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Betriebsanleitung Operating Instructions Manuel dUtilisation Manual de Servicio Istruzioni per lUso

4
HP 504 C HP 594 C HP 604 C for city buses, intercity buses and coaches

4182 758 101

Subject to alteration in design

Copyright by ZF This documentation is protected by copyright. Any reproduction or dissemination in whatever form which does not comply fully with the intended purpose of this documentation is prohibited without the consent of ZF Friedrichshafen AG.

Printed in Germany ZF Friedrichshafen AG, 2006-06

Edition: 2006-06

Preface
Before the vehicle first enters service, please note the following points: Read this operating manual carefully and take due note of all safety instructions. To ensure that the transmission achieves the required level of operational safety and reliability, always pay careful attention to the maintenance instructions. The ZF Customer Service specialists are available to assist you. in carrying out maintenance work or to help if any other problems arise. These addresses are listed in the ZF Company Directory (order number 0000 762 703) or on the Internet under www.zf.com/ servicenetz. You will find more product information on the Internet by logging on to www.zf.com (Products/Product World Bus). NOTE All details in these Operating Instructions refer to the basic version of the ZF-Ecomat transmission. Due to the large number of installation options, no precise information can be provided for any specific vehicle. If there are any differences in operation between the instructions in this brochure and the Operating Instructions specific to an individual vehicle manufacturer, the vehicle-specific instructions are the ones to follow.

Motoring pleasure with the ZF-Ecomat is brought to you by ZF Friedrichshafen AG Commercial Vehicle and Special Driveline Technology D-88038 Friedrichshafen Phone: +49 (0) 7541 77-0 Fax: +49 (0) 7541 77-90 80 00 Internet: www.zf.com

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Safety Instructions
The following safety instructions appear in this manual:

NOTE Refers to special processes, techniques, information, etc.

CAUTION This is used when incorrect, unprofessional working practices could damage the product.

THREATS TO THE ENVIRONMENT! Lubricants and cleaning agents must not be allowed to enter the soil, ground water, or sewage system. Ask your local environment agency for safety information on the relevant products and adhere to their requirements. Collect used oil in a suitably large container. Dispose of used oil, dirty filters, lubricants, and cleaning agents in accordance with environmental protection guidelines. When working with lubricants and cleaning agents always refer to the manufacturers instructions.

DANGER! This is used when lack of care could lead to personal injury or material damage.

NOTE on cleaning the vehicle / transmission CAUTION When cleaning, always ensure that the steam cleaner or high-pressure cleaner does not make direct contact with the screw cap of the dipstick. Any water ingress through the breather can damage the transmission!

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Table of Contents
1 1.1 1.2 1.3 2 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.2.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Structure of Basic ZF-Ecomat 4 Transmission . . . 7 ZF-Ecomat 4 System Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Auxiliary Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 2.9 2.9.1 Limit Values for Oil Temperature . . . . . . . . . . .22 Transmission Oil Temperature Before Heat Exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 2.9.2 Oil Temperature in Transmission Oil Sump . . . .23 2.9.3 Actions to be Taken When the Relevant Permissible Oil Temperature is Exceeded . . . . . .24 2.10 Status Monitoring / Warning Lamps . . . . . . . . .24 2.11 Transmission Response to a Malfunction . . . . .25 2.11.1 Limp-Home Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 2.12 Auxiliary Control Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 2.12.1 Operating Instructions for the Auxiliary Control Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.1.1 3.3.1.2 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.4 3.5 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Oil Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Oil Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Oil Level Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Guide Value Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Checking Before the Engine is Switched On . .30 Checking After Starting the Engine . . . . . . . . . .31 Checking at Operating Temperature . . . . . . . . .31 Option for Heating Up the Transmission Oil . .32 Oil Change Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Oil Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Draining Transmission Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Draining Oil From ZF Angle Drive . . . . . . . . .34 Filling Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35

Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Pushbutton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Digital Speed Range Selector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 CAN Speed Range Selector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Lighting of the CAN Speed Range Selector Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 2.1.2.2 Pushbutton Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 2.2 Starting the Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 2.3 Selecting Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 2.4 Setting Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 2.5 Driving Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 2.5.1 Downhill Travel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 2.5.2 Change in Direction of Travel . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 2.5.3 Kickdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 2.5.4 Retarder Operating Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 2.6 Stopping, Parking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 2.7 Towing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 2.7.1 Towing Away Vehicle with Operational Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 2.7.2 Towing a Vehicle with Suspected Transmission Damage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 2.8 Temperature Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22

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Description
1 Description
The hydrodynamic retarder is installed between torque converter and planetary transmission. This means that the level of retarder braking force on the output shaft is gear-dependent. As a consequence, full braking action is available, even at the lower end of the speed range. The braking torque can be controlled across an infinitely variable range or can be sub-divided into several steps. Braking action while driving downhill or in city traffic can be delivered by the retarder without mechanical wear, thereby extending the life of the service brakes.

The Ecomat range of transmissions comprises a hydrodynamic torque converter (Fttinger t/c) with lock-up clutch, a hydrodynamic retarder and a downstream, multi-ratio planetary transmission. The torque converter is a starting unit which operates without mechanical wear and which adapts its setting across an infinitely variable range to suit prevailing conditions (delivering the required level of input torque). The gears in the planetary transmission are selected automatically and without any interruption to traction. Signals for gear shifts are supplied by the electronic control unit. Depending on various parameters obtained from vehicle and transmission, this automatic controller engages the appropriate multi-disc clutches and brakes via the electro-hydraulic transmission control unit. A lock-up clutch installed in the torque converter establishes a direct mechanical connection between engine and planetary transmission after the starting phase. This eliminates the power losses normally associated with torque converter transmissions.

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Description
1.1 Structure of Basic ZF-Ecomat 4 Transmission
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 9 10

11
024744

10 8
026741

10 Key to items 1 Drive 2 Torsion damper (optional) 3 Torque converter 4 Hydrodynamic retarder 5 Rotating multi-disc clutches 6 Stationary multi-disc brakes
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7 8 9 10 11 12 7

Output Heat exchanger Auxiliary cooling, short-circuit bracket (optional) Transmission type plate (possible positions) Transmission electrical unit connector Serial number (embossed)

Description
1.2 ZF-Ecomat 4 System Solution
23
8
N R 3 D 1 2

22 12 16 2

13

13

17

Brake Accelerator Engine Displays .... .... CAN-Bus 20

6 10

11 7

Key to drawing 1 Transmission electrical unit connector 2 ECU 146 / ECU 147 connector 15 3 Retarder connector 4 Retarder accumulator connector* 5 Temp.sensor connector (B4/A6) 6 Kickdown Switch 7 ZF diagnosis connection plug 8 Speed range selector 9 Transmission breather, oil filler tube, oil dipstick 10 Footplate brake valve for activation of service brake and infinitely variable retarder operation 11 Accelerator pedal 12 Retarder switch OFF - ON* 13 Main Power System
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1 21

9 18 19

14

14 Pushbutton for NBS* 5 15 Pushbutton for gear release* 16 ECU 146/147 Electronic Control Unit 17 Retarder manual lever, electrical* 3 18 Impulse sensor for speedometer* 19 Coolant connections 20 CAN connection 21 From air supply to auxiliary consumers* 22 Type plate ECU 146/147 23 Temperature display A5* *optional 8

027591

Description
Ecomat 4 System Solution This system diagram illustrates one of the possible system solutions for Ecomat 4 with ECU 146/147 and individual components. The electrical wiring from the Ecomat 4 system is routed to the electronic automatic shift controller ECU 146/147 (16) and to the CAN bus (20) in the vehicle via the vehicle circuit interface (13). The electronic shift controller is used to control and monitor transmission functions. The electronic control unit ECU 146/147 records input parameters from vehicle and transmission sent via CAN or as digital signals and processes these into signals to control the transmissions hydraulic system. The driver can intervene actively in the Ecomat control system using: Speed range selector (8) Kickdown (6) Accelerator pedal (11) Brake pedal (10) Switch for retarder operation (12/17) The desired speed range can be pre-selected using the speed range selector. The button pressed is illuminated (continuously lit). The kick-down switch is used to move the shift points towards higher engine speeds, so the transmission remains in each gear longer when accelerating and shifts out of each gear sooner when decelerating. The retarder (zero-wear service brake) is activated by the brake pedal (10) and/or hand lever (17). The retarder ON - OFF switch (12) can be used to enable/disable the retarder function.

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Description
Temperature sensors (5) are installed to monitor the oil temperature (also refer to Section 2.8). Data from temperature sensors is transmitted via CAN bus system, ECU 146/147 digital output or direct wiring and displayed by means of display or warning lamp. Whenever defined temperature limits are exceeded, retarder torque is reduced continuously. Engine load information is transmitted from the engine control unit to the ECU 146/147 using CAN. A proportional solenoid valve in the hydraulic shift control system modulates clutch actuation pressures in accordance with engine load. Ecomat 4 Innovations For temperature-critical applications, transmissions in the Ecomat 4 ranges are prepared for connection of a separate heat exchanger (auxiliary cooler). To connect up the additional heat exchanger, the short-circuit bracket is removed and flexible hoses are used to create a link to the heat exchanger. Short-circuit bracket, see Section 1.1, Pos. 9.

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Description
1.3 Auxiliary Transmission
Depending on vehicle version and application, the ZF-Ecomat transmission can be equipped with an 80 angle drive.

Key to drawing 1 Basic transmission 2 Coaxial output (standard) 3 80 angle drive left without offset (LHD) 4 80 angle drive right with offset (RHD)
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027511

11

Operation
2 2.1 Operation Pushbutton 2.1.2 CAN Speed Range Selector
Distinguishing features between CAN pushbutton and digital pushbutton speed range selector switches: Convex keys Neutral button does not lock Installation variants with 3, 4, 5 or 6 pushbuttons, installed horizontally or vertically: R N D = Reverse = Neutral = Automatic forwards driving range (Drive)
027768 027769

The vehicle is either equipped with a digital pushbutton or a CAN speed range selector switch.

ZF logo located on side of Neutral button

1, 2, 3 = Limited forward driving ranges

2.1.1 Digital Speed Range Selector


The button pressed is illuminated (continuously lit). The button pushed flashes if it is not accepted by the transmission control unit. CAN speed range selector, installed horizontally

Digital speed range selector, installed horizontally


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005624

12

Operation
2.1.2.1 Lighting of the CAN Speed Range Selector Switch
Button lighting colors: Neutral button: 1, 2, 3, D and R: bernstein yellow Exceptions: If the transmission control unit is not providing the information required for lighting purposes, the lamps only light up in search mode. Nevertheless, the vehicle can still be driven in this status. The lighting is also deactivated if the pushbutton position can no longer be correctly established as a result of a hardware defect and the buttons only light up with search lighting. NOTE The brightness settings for search and function lighting can, if required, be adjusted independently. They are corrected as a function of operating voltage.

All buttons light up for approx. 1.2 s: Lighting test at system startup All keys light up dimly: Search lighting: To make it easier to find the buttons in the dark. Individual buttons light up brightly: Function lighting: Identifies the active, pressed pushbutton. Individual buttons flashes: The active (pushed) button flashes if it is not accepted by the transmission control unit. All buttons flash: Serious internal fault in pushbutton Malfunction in CAN communication. Once this defect has been remedied, the light stops flashing.

2.1.2.2 Pushbutton Settings


NOTE If several buttons are selected at the same time, the smallest gear inhibit button selected is chosen. e.g. if buttons 1, 2, 3 and D are selected at the same time, button 1 is activated.

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Operation
2.2 Starting the Engine
Transmission with additional gear release function (Additional installation by vehicle manufacturer, recommended by ZF) Speed range selector in Neutral Accelerator pedal at idle setting and neng < 900 rpm Select desired driving range and apply the brake. System only engages the appropriate gear while the brake is being applied. Operator errors when engaging gear Accelerator pedal actuated or neng > 900 rpm If gear enable is installed, but brake not applied

Engine can only be started if: Vehicle is stationary (brake applied). Speed range selector is in Neutral position (N) NOTE Starter inhibit: If the speed range selector is not in Neutral, the engine cannot be started. CAUTION Only jump-start on the battery, never on the starter! Ignition OFF/ON but not while vehicle is in motion!

2.3

Selecting Gear

R direction of travel selected at a vehicle speed of > approx. 3 km/h After selecting the desired driving range, the system does not engage a gear. Transmission with auxiliary function 2nd Reverse gear button To reverse the vehicle, press the R button on the speed range selector and also the R button on the dashboard.

Standard: Speed range selector in Neutral Accelerator pedal at idle setting and neng < 900 rpm Select desired driving range or direction of travel. CAUTION Never actuate speed range selector and throttle at the same time!

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Operation
2.4 Setting Off
After selecting the appropriate speed range, wait for approx. 1 to 2 seconds, release brake (if applied) and accelerate.

DANGER ! On steep uphill gradients, always accelerate as soon as you release the brake! RISK OF ACCIDENT from vehicle rolling backwards!

CAUTION Do not set off immediately at temperatures below -15 C. Instead, allow engine to warm up for approx. 5 minutes. Speed range selector in Neutral.

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Operation
2.5 Driving Ranges 2.5.1 Downhill Travel
When driving down steep gradients, depending on requirements, you should select setting 1, 2 or 3 on the speed range selector. This restricts upshifts.

Please refer to the vehicles Operating Instructions for precise information about the gears engaged in each of the speed ranges. A defined range of gears / ratios is assigned to each speed range. Shifts are only executed at shift points defined by the electronic shift control unit. Manual intervention in the automatic shift sequence (shifting right through the speed ranges) is not advisable.

DANGER ! In extreme cases, to protect the engine, the upshift inhibit is cancelled. When this happens, it is possible for the transmission to shift up independently from the selected driving range to the highest gear. RISK OF ACCIDENT! Note tachometer!

DANGER ! If the transmission is shifted into N while the vehicle is in motion, the powerflow between engine and output is interrupted. This prevents the engine brake and retarder from being able to operate. Risk of accident! Apply the brake! For safety reasons, when faults occur in the electronic shift control unit or whenever there is a power failure, the transmission automatically selects N.

2.5.2 Change in Direction of Travel


Before changing from Forwards to Reverse or vice versa: Vehicle stationary Accelerator pedal at idle setting and neng < 900 rpm Speed range selector in Neutral position, depress brake pedal if necessary Move speed range selector to D, 1, 2, 3 or R

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Operation
2.5.3 Kickdown
To utilize max. engine power, higher shift points can be called up using the kick-down switch (see illustration) or the CAN system (to accelerate or to use the accelerator pedal on uphill gradients). Depress accelerator pedal beyond its full throttle pressure point (kickdown setting) Accelerator pedal Full load (pressure point) Kickdown

Kickdown switch
023629

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Operation
2.5.4 Retarder Operating Mode
The retarder is a ratio-dependent hydrodynamic brake which operates without mechanical wear. The retarder should be employed every time the brakes are applied. This extends the life of the service brake. The retarder can be activated by hand and/or using the foot controls. Conditions for retarder operation (retarder engaged/actuated) Accelerator pedal in idle speed setting A forwards gear must be engaged Vehicle speed > approx. 3 km/h If these conditions are met, the system prevents upshifts (upshift inhibit). CAUTION If the accelerator pedal is actuated, the retarder disengages. The upshift inhibit is cancelled.
013186

ge ran er rd eta R er tard + re ge ran rake b vice Ser


Br ak e

6 5 4 3 2
023630

1 0

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18

pe da l

Operation
The retarder is disengaged automatically by the electronic shift controller: When ABS is active. Whenever the permitted oil temperature is exceeded, as defined in Section 2.9. If a retarder ON-OFF switch is fitted, the retarder must be switched off: On icy roads. Whenever the permitted oil temperature is exceeded, as defined in Section 2.9. The max. permitted oil temperature for retarder operation is 150 C (max. 5 mins). Note temperature indicator or temperature warning, refer to section 2.8 or vehicle manufacturers Operating Instructions. Retarder activation using foot pedal, de-activation using toggle switch on dashboard. Switch off hand lever whenever the brake has been applied!

DANGER ! The retarder is feedback-controlled by a specified temperature characteristics curve. Risk of accident due to reduced braking power! 19

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Operation
2.6 Stopping, Parking
NOTE Only apply the parking brake when vehicle is stationary. Transmission with special Bus Stop Neutral (NBS) feature The transmission automatically selects Neutral when the following conditions are in place simultaneously: Vehicle stationary Brake applied Accelerator pedal in idle speed setting The range selected with the speed range selector is then retained. As soon as one of the three conditions ceases to apply, 1st gear is selected immediately and automatically.

Stopping The vehicle can be stopped at any time, regardless of the setting of the speed range selector. The electronic shift control unit then engages the appropriate gear for setting off. With short stops: Speed range can remain selected Apply brake At extended stops: Speed range selector in Neutral Apply brake

Parking Speed range selector in Neutral Apply parking brake

DANGER ! Before leaving the vehicle, always apply the parking brake. When the engine is switched off, there is no direct connection between engine and axle. The vehicle can therefore start to roll!

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Operation
2.7 Towing 2.7.2 Towing a Vehicle with Suspected Transmission Damage
CAUTION If transmission damage is suspected, the propshaft flange between transmission and drive shaft needs to be disconnected. Exception: In a dangerous situation, towing is permitted until the vehicle leaves the immediate danger area (e.g. road junction/intersection, tunnel etc.), without first disconnecting the driveline.

2.7.1 Towing Away Vehicle with Operational Transmission


Speed range selector in Neutral Max. towing time: 2 hours Max. towing speed: City and intercity buses: Coaches: 25 km/h 35 km/h

NOTE At an ambient temperature of less than -15 C the towing speed is 5 km/h.

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Operation
2.8 Temperature Monitoring 2.9 Limit Values for Oil Temperature

Monitoring of transmission temperature is performed by the ECU 146/147 electronic shift controller. The oil sump temperature and oil temperature at the retarder outlet are transmitted by CAN to the vehicle control unit. For customers with no access to these CAN messages, temperature sensor A6 and temperature indicator A5 deliver the corresponding retarder outlet temperature The switch point for the warning contact on the temperature display unit is 145 C.

2.9.1 Transmission Oil Temperature Before Heat Exchanger


During retarder operation: In exceptional cases, short periods of operation (max. 5 mins. within a 1 hour period) at 150 C are permissible. During torque converter operation: The temperature limit for continuous operation is 110 C. In exceptional cases, short periods of operation (max. 5 mins. within a 1 hour period) at 130 C are permissible. During normal driving: The permitted temperature range is between 90 - 100 C.

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Operation
2.9.2 Oil Temperature in Transmission Oil Sump
The following sump temperatures must not be exceeded (not even at high ambient temperatures): Pos. 120 Pos. 124

Transmission oil sump temperatures Ecomat 4 Operating temperature or endurance temperature Exception: max. 5 mins. within 1 hour
1 2 1 2

max. 100 C

max. 105 C B14


021648

105 C

115 C

B14: Temperature sensor in transmission sump Pos 120/124: Temperature sensor on retarder outlet (B4) or temperature sensor (A6) for temperature indicator (A5) see Section 1.2 ZF-Ecomat 4 System Solution

with oil acc. to List of Lubricants TE-ML 14 A / B / C / E with oil acc. to List of Lubricants TE-ML 14 E

NOTE 80 angle drive with axial offset is not approved for endurance sump temperatures of 105 C!

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Operation
2.9.3 Actions to be Taken When the Relevant Permissible Oil Temperature is Exceeded
Driving at partial load Switch off retarder If this does NOT cause the oil temperature to drop: Stop the vehicle Speed range selector in Neutral Run engine at raised idle speed NOTE If the temperature does not drop back into its permitted range within a few minutes, the possible causes are: Oil level too low or too high Contaminated heat exchange in vehicle Coolant circuit defective Transmission damage Inform ZF Service Center without delay!

2.10 Status Monitoring / Warning Lamps


The diagnostics system of the electronic shift control unit ECU 146/147 monitors the transmission status every time the vehicle circuit is switched on and continuously while the vehicle is in motion. Warning lamps Faults are displayed by warning lamps lighting up (red or yellow) and by warning messages which appear on the drivers display panel (refer to the vehicle manufacturers Operating Instructions). If a selected gear or speed range is not accepted by the ECU, the button pressed on the speed range selector starts to flash.

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Operation
2.11 Transmission Response to a Malfunction
To protect the transmission in the event of a malfunction, the following responses are provided: Shift into Neutral: In the event of major malfunctions in the power supply to the transmission, e.g. short circuit. Shift into Limp-Home Mode: If there is an interruption to CAN communication or a loss of shaft speed information.

2.11.1 Limp-Home Mode


The ECU is set up with specific time and pressure settings for pressure control in limp-home mode. Please also note that: The retarder function is not available The Bus Stop Neutral (NBS) function is not available The engine brake cannot be activated Torque converter lock-up clutch (WK) is open Engine torque is limited to protect the transmission (no engine management)

DANGER ! If a malfunction occurs in the transmission system, the following applies: Greatest danger of transmission damage Restricted system monitoring RISK OF ACCIDENT!

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Operation
2.12 Auxiliary Control Unit
This auxiliary control unit was developed to help with moving the vehicle during the production process and to act as a limp-home facility in the event of ECU failure. Auxiliary control unit HST 46 The HST 46 auxiliary control unit is fitted to the 68-pin connector instead of the ECU 145/147-pin connector. This allows the driver to select one forwards and one reverse gear. Gear shifts whilst driving are no longer possible. NOTE Auxiliary control unit not available with the ECU 146/147 and CAN pushbutton combination.

2.12.1 Operating Instructions for the Auxiliary Control Unit


Apply parking brake to prevent vehicle from rolling accidentally. Speed range selector is in N position. Switch off engine and ignition. Remove connector from electronic shift controller. Connect plug to HST 46 auxiliary control unit and secure. Start engine. Engage gear on pushbutton: Shift setting N Shift setting D = Neutral = Drive (forwards gear is engaged, no upshifts or downshifts occur) = Reverse

Shift setting R

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Operation

DANGER ! When operating via the auxiliary control unit, none of the safety functions are enabled. RISK OF ACCIDENT! The following points must therefore be taken into account at all times: Shifting from N to D or from N to R only ever at idle speed and with the vehicle stationary. The transmission can also change gear at higher shaft speeds but this can lead to transmission damage. Before every change from forwards to reverse travel or vice versa, always ensure that the vehicle is completely stationary. After shifting into D or R, always wait for 2 seconds to enable the transmission to engage before starting to accelerate.

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Maintenance
3 Maintenance
The latest List of Lubricants can be obtained from all ZF Sales & Service Centers or can be downloaded from the Internet at: www.zf.com (Service / Technical Information / ZF List of Lubricants) and viewed.

Regular and correctly performed maintenance is essential to safeguard the operational safety of the transmission. It is therefore particularly important for the maintenance intervals to be observed.

3.2 Oil Volumes


During oil changes (drain lasts approx. 10 min.) approx. 18 liters After installation of new/replacement transmissions approx. 20 liters When first filling the dry transmission approx. 28 liters NOTE These figures are guide values and refer to the standard version of the Ecomat 4. Depending on the version of heat exchanger fitted, oil quantities can rise by as much as approx. 5 liters. The definitive oil volume is the one obtained after the oil level check and at operating temperature (see Section 3.3.2).

THREATS TO THE ENVIRONMENT! Lubricants and cleaning agents must not be allowed to enter the soil, ground water, or sewage system. Ask your local environment agency for safety information on the relevant products and adhere to their requirements. Collect used oil in a suitably large container. Dispose of used oil, dirty filters, lubricants, and cleaning agents in accordance with environmental protection guidelines. When working with lubricants and cleaning agents always refer to the manufacturers instructions.

3.1 Oil Grade


CAUTION When filling Ecomat transmissions, always use oils specified on the latest version of the ZF List of Lubricants TE-ML 14.

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Maintenance
3.3 Oil Level Check
CAUTION Always maintain the correct oil level: Insufficient oil leads to transmission malfunctions and damage Too much oil causes the transmission to overheat The following applies in general: Check the oil level at operating temperature (80 to 90 C) to obtain a definitive figure. The vehicle must be parked on level ground when checking the oil level. Shift range selector (pushbutton) to Neutral. Run engine at idle speed. Idle speed should be set to 500 to 700 rpm. It must never drop below 450 rpm. Undertake oil level check at least once a quarter. Conduct regular visual inspections of the transmission for signs of leakage. In exceptional cases the oil level may need to be checked while the transmission oil is cold refer to Section 3.3.1. Then always check the oil again at normal operating temperature.

DANGER ! Insufficient oil in the system leads to partial or complete failure of the retarder, i.e. braking action is impaired or non-existent.

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Maintenance
3.3.1 Guide Value Measurement
This oil level measurement, carried out while the transmission oil is cold, is applied under the following exceptional circumstances: When a transmission enters service for the first time. If the engine has not run in a long time or if the vehicle has been transferred or purchased. After in situ transmission repair, e.g. removal of the oil pan, hydraulic control unit, heat exchanger etc. After oil or filter changes. Calculation of the flat rate (labor charge) can be divided into steps: Checking before the engine is switched on. Checking after the engine has been switched on. Then check again at operating temperature. } COLD
024885

3.3.1.1 Checking Before the Engine is Switched On


Vehicle stationary and on horizontal ground. Oil level must reach the STOP mark. NOTE If the oil level is higher than this, do not drain any oil!

- STOP } HOT

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Maintenance
3.3.1.2 Checking After Starting the Engine
Oil level check with cold transmission oil (approx. 30 C): Vehicle stationary and on horizontal ground Shift range selector (pushbutton) to Neutral Leave engine running at 1200 - 1500 rpm for 15 - 20 seconds Run engine at idle speed and measure oil level within 30 seconds Oil level must be in the COLD range NOTE If the oil level is higher than this, do not drain any oil! CAUTION After cold starts below 0 C, the dipstick must be immersed at least 10 mm below the surface of the oil to enable the unit to heat up properly to operating temperature. Then check again at operating temperature (see Section 3.3.2). - STOP } HOT

3.3.2 Checking at Operating Temperature


Oil level check with hot transmission oil (80 to 90 C): Vehicle stationary and on horizontal ground Shift range selector (pushbutton) to Neutral Run engine for 15 - 20 seconds at 1200 - 1500 rpm (not required with directly mounted heat exchanger) Let engine run at idle speed

} COLD
024885

CAUTION The engine idle speed should be set to between 500 and 700 rpm. It must never drop below 450 rpm. Oil level must be in the HOT range. For the options available for heating up transmission oil, see Section 8.3.3.

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Maintenance
3.3.3 Option for Heating Up the Transmission Oil
The transmission oil can be heated up to its specified operating temperature for oil check purposes by running the vehicle normally with retarder cycles until the oil sump temperature reaches 80 - 90 C. If normal operation of the vehicle is not possible, the oil needs to be heated up in one of the following ways: Apply parking brake Select speed range D Apply service brake Run engine several times at part throttle (as required) for 15 to 20 seconds at 1200 to 1500 rpm. CAUTION The maximum permitted oil temperature defined in Section 2.9 must not be exceeded! After every heating-up phase and with the transmission in Neutral, run engine at 1500 to 2000 rpm for 15 to 30 seconds. Once the operating temperature has been reached, a check must be carried out in accordance with Section 3.3.2.
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Maintenance
3.4 Oil Change Intervals
The oil change intervals defined in ZF List of Lubricants TE-ML 14 are binding. The latest List of Lubricants can be obtained from all ZF Sales & Service Centers or can be downloaded from the Internet at: www.zf.com (Service / Technical Information / ZF List of Lubricants) and viewed. NOTE When changing oil from ATF in lubricant class 14A or 14B to an ATF grade with longer oil change intervales, an intermediate oil change is required to comply with List of Lubricants TE-ML 14.

3.5

Oil Change

3.5.1 Draining Transmission Oil


NOTE Drain oil at operating temperature for at least 10 minutes: Vehicle stationary and on horizontal ground Engine must be stationary Unscrew oil drain plug (1) and drain oil Remove filter cover (2)

1
027485

2 CAUTION The oil filter must be replaced at every oil change.


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Maintenance
3.5.2 Draining Oil From ZF Angle Drive
The ZF angle drive shares an oil supply with the ZF-Ecomat. Only drain oil at operating temperature. ZF 80 angle drive LHD without offset Engine must be stationary Unscrew and remove oil drain plug (1) from angle drive and drain residual oil from angle drive ZF 80 angle drive RHD with offset This angle drive does not have its own oil drain plug. Drain oil through drain plug in main transmission as described in Section 3.5.

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ZF 80 angle drive LHD without offset


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ZF 80 angle drive RHD with offset 34

Maintenance
3.5.3 Filling Oil
Replace filter cartridge, copper rings and O-ring Screw down filter cover (2), tightening torque: 25 Nm Screw in oil drain plug (1) : Tightening torque - oil pan: 50 Nm - Tightening torque - 80 angle drive LHD without offset: 60 Nm Remove dipstick (3) Fill with oil and check oil level in accordance with Section 3.3 NOTE The angle drive (optional) is filled via the transmission. Use oil grade in accordance with List of Lubricants TE-ML 14 Oil volume, see Section 3.2. 3

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Troubleshooting Instructions

Error Engine will not start.

Possible cause Speed range selector not in Neutral Electronic control unit connector loose. Starter inhibit relay defective or missing CAN signal

Remedial action Select Neutral on speed range selector Tighten ECU plug connection Replace relay or check CAN signal Check accelerator pedal / injection pump or adjust it Set engine idle speed

Transmission does not engage any gears

Accelerator pedal not in idle speed position or load signal too high Engine idle speed > 900 rpm Only on transmissions with auxiliary function Gear release: Service brake not applied ECU in malfunction setting

Apply the service brake Switch ignition on/off Check / correct oil level Call ZF Service Check / correct oil level Switch off retarder using hand lever Call ZF Service Clean the radiator Check / correct oil level Check CAN signal and retarder connector

Vehicle does not move

Oil level too low Transmission defective

Oil temperature too high

Oil level too high Retarder engaged Transmission damage Radiator dirty

Retarder not responding

Oil level too low Retarder proportional valve or solenoid valve not operating, CAN signal not present

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