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Arithmetic-Progression Series

1. A debt of L.E. X is incurred at t = 0 (purchase of land). It is agreed that payments of L.E. 5000, L.E. 4000, L.E. 3000, and L.E. 2000 at t = 4, 5, 6, and 7, respectively, will satisfy the debt if 10% compounded per period is the appropriate interest rate. By use of the uniform gradient series factor and any other relevant interest factor(s), determine the amount of the debt, L.E. X. 2. By the use of a uniform gradient series formula and any other appropriate formulas, determine the future worth, F, at t = 15 of the following deposits: L.E. 1000 at t= 8, L.E. 900 at t = 9, L.E. 800 at t = 10, and L.E. 700 at t = 11. Assume the fund pays 20% compounded per period. 3. You are faced with making a decision on a large capital investment proposal. The capital investment amount is L.E. 640,000. Estimated annual revenue at the end of each year in the eight-year study period is L.E. 180,000. The estimated annual year-end expenses are L.E. 42,000 starting in year one. These expenses begin decreasing by L.E. 4,000 per year at the end of year four and continue decreasing through the end of year eight. Assuming a L.E. 20,000 market value at the end of year eight and a MARR = 12% per year, answer the following questions. a. What is the PW of this proposal? b. What is the IRR of this proposal? c. What is the simple payback period for this proposal? d. What is your conclusion about the acceptability of this proposal? 4. Hassan ranch is now for sale for L.E. 30,000. Annual property taxes, maintenance, supplies, and so on are estimated to continue to be L.E. 3,000 per year. Revenues from the ranch are expected to be L.E. 10,000 next year and then to decline by L.E. 400 per year thereafter through the 10th year. If you bought the ranch, you would plan to keep it for only five years and at that time to sell it for the value of the land, which is L.E. 15,000. If you desired a 12% rate of return per year, should you become a rancher? Use the PW method. 5. A building owner wishes to establish a fund at the end of 2002 that by the end of year 2019 will grow to an amount large enough to place new roofs on its 39 apartment units. Each new roof is estimated to cost L.E. 2,500 in 2017, at which time 13 apartments will be reroofed. In 2018, another 13 apartments will be reroofed, but the unit cost will be L.E. 2,625. The last 13 apartments will be reroofed in 2019 at a unit cost of L.E. 2,750. The annual effective interest rate that can be earned on this fund is 4%. How much money each year must be put aside (saved) starting at the end of 2003 to pay for all 39 new roofs? State any assumptions you make.

6. Determine the value of X so that the following cash flow series are equivalent at 8% interest. EOY 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Cash Flow (A) L.E. -8000 6000 5000 4000 5000 6000 5000 Cash Flow (B) L.E. -15000 4000 3000 + X 2000 + X 3000 + X 4000 + X 3000 + X

7. What single sum of money at t =4 is equivalent to the cash flow profile show below? Use a 6% interest rate in your analysis.

L.E . 2 0 0

8. Given the two cash flow profiles shown below, for what value of X is the two series equivalent using an interest rate of 10%? EOY Cash Flow (A) L.E. Cash Flow (B) L.E. 0 -200000 -140000 1 24000 16000 2 32000 16000 3 40000 16000 + X 4 48000 16000 + 2X 5 56000 16000 + 3X 6 64000 16000 + 4X 7 72000 16000 + 5X 8 80000 16000 + 6X 9. A company expects to realize revenue of 100,000 m.u. during the first year starting now from the sale of a new product. Sales are expected to decrease gradually with competition, following a uniform gradient, to a level of 47,500 m.u. during the eighth year from now. Draw the cash-flow diagram following the end-of -period convention, if the revenue is invested at a rate of 10 % what will be the compound amount eight years from now? 10. A firm receives a series of eight loans from the government following the uniform gradient shown in figure. The loan will be repaid in a single payment 14 years from now. Determine the amount to be paid if the interest rate is 12 %. What is the present value of this borrowing plan?

3 0 m . 1 .u

4 0 m . 1 .u

1 0

1 1

1 2

1 3

1 4

11. A person invests a 4,000 m.u. now and 2,500 m.u./year for 7 years beginning one year from now with increases of 500 m.u ./year thereafter for the next 5 years. If the interest rate is 10% per year what will be the compound amount 15 years from now? 12. Determine the present equivalent and annual equivalent value of the cash-flow pattern shown in Figure when i = 8% per year.

500 m.u. 400 m.u. 300 m.u. 200 m.u. 100 m.u.

1500 m.u.

13. Find the uniform annual amount that is equivalent to a uniform gradient series in which the first year's payment is 500 m.u., the second year's payment is 600 m.u., the third year's payment is 700 m.u., and so on, and there is a total of 20 payments. The annual interest rate is 8%. 14. Suppose that annual income from a rental property is expected to start at L.E. 1,300 per year and increase at a uniform amount of L.E. 100 each year after the first for the 15-year expected life of the property. The investment cost is L.E. 80,000 and i is 9% per year. Is this a good investment? Assume that the investment occurs at time zero (now) and that the annual income is first received at the end of year one. 15. Refer to the accompanying cash-flow diagram, and solve for the unknown quantity in parts (a) through (d) that makes the equivalent value of cash outflows equal to the equivalent value of the cash inflow, F. a. If F = 10,000 m.u., G = 600 m.u., and N = 6, then b. If F = 10,000 m.u., G = 600 m.u., and i = 5% per period, then N = ? c. If G = 1,000 m.u., N = 12, and i = 10% per period, then F = ? d. If F = 8,000 m.u., N = 6, and i = 10% per period, then G = ?

F=? i%

2

G

3

2G

N-1 N

3G (N 2)G (N 1)G

16. Solve for P in the accompanying cash-flow diagram, by using only two interest factors. The interest rate is 15% per year.

600 m.u. 500 m.u. 300 m.u. 200 m.u. 100 m.u.

17. In the accompanying diagram, what is the value of K on the left-hand cash flow diagram that is equivalent to the right-hand cash-flow diagram? Let i = 12% per year.

6 0 m.u. 5 5 0 m.u. 4 4 0 m.u. 3 K 3 20 m.u. 2 10 m.u. 10 m.u. 0

18. Suppose that the parents of a young child decide to make annual deposits into a savings account, with the first deposit being made on the child's fifth birthday and the last deposit being made on the fifteenth birthday. Then starting on the child's eighteenth birthday, the withdrawals shown below will be made. If the effective annual interest rate is 8% during this period of time, what are the annual deposits in years five through fifteen?

30 20 20 80 20 40

i = 8%

20 00

1 0

11

1 2

13

1 4

15

1 6

17

18

19

20

21

A= ?

19. For a repayment schedule that starts at the end of year four at Z m.u. and proceeds for years 4 through 10 at 2Z m.u., 3Z m.u.,..., what is the value of Z if the principal of this loan is 10,000 m.u. and the interest rate is 7% per year? 20. If 10,000 m.u. now is equivalent to 4Z at the end of year two, 3Z at the end of year three, 2Z at the end of year four, and Z at the end of year five, what is the value of Z when i = 8% per year? 21. Calculate the future equivalent at the end of 1999, at 8% per year, of the following series of cash flows shown in figure

1 9 91 59 91 69 91 79 9189 9 9

22. Find the value of the unknown quantity in the accompanying cash-flow diagram, to establish equivalence of crash inflows and outflows. Let i = 8% per year. Use a uniform gradient factor in your solution.

40 0 50 0 30 0 20 0

10 0

A=?

23. The heat loss through the exterior walls of a certain poultry processing plant are estimated to cost the owner 3,000 m.u. next year. A salesman from Superfiber Insulation, Inc., has told you, the plant engineer, that he can reduce the heat loss by 80% with the installation of 18,000 m.u. worth of Superfiber now. If the cost of heat loss rises by 200 m.u. per year (gradient) after the next year and the owner plans to keep the present building for 15 more years, what would you recommend if the interest rate is 10% per year?

24. Find the value of B on the left-hand diagram shown in figure, that makes the two cash-flow diagrams equivalent at i = 10% per year.

40 00 B

m. u. 30 00 m.u . 20 00 m. u. 10 00 m.u .

25. The operating and maintenance expenses on a machine are expected to increase 0.5 % per month. This month's expenses are L.E. 2000. Find the equal annual series that is equivalent to the monthly expenses over seven years for an interest rate of 24 % per year compounded monthly. 26. Given the cash flow profiles shown below, determine the value of X so that the two cash flow profiles are equivalent at a 10% interest rate EOY 1 2 3 4 5 6 Cash Flow (A) L.E. -12000 1000 3000 5000 7000 9000 Cash Flow (B) L.E. -10000 7000 6000 + 0.5 X 5000 + 1.0 X 4000 + 1.5 X

27. Given the three cash flow profiles shown below, determine the values of X and Y so that all three cash flow profiles are equivalent at an annual interest rate of 8%. EOY Cash Flow (A) L.E. Cash Flow (B) L.E. Cash Flow (C) L.E. 1 -1000 -25000 Y 2 X 3000 Y 3 1.5 X 2500 Y 4 2.0 X 2000 2Y 5 2.5 X 1500 2Y 6 3.0 X 1000 2Y 28. A succession of eight deposits follows a geometric-progression series which has a first payment of 30,000 m.u. The payment at the end of the third period is 38,988 m.u. Find the compound amount at the time of the eighth deposit and the present worth if the interest rate is 14 % per period. 29. A company will make seven consecutive annual investments starting 3 years

from now. The first investment is 100,000 m.u. and the investments decrease at an annual rate of 10 %. What will be the compound amount 14 years from now if the interest rate is 12 %? Determine the single investment that should be made now in order to yield the same amount 14 years ahead. Find the equivalent uniform series of 14 year-end investments which would result in the same amount at the same time. 30. The operating and maintenance expenses on a machine are expected to increase 0.5% per month. This month's expenses are L.E. 2,000. Find the equal annual series that is equivalent to the monthly expenses over 5 years for an interest rate of 21% compounded monthly. 31. A company has just started the operation of a new machine. During the first two years (guarantee period) no maintenance charge is required. During the next three yeas, the annual maintenance cost is expected to be 5000 m.u./year. After that, and due to aging, the annual maintenance cost is expected to increase by 9 % each year. The life of the machine is 10 years. i- Draw a cash-flow diagram (based on the end-of period convention) to represent the schedule of maintenance payments along the whole life. ii- if the company decides to deposits now a sum of money in a bank at an interest rate of 12% such that it will be Just sufficient to pay -for all the maintenance charges during the machine life; calculate the amount of this sum. 32. A company owning an area of land decided to sell the mineral rights on its property to a mining company. The objective was to obtain long-term income in addition to two lump sums to finance two future projects. The long-term annual income starts after one year at 100,000 m.u./year and increases by 15 % each year and continues for 20 payments. The required capitals and the scheduled times for the two projects are 5 and 10 million m.u. eight and twelve years from now respectively. If the mining company wants to pay off its lease immediately how much would it have to pay now if the interest rate is 6%? 33. A geometric gradient that increases at i = 6% per year for 15 years with first inflow of 500 m.u.. The annual interest rate is 12%. What is the present equivalent value of this gradient? 34. An electronic device is available that will reduce this year's labor costs by 10,000 m.u.. The equipment is expected to last for eight years. If labor costs increase at an average rate of 7% per year and the interest rate is 12% per year, a. What is the maximum amount that we could justify spending for the device? b. What is the uniform annual equivalent value (A) of labor costs over the eightyear period? c. What annual year zero amount (A0) that inflates at 7% per year is equivalent to the answer in part (a)? 35. Determine the present equivalent (at time zero) to geometric sequence of cash flows. Where i = 15.5% per year, E = 10%, first payment of 1000 m.u. and 25 periods. 36. A geometric gradient lasts for 10 years whose initial value at year three is 5,000 m.u. and E = 6.04% per year thereafter. Find the equivalent uniform gradient amount (G) over the same time period (beginning in year 1 and ending in year 12) if the initial value of the series at year one is 4,000 m.u.

37. Set up an expression for the unknown quantity, Z, in the accompanying cashflow diagram

15 0 0 14 0 0 1 300 E =2 % 0 12 00 1 0 10 1 0 00 i =3 % 0

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