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ASSESSMENT OF THE CONTRIBUTION OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS TO THE LIVELIHOO DS OF LOW INCOME EARNERS, CASE STUDY OF SL UM DWELLERS INTERNATIONAL-KISENYI III

PARISH

BY MPAATA SIMON ENOCH REG. NO. 08/U/24583/EVE

A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENC ES, SCHOOL OF FORESTRY, NATURAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES-DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPH Y, GEO-INFORMATICS AND CLIMATIC SCIENCES IN PARTIAL FULL FILLMENT OF THE REQUIRE MENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELORS OF URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING MAKERERE UNIVERSITY.

OCTOBER 2012 DECLARATION I, MPAATA SIMON ENOCH, declare that the work contained in this report is my orig inal work and has never been submitted for any degree course elsewhere.

STUDENT: MPAATA SIMON ENOCH SIGNATURE: DATE: SUPERVISOR: MR. BISIRIKIRWA MATIA SIGNATURE DATE:..

DEDICATION This piece of work is dedicated to my family and friends especially my dad Mr. I sabirye Moses, my mum Mrs. Isabirye Irene, brothers; James and Emma, sisters: Sa rah, Beatrice, Lydia, Helen, all my friends particularly of Urban planning class 2012, Samuel and Fridah; for all the support you rendered to me to make this re port a success and being patient through the times I bothered you and at all the times I could not be with you because of my commitment to accomplish this degre

e course. Thanks.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I take this opportunity to extend my appreciation to various individuals for the ir support and giving me their time in the course of conducting this study. Iam particularly indebted to my supervisor Mr. Bisirikirwa Matia for his tireless an d consistent academic guidance to make this work a success. His advice was of gr eat help to reach this far with this report. My gratitude also go to the lecturers and students of Urban and Regional planni ng 2012 for their support in providing guidelines on report writing and providin g a conducive environment that significantly led to the success of my course. To my respondents, I owe you great appreciation for providing the relevant infor mation that contributed to the successful writing of this report. officials of S lum Dwellers Federation, Kampala central division and the residents of kisenyi I II parish who took their time to discuss the different views that have been of g reat relevance in the finalizing of this report and being tolerant with the inco nveniences I caused them in one way or the other. God bless you all.

TABLE OF CONTENTS COVER PAGE I DECLARATION II DEDICATION III ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS LIST OF PLATES VIII LIST OF TABLES IX

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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 BACK GROUND TO THE STUDY 2 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 4 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 6 1.4.1 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY WERE 6 1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 6 1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 7 1.6.1. STUDY SCOPE 7 1.6.2. GEOGRAPHICAL SCOPE 7 1.6.3. TIME SCOPE 7 1.7 KEY ENTRY TO THE STUDY 7 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 9 2.1 TYPES OF NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS 9 2.2 EVOLUTION OF NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS IN UGANDA 11 2.2.1 MASS BASED MEMBERSHIP ORGANISATIONS 12 2.2.2 ELITE-LED MEMBERSHIP ORGANISATIONS 13 2.2.3 CULTURAL (ETHNIC) BASED ORGANISATIONS 13 2.2.4 WELFARE AND CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS 13 2.3 THEORIES/CONCEPTS OF NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS 14 2.4 NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS AND THE EVALUATION LITERATURE 2.4.1 WHY AID IS NOT WORKING WELL IN AFRICA 18 2.4.2. WHERE AID HAS BEEN SIGNIFICANT 20

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CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 24 3.1.1 SELECTION OF STUDY AREA 24 3.1.2 STUDY POPULATION 24 3.2. DATA COLLECTION 25 3.2.1 PRIMARY DATA 25 3.2.2 SECONDARY DATA 25 3.3 SELECTION OF NGO 25 3.4 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE 26 3.5 METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION 26 3.5.1 QUESTIONNAIRES 26 3.5.2. INTERVIEWS 27 3.5.1 OBSERVATIONS 27 3.6 SAMPLE DESIGN 27 3.7 METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS 28 3.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 28 CHAPTER FOUR: RESEARCH FINDINGS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSION 30 4.0 INTRODUCTION 30 4.1 STUDY AREA PROFILE 30 4.1.1 HOUSEHOLD INCOMES 31 4.1.2 HOUSING 32 4.1.3 HEALTH, WATER AND SANITATION 33 4.1.4. ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL TRENDS 36 4.1.5. DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS 37 4.1.6. SEASONALITY 37 4.2 NGO GENESIS 38 4.2.1 UGANDA SLUM DWELLERS FEDERATION 39 4.2.2 THE CONTRIBUTION OF UGANDA SLUM DWELLERS FEDERATION TO THE LIVELIHOODS OF LOW INCOME EARNERS OF KISENYI III PARISH 40 4.2.3. HUMAN CAPITAL 40 4.2.5. SOCIAL CAPITAL 41 4.2.6 FINANCIAL CAPITAL 42 4.2.7 PHYSICAL CAPITAL 44 4.2.7.1 HOUSING 45 4.2.7.2 HEALTH AND SANITATION 46 4.2.7.3 ENERGY RESOURCE 47 CHAPTER FIVE: RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 48 5. I OPPORTUNITIES AND NEEDS 48

5.1.1 HOUSING 48 5.1.2. WATER AND SANITATION 50 5.1.3. ENERGY 50 5.1.4. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION 51 5.1.5. URBAN AGRICULTURE 51 5.1.6. INFORMAL SECTOR DEVELOPMENT (PROJECTS) 5.1.7. INSTITUTIONAL BUILDING 52 5.2 CONCLUDING REMARKS 53 BIBIOGRAPHY 54 APPENDICES 56

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LIST OF PLATES Plate 1: Photograph Demonstrating Some of the Contributors to Household Incomes in Kisenyi III Parish 32 Plate 2: These Different Types of Houses in Kisenyi III Parish and the Types of Building Materials Used For Construction and Roofing of the Houses 33 Plate 3: Photograph Is Showing the Impact that Floods Cause to the Low Income Ea rners 34 Plate 4: Water Sources in Kisenyi III 35 Plate 5: Poor Waste Disposal and Management in Kisenyi III 35 Plate 6: Photograph Showing the Community Hall 41 Plate 7: Income Generating Activities 44 Plate 8: Savings Account Book 44 Plate 9: Photograph of the Houses Built by the Federation for Low Income Earners of Kisenyi III Parish 45 Plate 10: Sanitation Building Photo 46 Plate 11: Solar Power in One of the Houses in Kisenyi III Parish 47 Plate 12: Researcher on One of the Houses in Kisenyi III Parish that Needs Impro vement 48

LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Respondents and Percentage of Contribution to Research 28 Table 2: Sources of Information Flow in Kisenyi III Parish 41

CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION

Fostering indigenously meaningful and continuous process of creating such a cons iderate livelihood to low income earners of the developing world has become an i ntractable problem. Over the last decades, there has been a significant increase in the involvement of non-governmental organizations (NGOS) in the development process. (Eric Walker; 2007). This is a response, in part to the growing frustra tion and impatience of donors with the perceived failure of governmental develop mental assistance to generate growth and alleviate poverty. It may also reflect the apparent success of some non-governmental development initiatives such as th e Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. (Glasser, Sacerdote and Scheinkman;1996, Edwards a nd Hulme 1995, Bebbington, Welland and Lewis 1993). The role of NGOs in alleviating poverty is not a new issue. Especially since the post world war 11, NGO involvement in poverty reduction was the main stream. Th ey engaged in relief, emergency or long term development work. (Faisal Z. Ahmed, 2007) It is generally assumed that NGOS have the institutional capacity to redu ce poverty and its often argued that compared to governments especially of devel oping countries, NGOS have comparative advantages. As stated by Vander Heijden, their comparative advantages are; their ability to deliver emergency relief or development services at low cost to many in remote areas, their rapid innovative and flexible responses to emerging financial and technical assistance needs at grass roots level, their long standi ng familiarity with social sector development and poverty alleviation, their exp erience with small scale development projects as well as with those requiring a high degree of involvement by and familiarity with the concerned target groups. ( As quoted by Riddell and Robinson,1995). However, the researcher is concerned with assessing the validity of such claims by writers praising NGOS for their good deeds towards low income earners and yet poverty levels continue to escalate in Uganda. Take an example, in 1970, western support channeled through NGOS in developing c ountries was US $ 0.9 billion, while this volume recorded a steep growth to US $ 505 Billion in 1987 and today it is expected to be over US $ 1 trillion. (world Bank publications 2002). With such a great deal of monies poured into the devel oping countries, one would expect poverty significantly reducing, however, this is not the case. Many developing countries with Uganda inclusive have continued to swim into poverty. Fowler .A (1997) for example contends that the non-governmental organization aut onomy derived from foreign funds has its weakness. He wrote that while extending external linkages, NGOS offer some defense against political interference and c ontrol and are open to the common change of serving their foreign funders than t he people they assume to help. 1.1 BACK GROUND TO THE STUDY Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) refer to legally constituted organizations created by legal persons that operate independently from any Government. The term originates from United Nations and is normally used to refer to organiz ations that do not form part of the Government and are not conventional for prof it business; are task oriented and driven by people with a common interest. A striking upsurge is under way around the global in organizing voluntary activi ty and the creation of private, nonprofit or nongovernmental organizations. Peop le are forming associations, foundations and similar institutions to deliver hum an services, promote grass root development, prevent environmental degradation, protect civil rights and pursue a thousand other objectives formerly provided by government. The scope and scale of this phenomenon is immense. The first of the impulse is the perceived crisis of the modern welfare state rev ealed after reducing global economic growth in the 1970s. Accompanying this cris

is of development since the oil shock of the 1970s and the recession of 1980s wh ich drastically changed the outlook for developing countries. One result has bee n a new-found interest in assisted self-reliance or participatory development an aid strategy that stresses the engagement of grass roots energies and enthusiasms t hrough a variety of Non-Governmental organizations. (Dunia 2010) Since 1986, there has been a rapid proliferation of both indigenous and Internat ional NGOs in Uganda. (kwesiga and Rother,(1993). By 1995, more than 1200 NGOs h ad been registered with the ministry of Internal affairs. (Barton and Biziman, 1 995). NGOs include locally constituted agencies, locally based International age ncies and external organizations. NGOs are assumed to provide many forms of supp ort to communities in form of religious, educational, literacy, agricultural, so cial or charitable. NGO contributions can also be classified as technical (capac ity building, skill and knowledge); resources (equipment, supplies and funds); l iaison/linkages with other agencies and advocacy. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM According to Bratton (1989), NGOS involvement in African development activities has grown rapidly since Independence. Even more than in Latin America and Asia, this has been a response to the evident inability of Governments to deliver basi c services and implement programmes that strengthen the economic participation o f the rural and urban poor. Indeed the African experience has been particularly important in calling the attention of international assistance agencies to the p otential of NGOS as alternative service providers. Since then, the growing invol vement of NGOS in development and service delivery in Africa has contributed to tension between them and governments. The present concern is that the unique qualities which were understood to make N GOS effective champions of the poor and promoters of grass root development-flex ibility, innovation, creativity, are threatened if NGOS continue to operate as p uppets of the donors and may not be of any help to the low income earners. The causes of increasing poverty have been analyzed extensively by World Bank, I FAD and other organizations. Within Uganda, a growing number of researchers have come forward with an increasing body of research diagnosing the nature, magnitu de and causes of poverty. A particularly useful reference is the recently publis hed book, can Africa claim the 21st century? (World Bank publications). The wellbeing levels and trends in Uganda are mixed up. While reports indicate t hat the country had one of the highest economic growth rating worldwide (6% GDP growth rate), as well as in Africa, between 1990 and 2006, it is still ranked am ong the 49 least developed countries by United Nations development programme (UN DP 2006). Another United Nations report ranks Uganda favorably by regarding income distrib ution (fifth of the 23 countries covered by the survey in Africa). Yet again, su rvey data in Uganda demonstrates that the Eastern and northern regions are laggi ng behind their central and western counterparts. Whereas the end of 2006 saw fa lling poverty levels, never the less more people remain in poverty, both in abso lute and relative terms despite the NGOS involvement in strategies to alleviate it. More recent evidence demonstrates poverty levels increasing to 38% in 2009/2 010. (Uganda Bureau of Statistics, 2010) It is worth learning from observations conducted on NGO performance in alleviati ng poverty that NGO contributions to poverty reduction are limited. Edward and H ulme (1995) stated that it is difficult to find general evidence that NGOS are c lose to the poor. There is growing evidence that in terms of poverty reduction, NGOS do not perform as effectively as had been usually assumed by many agencies. More specific evidence is provided by Riddell and Robinson, 1995, who conducted

a case study on sixteen NGOS undertaken in four countries in Asia and Africa. Th ey found that while NGO projects reach the poor people; they tend not to reach d own to the very poorest. 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The major objective of the study was to identify the capacity of NGOS in address ing issues of poverty. 1.4.1 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY WERE 1. To make comparison of how the people were and are after the initiation of the projects of Slum Dwellers International in Kisenyi III parish, Kampala central division. 2. To identify the problems faced by the community and the slum dwellers interna tional in the delivery of services. 1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. How were the people before establishing the slum dwellers international feder ation in this area? 2. What services are offered by slum dwellers international? 3. How are the people benefiting from these services to improve their livelihood s? 4. What measures can be put forward to counter the problems met in the delivery of services? 1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 1.6.1. Study scope The study made a comparison between the ways the people in Kisenyi III parish we re before Slum dwellers international initiated their projects and how these peo ple are after the establishment of the projects and this was intended to help th e researcher to analyze whether the NGO is trying to reduce the level of poverty and in what ways it is doing so and the problems met in service delivery and an alyze the capacity of NGOs in poverty reduction initiatives. 1.6.2. Geographical scope The study was carried out in Kisenyi III parish, Kampala central division. Kisen yi III parish is a slum in Kampala central division, which is a locality for man y low income earners. It was selected basing on the fact that it was familiar to the researcher and it had all the qualities that the researcher intended to ana lyze. 1.6.3. Time scope The research project took eight months, which is to say from March to October (2 012) This involved selection of the topic and case study, proposal writing, lite rature review of the topic, data collection, compilation, analysis, report writi ng and approval. 1.7 KEY ENTRY TO THE STUDY According to the UN habitat (2007), slums are a major challenge in many cities o f the developing world, Uganda inclusive and it is becoming a concern for both G overnment and voluntary bodies. The emergence of slums in Kampala city has been gradual and sustained over a long period of time. It is partly attributed to the failure of Kampala structure plans to cater for the growth and development of h er neighborhood. (UN- Habitat, 2007) The population of Kampala is growing at annual average rate of 4.1%, this growth is influenced by migration and not just the natural rate of increase. Over 60% of Kampalas population lives in slums. The rate at which the city is developing i s higher than the capacity for Kampala capital city authority to adequately plan and implement the plans. Consequently, a lot of unplanned settlements are comin g up with many of them taking place in prohibited areas such as wetlands. (UN-Ha

bitat, 2007). As a result, voluntary organizations such as slum dwellers interna tional have opted to giving a hand to Government in promoting the welfare of slu m dwellers. Understanding how these cities can be helped is a very big issue that does not o nly require Government initiatives but a number of parties to get together and b rain storm possible solutions including providing training, raising funds and al so expert knowledge from people coming from such countries that have had similar challenges in order to come up with viable solutions that are as well realistic to meet such challenges. It requires that public and private partnerships are f ormed since issues of slums cut across boundaries. Thus, this study intended to explore the contributions NGOs are making towards t he livelihoods of low income earners and also looked at the benefits people have or/and are deriving out of their activities CHAPTER TWO 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW The chapter presents an assessment of the contribution of non -governmental orga nizations in the global context as documented by scholars and writers and gives a conceptual frame work of Nongovernmental organizations in transforming lives o f low income earners. Under the literature review are the types of NGOS, a brief history of NGOS in Uganda, concepts and theories of NGOS and an overview of the evaluation literature. Apart from the simple and single definition of NGOS in the Glossary, it is impor tant that definitions are sought to truly grasp the meaning of Non Governmental Organizations. Bratton M (1990) defines NGOS as voluntary institutions that repr esent interests of and needs of people. It is a social force in which the people themselves become the nucleus of activities. The World Banks (1989) operational directives define them as private organization s that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor , protect the Environment, provide basic social services and undertake community development. 2.1 TYPES OF NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS Aid has become more institutionalized and bureaucratic. NGOS present a more pers onal concern which is expressed in either operational or non operational role. T he NGOS may train their own staff and have them working in the field (operationa l) while others prefer to channel supplies directly through small projects or co operatives (non operational). Bratton (1989) classifies NGOS into three categories, that is; the community bas ed associations, commonly known as indigenous NGOS. They are formed and run by t he locals who have a small and intimate membership and use primarily local resou rces. This category of NGOS may be locally run but nowadays depend on funding fr om foreign bodies. The second category is characterized by small professional staff which provides support in form of management, training, information and policy formulation from the grass root. The third category concentrates on the area of public policy, attempting to infl uence the positions of Governments and sometimes corporations. (This is where gr oups like save the children fund belong). Most NGOS nowadays have all the three categories finally blended. In Uganda, the phenomenon of NGOS has been so strong that it forced authorities to come up wit h the Uganda National NGO forum in 1997 to create a broad national body for NGOS to come together in their diversity, in pursuit of a collective agenda of engag

ement with government and other development sectors. 2.2 EVOLUTION OF NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS IN UGANDA In the past, NGOS in Uganda comprised of diverse categories and included traders , farmers, women groups, trade unions and political activists. These merged and metamorphosed in their formation, character and role in the countrys political an d socio-economic history. In the period before the country gained independence from Britain (particularly between 1920 and1950), these organizations existed mainly to resist colonial opp ression and exploitation. M. Mamdani contends that prior to Ugandas independence; the country had two stran ds of NGOS namely; elitist groups demanding for equal opportunities with colonia lists for education and employment opportunities, on the other hand militant gro ups often comprising of the peasantry and workers, demanding for higher commodit y prices and political independence. Mamdani correctly argues that the colonial state provided little or no space for civil society activism and it sought to co ntrol the evolution, content and impact of association life in Uganda in order t o prevent drastic challenges to the Colonial state. Traditional village mutual self help associations have a long history in Africa, though modernizing states have always tended to play them down on grounds that they present barriers to progress. Both trade unions and cooperatives figured pr ominently in Africas struggle for independence but many were later reduced to ins truments of patronage politics and largely lost their ability to provide indepen dent leadership. (Hyden 1983) Churches and missionary societies were important in Africa throughout the coloni al era. Colonial governments were concerned primarily with maintaining law and o rder, provision of basic education and health care services were left to church related organizations. (Bratton 1989) According to Bratton, Africas first modern NGOS in the latter days of colonial ru le as ethnic welfare associations. Through these associations, newly urbanized A fricans were able to articulate their demands that colonial governments gave mor e attention to essential services. The associations were the foundations of nati onalist political parties and the role they played against colonial governments was clearly political. 2.2.1 MASS BASED MEMBERSHIP ORGANISATIONS These organizations were formed to promote economic and social interests of peas ants and workers and included peasant based cooperatives formed in the inter-war years to resist the monopolization of trade in agricultural products by the col onial state and immigrant communities from Europe and Asia. In addition to coope ratives, trade unions were formed in this period to address labor related issues including low wages and poor working conditions. It was trade unions that organ ized the general strike of 1945 leading to an increase in wages and an improveme nt in the conditions at work places. (Barya and Bazaara 2000) 2.2.2 ELITE-LED MEMBERSHIP ORGANISATIONS Elite based organizations were formed in the colonial period by middle class Afr icans aggrieved by the colonial policies. These included organizations such as yo ung men of Buganda, young men of Toro, and the Uganda African Welfare Associatio n. (Barya and Bazaara 1999) In addition, some women organizations were founded at this time for example Uganda Council of Women. In the main, these comprised of middle class urban women who rallied around collective women rights issues such as citizenship, civic education and voting rights and they actively pushed for i ncreased female participation in National politics. (Tamale 1999) 2.2.3 CULTURAL (ETHNIC) BASED ORGANISATIONS

These were organizations formed particularly seeking to advocate for parochial i nterests of groups in the country for example Buganda kingdom, Bunyoro kingdom a nd so forth. They were organized under cultural leaders as heads. 2.2.4 WELFARE AND CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS These were formed under the auspices of the church, such as Red Cross society an d the Salvation Army. They were distant from the membership organizations in tha t they acted as philanthropic intermediaries providing welfare services to the p oor. In this role, they were the early precursors of NGOS that rose in the latte r years. 2.3 THEORIES/CONCEPTS OF NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS World Bank publications (1989) explain that the idea of NGOS is a new phenomenon that appears to have taken root in Uganda especially in 1980s. Since then, many studies have been done on the contribution they play to rural and urban areas w orld over, but most studies have been carried out in third world countries becau se this is where Aid is most needed. Semuyaba J (1990) states that NGOS are just another aim for imperialistic tenden cies. He also calls NGOs developmentalists and welfarist; however, it is worth n oting that the work NGOS do in some instances is commendable though they still h ave loop holes in their activities and projects. For example, they do not addres s the most immediate problems of the poor but rather they try to impress what th eir donors wish and may not seem to benefit the poor that much. Bratton M (1990) explains that poverty manifests itself through lack of access t o and control of resources and hence lack of social power. He states that when U ganda attained political independence in 1962, the citizens expected rapid econo mic development and prosperity from being able to utilize the countrys vast natur al resources rather than cling on to Aid from colonialists. He further emphasize d the independence hopes of the poor and their subsequent disillusionment that t he country instead produced nothing out but registered high rates of poverty. Semuyaba J (1990) argues that the role of Government has been overwhelmingly usu rped by NGOS. Most social and economic matters largely lie in the hands of NGOS and further notes that provision of social services had been abducted by colonia l states and now it is taken over by NGOS. Hyder G (1987) states that NGOS have a development approach which had penetrated into rural areas, which areas Governments of developing countries had kept away from. For instance, NGOS in Uganda interact with marginalized neglected groups and rural communities to eradicate social disharmony. Semuyamba J (1990) asserts that NGOS threaten the existence of the state because the state is bound to lose its political supremacy and economic power to NGOS w hich manifests the inherent weakness and failures of the state to foster genuine social and economic development. Maxwell (1988) describes NGOS as the appropriate form of agency for dealing with a wide spectrum of intervention especially emergency relief. He views NGOS as t he best response to community problems because their policies depend on what the community needs. However, Maxwell fails to give due attention to the fact that NGOS are much more responsible to their donors than the needy. Donors finance pr ojects according to their own priorities and not necessarily in relation to comm unity needs and priorities. Though NGOS in Africa have been formed due to such reasons, the basic problems i n developing countries have been lack of funding from the state; to be optimisti c, where the state will be able to support its needy, there will be no need for NGOS.

2.4 NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS AND THE EVALUATION LITERATURE There is a growing evaluate literature on NGOS and their contribution to develop ment effectiveness. Some of the most pertinent evaluation findings have originat ed from NGOS themselves, such as Oxfam and save the children fund. Sectorally focused findings have been presented by research institutes and NGOS specialists. The role and performance of intermediary NGOS have been assessed as have some aspects of World Bank involved with NGOS. Quantitative evaluations of NGO sector in general are nonexistent. However, a nu mber of academic studies have estimated the effect of individual projects for ex ample several randomized evaluation of local NGOS in Kenya and India found that they improved education out comes. (Banerjee et al, 2003; Kremer, 2003). They de scribe a program in which NGO international Christelijk Steunfonds provided unif orms, text books and class room construction to seven randomly selected schools from a pool of 14 poorly performing candidates. This program raised school enrol lment and after five years, pupils in the treatment schools had completed about 15 percent more schooling. Not all randomized evaluations of NGO programs, howev er, find positive outcomes; sometimes evaluations find no difference. (Dufflo an d Kremer 2003) A small critical evaluation literature has emerged questioning the effectiveness of NGOS in improving the lives of their intended beneficiaries for example Mend elson and Glenn (2002) scrutinize democracy building NGOS in Eastern Europe and argue that foreign NGOS may have created domestic off shoots that were well fund ed but weak in grass roots support. Stiles (2002) has argued that the growth an d sophistication of Bangladeshs NGO sector may cause some of these organizations to seek a greater presence in the public arena (by getting involved in politics) and to pursue for profit activities that may have some un intended and negative consequences for the lives of the poor. Relatedly, Gauri and Galef (2005) note that the adoption of micro finance activities by Bangladesh NGOS seems to have created incentives for managers of these organizations to maximize the size of t heir portfolios by targeting wealthier villages. While this may be efficient in a strictly economic sense, this can mean that activities of NGOS might not reach the poorest individuals. NGOS in both Bangladesh and Uganda do not appear to lo cate in the neediest communities. (Fruttttero and Gari 2005). Even though evalua tion is commonly espoused as a tenet of good NGO work, the collective body of in dustry evaluations reveals very little about their actual impact. (Edwards and H ulme 1996). According to OECD (1997) survey of such assessments, there is still a lack of firm and reliable evidence on the impact of NGO development projects an d progress. 2.4.1 WHY AID IS NOT WORKING WELL IN AFRICA According to Dambisa Moyo; in her book Dead Aid (2009), in the past fifty years, more than one trillion us dollars in development related Aid has been transferre d to Africa from rich countries. Has this assistance improved the lives of Afric ans? No, in fact, across the continent, the recipients of this Aid are not bette r off as a result of it, but worse-much worse. In Dead Aid, Dambisa Moyo describes the state of post war development policy in Africa today and unflinchingly confronts one of the greatest myths of our time; that billions of dollars of Aid sent from wealthy countries to developing Africa n Nations has helped reduce poverty and increase growth. In fact, poverty levels continue to escalate and growth rates have steadily decl ined and millions continue to suffer. Provocatively drawing a sharp contrast bet ween African countries that have rejected the Aid route and prospered and others that have become Aid dependent and seen poverty increase. Moyo illuminates the way in which over reliance on Aid has trapped developing countries in a vicious cycle of Aid dependence, corruption, market distortion and further poverty leavi

ng them with nothing but the need for more Aid. Debunking the current model of International Aid promoted by both Holly wood cel ebrities and policy makers, Moyo offers a bold new road map for financing develo pment of the worlds poorest countries that guarantees economic growth and a signi ficant decline in poverty-without reliance on foreign Aid or Aid related assista nce. She argues that the appeals by western powers for Aid are paternalistic and simplistic and that the appeals for a Marshall plan for Africa are based on the w rong historical lessons and that mindless aid targets like 0.7% or cost estimates for the millennium development goals can be counterproductive in the long run. ( Global Aid has been above the supposed level necessary to reach the developed co untries for the past years, yet most countries are still way off track). To me, Dead Aid is an unsettling yet optimistic work, a powerful challenge to th e assumptions and arguments that support a profoundly misguided development poli cy in Africa. And it is a clarion call to a new, more hopeful vision of how to a ddress the desperate poverty that plagues millions of Africans. In this context, Dambisa Moyo argues that Aid has not only done Africa no good but actually harm ed the continent. By her account, Aid has created dependency and usurped what sh ould be the role of African governments to provide for their own people. Thus, A id is the principal reason poverty, corruption and under development is still so prevalent. Aid has helped to make the poor poorer and growth slower, with Aids help, corrupt ion fosters corruption, nations quickly descend into a vicious cycle of Aid. For eign Aid props up corrupt governments-providing them with freely usable cash whi ch foments conflict. The prospect of seizing power and gaining access to unlimit ed wealth is irresistible, so not only would it appear that Aid undermines econo mic growth, keeping countries in states of poverty, but is also, in itself an un derlying cause of social un rest and possibly even civil war. Beyond politicizat ion of the political environment, Aid fosters a military culture. Moyo also worries about the long term impact on a country after decades of Aid d ependency. By this logic, getting lots of money from outsiders under cuts any in centive to raise taxes or deliver services, and thus leads to corrupt and un acc ountable Governments that barely pay attention to their own people. This does no t sound too far off a description of many African Governments. It is indeed important to note that in Uganda, aid has fostered corruption withi n government. Take an example of the global funds amounting to 270 million Ugand a shillings that was meant to help HIV/ AIDS patients was embezzled by ministers . Much of the Aid assistance rendered to most African countries has often given support to corrupt governments that have established themselves into power and t urned into dictatorial governments. Instead of using such assistance to help low income earners into ventures that support their livelihood, this assistance is used to buy machinery in terms of arms that such governments are established mil itarily not to leave power. As such, problems of wars as a result of the need fo r change in governance which has left many countries destabilized and instead of Aid being a contribution to the livelihoods of people; it has instead fostered conflicts and wars. Therefore, the amount of assistance (Aid) should be minimize d and developed nations should make efforts to see that assistance rendered shou ld be directed to the projects planned to make it meaningful. 2.4.2. WHERE AID HAS BEEN SIGNIFICANT According to reports by UNAIDS and WHO 2008, in the aspect of HIV/AIDS, 2.1 mill ion Africans are on life saving ARVS. The battle against HIV/AIDS in sub Saharan Africa has largely been funded by Aid. As a direct result of increased Aid, the number of people in Africa on life saving antiretroviral drugs increased from 5 0,000 in 2002 to 2.1 million in 2007. 1. Largely because of newly effective smart aid, several countries have achieved even more dramatic progress. In Senegal and Rwanda, over half of the people in

need of antiretroviral medication are receiving it, and in Botswana and Namibia, these coverage rates are above 75% 2. There is clearly much more than that which has to be done, but in 2002, the p ercentage of Africans in need who were receiving treatment was only 1% 3. AIDS used to be a death sentence, but today, two pills can bring someone who was on deaths door to life, to his or her family, job and community. To deny the poor access to these drugs is literally sentencing them to death. Aid alone will never be enough to end the AIDS pandemic in Africa-better health systems, more health workers and proper program management and critical elements too-but simple truth is that aid to Africa is saving millions of lives every ye ar that would otherwise be lost to HIV/AIDS. In the aspect of malaria, aid has a crucial role in tackling malaria. 16 of the 20 African countries which data is available have at least tripled their coverag e of insecticide treated bed nets for children since 2000. In Rwanda and Ethiopia, malaria cases and deaths were cut by more than 50% in tw o years, thanks to the dramatic scale up of bed net delivery and expanded access to effective anti malaria drugs paid for by aid. In Ethiopia by 51% and by 60% between 2005 and 2007. In Rwanda, by 66% and 64% within a single year. (2006-200 7) In the education sector since 1999, 34 million more African children have been e nrolled in primary schools, thanks to increasingly effective aid. It is worth no ting, that studies have shown that educating girls for five years can boost chil d survival rates by up to 40% and educated mothers are 50% more likely to immuni ze their children than uneducated mothers. The above contributions are attributed to NGOs according to reports by UNAIDS, W HO and UNICEF, 2008 and as a result of improving the health of low income earner s through access to free drugs and insecticide treated bed nets, NGOs have enabl ed them to become more healthier and get engaged in productive activities hence contributing a bigger percentage of labor force as a result of empowerment in hu man capital; this eventually contributes to the livelihoods of low income earner s in that as they get more engaged to productive activities, they are able to ea rn a living that enables them access services such as good nutrition, clothing, medical care and decent housing and hence we cannot under mine the fact that NGO s are making a wonderful contribution to the livelihoods of low income earners b y enabling them access free drugs, their savings are also increasing and this en ables them meet other expenses like taking their children to better schools. Therefore, from the above experience, NGOs are playing a vital role to enabling low income earners meet their livelihood objectives. However, NGOs need to focus on ways of empowering low income earners to on ways of moving out of poverty th rough engaging them in income generating activities. Poverty is the greatest con tributor to low incomes because many are unemployed. CHAPTER THREE 3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The research was descriptive and analytical and was conducted empirically. It in volved extraction of both primary and secondary data. 3.1.1 SELECTION OF STUDY AREA For collecting primary data, Kisenyi III Parish was selected by the researcher. Kisenyi III parish is located in Kampala central division, Kampala district, Uga nda. Kisenyi III is a slum settlement occupying 10% of the total area of Kampala district and has a total population of 4,536 people. (KCC 2009). This area has been chosen keeping in mind the fact that it is familiar to the researcher and b eing a slum area, the researcher is interested in assessing the contribution slu

m dwellers international has played since it is assumed that it has a number of projects within this area. This will give a clear picture of whether NGOS are of any significance to low income earners since it is assumed that NGOS are servic e providers to the poor. 3.1.2 STUDY POPULATION The study population included SDI officials and beneficiaries in Kisenyi III par ish. Out of the inventory of NGO activities in the area, specific information wa s collected about the benefits of the NGO to the community in line with: improvi ng health, providing access to services (good housing, clean and safe water, edu cation and literacy), income generating activities, physical developments, sanit ation and food sources. 3.2. DATA COLLECTION For the purpose of this research, the researcher collected and gathered up both primary and secondary information. Primary data in this case was information ext racted from the field with contact with the stakeholders; both the officials and the beneficiaries and it is sometimes referred to as first hand information whi le secondary data involved that information written down or recorded. 3.2.1 PRIMARY DATA Primary data was collected by the researcher from the local beneficiaries, NGO a ctivists, NGO executives, local council government employees and private sector executive. Local beneficiaries were contacted in terms of how the NGO projects h ave improved their livelihood. 3.2.2 SECONDARY DATA Apart from primary data, secondary data was collected from different sources. Fo r this purpose, office records of slum dwellers international; published and un published information, planning documents for NGOS and other relevant matters we re collected for data compilation. 3.3 SELECTION OF NGO For this particular purpose, Slum Dwellers International was selected by the res earch on a judgmental basis. Selection was based on the activities of the NGO as regards the poor and its existence in the study area. 3.4 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE Primary data was collected at various time intervals through different methods a nd by use of a number of tools such as reconnaissance surveys, household surveys , interviews, group dialogues with the community people and field observations. During reconnaissance, surveys were conducted by visiting the concerned NGO exec utives, local communities and some of the project beneficiaries at the selected field of study. The researcher himself was involved in obtaining the field infor mation. 3.5 METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION Data collection was carried out using different methods and tools for ensuring t hat the researcher could exhaust whatever was at hand in order to make a conclus ion on NGOs and livelihood improvement in kisenyi III parish, Kampala central di vision. 3.5.1 Questionnaires Questionnaires are a good way to collect perception data from people (stakeholde rs, staff, beneficiaries), particularly if there is a large number of people who se views you want. Two unstructured questionnaires were formulated and one was administered to the NGO executives and the other to the community people in the study field. Unstruc tured questionnaires allowed for richer feedback that provided insight into expl anations for what is happening and participants opinions, attitudes, feelings and perceptions. They also allowed for issues to emerge that were not necessarily f oreseen by the researcher.

3.5.2. Interviews Interview is a conversation involving the interviewer and the interviewee (respo ndent) in order to gain information about them. Interviews were as well conducted with various persons of the NGO executives and the beneficiaries of Slum Dwellers International projects in kisenyi III. Inter views were carried out through contact with the relevant personalities. Intervie ws allowed participants to provide rich, contextual description of events, being able to obtain first hand information and contact with the community people. 3.5.1 Observations Observation refers to looking at something and being able to analyze it; and inv olves systematic election, watching identification and taking snaps of developme nt projects by the researcher as he moved through the study area for purposes of ground truthing of the projects of Slum Dwellers International. Observation was adopted because it permits collection of information on facts no t catered for by the questionnaire; in addition to testing the reliability of th e responses to the questionnaires. The study further involved taking of snaps of the area of study in particular the important scenes that validate the problem in question. Snaps were endorsed so as to give visual evidence of the matter of the problem as observed in the field. 3.6 SAMPLE DESIGN Sample size consisted of 30 Respondents Chosen randomly from among Slum Dwellers International (SDI) officials, local leaders and the beneficiaries. 6 responden ts were selected from SDI officials, 4 from local leaders and 20 from the commun ity. Below is a table demonstrating the number of respondents and the percentage of their contribution to this research. Table 1: Respondents and Percentage of Contribution to Research Category of respondents Number of respondents percentage SDI officials 6 20% Local leaders 4 13.3% beneficiaries 20 66.7% 3.7 METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS The data collected was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitati ve data analysis was used to describe and interpret the realities of the study p roblem under circumstances where the respondents expressed themselves and the re searcher made observations. Quantitative data analysis involved the use of manual analysis and SPSS software . Manual analysis was used to summarize data from the questionnaires which was c onverted into frequencies and percentages. However, SPSS software was used to fi nd mean and standard deviation where manual method was not applicable. 3.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The questionnaires used were in the English language and the researcher had to i nterpret the questions in the local language, that is, Luganda because a number of the respondents never knew English. Some respondents were suspicious of the s tudys intentions during interviews. However, it was over come when the researcher explained to them the purpose of the study exhaustively to their understanding until they were positive in providing the information that was needed. It was risky and difficult to take snaps. However, the researcher had to talk to respondents who then allowed taking of snaps of some of the area activities.

CHAPTER FOUR

RESEARCH FINDINGS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSION 4.0 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents the research findings, analysis and discussion of data rel ated to an assessment of NGO contribution to the livelihoods of low income earne rs case study of slum dwellers International in kisenyi III parish, Kampala cent ral division. Focus was put on the objectives of the organization, services offe red, that is financial capital, social capital, physical capital, human capital and how the residents are benefiting out of these services in the study area. Da ta is analyzed and presented in this chapter. 4.1 STUDY AREA PROFILE Kisenyi III parish is one of the three parishes that make up Kisenyi and it is l ocated in Kampala central division. Kisenyi is a large informal settlement locat ed in the south western part of Kampala central division. It is situated amongst the key productive areas of down town, Kampala and adjoining the central Busine ss District. Realities of life in kisenyi vary from individual to individual though most face similar challenges. In kisenyi III, residents live in extremely close quarters having inadequate services and the ones available are sub standard and pronounce d threats to health and hygiene. Many of these are a result of flooding and poor sanitation which touches the biggest number of residents Threats of eviction are also a concern for almost all residents due to the proxi mity of the settlement to the central business district and resultant high land values. According to Uganda Slum Dwellers Federation enumeration, it revealed that rent expenditures vary. Half of kisenyis residents pay less than 50,000shs per month f or rent; 25% pay between 50,000shs and 100,000shs; and 15% pay over 100,000shs e ach month. Few residents own their homes. 4.1.1 Household incomes The greatest contributor to household incomes of the communities in Kisenyi III is the informal sector in which the greatest number of people is engaged. 78% of the residents are estimated to work in small scale industries for example maize mills, metal fabrication workshops where they make windows, doors and household products such as irons, pans, trunks and so forth. Garages are as well prevalen t in Kisenyi III and they also employ a few residents within the community and w omen are as well engaged in food vending. There are also small businesses such a s retail shops, kiosks, saloons, scrap dealings, all of which are contributions to household incomes. However, it is important to note from observations conduct ed in the field, that peoples household incomes are often staggering as a result of the overall performance of the economy and many cannot raise enough income ou t of their activities to support their families and basic facilities such as goo d nutrition, better health services, decent housing cannot be accessed by many. Case 1. Mrs. Kigenyi Suzan dealing in food vending in Sapoba zone. She has been in this business for five years. Suzan revealed to the researcher t hat food vending has helped her support her family since the death of her husban d in 2008. Mrs. Kigenyi started food vending in 2007 where her initial capital w as 50,000shs. Out of this capital, she says she would make profit of 15,000shs t o 30,000shs per day. However, she has now expanded her business and her current capital investment is 200000shs and she makes profit of 50,000shs to 70,000shs p er day out of which she supports her family through providing school fees to her three children. Plate 1: Photograph Demonstrating Some of the Contributors to Household Incomes in Kisenyi III Parish

Source: field; pans. Locally made pans and cooking pans (sigiri) and sauce pans in which many are engaged is a source of income to many in Kisenyi III parish. 4.1.2 Housing Examination of the existing housing stock in Kisenyi III parish reveals a lack o f adequate and affordable options. The dual problems of inadequate quality and i nsufficient quantity are inextricably linked. The supply of affordable and decen t housing is insufficient; the impoverished have therefore resorted to build in dangerous and insecure areas with temporary and often unsafe building materials. The use of temporary housing materials is in many aspects a consequence of the high and rapidly rising price tag for permanent materials. Permanent building ma terial production costs have risen sharply in recent years in the back of rising energy costs and in light of a spike in International commodities demand-partic ularly for steel and cement. In Kisenyi III parish, the largest percentage of ho using stock roofing is by iron sheets, followed by wood and cement. Other buildi ng materials used are bricks, mud, wattle, plastic and tiles. For NGOs, there is need to put emphasis to providing training to residents in the production of bu ilding materials locally that will enable them build decent and strong houses. A ccording to Mr. Balinda Edward, coordinator of the federation, he says that slum dwellers federation has introduced the production of bricks, tiles and ladders and in the long run, residents will be able to build better houses than they hav e today and this is a contribution to the livelihoods of low income earners. Plate 2: These Different Types of Houses in Kisenyi III Parish and the Types of Building Materials Used For Construction and Roofing of the Houses Source: from the field.. 4.1.3 Health, Water and Sanitation The health situation of Kisenyi III is appalling. There are a number of dilapida ted houses and pit latrines plus blocked drainage channels. Many of the housing stock are situated adjacent to one another and incase of a contagious disease ou tbreak, many are likely to acquire it. Kisenyi III has a number of private clini cs and pharmacy that provide medication to residents but it was noted that many are expensive while at the same time serviced by un qualified personnel who ofte n give wrong medication to patients and sometimes sell expired drugs putting the health of many at risk. Water in kisenyi III is available where there is a number of prepaid water taps. The price for this water is 100shs for 4 jerry cans as revealed by Mrs. Ssentam u Monica, a tap attendant. However, due to the existing high population, the ava ilable prepaid water taps are inadequate and some residents draw water from spri ngs within the community. As a result of poor waste management, kisenyi III suffers much from flooding in times of heavy down pours. This is attributed to the fact that waste disposal ar e lacking in many homes and residents use drainage channels as dumping ground le ading to blockage of the drains and hence when it rains, garbage is spread throu gh the settlement. Under such a condition, disease breeds and spreads quickly we akening peoples vitality to work. Plate 3: Photograph Is Showing the Impact that Floods Cause to the Low Income Ea rners Source; SDI documentations. The above photograph is showing the impact that fl oods cause to the low income earners in the destruction of property, movement is hindered though many are forced to move through the water to reach to their pla ces of residence which water is a health threat that leads to disease such as ru ns diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid hence reducing peoples vitality to work as they fall sick and the little incomes earned are spent on treatment which is the sole reason they are still held up in severe poverty. Plate 4: Water Sources in Kisenyi III Source; field. Though Kisenyi III is serviced with prepaid water taps, there is

still a good number of people who fetch water from springs which water may not b e clean and safe for consumption. This attributed to the fact that some resident s cannot afford to buy water daily and they resort to this. Plate 5: Poor Waste Disposal and Management in Kisenyi III Source: field. Poor waste disposal and management in Kisenyi III is a sign of po or sanitation and can facilitate pathogen breeding which eventually spread disea se. As a result under cuts the percentage of labor for leading to low productivi ty. 4.1.4. Economic and financial trends Ugandas economy has experienced a negative growth since the start of this decade, employment creation and exports have both been on a downward trend. A galloping inflation characterized by high prices for basic goods saw many people go witho ut a meal for some days. The high inflation pegged at 37% since 2008 has badly a ffected housing provision in urban centers and consequently the hiking of rental s. High cost of building materials, the negative supply compared to demand for c heap affordable housing for the low-income earners, and the subsequent high rent als have plunged many into poverty. The influx of a drop in the currency (foreign exchange) after the 2011 elections coupled with walk to work protests especially with in Kampala city resulting in t he shortage of foreign currency saw the thriving of the parallel market, fuel sh ortages, a hike in the prices of basic goods and services. The cost of transport , foodstuffs, and health care services rose beyond the reach of many. The fuel s hortages and the subsequent hike of food prices left many without a meal. The si tuation has been compounded by the current high rates of un employment forcing m any onto the streets has had a ripple effect on the informal sector in that many people have reduced disposable income to be able to purchase goods and services on the market. The high interests characteristic of this ailing economy has shut tered the dream of accessing credit for the poor. All financial institutions dem and collateral in the form of immovable property and for the people of Kisenyi, this is not just unattainable but also beyond their capacity. Almost all residents of Kisenyi are tenants and this means no financial institut ion accepts to give them any financial assistance due to lack of security or col lateral. 4.1.5. Demographic trends The current agrarian reforms underway in the country have resulted in a new wave of rural-urban drift as the former farm workers seek alternative forms of livel ihood and most end up on the periphery of urban centers. Kisenyi is no exception . The movement of low-income earners from rural areas to urban centers due to un employment in rural areas and the search for better living conditions has result ed in the growth of Kisenyi IIIs population, thus leaving minimal space if any fo r cultivation which could provide them with ready food while at the same time ac t as a source of income. This population boom has put pressure on the available resources notably, sanita ry facilities, educational facilities and employment opportunities. In some area s like Kisenyi III, land shortages have resulted in the acquisition of formerly gardening plots. On the social front, crime levels have more than doubled due to high population and severe unemployment in the settlement. The community is com plaining of thefts of property, muggings and all sorts of vices where houses are squashed and there is poor lighting during the night. 4.1.6. Seasonality There are seasonal fluctuations in terms of income inflows for most of Kisenyi I II residents. This often coincides with periods of their need for cash to meet d aily expenses such as the purchase of food. The summer season is one such period

that brings untold suffering for most people for the following reasons: Most people start making preparations for Christmas season and hence their purch asing power for products is often less at this period; this season is once again the same period when families have to pay school fees for their children, in Fe bruary when schools open. The beginning of the rainy season brings with it challenges too for the poor fam ilies in Kisenyi. Most houses because of ageing, dilapidated structures and leak ing roofs become dangerous and difficult to live under as chances of collapsing are increased. The income fluctuations by season and the accompanying insecurity mean that most families are vulnerable and are exposed to yet many more life challenges such a s: _ low purchasing power due to little savings and low incomes and yet prices for goods are high. _ ill health as a result of poor living conditions and lack of adequate medical facilities. _ School dropouts are mostly attributed to lack of school fees and scholastic ma terials. 4.2 NGO GENESIS Slum Dwellers International is a net work of community based organizations of th e urban poor in 33 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. It was launched in 1996 when federations of the urban poor in countries such as India and South Africa agreed that a global platform could help their local initiatives develop alternatives to evictions while as impacting on the global agenda for urban deve lopment. In 1991, SDI became a formerly registered entity. In each country where SDI has a presence, affiliate bodies come together at the community, city and National level rooted in specific methodologies. SDIs mission is to link urban poor communities from cities across the south that has developed successful mobilization, advocacy and problem solving strategies. SDIs methodology to make cities inclusive is through savings, enumeration and map ping, slum upgrading, partnerships, changes and women. In Uganda, SDI is working through the Uganda Slum Dwellers Association and data contained in this report is based on this organization. 4.2.1 Uganda Slum Dwellers Federation Uganda Slum Dwellers Federation is a social movement of urban Ugandans whose mis sion is to improve their social life. The federation took root in Uganda in 2002 and started in kisenyi I, II and III parishes in Kampala central division. It t hen spread out to other divisions of Kampala; Rubaga, Nakawa, Makindye and Kawem pe divisions. It is worth noting that the headquarters of Uganda slum dwellers F ederation, central region is located in kisenyi III parish. The federation is no w working with slum dwellers of Arua, Jinja, Mbale, Mbarara and kabala districts . Their major objective is to build low cost housing for the urban poor living i n slums and other objectives include; building a strong saving scheme for slum D wellers, establishing a one voice for slum dwellers and also networking with other organizations pursuing similar objectives. This organization is a member of Slum Dwellers International network and current ly boasts approximately of 38000 members in six urban centers across the country . The federation consists of 343 community groups that save daily and meet at leas t once per week to discuss community issues and coordinate programs and projects to build upon their strengths and combat their concerns. ACTogether is the national support NGO charged with providing technical and fina ncial assistance to the Uganda Slum Dwellers Federation. In partnership with org

anized communities of the urban poor, ACTogether strives to increase access to s ecure tenure, adequate shelter, basic services, information exchange and other b uilding blocks required for healthy communities. The primary strategy to achievi ng these aims is to support the development of a strong and active urban poor fe deration. 4.2.2 The contribution of Uganda Slum Dwellers Federation to the livelihoods of low income earners of Kisenyi III parish A livelihood is a means of making a living. It encompasses peoples capabilities, assets, income and activities required to secure the necessities of life. Its ab out reliable and permanent sources of food, income and employment. 4.2.3. HUMAN CAPITAL This kind of capital includes competencies, knowledge, social and personality at tributes including creativity, embodied in the ability to perform labor so as to produce economic value. It refers to the useful machines, instruments of trade; buildings as means of procuring revenue; improvement of land; the acquired and useful abilities of all inhabitants or members of the society. The federation ha s passed out skills of charcoal, beams, ladders, necklaces and ear rings product ion to the low income earners. Out of these projects, residents have been able t o make social relationships and attachments through working together that have e nabled them exchange skills and have shared knowledge. These projects have contr ibuted to economic capital through income earnings out of the sale of the produc ts. Case II. Mr. Balinda Edward dealing in the production of charcoal. He says that charcoal is produced from charcoal dust; burnt banana peels ash and clay soil. This means that the charcoal produced comes from wastes. In this pro cess therefore, environmental protection is ensured through re use of wastes and this is a contribution to the livelihoods of low-income earners in regard to be tter health, formation of relationships and income earnings. Table 2: Sources of Information Flow in Kisenyi III Parish radio television News papers meetings Grape vine spondents 8 7 1 2 2 20 40% 35% 5% 10% 10% 100% Information in flow allows exchange of ideas and ontribution to both physical and social capital. The contribution of Slum Dwellers Federation has unity hall on the sanitation building in Kisenyi etings are carried out in case information is to Plate 6: Source: discuss skills,

Total re

knowledge and it is a greater c been the construction of a comm III parish and this is where me be passed out.

Photograph Showing the Community Hall field; community hall. This is where the federation members converge to issues of concern. It attracts interaction and sharing of knowledge and a contribution to social capital.

4.2.5. SOCIAL CAPITAL In this section, the researcher shows and analyses social capital prevalent in t he parish. In kisenyi III parish, members of slum dwellers Federation have been able to make connections and relationships out of the saving schemes, charcoal m aking, exchange visits to areas with similar challenges where they have been abl e to exchange information and knowledge regarding how they can improve their are as to better standards. One respondent, Mrs. Kizito Jowelia, says that she now h as friends in Alinyanya, Arusha in Tanzania out of the visit they paid to this S lum area and that she identified that each house in this settlement has a toilet inside. However, such a scheme is hindered by inadequate finances. Therefore th

e federation has connected many slum dwellers who are engaging in various activi ties collectively and this is through the saving schemes they have established a nd activities of making beams and ladders, bricks, ear rings, necklaces in order to bring them together and have shared knowledge and experience in order to be self reliant and be able to earn a living which will enable them have access to services that contribute to their livelihoods. 4.2.6 FINANCIAL CAPITAL Financial capital denotes the financial resources that the people use to achieve their Livelihood objectives. This section looks at the financial resources that are accessible to the people in kisenyi III and the contribution of Slum dwelle rs federation in the form of loans, credits, savings and remittances. Currently, there are no loans given to the people in Kisenyi III to enable them to build better houses or to embark on income generating activities. No organiza tions have ever provided these services in the past. The residents were only promised financial assistance by Slum dwellers federatio n but it is not forthcoming. They were made to fill in forms for financial assis tance and do not know what happened to them. As a result of the rise in the cost of living, most people are failing to increa se on their savings for future use because whatever is saved, they keep withdraw ing it to meet home demands of paying school fees, buying food, clothing and mee ting health care services. However, preparations are on going to establish a fun d for the slum dwellers by the central Government in partnership with the slum d wellers federation and it is named Kampala fund which will be accessed only by m embers of the Uganda slum dwellers federation. At the moment, Slum Dwellers Fede ration members of Kisenyi III are engaged in making beams and ladders, making ch arcoal out of dust of burnt banana peels, clay soil, and charcoal dust. They als o engage in brick laying, activities that have been supported by the Federation where residents can earn a living. However, the failure of these activities is inadequate finances. Below are photo s of income generating activities. By the introduction of such income generating activities, it is boosting the low income earners to have access and control ov er resources and in the long run are able to meet their livelihood objectives as quoted from Ms. Nabukenya Nussulah a member of the federation. She says, Sente z etuteleka zigenda ziwera, olwo nezituyamba okufuna ebisale byesomero, okufuna emm ere, okweyambaza nokkwejjanjaba. So nga kino kyali tekisoboka nga slum dwellers tenajja. Meaning that their daily savings keep accumulating and thereby can enabl e them in the long run get school fees, food, clothing and health care services which were not possible before the establishment of slum dwellers. Therefore, from her account, it is evident that Slum Dwellers federation is maki ng contribution to the livelihoods of these low income earners given these proje cts that enable them earn a living to meet their livelihood objectives. Plate 7: Income Generating Activities Source; field. The above photograph is the demostration of charcoal manufactured from clay, burnt banana peels and charcoal dust. It is improved and lasts long. This is an income generating project funded by slum dwellers International whic h has been taught to residents of kisenyi III parish. Plate 8: Savings Account Book Source; field. The savings account book for slum dwellers which has enabled resi dents to keep their little earnings and out of which they are able to pay school fees, medical and clothing.

4.2.7 PHYSICAL CAPITAL Physical capital refers to physical developments such as housing and in this sec tion, the researcher looks at what forms of physical developments have been esta blished by the Slum Dwellers Federation in kisenyi III. 4.2.7.1 HOUSING Slum dwellers federation has established a few houses which are owned by a few m embers of the Federation in Kisenyi III though construction of more houses is un der way. The slum dwellers are paying for these houses in installments until whe n they will complete all their payments. However, some of the owners who are pay ing the installments are scared that they may not be able to take ownership of t hese houses since they have been paying 100,000shs per month since January 2009 until then and there are no papers given to them to show ownership ( as told by Mrs. Kakulilemu Salome, a member of the federation). Below is a photograph of th e houses built by the federation for low income earners of Kisenyi III parish. Plate 9: Photograph of the Houses Built by the Federation for Low Income Earners of Kisenyi III Parish Source: field: housing project in Kisenyi III parish. This is the first project established by slum dwellers federation for the low income earners who are meant to gain access to the houses in paying installments monthly. An initiative to e nable them acquire decent housing and better living conditions. 4.2.7.2 HEALTH AND SANITATION There has been establishment of the sanitation building in Kisenyi III parish by the Federation and bathrooms and flash toilets separated for ladies and men are available. Residents pay 100 shs for use and in one way, these are good health promoters. According to Charles, an attendant at the sanitation building says th at its establishment has enabled the residents to have access to good health fac ilities and has helped reduce the risks that would arise out of poor hygiene. Th is means that instead of people spending money on treating diarrhea and other d iseases that come as a result of poor hygiene, this money is used to buy food, p ay schools fees and some have engaged it to business for example women are engag ed in food feeding. Therefore, the sanitation building is a major contribution t o the livelihoods of low income earners in Kisenyi III parish because it promote s good hygiene. Plate 10: Sanitation Building Photo Source: field; sanitation building which was established by Slum dwellers federa tion has contributed to good sanitation in this community as a result enabling r esidents stay health and get engaged in productive activities where they earn a living hence contributing to their livelihoods 4.2.7.3 ENERGY RESOURCE There has been an effort to make solar power energy by the local community with the federation in order to bring about lighting in such houses lacking electrici ty. The program was initiated with a few members houses connected with this ener gy resource that receives the light from the sun. However, this local solar powe r has not benefited these residents who complained to the researcher that it can only work during the day and not at night as they perceived and its lighting is very dime and of no use to light the house. According to Mrs. Kakulilemu Salome, she says that this energy resource is Kiwany i meaning fake reason being that it works a little during the day and the best ti me when its needed which is night does not work. Indeed from the researchers expe rience, this initiative is a good start in helping the low income earners, howev er, thorough research needs to be done in order that this initiative can be impr oved to fully contribute to the livelihoods as the high prices of electricity wi ll be cut off and the peoples saving capacity will raise and they will be able t

o access better housing, health care and educational facilities. Plate 11: Solar Power in One of the Houses in Kisenyi III Parish Source: field; solar power energy is also made locally by the members of the fed eration however; this lighting only works where the sun is available. With impro vement done on it, it will provide cheap lighting to the low income earners comp ared to hydro electric power which is expensive and un affordable to the low inc ome earners. CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 5. I OPPORTUNITIES AND NEEDS 5.1.1 Housing The provision of housing in Kisenyi III parish can be improved through training residents and builders in the production of affordable building materials. These materials include stabilized soil blocks (SSBs) and tiles. Such an exercise wou ld reduce housing construction costs. The process would also help to teach the p eople in Kisenyi III to be self-reliant in providing decent shelter. This also r esults in participatory democracy as the beneficiaries take an active role in th e process of building their own homes. Plate 12: Researcher on One of the Houses in Kisenyi III Parish that Needs Impro vement Source; Field. Temporary that will be demolished to give way to a permanent stru cture when residents start producing building materials locally and cheaper. Once the communities master the art of making stabilized soil blocks, they can in the end make some for sale and this will generate income for them. Which in t he end will be a contribution to their livelihoods as they will be able to get a n income of which can foster access to good education, health, nutrition, clothi ng and in the end will enable the residents to become more productive. There is a need to work in partnership with the planners in analyzing and revisi ng standards of housing, planning and infrastructure to make them more simple an d affordable. However, the board must ensure that houses in the area are built in a planned ma nner. By-laws that stipulate how houses should be built must be enforced. The ow ners of residential stands must be given title deeds so that they could be eligi ble for housing loans. This can enable them to build better houses. It is also important for the federation to work together with the central Govern ment and the residents on how land registration and rules for residential and pr oductive use can be revised in accordance with the needs of the residents, the m ajority of who constitute the poor. NGOs operating in Kisenyi III parish can work together to establish a housing cr edit facility. This facility should enable the residents to borrow money at mini mum interest rates. The Federation could also facilitate the granting of secure land tenure for residential and productive purposes by the people of Kisenyi III parish. Such an exercise will make it easier for the residents to borrow money from financial institutions as they can use the land as collateral. 5.1.2. Water and Sanitation Tapped water should be provided to each homestead at affordable rates. This will enable each homestead to have access to the amount of water that it requires at any particular time. Those residents without tapped water at their homesteads w ould like to pay for what they actually consume. The residents would like assist ance in the form of pipes, tapes and meters so as to get water to their homestea d. The provision of tapped water will also reduce the amount of time that women spend going to fetch water from water points or unprotected wells. The outbreak of diseases in areas that rely on water from unprotected wells will also be redu

ced significantly. There is a great need for better toilet facilities for the pe ople of Kisenyi III parish. The government and NGOs can work together to help th e people of Kisenyi construct Blair toilets or to install a sewerage system in t he area for human waste and floodwater. 5.1.3. Energy The provision of electricity or solar energy to the people of Kisenyi III will m ake it possible for the people to have access to reliable sources of energy. 5.1.4. Environmental conservation Measures should be put in place to curb the dumping of garbage in the drainage s ystem as this hinders water movement and this is the major contributor to severe floods in this area. The Federation should therefore sensitize residents about the dangers of poor waste management to their community and stiffer penalties sh ould be imposed on those who are caught in the act. 5.1.5. Urban agriculture Suitable land should be set aside for urban agriculture. The existing market gar dens need to be strengthened and coordinated so that they remain viable. Market gardens have a significant role as sources of money and household food security. 5.1.6. Informal sector development (projects) The present state of the economy that is dominated by high levels of unemploymen t calls for a need to expand and support emerging income generating activities. Thus, the establishment of home industrial sites in Kisenyi would act as a catal yst for more people to be engaged by the informal sector. However, the following issues need to be taken into consideration for the inform al sector to operate sustainably: -Those involved in the informal sector should undergo business training aimed a t improving general and financial management, planning, efficiency and marketing . It was noted under that most works were not viable due to lack of necessary sk ills. However, there is a potential for success if proper training, guidance an d entrepreneurship is instilled among project members through the federation. -The establishment of a credit facility for those in the informal sector should be prioritized. There were indications that some projects have a broad chance of expanding and be competitive in the market. However, such projects like the metal works business, charcoal making, and makin g of bricks, beams and ladders are incapacitated due to shortage of cash to expa nd production. 5.1.7. Institutional building It is important to strengthen the capacity of grassroots organizations and partn erships between the CBOs and NGOs. The idea would be to establish mechanisms for collaboration between these partners. Capacity building workshops should be car ried out so that CBOs and the ELB can be trained on project planning and impleme ntation. The capacity building programmes should also involve the training of me mbers of partner organizations in: _ Participatory planning _ Sun-sector analysis and _ Accounting The slum dwellers federation can facilitate the registration and empowerment of CBOs in Kisenyi III parish. 5.2 CONCLUDING REMARKS In regard to the objectives and research questions of the study, the study found out that. Before, the people of Kisenyi III parish were not able to save on the ir daily incomes but as a result of the establishment of the federation, many ha

ve been able to make daily savings enabling them to pay school fees for their ch ildren, access health services, food, clean and safe water and buy clothing for their families. Considering the perception of NGOs and the fact that they are seen as alternativ es to the conventional top down governmental and private market sector approache s to low income earners, there are high expectations by the urban poor from thes e organizations. However, empirical evidence from this study shows that in many cases, NGOs are not as effective as assumed and this is often caused by policy l imitations, social political climate and the funding base of these organizations . Most NGOs depend on donor Aid and International funding for their activities. This is seen as a challenge to these organizations and a problem undesirable and not suitable. These donors have an influence on the agenda and activities of th ese organizations often persuading them to promote their (donor) interests rathe r than their own and those of the communities. As such, NGOs completely neglect their objectives and the needs of their clients due to changing funders of their projects. Thus, while this donor influence has brought in significant amounts of resources and allowed NGOs to increase their impact on serving the poor, this has often r esulted in a failure by these organizations to continue with their pre-planned a ctivities because they could no longer stand on their own and make independent d ecisions. And as such, NGOs are failing to make a more meaningful contribution t o the livelihoods of low income earners. BIBIOGRAPHY Abigail Barr and Marcel Fatchamps (2005): Assessment of NGO sector in Uganda, un iversity of Oxford; published by Taylor and Francis. Barya and Bazaara (2000): contemporary civil society and the democratization pro cess in Uganda; centre for basic research publications. Bebbington, Welland and Lewis (1993): Reluctant Partners! NGOs, the State and Su stainable Agricultural Development. Routledge; London. Bratton M (1990) NGOs in Africa. Can they Influence Public Policy, Development a nd Change? Vol. 21published by John Wiley and sons Inc, Bratton M (1989). Beyond the state: Civil Society and Association Life in Africa : World Politics Vol 41 issue3 Cambridge University press. Dambisa Moyo: Dead Aid; published by Farrar, Straus and Giroux (2009); New York Times series Edwards M and David Hulme (1995) NGOs Performance and Accountability: Beyond the Magic Bullet: Earthscan publications; London Eric Walker and Ahmed Faisal (2007); what do NGOs Do? Published by Harvard Busin ess School, Boston Fowler A (1997) Striking Balance: A guide to enhancing the effectiveness of NGOs in international development; Earthscan publications, London. Fruterro and Gari (2005).The strategic choices of NGOs: Location Decisions in ru ral Bangladesh. Taylor and Francis Journals vol 41. Gina porter (2003): NGOs and poverty reduction in a Globalizing world; Perspecti ves from Ghana. Glasser, Sacerdote and Scheinkman (1996) Crime and Social Interactions: Quarterl y Journal of economics Vol. III issue 2 published by Oxford University press. Hulme D: NGOs, States and Donors (1997); an Over view, Earthscan publications, L ondon. Hii Dunia (2010); Effectiveness of NGOs versus the State, Beta publications. Lechner, Reiter and Riesenfelder (2005): Evaluation of the roles of NGOs as Part ners of the Austrian development cooperation in Nicaragua and of their Contribut ion to the Reduction of Poverty. NBAS publications Maxwell (1988); Roles of NGOs in the Process of Empowerment. Published under Asi an Pacific Nafuna Wamai, Ismail Walera and Gimono Wamai (1997): Roles of NGOs in Social Dev elopment; Fountain publishers, Uganda.

Nana Thue, Apoolo Makubuya and Maureen Nakirunda (2002): Report on Study of Civi l Society in Uganda published by NORAD. Riddell and Robinson (1995): Role of Non-government Organizations in Poverty Red uction; Oxford, Clarendon press. Roger Ridell: The End of Foreign Aid to Africa? Concerns about Donor Policies. Semuyaba J (1990) NGOs in development. African press International. Skye Dobson, Mellisa Frickle and Sarita Vengal (2011). This is kisenyi. Tamale Sylvia (1999) When Hens Begin to Crow: Gender and Parliamentary Politics in Uganda; Fountain publishers. Tek Naih Dhakal (2002): the role of NGOs in the Improvement of Livelihoods in Ne pal. Published under Tampere University press. Uganda Bureau of statics, 2010 ( http://www.analyrics.com/lyrics/) Uganda national report: Action for the Least Developed Countries for decade 200 1 to 2011. UNAIDS (2008). Towards Universal Access Scaling up Priority HIV/AIDS (http://www .who.int/hiv/pub/Towards_Universal_Access_Report_2008.pdf) UNDP; Evaluations 2009: Assessment of Development Results in Uganda; published u nder ADR series. UN habitat (2007): Situational Analysis of Informal Settlements in Kampala. World Bank Publications; e-library. ( http://publications.Worldbank.org/) World Health Organization (2008) Impact of Long Lasting Insecticidal Treated Net s (http://www.who.int/malaria/docs/ReportGFImpactmalaria.pdf) World Poverty Indicators (2002); World Bank publications.

APPENDICES Questionnaire for NGO officials, Slum Dwellers International Dear respondent, as I know, slum dwellers international is working in kisenyi II I parish Kampala central division. This questionnaire is for the purpose of help ing Mpaata Simon Enoch a student of urban planning Makerere University to obtain information that will help him write a dissertation which is a partial requirem ent for this course. It is NOT meant for any other purpose; other than Academic and therefore information provided will be kept with utmost confidentiality. You are therefore kindly requested to cooperate in answering the questions honestly to provide the required information. The topic is assessing the contribution of NGOS to the livelihoods of low income earners, case study of slum dwellers inte rnational_kisenyi III parish. Form number. Interviewees name. Interview date.. Position.

1 (a) what are the objectives of your organization? (b) What are the various activities that you (your organization) deal with? 2 (a) What population do you mainly serve? (Elderly, children, women, disabled, men etc) (b) What are the specific services rendered to each category of population you h ave mentioned? 3. What are the main sources of funding for your activities? 4. What are the specific issues/roles you (your organization) deal with? 5. In your opinion, how has the community benefited from your activities? (Organ

ization) 6 (a) what kind of constraints does your organization face in implementing its a ctivities? (From community, within the organization, other actors, etc)

(b) In meeting your goals?

(c) In your opinion, what do you see as the short comings of your organization t o the community? 7. What measures would you suggest to address the above problems you have mentio ned? 8. What other organizations/individuals in this area or elsewhere, {a) do you co llaborate/cooperate within carrying out your activities? (b) And in which way? 9. What policy measures/suggestion do you think can help you improve the activit ies you are doing now? (Collaborative/cooperation) 10. What other comments/suggestions do you have about NGO contribution to povert y reduction? Questionnaire for the local community Dear respondent, as I know, slum dwellers international is working in your commu nity. This questionnaire is for the purpose of helping Mpaata Simon Enoch a stud ent of urban planning Makerere University to obtain information that will assist him to write a dissertation that is a partial requirement for this course. It i s NOT meant for any other purpose; other than Academic and therefore information provided herein will be kept with utmost confidentiality. You are kindly reques ted to cooperate in answering the questions honestly to provide the required inf ormation. The topic is assessing the contribution of NGOS to the livelihoods of low income earners, case study of slum dwellers international-kisenyi III parish . Form numberInterviewees name.LC zone Age..occupationdate of interview 1. In your own view, what do you understand by NGOs? 2. Who are Slum Dwellers international? 3. What kind of support and community development is offered by Slum Dwelle rs international 4. What kind of benefit have you drawn from the projects of slum dwellers i nternational or any other NGOS in this community?

5. (a) Which forms of physical development projects has slum dwellers inter national engaged you in for this particular area? (b) How does the community benefit from these development projects? 6. Which particular category of people benefit from the activities and proj ects of this organization in this area and how? 7. (a) Which particular income generating activities have come up in your a rea as a result of the presence of slum dwellers international?

(b) Show the contribution of slum dwellers International in the above activities 8. How were the conditions of these people before the initiation of project s by slum dwellers international? (b) If yes, how do you describe this change? 9. (a) Do you receive any form of financial assistance from slum dwellers i nternational? (b) If yes in the above question, what is the procedure for accessing the financ ial assistance? 10. In which way is the community involved in the decision making process wh en initiating these projects? 11. Which form of relationships and connections has the community created as a result of being part of slum dwellers international? 12. What skills and /or knowledge have you derived from being part of slum d wellers international? 13. How do you rate NGOS in terms of poverty reduction in this area? 14. What do you recommend and/or suggest for improving NGO activities in you r area Thank you for sparing your time to answer the questions. GROUP DISCUSSION GUIDE Contribution of NGOS to the livelihoods of low income earners. How can it be mea sured? Study of slum dwellers international in kisenyi III parish, Kampala centr al division. Moderator greets participants and introduces himself and the Researcher and the purpose of the discussion. Moderator explains the procedure of discussion includ ing the importance of note making and/ or tape recording. Requests self introduc tion of participants. Moderator guides the discussion. Researcher MUST take verb atim notes and make a record of general observations during the discussion sessi on. Time of start and end of the meeting, note nature of group, participation an d interaction, dominance and submissions of some of the members and general tren d of discussion. (Group participants to come from the community where NGO operates) Guidelines 1. Knowledge about NGO activity Is the NGO working towards improving livelihoods of low income earners? How? Who are they working with? What are they doing? 2. Perceptions of change as a result of NGO activity What has changed as a result of the NGO working in this area? (Probe; as far as poverty reduction is concerned) ask for both positive and negative. 3. Community-NGO collaboration (a) In what ways if any do the NGO work with the community? (probe; communit y involvement in decision making, monitoring, etc) (b) How does the NGO plan? Do activities and priorities fit with local plans and needs?

(c) How does the community monitor the contribution of the NGO to poverty re duction (d) What are the recommendations for the future in monitoring NGOS in improv ing livelihoods of low income earners?