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is the scientific study of the processes influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms, the interactions among and between organisms and the transformations and flux of energy and matter Ecology: was originally defined in the mid 19 th Century the original definition of ecology is from Ernst Haeckel (German biologist) Ecology: * is the study of the relationship of organisms with their environment and with each other * is the branch of science that studies the distribution and abundance of living organisms, their habitat and the interaction between them and their environment the biotic (other species) and abiotic (climate) elements * is the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms and their environment (the environment as it relates to living organisms) * the scientific study of the relationship of organisms to each other and their environment Ecology: is often used as synonym of the word: the environment, bionomics i.e. the ensemble of all wild organisms that are living mostly in their ages (old environment and manner), with little human interference, and the part of most important to human, i.e. economic, medical, aesthetical, sentimental, hedonistic Ecology Scope: is usually considered a branch of biology, the general science that studies living beings protein, nucleic acids (biomol), cells (cellular biology), organisms (botany, zoology) Ecological Niche: the status of an organism within its environment and community (affecting its survival as a species) niche (the function/position of an organism in a community) Ecological Yield: is the harvestable growth of an ecosystem it is most commonly measured in forestry in fact sustainable forestry is defined as that which does not harvest more wood in a year than has grown in that year (within a given patch of forest) (patch = piece of material to reinforce a hole) the concept is applicable to renewable resources the carrying capacity of an ecosystem is reduced over time if more than the amount which is renewed is consumed natures services analysis calculate the global yield of the Earths biosphere to humans as a whole e.g. yield of ecological commodities: like wood or water useful to humans Ecocide: is thought by some green economists to be accelarated by debt instruments which demand a yield (economics) greater than the ecological capacity to

renew Three definitions of Ecology: 1. is the study of the relationship between organisms and environment is the Haeckelian form mid 19 th Century this definition emphisizes both the biotic and abiotic components of the natural world organisms are the relevant manifestation of the biotic world (Century of macro rather than micro organisms like microbe) positive: the study of relationship rather than the study of organisms in relation to environment. 2. is the study of the distribution and abundance of organisms is the Andrewartha and Birch 1954 reinforced the focus on the organism as the core (central essential) of ecology biotic and abiotic components as factor influencing distribution and abundance (e.g. climatic fluctuation) this definition has not stimulated exploration of the frontier (boundary) of ecology with the sciences of the physical environment positive: emphasizes on quantifiable and unambiguous parameters on which to focus, negative: it omits many important ecological subjects 3. is that focuses on study of ecosystem is from Odum 1971; began with Haeckelian definition to establish a new kind of ecology, i.e. ecosystem ecology this definition focused on the ecology as a the study of the structure and function of nature positive: the ecology is recognized about the process and is not restricted to the pattern or organism alone The characteristic of the Ecology definition: 1. it should be brief, simple, direct, inclusive, 2. reflective of the scope of modern discipline and 3. allow for changes in the detail of the science 4. is the indication of a science rather than an ideology 5. is to point both to biotic and abiotic components of the natural world Dimensions of the Ecology: The shifting axis: is of biotic and abiotic The spectrum are placed only approximately e.g. landscape ecology: - is the focus on heterogeneity and the functional significance of interaction of patches (also entity) - to have a characteristic spatial scale approximating that of regional planning maps (Forman and Gordon, 1986) landscape ecology: may appear between the biome scale at which macroecology and the water shed scale (Likens, 1992) at which ecosystem ecology is often practiced The relationship between ecology and physical sciences defined by exclusive focus on the biotic environment Ecology is shown as a continuum of specialties ordered by increasing proportion of attention devoted to the physical environment compensated for by decreasing focus on biotic features The boundary between biotic and abiotic aspects is highly permeable

Evolutionary Ecology (Michael Bulmer): Ecology is the study of plants and animals at home (in their natural environment) is the branch of the subjects that considers how organisms have evolved to become adapted to their environment, including the interaction with their own and other species (biotic environment) Ecosystem: is a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment is the dynamic and interrelating complex of plant and animal communities and their associated non living environment the physical and climatic features and all the living and dead organisms in an area that are interrelated in the transfer of energy and material an interacting complex of a community and its environment functioning as an ecological unit in nature the organisms in a plant population and the biotic and abiotic which impact on them a group of organisms with specific relationships between themselves and a particular environment Habitat: is the type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives and occurs (e.g. a marine habitat) place where anything is commonly found the physical location or type of environment in which organism or biological population lives or occurs the place occupied by an organism, population or community is defined to include a whole community of organisms the specific area where a species lives Territory: an area of knowledge or interest a region marked off for administrative or other purposes an area that a group defends against other members of its own species Neighborhood: surrounding or nearby region people living near one another the approximate amount of something Species: taxonomic group whose members can interbreed group of populations which can potentially interbreed or actually interbreeding is the most fundamental unit of evolution and is the most specific taxonomic level a classification of related organisms that can freely interbreed the largest natural population whose members are able to reproduce successfully among Taxonomic: pertaining (relate) to or involving taxonomy or the laws and principles of classification taxonomic relation Symbiosis: the relation between two different species or organisms that are

interdependent, each gain benefit from the other a type of organism organism interaction where one organism lives intimate associataion with another The type of symbiotic relations are: mutualism, commensalism, parasitism and amensalism Mutualism: the relation between two different species or organisms that are interdependent, each gains benefits from each other is a type of symbiosis where two or more organisms from different species in close proximity to one another and rely on one another for nutrients, protection or other life functions - all the organisms involved benefit from the relationship Commensalism: the relation between two different kinds of organisms when one receives benefits from the other without damaging it the close association of two or more dissimilar organisms where the association is advantageous to one and doesnt affect the others a type of symbiosis where two or more organisms from different species in close proximity to one another. In which one member is unaffected by the relationship and the other benfits from it Amensalism: is a type of sysmbiosis where two or more organisms from different species live in close proximity to one another, where one of the members suffers as a result of the relationship while the other is unaffected by it Parasitism: the relation between two different kinds of organism in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damaged to it (but usually not fatal damage) a type of symbiosis where two or more organisms from different species live in close proximity to one another in which one member depends on another for its nutrients, protection and/or other live functions the dependent member (the parasite) benefits from the relationship while the other one (the host) is harmed by it the close association of two or more dissimilar organisms where the association is harmful to at least one Convergence: the occurrence of two or more things coming together the evolution of nonhomologous similarities in different evolutionary lines the results of similarities in selective pressures Carrying capacity: the number of people that can be supported by a given ecosystem, given their consumption of natural resources and use of technology Environment: ecology + society is meant nature, emphasizing the aspect of its relation to human beings or animals the complex of climatic, edaphic and biotic factors that act upon an organism or an ecological community and ultimately determine its form and survival

the conditions, influences or forces which affect the desirability and value of property as well as effect on people lives everything external to the organism the interaction of climate, soil, topography and other plants and animals in any given area. an organisms environment influences its form behaviour and survival Environmental economics: the branch of neoclassical economics that addresses environmental problems such as pollution, negative externalities and valuation of nonmarket environmental services environmental economics focuses almost exclusively on efficient allocation and accepts the assumption of neoclassical economics that the economics system is the whole and not a subsystem of the global ecosystem Sink: that part of the environment that receives the waste flow of the throughout and may, if not overwhelmed (destroy), be able to regenerate the waste through biogeochemical cycles back to usable sources Risk: the known probability of occurrence of an event Growth: a quantitative increase in size or an increase in thoroughput Development: the improvement in quality of goods and services as indicated by their ability to increase human well-being, provided by a given thoroughput Entropy: although matter and energy are constant in quantity ( thermodynamics law I), but they change in quality the measure of quality is entropy: essentially a physical measure of the degree of used-up-ness or capacity of matter or energy to be useful to human purposes Thermodynamics: the branch of physics that tells us that matter and energy can be neither created nor destroyed and that the entropy in the total system always increases Externality: - an unintended and uncompensated loss or gain in the welfare of one party resulting from an activity of another party Ecosystem structure: -the individuals and communities of plants and animals of which an ecosystem is composed, their age and spatial distribution and the non-living natural resources present -the elements of ecosystem structure interact to create ecosystem functions