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OISD - 134 Amended edition

FOR RESTRICTED CIRCULATION


No.

INSPECTION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS

OISD - STANDARD-134
First Edition, March 1990 Amended edition, August, 1999

OIL INDUSTRY SAFETY DIRECTORATE Government of India Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas

OISD STANDARD - 134 First Edition, March 1990 Amended edition, August, 1999

FOR RESTRICTED CIRCULATION


No.

INSPECTION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS

Prepared by

COMMITTEE ON INSPECTION OF STATIC EQUIPMENT

OIL INDUSTRY SAFETY DIRECTORATE


2ND FLOOR, KAILASH 26, KASTURBA GANDHI MARG, NEW DELHI 110 001

NOTES
OISD publications are prepared for use in the Oil and gas industry under Ministry of Petroleum and Chemicals. These are the property of Ministry of Petroleum and Chemicals and shall not be reproduced or copied and loaned or exhibited to others without written consent from OISD. Though every effort has been made to assure the accuracy and reliability of data contained in these documents, OISD hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting from their use. These documents are intended to supplement rather than replace the prevailing statutory requirements.

Note1 in superscript indicates the modification/changes/addition based on the amendments approved in the 17th Safety Council meeting held in July, 1999.

FOREWORD
The Oil Industry in India is 100 years old. Because of various collaboration agreements, a variety of international codes, standards and practices have been in vogue. Standardisation in design philosophies and operating and maintenance practices at a national level was hardly in existence. This, coupled with feed back from some serious accidents that occurred in the recent past in India and abroad, emphasized the need for the industry to review the existing state of art in designing, operating and maintaining oil and gas installations. With this in view, the Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas, in 1986, constituted a Safety Council assisted by Oil Industry Safety Directorate (OISD), staffed from within the industry, in formulating and implementing a series of self regulatory measures on various subjects. The present document on Inspection of Heat Exchangers was prepared by the Functional Committee on Inspection of Static Equipment. This document is based on the accumulated knowledge and experience of industry members and the various national and international codes and practices. It is hoped that the provisions of this document, when adopted may go a long way to improve the safety and reduce accidents in the Oil and Gas Industry. Suggestions are invited from the users, after it is put into practice, to improve the document further. Suggestions for amendments to this document should be addressed to The Co-ordinator, Committee on Inspection of Static Equipment, Oil Industry Safety Directorate, nd 2 Floor, Kailash 26, Kasturba Gandhi Marg, New Delhi 110 001 This standard in no way supersedes the statutory regulations of CCE, Factory Inspectorate or other Govt. body which must be followed as applicable.

COMMITTEE ON INSPECTION OF STATIC EQUIPMENT


List of Members -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Name Designation & Position in Organisation Committee ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. Sh. R.K. Sabharwal Chief Maint.Mgr Leader IOC (R &D) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Sh.R.H. Vohra Sh.D.P. Dhall Sh.P. Dasgupta Sh.I.M. Advani Sh.V.K. Moorthy Sh.R.M.N. Marar Dy.Gen.Mgr.(E) CH INSP & AE MGR-BPC (REF) Sr. Manager - Inspection IOC (R & D) MGR - (PROJ) HPC (REF) Dy.Suptd. Engineer-ONGC. Jt.Director OISD Member Member Member Member Member

Member Co-ordinator. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------In addition to the above, various other experts from the industry contributed in the preparation, review and finalisation of this document.

INSPECTION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS


CONTENTS

SECTION 1.0 2.0 3.0 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 Introduction Scope Names and Functions of Heat Exchangers Types of Heat Exchangers Box Cooler Double pipe exchanger Fan Cooler Shell and Tube exchanger Inspection Role Tools for Inspection Inspection of Heat Exchangers During Fabrication Check List for Inspection of Heat exchangers Prior to erection and commissioning Likely Locations of Metal wastage Material of construction Shell Shell cover Tubes Tube Sheets Floating Head cover Channel and Channel cover Baffles Air cooled Exchangers Box cooler Frequency of Inspection Inspection Procedures Onstream Inspection Shutdown Inspection Shell covers Channel, Channel Cover and Floating Head cover The Bundle General Air Cooler Box Cooler Double Pipe Coolers Repairs and Follow-up Testing Procedure on Testing of shell and Tube Exchangers Procedure of Testing of Box Type Coolers Procedure of Testing on Double Pipe Exchangers Limits of Thickness

PAGE NO.

8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 9.0 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.2.1 10.2.2 10.2.3 10.2.4 10.2.5 10.2.6 11.0 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 13.0

14.0 15.0

Record and Documentation References

1.0

INTRODUCTION
A steam heater uses steam to heat either water or process fluid.

Safety in refineries comes thorough continuous efforts at all stages and as such it can be ensured by observing that plant and equipment are designed, constructed tested and maintained as per Engineering Standards, and subsequently modifications and repairs are conforming to the same standard.

vi) STEAM GENERATOR / WASTE HEAT BOILER


A steam generator produces steam from water using hot process fluid (that requires cooling) or hot gases produced in chemical reaction.

2.0

SCOPE

This standard covers the minimum inspection requirements for heat exchangers or any heat exchanging equipment used in a petroleum installation. Areas to be inspected, causes for deterioration, frequency of inspection and testing have also been included in this standard. This standard also covers in brief fabrication and pre commissioning checks.

vii) REBOILER
A reboiler uses steam or any hot fluid to heat process fluid (hydrocarbon) for distillation column.

3.1

TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS


Box cooler
The simplest heat transfer equipment is a length of steel pipe submerged in a tank of water. The liquid to be cooled flows inside the pipe. The coil in the water tank is commonly called box cooler. It is generally built from long steel pipes which are flanged at inlet and outlet ends and connected together by means of return bends. Cooling water enters from the bottom of the box and passes through the overflow outlet at the top. Box coolers are mainly used for cooling very hot streams like distillation tower bottoms or asphalt. Two disadvantages of submerged pipe coils are low rate of heat transfer and relatively large area required to get the needed cooling.

3.0

NAMES AND FUNCTIONS OF HEAT EXCHANGERS

3.1.1

Heat exchangers are used whenever it is desirable or necessary to heat or cool a fluid. Individual heat transfer equipment are named after the function which they perform.

I) COOLER
A Cooler cools the process fluid, using water or air, with no change of phase.

ii) CHILLER
A Chiller uses a refrigerant to cool process fluid to a temperature below that obtainable with water.

iii) CONDENSER
A condenser condenses a vapour or mixture of vapours using water or air.

3.1.2

Double Pipe Exchanger


The double pipe unit is completely enclosed and allows the heat transfer element, the pipe, to be surrounded by a faster moving coolant. The double pipe provides counter flow, that is, the hot and cold fluids flow in opposite direction which is a very desirable feature for efficient heat transfer. A variation of double pipe unit is extended surface

iv) EXCHANGER
An exchanger performs two functions in that it heats a cold process fluid by recovering heat from a hot fluid which it cools. None of the transferred heat is lost.

v) STEAM HEATER

exchanger, best known as fin tube cooler. Double pipe exchangers are compact and can easily be stacked for connection in parallel or series.

3.1.3

Fan cooler
Air cooled exchangers are usually designed and fabricated as per API 661. They are exclusively constructed with tubes mostly in horizontal position stacked in layers and their ends rolled and/or welded to tube sheets enclosed by header compartments. Air is circulated by a fan placed either above or at the bottom of the steel framework in which the entire assembly is fixed. These coolers are used for condensing vapour or cooling fluids by blowing air and are installed where water is scarce or from economic viability upto certain optimised temperature.

arrangements in several tube side passes. The flow through the shell is directed by baffles as desired. The floating tube sheet is free to move in the shell. This type of construction permits free expansion and contraction with changes in temperature. This type of exchanger is most commonly used.

b)

Fixed Tube Sheet Exchanger


The simplest and least expensive type of shell and tube equipment is the fixed sheet type exchanger. It consists of two tube sheets welded to the shell with the tubes rolled into the tube sheets, with channel head on either side. Since the tube bundle cannot be pulled out, this type of exchanger is suitable for services where there is little possibility of fouling on the outside of the tubes, otherwise chemical cleaning will need to be done. Also, temperature conditions should be such that the stresses due to differential thermal expansion between shell and the tube does not over stress shell or tube, otherwise expansion bellows will need to be provided on shell to take care of this differential thermal expansion.

3.1.4

Shell and Tube Exchanger


Although the type of exchangers mentioned above are widely used, the major portion of heat exchange is done with shell and tube exchangers. In general, a shell and tube exchanger consists of a shell, a tube bundle, a channel head, floating head cover and shell cover. Commonly used shell and tube type exchangers are as follows:

c) U-tube Exchanger
The U-tube construction offers several advantages over fixed tube sheet exchangers. In this type of exchanger, each tube is permitted to expand and contract independent of the other tubes. The U-tube bundle is usually equipped with welded shell cover. One disadvantage of the U-tube exchanger is that tubes are difficult to clean internally. The other disadvantage is that replacement of leaky tubes in the inner row involves unnecessary cutting of good tubes in the outer rows.

a)

Floating Head Exchangers


The exchanger consists of a cylindrical shell flanged at both ends, a tube bundle with a tube sheet at each end, a channel with cover, a floating head cover and a shell cover. (The diameter of floating tube sheet is smaller than the shell diameter so that tube bundle can be inserted into the shell). The diameter of the stationary tube sheet is large enough to bear on the gasket surface of one shell flange. The channel is bolted onto this shell flange so as to hold the stationary tube sheet in position. Similarly, the floating head cover is bolted onto the smaller (floating) tube sheet. The shell cover is thereafter bolted in its place. Suitable partition

d)

Double Tube Sheet Exchanger


In certain services where even minute leakage of one fluid into another cannot be tolerated, a double tube sheet construction can be employed. In the tube bundle,

two tube sheets are installed with approx. 1 or less gap between them and the tube ends rolled into both the tube sheets. The zone between the tube sheets can be made pressure tight. Any roll leakage from either shell or tube side passes into the zone between the tube sheets, can be drained off. This can be done only in U-tube exchangers.

v)

To recommend procurement action of materials for meeting the NOTE1 repair/replacement needs . To inspect while the repairs are in progress and to accept after completion of repairs. To maintain up to date maintenance and inspection records and history of heat exchanging equipment. To keep the concerned operating and maintenance personnel informed about the condition of various heat exchangers. To ensure that heat exchangers are inspected as per schedule of inspection and the statutory requirements as applicable.

vi)

vii)

e)

Reboiler/Kettle Shell
The primary use of this exchanger is boiling the fluid for distillation. The kettle shell is used in the reboilers or chiller. The fluid to be heated in the shell and the heating medium, generally steam, is in the tubes. The shell of the kettle tube reboiler has large vapour space over the tube bundle. A kettle type reboiler has several advantages over standard heat exchanges in similar service. It has a lower pressure drop and can handle widely fluctuating load. The same type of construction is used in some chillers. For this service a volatile cooling medium such as propane is in shell and fluid to be cooled in tubes. The latent heat of vapourisation is absorbed from the cooled medium. For the purpose of this standard, the term Heat Exchanger shall mean all the heat changing equipments as defined above.

viii)

ix)

5.0 TOOLS FOR INSPECTION


The common tools used for inspection of heat exchangers are given below: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) xii) xiii) xiv) xv) xvi) xvii) Ultrasonic flaw detector and thickness gauge. Radiographic equipment Magnetic particle inspection equipment Fibroscope/Boroscope Dye penetrant inspection equipment Inspectors hammer Inside and outside calipers Flash light Small magnet Small mirror Pit gauge Steel foot rule Plumb line and levels Scraper Wirebrush Magnifying glass NOTE1 Portable eddy current tester

4.0 INSPECTION ROLE


The following are the responsibilities of Inspection Division: i) To inspect, measure and record the deterioration of material and to evaluate present physical condition of heat exchanger and its components for their soundness to continue in service. To correlate the deterioration and to advise remedial measures. To determine cause of deterioration and to advise remedial measures. To recommend/forecast short term and long term repairs and replacements to ensure further run lengths on the basis of economics and safety.

ii) iii) iv)

6.0 INSPECTION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS DURING FABRICATION

Inspection of heat exchangers during fabrication should be carried out as per requirement of applicable codes. The following inspection checks shall be carried out stagewise. i) ii) iii) Study of all tender documents and all technical specifications. Identification of all the material. Testing of all the welders for welders qualification and procedure qualification as per codes and as per the fabrication drawings. Ensuring that welding of all the exchanger components is being done as per agreed welding sequence using approved electrodes. Checking of all the exchanger parts as per required NDT methods before final matching is carried out. Ensuring radiography is done before as well as after post weld heat treatment if such treatment is required. Inspection of lining on the shell, channel, channel covers and floating head covers as per procedure mentioned in inspection of Pressure Vessels-OISD Standard128. Inspection of tubes for any surface defects and dimension tolerances as per relevant code. Inspection of tubesheets, after final machining and drilling, before rolling of tubes for, hole diameter, ligament, width, pitch and grooves inside holes and burrs as per required code. Inspection of Flange Gasket surface NOTE1 should be carried out . Inspection of Weld Joint of all nozzle reinforcement pads should be carried NOTE1 out by air test .

Equipment No. Service a) Shell b) Tube Purchase order no. and date Serial No. and type Manufacturer Main Dimensions a) Shell b) Tube Material of construction Shell Shell cover Channel Head Channel Head Cover Floating Head Cover Tubes Tube Sheets Baffles Fasteners Maximum Allowable Working Pressure Maximum Allowable Working Temperature Stress-relieved Radiography Hydrostatic Test Pressure Erection Contractor Contractors Inspector Companys Inspector Date of Inspection

iv)

v)

vi)

vii)

viii)

CHECK LIST CHECKS


i) ii) iii) Check for proper alignment of supports. Check name plate attachment. Check foundation/saddle support bolts and shims for any mechanical damage. Inspect shell/channel/shell cover for any bulges or dents. Inspect visually weld joints for any damage during handling. Check any alteration made during fabrication. Check and record wall thickness of all the components of exchangers and also of their nozzles.

ix)

REMARKS

x)

xi)

iv)

v)

7.0 CHECK LIST FOR INSPECTION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS PRIOR TO ERECTION AND COMMISSIONING
The checklist format shall include the following information.

vi) vii)

Tubes:

CHECKS
viii)

REMARKS

ix)

x) xi) xii) xiii)

xiv)

xv)

Check that the test holes in reinforcement plates are not plugged. Check nozzle flanges facing, gaskets and bolts for mechanical damage. Check free end of slotted holes in saddles are free. Check insulation and fire proofing. Check painting quality. Check and witness hydrostatic tests of shell and tube side. Check that connected piping do not strain the exchanger nozzles. Check the Earthing connection.

cladding). Carbon steel, alloy steel (5% Cr. 1/2% Mo. etc) stainless steel, non ferrous material such as Admiralty/Aluminum Brass, Cupro Nickel, Titanium etc. Bimetallic types having inner and outer layer of different materials are used in exchangers where unusual corrosion problem exists. ( An example of its use will be where it is desirable to use. Cupro Nickel tube in sea water cooled unit in which shell side fluid is corrosive to Cupro Nickel) Various combinations of metals can be used for fabrication of duplex tubes NOTE1 . Carbon steel, Naval Brass etc.

Baffles:

8.0 LIKELY LOCATION OF METAL WASTAGE


Deterioration may be expected on all the surfaces of heat exchanger in contact with hydrocarbon, chemical, sea water, fresh water, steam and condensate. The form of attack may be electrochemical, mechanical or combination of both. The attack may be further influenced by certain accelerating factors such as temperature, stress, fatigue, high velocity of flow and impingement.

Tube Sheets : Carbon steel, Naval Brass, Aluminum Bronze, Cupro Nickel, clad carbon steel, stainless steel etc. Floating Head : Carbon steel, Alloy Steel, cladded steel, Cast Iron, Cast Cupro Nickel (90 Cu 10Ni) etc. Channels and floating head covers of coolers using sea water are sometimes striplined with suitable sea water corrosion resistant material. Stainless Steel is also used as the material of construction for exchangers in special NOTE1 services .

8.1 MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION


The material used for construction of various parts of exchangers are selected to resist, most economically, the type of corrosion expected. Most commonly used material of construction of exchanger parts are given below: Shell: Carbon steel, Alloy corrosion resistant clad (Monel or stainless cladding). Carbon steel, Alloy corrosion resistant clad (Monel or stainless cladding). Carbon steel, Alloy corrosion resistant clad (Monel or stainless steel, steel steel steel, steel steel steel, steel steel

8.2 SHELL
i) Carbon steel shells are prone to internal corrosion and pitting when hydrocarbon streams contain compounds of sulphur such as hydrogen sulphide or mercaptans. At temperatures above 270 degrees C. Hydrogen sulphide reacts with carbon steel and forms Iron Sulphide scales. This usually results in a fairly uniform loss of metal. This type of corrosion is more predominant in preheat exchangers. ii) Internal corrosion can also occur due to low temperature hydrochloric acid and or hydrogen sulphide corrosion in presence of moisture. Overhead condenser shells in crude, vacuum, visbreaker and FCC

Channel:

Shell cover:

distillation units are prone to this type of attack. iii) A combination of wet hydrogen sulphide and hydrochloric acid(that form due to hydrolysis of chlorides in crude during distillation) aggravates the internal corrosion of overhead condenser shells. It will be most pronounced in the bottom part of the shell and lower nozzles. This type of corrosion is fairly uniform or in the form of a groove following the line of flow of the condensate. iv) Reboiler shells are prone to internal pitting or grooving due to steam condensate corrosion. Overhead condensers, coolers and exchangers in sour gas. MEA/DEA service are prone to shell side cracking due to stress corrosion cracking phenomenon at the weld joints if they are not properly stress relieved.

exposed to hydrocarbon vapours containing H2S. Sulphide scales of nickel and copper are formed in Alkaline medium. iii) Erosion of tube ends are common in exchangers and is more pronounced where hydrocarbon streams contain solid particles such as catalyst. This phenomenon can be seen in exchangers in FCC unit. Grooving around tubes may take place at baffle locations due to vibrations or crevice corrosion. Erosion corrosion occurs when the erosion effects of the coolant removes the protective film, thus exposing a fresh surface to corrosion. This type of attack occurs mainly at the tube ends. High velocity, abrupt change in flow direction, entrained air and solid particles will promote erosion corrosion of tubes in coolers and condensers. Tubes in coolers and condensers are prone to localised pitting, dezincification or denickelification. Tubes in exchangers and coolers are susceptible to bulging or warping due to exposure to high temperatures above design range and may finally result in cracking. Sustained vibrations caused due to high velocity or pulsating vapours striking the tubes may lead to fatigue cracks or corrosion fatigue in the form of circumferential fracture of the tubes. When steam is used as a heating medium in tube side of exchangers and reboilers, the condensate may cause grooving or pitting in the tubes. Cooler tubes are susceptible to overheating due to partial/total blocking caused by a) Low velocity of water b) Suspended solids in cooling water c) High water outlet temperature resulting in the hard deposition of CaCO3

iv)

v)

v)

vi) Erosion/corrosion will take place around outlet nozzles of cooler shells due to solid particles like catalyst present in streams. vi) vii) Grooving and thinning of shell may take place in coolers or condensers at the baffle resting locations due to galvanic corrosion. viii) Pitting type corrosion will take place in carbon steel heat exchangers shell in high temperature MEA/DEA or phenol service. viii) ix) External corrosion of shells may result due to water seepage in the thermal insulation having high chloride concentration.

vii)

8.3 SHELL COVER


ix) Shell cover of all the exchangers are prone to corrosion similar to that in shells.

8.4 TUBES
i) Copper zinc alloy tubes like Admiralty Brass or Aluminum Brass tubes are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in pipestill overhead condensers service due to presence of Ammonia. Cupro-Nickel alloy tubes in overhead condensers corrode when they are x)

ii)

8.5 TUBE SHEETS


i) Non ferrous tube sheets like Naval Brass or Cupro Nickel are susceptible to Dezincification or denickelification in cooling water service. Where tubes are prone to erosion corrosion, tube sheets also get damaged at the tube ligament areas by formation of rat holes. Solid particles or marine growth that settle down on the tubesheets due to inadequate screening of cooling water will cause localised attack on tube sheets. Galvanic corrosion of Tube sheets may take place at pass partition grooves when partition plates of channel or floating head cover made of noble metal like Monel or Stainless steel come in contact with tubesheets of active metallurgy.

8.7 CHANNEL AND CHANNEL COVER


i) Channel and channel covers are prone to water side corrosion in coolers and condensers. Carbon steel pass partition plates corrode by galvanic action if they come in contact with noble metallurgy of tube sheets. Unlined carbon steel channel covers are prone to pitting and tuberculation corrosion. Monel lined or lead lined channels get corroded at defects in lining or its welds.

ii)

ii)

iii)

iii)

iv)

8.8 BAFFLES
i) Baffles get thinned out due to general condensate corrosion in hydrocarbon streams. Baffle holes get enlarged due to erosion corrosion and tube vibration.

8.6 FLOATING HEAD COVER


i) Floating head cover which are generally made of carbon steel or lined with monel or lead get corroded in water service at bolts holes and the holes get enlarged. Carbon steel pass partition plates which are in contact with non ferrous tube sheets undergo galvanic corrosion. Floating head back up rings corrode due to retention of acidic condensate in overhead condensers. Failure of gaskets sometimes causes crevice corrosion on gasket face of floating head cover flange. Low alloy strength steel stud bolts, for example ASTM-A-193 Gr. B7 crack due to sulphide stress cracking phenomenon in overhead condensers handling sour gases in presence of moisture.

ii)

8.9 AIR COOLED EXCHANGER


Improper bonding of fins with tubes or the damaged fins results in high differential temperature between passes causing tube bowing and warping. This finally results in tube roll joint leaks.

ii)

8.10 BOX COOLER


Problem encountered in box coolers are generally pitting type corrosion on external surface of coil.

iii)

9.0 FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION


iv) i) The following factors shall govern the frequency of inspection: Service Rate of deterioration and remaining corrosion allowance Statutory requirements like IBR, Factory Act, etc. Change of service and past experience

v)

Operating requirements such as desired cleanliness, fouling, maintenance of required heat transfer rate etc.

persist, stringent painting standard shall be enforced. vi) The condition of welds and HAZ shall be checked for pinholes, cracks etc. The condition of concrete/steel saddle supports shall be checked for any deterioration. Anode plate, if fitted, should be electrically connected to fixed tube sheet. The tubes of air coolers shall be inspected for warping/distortion and condition of fins.

ii)

Time interval between two inspection schedules shall ensure availability of enough corrosion allowance for the net desired run. All those exchangers which can be spared during operation of the plant should be covered under preventive maintenance schedule for inspection and maintenance. In case where the exchanger cannot be spared during operation, its inspection frequency shall be tied up with the shutdown of the plant. After the initial commissioning of the plant, first inspection of the exchanger shall be carried out as per designers recommendations or within two years of service whichever is earlier. This inspection shall include a thorough inspection after pulling out the tube bundle.

vii)

viii) iii)

ix)

10.2 SHUTDOWN INSPECTION


Prior to cleaning, all the accessible parts of heat exchanger, shall be inspected for fouling deposits, scaling, etc. If corrosion is observed beneath these deposits, then all such deposits shall be analysed. Tubes bundles of SS material shall be chemically treated with solution of Sodium Carbonate or Sodium nitrate before exposing it to atmospheric oxygen. For tube bundles where sulphide scales are likely to be available before opening, precautions shall be taken to prevent overheating due to oxidation of pyrophoric iron.

iv)

10.0 INSPECTION PROCEDURES


10.1 ONSTREAM INSPECTION
i) The actual temperature and pressure conditions in relation to design parameters shall be checked. Any changes in fluid stream should be noted and their effect assessed e.g. increase in temperature in hydrogen sulphide service. The exchanger should be checked for fouling which could cause a stream of higher temperature fluid to pass through equipment not designed for such conditions. The paint condition shall be checked for discolouration/burning.

10.2.1 Shell, Shell Covers, Channel, Channel Cover and Floating Head cover:
i) General visual inspection of inside and outside surfaces and welds shall be carried out for signs of pitting, grooving, scaling, erosion or impingement attack. After visual inspection detailed thickness survey of these parts of exchanger shall be carried out using ultrasonic instruments. Shell portions adjacent to tube bundle impingement plate and baffle shall be checked for erosion. All the nozzles and small bore connections shall be checked for thinning. The pass partition plates of channel head and floating head cover shall be inspected for corrosion and warping.

ii)

ii)

iii)

iii) iv) All flange joints and drain nozzles shall be checked for possible leakages. All tell tale holes shall be checked for leaks. Insulated surfaces operating below o 150 C can corrode under wet condition. Where such conditions

iv)

v)

v)

Area of internal corrosion shall be marked on outside shell, shell cover and channel head in order to monitor on stream. Gasket surfaces of all the nozzles shall be visually checked for corrosion or mechanical damage. The lining, if provided shall be checked for any damage.

iii)

The fasteners shall be checked for elongation, thinning and damaged threads.

10.2.4 Air Cooler


vi) i) The cooler assembly body along with the steel framework shall be checked for corrosion, pitting etc. The header compartments and their cover plates shall be inspected for corrosion, erosion, deposits etc. The air cooler shall be checked for tube bowing /warping. The gasket surfaces shall be inspected for corrosion and mechanical damage. The tube ends in header compartment shall be checked for erosion/thinning. If tube ends are welded to tube sheets, the welding shall be checked for cracks, corrosion etc. The accessible tubes externally shall be checked for corrosion, scaling, pitting etc. The fins if provided shall be inspected for fouling, corrosion and/or damage.

vii)

ii)

10.2.2 Tube Bundle


i) The tube sheets shall be inspected for general corrosion, pitting, grooving etc. Gasket surfaces shall be checked for corrosion grooving or mechanical damage. v) iii) Nonferrous tube sheets like Naval Brass or Cupro Nickel should be checked for dezincification or denicklification. Pass partition grooves in tube sheets should be checked for groove pits and erosion. The tube ends inside tube sheets shall be checked for erosion. viii) vi) The tubes shall be checked for plugging or warping. The peripheral tubes, tie rods and baffles shall be inspected for corrosion, erosion, cracks etc. The clearance of peripheral tubes in baffle holes shall be checked. If excessive, failure of tubes will occur due to vibration/erosion. A failure analysis of leaking tubes shall be done to establish cause of failure. iii)

iv) ii)

vi)

iv)

vii)

v)

vii)

10.2.5 Box Cooler


Visual inspection shall be carried out an external surface of cooler pipes after cleaning. Thickness measurements of pipes after cleaning. Thickness measurements of pipes shall be recorded. The Box and the supporting system of cooler coil shall be visually inspected for corrosion/damage etc.

viii)

ix)

10.2.3 General
i) The condition of the saddle support shall be inspected. The backing ring shall be checked for corrosion, pitting, grooving or mechanical damage viz. warping.

10.2.6 Double Pipe Coolers


i) The inner tube/pipe shall be pulled out completely, cleaned and inspected visually for pitting, scaling or any other type of corrosion. Ultrasonic thickness measurements shall be recorded on both inner and outer pipes.

ii)

11.0

REPAIRS AND FOLLOW-UP


The immediate result of any inspection should be recommended by Inspection Engineer for any necessary repairs. These may be as major as a complete retubling of tube bundle or as minor as rerolling of a single tube. Inspection engineer should follow repair jobs to ascertain that they are being done properly and that the material and quality of workmanship are satisfactory.

pressure and the pressure gauge shall be freshly calibrated.

12.1

PROCEDURE OF TESTING OF SHELL AND TUBE TYPE EXCHANGERS

Testing of shell and tube exchanger shall be done in three stages using water. In services where water ingress is not desirable, testing may be done with kerosene. Duration of test shall be sufficient to inspect the joints under pressure.

12.0

TESTING
All the heat exchangers shall be tested at 1.5 times the design pressure with temperature correction applied when shell or tube bundle is new or any major repairs or replacement has been carried out. The periodic test pressure shall be calculated on the basis of 1.5 times, the maximum operating pressure. Additionally, the following points shall be considered while deciding the periodic test pressure.

I) SHELL TEST:
Shell test is carried out after removing shell/channel covers and floating head and providing a test ring between the floating head tube sheet and shell. All the choked tubes shall be cleaned internally prior to test. If dechoking is not possible, then the choked tubes shall be plugged preferably after puncturing them. Shell side of exchangers is ten pressurised gradually. All the visible weld joints and the joint between fixed tube sheet and shell flange shall be checked thoroughly. Pressure drop in gauge shall be watched. In case of roll leak, rerolling of tube end shall be done upto 8% more than original calculated value. The reduction in tube wall thickness shall not be more than 12.5% of the original thickness. In case of tube leak, both the tube ends are plugged with tapered plugs. Plugs material shall be same as that of tube. Pressure testing is repeated till satisfactory results are observed and no tube/roll leak is visible. It is desirable to remove the testing fluid from the shell by air before doing the floating head test. Plug positions shall be marked in the development stage for future records.

1)

Test pressure shall not induce stresses more than 90% of yield strength of material. If the heat exchanger is directly connected to a pump, the test pressure in no case shall be less than the pump shut off pressure. If the shell or tube side of the heat exchanger is connected to any equipment having safety valve installed on it, the test pressure of the exchanger shall not be less than the set pressure of the safety valve. Wherever tube side pressure is higher than the shell side pressure, then the shell side shall be preferably tested at tube side test pressure provided the design conditions of the shell permits. The duration of hydraulic test shall not be less than 30 minutes. During hydraulic testing, the pressure gauge shall be installed at the highest point. the range of the pressure gauge shall be 30% more than the test

2)

3)

4)

ii)

FLOATING HEAD TEST


Test ring on floating head side of tube bundle shall be removed and floating head fitted back in position. Channel end cover shall also be refitted and tube side pressured through channel section. Any leak from gasket joint of floating head, channel cover, tube sheets etc. and from tubes shall be observed. If tube is found leaking, shell test is to be repeated to plug the leaky tube. The

tube test is to be repeated satisfactory results are obtained.

till

iii)

COVER TEST:

This test shall be carried out after fixing shell cover and applying pressure through shell side. The test pressure should be equal to the shell test pressure. Leak, if any, in the gasket joint of shell cover shall be observed and rectified.

A history card for each equipment should show design data, material of construction of each component, shutdown period of exchangers and reason thereof. History card shall also be maintained giving all observations, repairs and replacement carried out (see Annexures). This data will help in forecasting the future repairs/replacement of exchanger parts and ordering long delivery items.

15.0

REFERENCES

12.2

PROCEDURE OF TESTING OF BOX TYPE COOLERS.

This standard shall be read in conduction with the following standards, codes and publications: I) API Guide for Inspection of Refinery Equipment - Ch. VII - Heat Exchangers, Condensers and d Cooler Boxes. II) Standards of Tubular Manufacturers Association. Exchanger

The coil shall be pressured hydraulically and checked for leaks from the pipe, bends, gasket joints, and for any drop in pressure.

12.3

PROCEDURE OF TESTING OF DOUBLE PIPE EXCHANGERS

Inner tube shall be hydraulically tested individually. After boxing up of inner tube, the outer tubes shall be pressurised to check the soundness of outer tube and leakage from the joints.

iii)

Corrosion Engineering - Fontana and Greene.

iv) Corrosion Handbook-Uhlig v) ASME Section VII Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code vi) API 661 Air Cooled Exchangers for general Refinery service.

13.0 LIMITS OF THICKNESS


Retiring thickness of all the different parts of heat exchanger shall be developed as per the Code/Standard for which it is designed. Guidelines given in chapter 7 of API Guide for Inspection of Heat Exchanger, Condenser and Cooler Boxes should also be used.

14.0 RECORDS AND DOCUMENTATION


Separate file should be maintained for each heat exchanger, cooler or condenser.

ANNEXURE
Good Operating Practice for Shell and Tube Exchanger
a) If tube side temperature is higher than shell side and if tube side fluid is commissioned first without shell side fluid, expansion of tube bundle can be sufficient to cause damage like roll leaks, warping/bending of tubes etc. b) When tube side flow regulation is required, ensured throttling is effected on outlet valves. This prevents partial starvation of tubes, overheating and deposition.