Design >> Create Longitudinal Profile and select the road centreline. The next step is to create a longitudinal profile of the string.
In this example we will use an existing design. cut and fill will be required to smooth the road out. . 10. the Vertical inflection points can be defined by clicking on the screen or selecting points on the screen or they can be imported in from an existing string file. Fill in the form as follows. By this we need to determine where the best points will be for creating the vertical curves. Select Road Design >> Design Vertical Inflection Points >> Open File Containing Existing Design. While this is an extreme example. In Surpac. This decision is usually based on the factors of safety and minimising earthworks.As can be seen the profile undulates considerably and the road we wish to create needs to be smoother than these undulations.
Once the inflection points have been defined. Select Road Design >> Design Vertical Alignment and select the white line indicated in the diagram below. 11. we must now determine the radius of curvature for each vertical curve. .
As you enter the values.You will be presented with a table that outlines the properties of your inflection points. the screen will automatically update the centreline. All you need to do is add radii of curvature for each of the inflection points to describe your alignment. The values in the table shown below give a reasonable curve. . The numbers correspond to entries in the table. By adjusting the values through the table you can get the curve of best fit for the road alignment. the screen will be updated with that string and each inflection point is numbered. Once you input a string number.
Press Apply. Surpac requires that you identify each alignment in their respective Viewports. The next step is to apply that vertical alignment to the horizontal alignment. Select Road Design >> Apply Longitudinal Profile. 12.Once you have filled in the table as above. Now click in the upper viewport and select your horizontal alignment. . Click in the bottom viewport. then select the smooth curved line we created in that viewport.
Once you have selected the alignments. Due to the mathematical nature of the way the points are interpolated. A few areas of the centreline may need a little cleaning. The result in the top portion of your screen is the final centreline design.” 13. we should now remove any spikes. Once we have removed the duplicate points in the string. The road width can be added to this to give a final design. a form will appear giving a summary of the segments you have selected. Duplicate Points can occur as well as the occasional spike or “foldback. . Make sure they are correct and press Apply. Select Edit >> Layer >> Clean and fill in the form as shown below to remove any duplicate points from the road centreline.
Select Edit >> Layer >> Clean and fill in the form as shown below. Select Road Design >> Create Road Outline. . The first thing we want to do is create a road from the centreline.14. The centreline is now ready to use. Click on the horizontal design of your road centreline and fill in the for as shown below. 15.
there is no superelevation to take into account. The description fields are not important in this example because while there are no horizontal curves. .The road will now be filled out to a full width of 40m. The final result should look similar to this.
Select File >> Save >> String/DTM File and save the Road Design. .16.
This means we need to work with a vehicle speed in mind. The vehicle speed must be input in metres per second or feet per second.11 13.33 11.67 22.33 58.44 22. sight distances. depending on the units you have set in your Surpac defaults.67 88. Below is a brief conversion table.94 8.00 .00 29. the main difference being that superelevation needs to be taken into account.67 19.00 51. road surfaces and environmental conditions. safety concerns.22 mph 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 50 55 60 ft/s 14.89 16. km/h 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 m/s 2.67 73.33 36.67 44.78 4.17 5.Horizontal Road Design Designing horizontal Curves is similar to vertical curves.33 80. Vehicle speeds are usually rated by type of vehicle.56 6.
78 70 80 102. 2. Select Road Design >> Design Horizontal Alignment and click on the string in the viewport. . 1.67 117.str that we saved earlier.00 27.33 Lets look at how we can apply this to our horizontal alignments. Drag in the file road2.90 100 25.
You will not be able to Apply the form until all curves are valid. however the length from Intersection Point to Intersection Point may be 500m and although the curve . Based on the radius of curvature and the vehicle speed. For example the transition length may calculate to be 700m. Similarly you will not be able to apply the form if the transition lengths are not compatible with the tangent lengths. There is a table at the bottom of the form with one entry for each Intersection point in the alignment. chainage intervals and a vehicle velocity.When you select the string each Intersection Point will be numbered on the screen and a corresponding record will appear in the table on the form. The form allows you to choose a new string number. For instance trying to create a curve of 10m radius to be driven at 100 metres per second will result in an invalid curve. Once calculated the software will indicate a valid or invalid curve depending on the values generated. Where you do not wish to have a curve at the Intersection point. you can tick the “Fixed” box in the table and no values will be calculated. the transition length and the superelevation will be automatically calculated.
. Once the horizontal alignment is complete. You will be required to fix all of these before the form is able to be applied. Select Edit >> Segment >> Delete and click on the blue segment. 3. This is similar to the method we used before. Fill in the form as shown below and press Apply. This is no longer required. except this time we will generate our own inflection points. the vertical alignment must needs to be undertaken. the road design is not. 4.itself is valid.
8. . 9. Go to Edit >> Layer >> Delete and delete the topography layer.dtm to road2. 6.5.str 7. Drag the file Topography1.dtm into graphics Change your active layer from topography1. Select Road Design >> Create Longitudinal Profile and click on the horizontal alignment string and fill in the form as shown below. Rotate the image around so you can exclusively select the road design string and then go to Road Design >> Drape Segment Over DTM and click on the string an press Apply to the form that pops up.
Your screen should look like that shown below. In this case we will digitise our own vertical inflection points. even though we know that the road curves around corners. some vertical alignment is required. . The Longitudinal profile has the effect of straightening the road and showing the relief. however. The road generally follows a contour around the mountain so it is more or less flat.
Select Road Design >> Design Vertical Inflection Points >> Digitise Points at Cursor Location and digitise a string similar to that shown below. the entries in your form may differ from those shown here. Fill in the radii until you are happy with the curve as seen on screen. Note that each point will become an inflection point.10. Depending on how many inflection points you digitised and where you digitised them. Once you are happy with your inflection points select Road Design >> Design Vertical Alignment and click on the string you just digitised. 11. .
you may need to window in to see them behind your inflection points. 12. then select the upper viewport and then select your horizontal alignment in that viewport. Remember that this is a four click process. then the vertical alignment in that viewport.If your curves are quite small. You must first select the lower viewport. . Select Road Design >> Apply Longitudinal Profile. Confirm that you have selected the correct strings and then press Apply.
Select Edit >> Layer >> Clean and fill in the form as shown below. Select Edit >> Layer >> Clean and fill in the form as shown below. . 13. 14.Your vertical alignment must now be cleaned of extraneous data before we can build the road outline.
15. Now select Road Design >> Create Road Outline and choose your horizontal alignment and fill in the form as shown below. .
The results should look similar to this. .
This time. This value is used to compute the z value of each point in the transition zone of a curve. superelevation was relevant because we had some horizontal curves. This effect is shown below. The amount of superelevation in a transition is written to the D4 field of the string. .
. Select File >> Save >> String/DTM File and save the road design.16.
Create a Road Design Using Road3. Horizontal Curve properties are shown below.Option 3 Road Design 1. .str in the same manner as above.
2. . An example of a vertical alignment is shown below.
.In the example above. the results given would look like this.
Save the file as shown below.3. .
000. which option is most expensive? Which option is cheapest? Which option is viable? Answers Changes to Curve Creation .000 per kilometre extra where the gradient is steeper than 1 in 10 Based on these simple costs. Base rate: Additional Rate: $1. $1.000.Further Exercise The contractor responsible for constructing the road submitted the following costs.000 per kilometre.
Now when you create curves from tangents or curves at the end of segments.The algorithms for curve creation have also been added to the existing functionality in Surpac. the option to add transitions is given. Create >> Curve From Tangents .
Create >> Curve At Segment End .
The contractor responsible for constructing the road submitted the following costs. The methodology is the same.000. Base rate: Additional Rate: $1. which option is most expensive? Which option is cheapest? Which option is most viable? .Answers Note: The numbers in your answers may differ from those shown below due to free hand digitising of inflection points. $1.000 per kilometre extra where the gradient is steeper than 1 in 10 Based on these simple costs.000.000 per kilometre.
str Window in closely to the centerline and using Edit >> Segment >> Delete. Road Option 1: Length – Base Cost – 18.500 Road Option 2: Length – Base Cost – 25. Drag in the File finished_road1.316.316m $25.198. Using these slopes we can calculate the costs of construction. 1.Treat each road separately. Go to Edit >> Layer >> Maths and fill in the form as shown below.5m $18.198. 3.000 Road Option 3: Length – Base Cost – 25. the total length of the road can be established. 2.7m $25. . the slope of the segments of roads can be calculated. Using string maths. delete the two road edges.338.700 Calculate The penalty Costs for terrain road building. 4.338. Using Inquire >> Segment Properties.
The D2 field for each point will also hold the total cost of the penalty construction costs. Each point carries an accumulation of cost along the road. The result of that string maths can be seen by displaying the D1 field for each point. otherwise (if it is close to horizontal) add zero to the aggregation. _next_3dlen * 1000. _next_3dlen * 1000. this can be said as. . otherwise if the slope from one point to the next point is less than -10% then add the 3d length of that line multiplied by $1000 to the aggregation. 0))” In words.iif(_next_slope < -10. The last point on the string will have the total cost.The partially obscured expression is “_tmp1 + iif(_next_slope > 10. Then format the resulting numbers to zero decimal places. if the slope from one point to the next point is greater that 10% then add the 3d length of that line multiplied by $1000 to the aggregation.
Adding these values for each road to their base costs: Option 1: Base Cost - $18.198.500 .
187 $35. The most viable option would be Option 2 because areas along the other two options have gradients in excess of 37 degrees and this may not make it possible to drive on these roads.943.700 $17.782 Option 2: Base Cost Penalties Total - $25.062.338.496 $43.282 $33.Penalties Total - $15.798. the direct route (Option 1) is the cheapest option and Option 3 is the most expensive.000 $9.746.316.196 Based on these figures.996.282. .187 Option 3: Base Cost Penalties Total - $25.
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