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Mark Fowler

Note Set #14

C-T Signals: Fourier Transform (for Non-Periodic Signals) Reading Assignment: Section 3.4 & 3.5 of Kamen and Heck

The arrows here show conceptual flow between ideas. Note the parallel structure between the pink blocks (C-T Freq. Analysis) and the blue blocks (D-T Freq. Analysis). New Signal Models

Ch. 1 Intro

C-T Signal Model Functions on Real Line System Properties LTI Causal Etc D-T Signal Model Functions on Integers

Fourier Series Periodic Signals Fourier Transform (CTFT) Non-Periodic Signals

Frequency Response Based on Fourier Transform

Transfer Function

C-T System Model Differential Equations D-T Signal Model Difference Equations Zero-State Response Zero-Input Response Characteristic Eq.

Ch. 2 Convolution

C-T System Model Convolution Integral D-T Signal Model Convolution Sum

DTFT (for Hand Analysis) DFT & FFT (for Computer Analysis)

Freq. Response for DT Based on DTFT

Transfer Function

Recall: Fourier Series represents a periodic signal as a sum of sinusoids or complex sinusoids

e jk0t

Note: Because the FS uses harmonically related frequencies k0, it can only create periodic signals

Q: Can we modify the FS idea to handle non-periodic signals? A: Yes!! What about x(t ) =

c k e j k t ?

k =

That will give some non-periodic signals but not some that are important!! The problem with x(t ) = ck e jk t is that it cannot include all possible k = frequencies!

How about:

1 x(t ) = 2

X ( )e jt d

Plays the role of ck

Plays the role of jk0t

Called the Fourier Integral also, more commonly, called the Inverse Fourier Transform

Integral replaces sum because it can add up over the continuum of frequencies!

X ( ) = x(t )e jt dt

X ( )

Need to use two plots to show it

Comparison of FT and FS Fourier Series: Used for periodic signals Fourier Transform: Used for non-periodic signals (although we will see later that it can also be used for periodic signals) Synthesis Fourier Series Analysis

x(t ) =

n =

c e

k

jk0t

1 t 0 +T ck = x(t )e jk0t dt T t0

Fourier Coefficients

Fourier Series

X ( )e

jk0t

X ( ) = x(t )e jt dt

Fourier Transform

FS coefficients ck are a complex-valued function of integer k FT X() is a complex-valued function of the variable (-, )

Synthesis Viewpoints:

FS:

x(t ) =

n =

ck e jk0t

FT:

1 x(t ) = 2

X ( )e jt d

Some FT Notation:

If X() is the Fourier transform of x(t) then we can write this in several ways: 1. x (t ) X ( ) 2. X ( ) = F {x (t )} 3. x (t ) = F

1

{X ( )}

Analogy: Looking at X() is like looking at an x-ray of the signal- in the sense that an x-ray lets you see what is inside the object shows what stuff it is made from. In this sense: X() shows what is inside the signal it shows how much of each complex sinusoid is inside the signal Note: x(t) completely determines X() X() completely determines x(t) There are some advanced mathematical issues that can be hurled at these comments well not worry about them

Given a signal x(t) = e-btu(t) find X() if b > 0

x(t )

b controls decay rate

t

The u(t) part forces this to zero

Nowapply the definition of the Fourier transform. Recall the general form:

X ( ) = x (t )e jt dt

X ( ) = e u (t )e

bt

jt

dt = e e

0

bt jt

dt = e (b + j ) t dt

0

Easy integral!

1 ( b+ j ) t 1 e = e ( b+ j ) e ( b+ j ) 0 = b + j t =0 b + j

t =

1 1 b j 0 [0 1] = e e 2 e = { 13 { b + j b + j =0 mag =1 =1 1 = b + j

x (t ) = e u (t )

For b > 0

bt

1 X ( ) = b + j

(Complex Valued)

X ( ) =

1 b +

2

1

Magnitude

X ( ) = tan Phase b

x (t ) = e bt u(t ) 1 b > 0 controls

decay rate

X ( )

(volts)

MATLAB Commands to Compute FT w=-100:0.2:100; b=10; X=1./(b+j*w); Note: Books Fig. 3.12 only shows one-sided spectrum plots Plotting Commands subplot(2,1,1); plot(w,abs(X)) xlabel('Frequency \omega (rad/sec)') ylabel('|X(\omega|) (volts)'); grid subplot(2,1,2); plot(w,angle(X)) xlabel('Frequency \omega (rad/sec)') ylabel('<X(\omega) (rad)'); grid

Time Signal

|X( )|

10

Fourier Transform

b=0.1

x(t)

b=0.1

0.5

0 -10 1

10 t (sec)

20

30

40

0 -100 1

-50

0 (rad/sec)

50

100

0.5

|X( )|

b=1

x(t)

b=1

0.5

0 -10 1

10 t (sec)

20

30

40

0 -100 0.1

-50

0 (rad/sec)

50

100

0.5

|X( )|

b=10

x(t)

b=10

0.05

0 -10

10 t (sec)

20

30

40

0 -100

-50

0 (rad/sec)

50

100

Note: As b increases 1. Decay rate in time signal increases 2. High frequencies in Fourier transform are more prominent.

p (t )

= pulse width

Note the Notational Convention: lower-case for time signal and corresponding upper-case for its FT

1, t 2 2 p (t ) = 0, otherwise

P ( ) = p (t )e jt dt =

/2

/ 2

e jt dt

Limit integral to where p(t) is nonzero and use the fact that it is 1 over that region

1 jt = e j

2 2

j j 2 e 2 e 2 = j2

= sin 2

2 sin 2 P ( ) =

1/ decays down as || gets big this causes the overall function to decay down

For this case the FT is real valued so we can plot it using a single plot (shown in solid blue here):

= 1/2

2/ 2/

-2/

-2/

2 sin 2 P ( ) =

Even though this FT is real-valued we can still plot it using magnitude and phase plots: We can view any real number as a complex number that has zero as its imaginary part

Im R Re

Im + R - Re

Phase = 0 Phase =

1 |X( )| x(t) 0.5 0 -4 1 |X( )| x(t) 2

=2

-3 -2 -1 0 1 t (sec) 2 3 4

=2

-50 0 (rad/sec) 50 100

0 -100 1

0.5 0 -4 1

=1

-3 -2 -1 0 1 t (sec) 2 3 4

0.5

=1

-50 0 (rad/sec) 50 100

0 -100 1 |X( )|

x(t)

0.5 0 -4

= 1/2

-3 -2 -1 0 1 t (sec) 2 3 4

0.5

= 1/2

-50 0 (rad/sec) 50 100

0 -100

The result we just found had this mathematical form: This kind of structure shows up frequently enough that we define a special function to capture it:

2 sin 2 P ( ) =

Plot of sinc(x)

Note that sinc(0) = 0/0. So Why is sinc(0) = 1?

With a little manipulation we can re-write the FT result for a pulse in terms of the sinc function:

Recall:

sinc ( x ) =

sin(x ) x

Need times something Now we need the same thing down here as inside the sine

P ( ) = sinc 2

We have just found the FT for two common signals

x (t) = e

1, p ( t ) = 0,

bt

u (t)

X ( ) =

1 b + j

otherwise

P ( ) = sinc 2

There are tables in the book but I recommend that you use the Tables I provide on the Website

See FT Table on the Course Website for a list of these and many other FT. You should study this table If you encounter a time signal or FT that is on this table you should recognize that it is on the table without being told that it is there. You should be able to recognize entries in graphical form as well as in equation form (so it would be a good idea to make plots of each function in the table to learn what they look like! See next slide!!!) You should be able to use multiple entries together with the FT properties well learn in the next set of notes (and there will be another Table!)

For your FT Table you should spend time making sketches of the entries like this:

X ()

t

P ()

p (t)

Now that we have the FT as a tool to analyze signals, we can use it to identify certain characteristics that many practical signals have. A signal x(t) is timelimited (or of finite duration) if there are 2 numbers T1 & T2 such that:

x(t ) = 0 t [T1 , T2 ]

T1

T2

X ( ) = 0

X ( )

2B 2B

> 2B

Any timelimited signal is not bandlimited Any bandlimited signal is not timelimited

timelimited Practical signals are not bandlimited!

But engineers say practical signals are effectively bandlimited because for almost all practical signals |X()| decays to zero as gets large

X ( )

2B 2B

FT of pulse

This signal is effectively bandlimited to B Hz because |X()| falls below (and stays below) the specified level for all above 2B

Abbreviate Bandwidth as BW

For a lot of signals like audio they fill up the lower frequencies but then decay as gets large: X ( )

2B 2B

For Example: 1. 2. High-Fidelity Audio signals have an accepted BW of about 20 kHz A speech signal on a phone line has a BW of about 4 kHz

Early telephone engineers determined that limiting speech to a BW of 4kHz still allowed listeners to understand the speech

For other kinds of signals like radio frequency (RF) signals they are concentrated at high frequencies

X ( )

1 = 2f1

2 = 2f 2

If the signals FT has negligible content for || [1, 2] then we say the signals BW = f2 - f1 in Hz For Example: 1. The signal transmitted by an FM station has a BW of 200 kHz = 0.2 MHz a. The station at 90.5 MHz on the FM Dial must ensure that its signal does not extend outside the range [90.4, 90.6] MHz b. Note that: FM stations all have an odd digit after the decimal point. This ensures that adjacent bands dont overlap: i. FM90.5 covers [90.4, 90.6] ii. FM90.7 covers [90.6, 90.8], etc. 2. The signal transmitted by an AM station has a BW of 20 kHz a. A station at 1640 kHz must keep its signal in [1630, 1650] kHz b. AM stations have an even digit in the tens place and a zero in the ones

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