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: Harry Sudarma : 07120080060 : Clinical Exposure – Risk Factors

Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) a. Non-Modifiable Risk Factor 1. Age In general, people older than 35 year old is at higher risk. The risk of high blood pressure increases as you age. Through early middle age, high blood pressure is more common in men. Women are more likely to develop high blood pressure after menopause. (Men > 45 year old, Women > 55 year old) 2. Race High blood pressure is particularly common among blacks, often developing at an earlier age than it does in whites. Serious complications, such as stroke and heart attack, also are more common in blacks. 3. Family History High blood pressure tends to run in families. 4. Gender Men are generally at greater risk for hypertension than premenopausal women. After menopause, though, a woman's risk increases and is slightly greater than that of a man of the same age.

Secondhand smoke can also increase your blood pressure 4. the more blood you need to supply oxygen and nutrients to your tissues. Obese The more you weigh.b. is present in many patients with hypertension. As the volume of blood circulated through your blood vessels increases. which increases blood pressure. Smoking Not only does smoking or chewing tobacco immediately raise your blood pressure temporarily. Diet  Too much salt (sodium) in your diet. Alcohol Consumption Over time. 2. 3. a disorder in which breathing halts briefly but repeatedly during sleep. so does the pressure on your artery walls. 5. . as it may cause body to release hormones that increase blood flow and heart rate. This can cause your arteries to narrow. heavy drinking can damage the heart. Modifiable Risk Factor 1. but the chemicals in tobacco can damage the lining of your artery walls. Having more than two or three drinks in a sitting can also temporarily raise blood pressure. OSA Obstructive sleep apnea. The relationship between sleep apnea and hypertension has been thought to be largely due to obesity. but studies are finding a higher rate of hypertension in people with sleep apnea regardless of their weight. increasing your blood pressure. Too much sodium in your diet can cause your body to retain fluid.

Stress Being in a stressful situation can temporarily increase your blood pressure. If you don't get enough potassium in your diet or retain enough potassium. people under stress may overeat or eat a less healthy diet. It's uncertain if having too little vitamin D in your diet can lead to high blood pressure. Vitamin D may affect an enzyme produced by your kidneys that affects your blood pressure. Give yourself the gift of improved health and lower blood pressure with regular. you may accumulate too much sodium in your blood. Potassium helps balance the amount of sodium in your cells. Too little potassium in your diet. blood vessel disease and stroke. 6. moderate-tovigorous physical activity . established risk factors for high blood pressure or heart disease. Lack of Physical Activity Physical activity is good for your heart and circulatory system. Some scientists have noted a relationship between coronary heart disease risk and stress in a person's life.  Too little vitamin D in your diet. heart disease. An inactive lifestyle increases the chance of high blood pressure. put off physical activity. For example. drink. Inactivity also makes it easier to become overweight or obese. How you deal with stress may affect other. health behaviors and socioeconomic status. smoke or misuse drugs 7. but science has not proven that stress causes high blood pressure.

Passive smoking is also a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Type 2 diabetes It is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke. increases risks of cardiovascular disease. Diabetes is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. If you do not control diabetes then you are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease at an earlier age than other . Having diabetes makes you twice as likely as someone who does not to develop cardiovascular disease. 3. Hypertension It is the single biggest risk factor for stroke. smoke heavily or are a woman. 4. exercise and medication can modify your blood lipid profile.Cardiovascular risk factors a. Obesity is a major risk for cardiovascular disease and predisposes you to diabetes. Abnormal blood lipid levels That is high total cholesterol. high levels of low-density lipoprotein or low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol all increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. Modifiable risk factors 1. The risk is especially high if you started smoking when young. Tobacco use Whether it is smoking or chewing tobacco. Changing to a healthy diet. Stopping tobacco use can reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease significantly. It can be prevented and successfully treated but only if you have it diagnosed and stick to your recommended management plan. no matter how long you have smoked. Physical inactivity Physical inactivity increases the risk of heart disease and stroke by 50%. It also plays a significant role in heart attacks. high levels of triglycerides. 2. 5.

A diet high in saturated fat increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. If you are a pre-menopausal woman. Certain medicines may increase the risk of heart disease such as the contraceptive pill and hormone replacement therapy (HRT). 3. 6. But once past the menopause. 2. If a firstdegree blood relative has had coronary heart disease or stroke before the age of 55 years (for a male relative) or 65 years (for a female relative) your risk increases. Family’s history of cardiovascular disease indicates your risk. Ethnic origin plays a role. Alcohol consumption 8. 4. 7. .people and it will be more devastating. People with African or Asian ancestry are at higher risks of developing cardiovascular disease than other racial groups. It is estimated to cause about 31% of coronary heart disease and 11% of stroke worldwide. Gender is significant: as a man you are at greater risk of heart disease than a pre-menopausal woman. a woman’s risk is similar to a man’s. Simply getting old is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Non-modifiable risk factors 1. your diabetes cancels out the protective effect of estrogen and your risk of heart disease rises significantly. risk of stroke doubles every decade after age 55. b.

cigar smokers and people exposed to large amounts of secondhand smoke also are at risk. 2. the greater your risk.Coronary Artery Disease Modifiable CAD Risk Factors Cigarette smoking Obesity 90 mmHg) Physical inactivity Kidney disease Diabetes mellitus Alcohol consumption Stress Kidney disease Elevated LDL Reduced HDL Non-modifiable CAD Risk Factors Males > 45 years Females > 55 years Males disease Hypertension (blood pressure >= 140 / Family history of coronary artery COPD a. vapors and dusts can irritate and inflame your lungs. Pipe smokers. The most significant risk factor for COPD is long-term cigarette smoking. Occupational exposure to dusts and chemicals. . Chronic inhalation of marijuana smoke also can be injurious. Exposure to tobacco smoke. Long-term exposure to chemical fumes. The more years you smoke and the more packs you smoke. Modifiable-risk factors : 1.

Non-modifiable Risk factor 1. A rare genetic disorder known as alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is the source of a few cases of COPD.b. . 2. Age COPD develops slowly over years. Researchers suspect that other genetic factors may also make certain smokers more susceptible to the disease. so most people are at least 40 years old when symptoms begin. Genetics.

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