Zombies: A War for Your Mind By Clinton Heath English 110, Section 1 Dr.

Tara Keenan-Thompson June 21, 2012

Define Zombie B. 2. IV. List the effects toxoplasmosis has on animals and humans 1. Introduction to zombies A. Chemicals and drugs Zombies through natural disease A. MK-ULTRA and MK-CHECK LSD and PCP B. Give historical background of zombies II. Give references of tests on effects of virus Zombies through technology and government A. Government mind control experiments 1. Give background on voodoo 1. Beginning. Zombies from Haitian religious rituals A. The origin of the virus B. III. and hosts of the virus C. List methods on how zombies are made in voodoo culture 1. History of the religion Who practices it B.Heath 2 Outline I. Explain zombification 1. Controversies and conspiracies surrounding mind control C. carrier. Nanotechnology . Talk about virus toxoplasma gondii 1. Three cases from Haiti C. Explain how the virus spreads itself 1. 2.

2. Give examples of scientific experiments V. Benefits and Progression Mind control aspects 1. Conclude Research .Heath 3 1.

thoughtless animal that will stop at nothing to fulfill its destiny: the spread of its disease. It will also help connect the different fields of study together to give a well-informed analysis of the different methodologies. little is actually known about the history and realness of controlling the human mind. is a scholarly research into the control of the human mind. The facts presented offer different views on the subject from many fields of study as well as many facts about mind control.Heath 4 Zombies: A War for Your Mind Abstract Despite the common knowledge on zombies. and 4) Scientific advances through technology in mind control. 3) Government experimentation in mind control. There are several ways to control a mind that include: 1) Religious rituals. This study. . controversial as it may be. The image that first comes to mind is a cannibalistic. There are indeed many ways the human mind can be controlled and they are not as difficult as one may think to achieve. and could possibly work in the future. vicious. This study looks into how mind control has worked. 2) Natural viruses and disease.

Through many different approaches including artificial production and deployment of Nano technology. . These are not the same zombies as seen on television but they all did have one thing in common: they were made that way by a “boko” sorcerer who faked the death of the individual.Heath 5 Zombies: A War for Your Mind There is no easy way to explain it. It was documented that cases of zombification in Haiti have taken place and it is even against the Haitian Penal Code Article 246 to “zombify” a human being. the voodoo dolls. something out there is surely willing and able to take control of the human mind. From the many parasites and bacteria found in nature to technology and drugs. but the fact is: there is a war going on for your mind. rendering the infected human a thoughtless zombie. the word zombie will refer to a person who is or appears to be lacking self-control of the mind from various reasons. The mystical spells. bloodthirsty animal that longs to spread the disease and torment of zombification by eating every living thing in sight. The ways of controlling the human mind against its will are in no way the same as the science fiction zombie that Hollywood has portrayed in recent decades. disease infected. Zombies are a very large part of the twenty-first century‟s popular culture even though all creatures called zombies seem to reflect the same image: a postmortem. There are many reasons why this would happen. zombies. the religious rituals of certain cultures. and the naturally occurring cross-species spread of disease. For the purpose of this research. Yes. is more than just science fiction theory. against its will. and even zombies. it is both naturally and scientifically possible. but the most popular seemed to be out of revenge or anger towards the victim and/or his or her family. stole the body. There is no doubt that the rituals of voodoo are indeed a fear to most people. the threat of a zombie apocalypse or the loss of self control of one‟s mind. and then “returned [it] to life and activity but not to full awareness and agency” (Littlewood and Douyon 1094).

the sorcerer returns for the body and takes it away to perform the zombification ritual. Tetrodotoxin will make the body appear dead. . and then a mixture of chemicals to keep the human in a mindless state. other chemicals to bring the human back to life. the sorcerer administers some other types of chemicals that awaken the survivor but also limits their cognition. is one of the main poisons used in zombification. After the supposed death. The religion is polytheistic and was derived from the West African religion of Vodún and was heavily influenced by it and several other religions. For the most part. but too much of the toxin will actually result in death. including brain damage from the poisoning. What he found was a peculiar mix of chemicals and toxins that render the human body lifeless. and within a day or so. the family typically buries the body during the same day. For whatever reasons the sorcerer decides to do this. This can result in certain problems.Heath 6 The history of the voodoo religion and its odd rituals was born in the tribes of Africans who were brought over during the slave trade of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Tetrodotoxin. or brain function. which is the toxin derived from puffer fishes. After the fake death. a species native to tropical regions. including western Christianity. it will surely affect the survivor‟s life for however long he or she remains. This toxin can be applied to a human who falls ill making him or her “die” within a short period. The odd process of how this zombification took place is actually quite scientific since all of the chemicals and toxins used are just like a chemistry and anatomy experiment on a real living human cadaver. Ethno botanist Wade Davis set out in 1983 for Haiti in search for information on the rituals of dark voodoo and the rumors of zombies in the country. making them the zombies that society thinks of in western popular culture today. In his book The Serpent and the Rainbow. Davis embarks into the countryside of Haiti in search of sorcerers who practice the dark voodoo ritual of zombification. or another drug will be used to keep the mind under control if no damage to the brain occurred.

Whether Davis exaggerated the zombification rituals or not. Wade Davis received a lot of backlash from the scientific community when he published his works comparing the voodoo culture to science. but it sparked a large investigation into what he found. she was diagnosed with catatonic schizophrenia. the crowd recognized her as a zombie (1095). and “appeared mute and unable to feed herself” (Littlewood and Douyon 1095). but victims of a terrible science assault committed by unqualified religious sorcerers playing with dangerous chemicals and toxins. . anthropologist William Booth calls out Davis in his review of “Voodoo Science” by stating “[evidence] that tetrodotoxin plays a central role in the initial phase of zombification process has proved to be something of a moving target…[what] they dispute is the role of tetrodotoxin in transforming the victims into the living dead” (Booth 275). the deceased woman was found by several family members wandering a neighboring village in a zombie-like state. this provides evidence that the toxin had played a big role in turning this survivor into an almost brain dead victim. and many tests done on the toxins and their effects on the human body were completed just to disprove his theories of zombification. when taken out in public. In The Lancet. In fact. These zombies born from Haitian voodoo are not such supernatural phenomena. Psychiatrists and Anthropologists Roland Littlewood and Chavannes Douyon recount the three cases of zombification that have been documented in Haiti. the fact still remains. The first was a woman who died at the age of thirty of an apparent febrile illness and was then buried by her family the same day. And then. When her family took her into a Port Au Prince hospital for examination.Heath 7 There are three documented cases of zombies who returned to life and were seen days to years later by their family members with apparent brain damage and little or no recognition of self or loved ones. In three years. that it is possible to alter the human mind and body with tetrodotoxin. Since she was diagnosed with a psychological disease.

the virus produces cysts on the brain. With regards to the virus‟ effect on the human mind.Heath 8 What about natural forms of mind control? Mother Nature herself provides evidence that she has the power to control minds. blood donors. In doing this. headed by parasitologist Jarosov Flegr from Charles University in the Czech Republic. In research conducted by professionals in the field of parasitology. The findings of these tests gave information that showed the virus had completely different effects on both men and women. When the cat consumes the rat. The virus begins in the intermediate host (typically a rat or similar rodent) and then alters the host‟s mind to make itself available for predation by whatever wants to consume it. has recently published its findings. a team of scientists. a virus that lives and reproduces in several different species is one example of this natural anomaly that aims to control and conquer. the rat becomes attracted its main predator. The results showed that men were “more likely to disregard rules and were . scientists have found results that show the effect the virus has on rats and cats. To think that a virus could change the behaviors of its host in order to survive and reproduce is indeed a scientific phenomenon that is slowly understood more as time progresses. and university students” (757). the virus is able to procreate in the digestive regions of the feline. which then change the behaviors of the animal by lowering its fear and causing it to act rashly. The article provides evidence that eighty percent of the human population (5. et al 757). et al 1591).6 billion of 7 billion) is likely to be infected with the virus depending on diet and relationship with cats (Flegr. From the initial infection of the rat. Parasitologists conducting this research from Oxford University have noted that “Parasites that are transmitted through the food chain constitute classic examples of such manipulation: the parasite is immature in the intermediate host and must be eaten by a predatory definitive host before it can reach maturity and complete its life cycle” (Berdroy. Toxoplasma gondii. The tests were administered to volunteers consisting of “military conscripts. the cat.

it appears that the virus simply improved their character. in reality. The results of this showed that “toxoplasma-infected subjects have a 2. and the world is not prepared. What if. suspicious. government agencies and even scientists could be secretly researching and testing for ways to control the masses. The most interesting discovery that the scientists did not expect was that the virus changed women in almost a completely opposite way from men. conscientious. There are also some unnatural ways to control the human mind and they involve other humans in on the work.Heath 9 more expedient. however. and the world may not even know that it could already be infected. There has been . There was also a portion of research in which a driving test was conducted in order to see if the lack of psychomotor performance provided enough evidence to show that it increased risk of traffic accidents. even if they had possessed all of the above qualities beforehand. and dogmatic” (757). Evidence also provides a negative aspect on all sides of this virus even if it does not appear to be that dangerous to the human mind. If this ever happens. then there is nothing that can stop it from changing the behaviors of an infected host to act without regard just for the cause of reproduction. persistent. So. the virus is able to strengthen itself through time and cause a more dramatic effect on the human brain? The virus could mutate itself fast enough to avoid proper testing and vaccinations as seen with countless other diseases in the evolution of humans. they were also more “outgoing.65 times higher risk” of having an accident than a non infected individual (758). even if the virus is able to render itself stronger on the human. Aside from the religious practices of some societies. the men in this study actually were the only ones that showed a negative change in behavior. jealous. as for the women. Also. and moralistic” (757). the infection could envelope all of the population without even being detected. but it could change the human enough to make it possible to spread itself. Women in the study had shown an increase in warm heartedness. It may not turn a human into a cannibal or a murdering machine.

project MK-ULTRA. spies.S.Heath 10 much controversy and even conspiracy theories over government mind control experimentation. in prior decades. and prison inmates” (3). If a government wanted to control the minds of prisoners. Frank Conahan detailed the psychological and physical experiments that the government discovered about during the revelation of the program‟s existence. The official answer for the use of these drugs was to conduct various weapons tests and to “analyze U. This was the first detailed report of the MK-ULTRA project. At the beginning of all this. The government has given evidence that it. a Central Intelligence Agency program. phencyclidine. It also evidenced that the test subjects included “[healthy] adults. just after the end of World War II. defense vulnerabilities” (3). They would covertly operate any way they could. psychiatric patients. spies. Human test subjects were unknowingly given the drug Lysergic acid diethylamide. children. or even its own citizens. to test behavioral effects and the possibility of mind control. but there are documented cases in which the government did conduct testing on its citizens. or LSD. wanted to transform the human mind into a controllable being. or PCP. as well as many other substances. and soviet sympathizers were all targets during the fear of communism throughout the United States. and most were unaware of the experiments. There was also confirmation of experiments involving torture and psychological violence to people in order to study . In testimony to the National Security Subcommittee of the United States House of Representatives. In the 1940s. the CIA initiated experimentation to combat the Soviet scare of the Cold War. there would be a few reasons on how the would do it. communists. Psychologists and other scientists conducted unethical experiments and research mostly on students who had some relation to them. sought out top scientists in the fields of medicine and psychology to look for ways to control the human mind. as it took many years to obtain information regarding that specific research.

This testimony supports the fact that there are ways to control the human mind and that even some agencies within the government of the United States were once interested in testing those theories on their own people. or electroconvulsive therapy. Kastner explains that she had no recollection of her torture until the CIA had admitted it conducted testing on individuals and released their information publically. Klein interviews Kastner and asks her to explain what she remembers about her experimentation during the research projects. Many scientists believed that this treatment was far less . Smith also testified that it is possible to spread a substance that has the capability of behavior and mind control to a population unaware of the presence of said substance that would render them into mindless humans. Ewan Cameron during the MK-ULTRA program. and it was for this reason that he chose her to experiment on. Naomi Klein‟s research on these programs has revealed that problems associated with it have severe effects on the survivors.Heath 11 behavioral changes as well. Kastner lost all previous knowledge of her life before and during the experimentation because she suffered so much damage to her memory during electro-shock therapy. There is information on one of the survivors. She later found that Cameron had adopted his own approach to fixing the problems of patients: he wanted to “re-create them using a method he invented called „psychic driving‟” (Klein 31). The official reports were nearly all destroyed and this testimony only covered information that was found. The testimony of these experiments suggests that the CIA had been researching on its own citizens but did not provide information to government officials on the effects to the population that was experimented on. who was tortured by electrocution by Dr. The length some scientists would go when given the opportunity is quite astonishing when reviewing the information on these so-called experiments. Cameron even began to regularly use a treatment known as ECT. The existing report stated that some test subjects died in the research and that the government had no idea at the time that this type of research was going on. Kastner was a nursing student under Cameron. Gail Kastner.

has recently conducted experiments with the deployment of nanotechnologies into the neurological system to aid in the cohesion between artificial technologies and the human neurological system. Nanotechnologies are being applied to cells to inhibit their growth or even control how they behave by remote controls. Is there a possibility that the government is still conducting research in the science of mind control? Even if the government has no bad intentions. San Diego. well known to those who practiced it. recently published research results of nanotechnology control of cellular insulin production in mice. was known to cause amnesia with the patients and this provides evidence as to why Gail Kastner had no recollection of her time spent with Cameron. This treatment.Heath 12 dangerous than lobotomies and even in some cases “appeared to make the person more lucid” (Klein 31). there is proof that was a war going on for the minds of Americans in the twentieth century. This advance in technology suggests that science is working on benefiting the lives of societies but there are also other reasons that could make this advance negative. molecular geneticists. There was a recent study that managed to control the cells of mice using such technologies. Gabriel Silva. there is still plenty of research being conducted to control certain aspects of the human body through the deployment of special technologies. The tiny temperature sensitive nanoparticles that were injected into the mice were then triggered to activate via a magnetic . How many of these projects have gone unreported and unknown to even the government itself? Given the information on these programs. a Bioengineering scientist with the University of California. In the scientific journal Nature Nanotechnology. Nanotechnologies are “technologies involving engineered materials or devices with the smallest functional organization on the nanometer scale” (Silva 255). the application of prosthetic devices in humans could be fully functional like the original limb or organ that existed once before. Thomas Knopfel and Walther Akemann. When the technology is improved.

from the smallest bacteria and viruses. in fact.Heath 13 charge and then the artificial cells. with an advance in the technology. The desire for control is present in all species. There are many different ways to artificially control through Nano technology. remote control of any cell is possible. to the scientists and governments that strive to be world superpowers. Even bouts of revenge and anger can cause one to want to change a person into a zombie-like creature. The results of this suggest that. There are also a few things someone should ask himself or herself first. a war going on for your mind. The only thing one can do is to always be careful of his or her surroundings and be wary of whom to trust because there is. How can one relate all of these mind control possibilities together? The evident answer is that no matter what. The idea of a remote controlled human is not such a far-fetched one with the evidence provided. Time will tell whether this will happen or not. Will I know if and when another person or thing is controlling my mind? Who will want to control my mind? Scientists? Governments? The numbers of things that could potentially control the human mind are astonishing. and it will surely be too late to realize and act when another is in control. which were located at the starting point for insulin production. religious chemical drugging. scientific government research. something or someone will always want to control the human mind and manipulate it into what it most desires. activated and began producing insulin as if it was an autonomous action. and naturally occurring spread of disease in the world. .

Print. Gabriel. Flegr. Roland. Web. Silva. . Cong.. Naomi. Web.” The Lancet 350 (1997) 1094-96. “Remote Control of Cells. 31 May 2012. 267 (1452): 1591–4. “Effects of Toxoplasma on Human Behavior” Schizophrenia Bulletin 33 (2007): 757-769. Web. 2009 Annual Meeting Syllabus (2009): 255-260. United States. Print. Senate. 24 May 2012.Heath 14 Works Cited Berdoy M. “Clinical findings in thee cases of zombification. The Royal Society. SR400. William. Washington: GPO. Klein. 31 May 2012. and Chavannes Douyon. Toronto: Random House. 1977. Jaroslav. Web. House. JP Webster. and Walther Akemann. and DW Macdonald. Knopfel Thomas. The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. 31 May 2012. 1st sess. Web. New Series 240 (1988): 274-277. 31 May 2012. “An Introduction to Nanotechnology and its Applications to the Central Nervous System: Implications for Neuro-ophthalmology” North American NeuroOphthalmology Society. 2007. 95th Cong. 31 May 2012. “Voodoo Science” Science.” Nature Nanotechnology 5 (2010): 560-561. Booth. Papers from the Select Committee on Intelligence and Committee on Human Resources. Web. Littlewood. "Fatal attraction in rats infected with Toxoplasma gondii".

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