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# Full-Wave Rectifier RL Load: Continuous Operation

## Full-Wave Controlled Rectifier: RL Load (continuous mode)

There are many ways we can develop a full-wave controlled rectifier for an inductive load. One
of the possible configurations is shown below. Idea here is to control the dc output voltage
and current through the inductive load when the maximum value of the input voltage is cannot
be changed. As explained in the previous section, there are two possible operations: (a)
discontinuous, and (b) continuous. In this section, we consider the continuous operation.
Since there is no way to tell if the operation is continuous or not, it is always wise to begin the
analysis assuming the discontinuous mode.
Given data:
R 20 := V
m
170 V :=
L 200 mH :=
f 60 Hz := 2 f :=
The impedance of the RL circuit: z R j L + := z 20 75.398j + =
Magnitude and
phase of the impedance:
Z z := Z 78.006 =
arg z ( ) := 1.312rad =
tan tan ( ) := tan 3.77 =
The operation is discontinuous if the current in the inductor is negligibly small prior to the
firing angle of the SCRs. In other words, the current is zero when the SCRs turn on.
Let us sketch the waveform for one time period: t 0 0.01 , 2

3
+ .. :=
Let us assume that the firing angle is

4
:= 45deg =
The source voltage: v
s
t ( ) V
m
sin t ( ) :=
Guru/PE424CR/FCCRL 1 May 05, 2006
Full-Wave Rectifier RL Load: Continuous Operation
When the SCR is conducting, the differential equation for the RL circuit is
L
di
o
t ( )
dt
R i
o
t ( ) + V
m
sin t ( ) =
If we assume the operation is discontinuous, then the initial current at t = is zero.
The Solution: i
o
t ( )
V
m
Z
sin t ( ) sin ( ) e
t ( )
tan

:=
Let us now verify if the operation is really discontinuous. To do so, find the extinction angle
when the current is zero again. The angle should be less than or equalt to + , where
+ 225deg = .
Let us guess the value of extinction angle as :=
We use the root function to obtain the extinction angle as
root i
o
( ) ,
( )
:= 7.51rad = or 430.305deg =
Since 430.305deg = is greater than + 225deg = , the condition for discontinuous
mode is not satisfied. Hence, the operation of the circuit is continuous.
The output voltage v
o
t ( ) varies as v
s
t ( ) from t = to t = + = and as
v
s
t ( ) from t + = to t 2 + = .
For the sketching purposes, let us construct the output voltage waveform by defining it as a
sum of 4 waveforms in the tiem period of little over one complete cycle.
v
oa
t ( ) if t v
s
t ( ) , 0 ,
( )
:=
v
ob
t ( ) if t + v
s
t ( ) , 0 ,
( )
:=
v
oc
t ( ) if + t 2 + v
s
t ( ) , 0 ,
( )
:=
v
od
t ( ) if 2 + t 3 + v
s
t ( ) , 0 ,
( )
:=
v
o
t ( ) v
oa
t ( ) v
ob
t ( ) + v
oc
t ( ) + v
od
t ( ) + :=
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Full-Wave Rectifier RL Load: Continuous Operation
0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420
200
160
120
80
40
0
40
80
120
160
200
Input and Output Voltages
Angle in degrees
I
n
p
u
t

(
s
o
l
i
d
)
,

O
u
t
p
u
t

(
D
o
t
t
e
d
)
For a continuous current in the circuit, we can represent the output voltage in terms of its
Fourier series.
The dc component of the output voltage:
V
odc
2
2

+
a v
ob
a ( )

d =
Upon integration, we get V
odc
2 V
m

cos ( ) := V
odc
76.527V =
The general expressions for the Fourier components are given below: n 2 :=
a
n
2
V
m

cos 1 n + ( )

n 1 +
cos n 1 ( )

n 1

:= a
n
102.036 =
b
n
2
V
m

sin n 1 + ( )

n 1 +
sin n 1 ( )

n 1

:= b
n
51.018 =
Guru/PE424CR/FCCRL 3 May 05, 2006
Full-Wave Rectifier RL Load: Continuous Operation
We can also use the equations to compute the components for the first 8 harmonics as
n 1 8 .. :=
a
n
1

+
a v
ob
a ( ) cos n a ( )

d
+
2 +
a v
oc
a ( ) cos n a ( )

d +
|

\
|
|
|

:=
b
n
1

+
a v
ob
a ( ) sin n a ( )

d
+
2 +
a v
oc
a ( ) sin n a ( )

d +
|

\
|
|
|

:=
In terms of maximum values, the strengths of the Fourier components are
C
n
a
n
j b
n
:=
The impedance for the nth harmonic: Z
n
R j n L + :=
Hence, the nth-order current through the RL circuit: I
n
C
n
Z
n
:=
The results are tabulated below:
arg I
n
( )
180

6.479
70.99
127.788
-10.242
28.809
-96.931
-111.466
174.774
=
n
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
= a
n
0
-102.036
0
10.204
0
26.238
0
-2.429
= b
n
0
-51.018
0
-40.814
0
4.373
0
19.435
= I
n
0
0.75
0
0.139
0
0.059
0
0.032
=
Note that the output voltage contains only even harmonics.
Guru/PE424CR/FCCRL 4 May 05, 2006
Full-Wave Rectifier RL Load: Continuous Operation
C
n
0
102.036 51.018j +
0
10.204 40.814j +
0
26.238 4.373j
0
2.429 19.435j
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

= Z
n
20 75.398j +
20 150.796j +
20 226.195j +
20 301.593j +
20 376.991j +
20 452.389j +
20 527.788j +
20 603.186j +
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|

=
The dc componewnt of the output current: I
odc
V
odc
R
:= I
odc
3.826A =
The general expression for the current is
i
o
t ( ) I
odc
1
8
n
I
n
cos n t arg I
n
( ) + ( ) ( )

=
+ :=
I
orms
1
2
0
2
a i
o
a ( )
2

d := I
orms
3.864A =
Since we already know the strength of each harmonic component of the current, the
rms value of the output voltage can also be obtained as
I
oeff
I
odc
2
1
8
n
I
n
2
|

\
|
|

=
+ := I
oeff
3.864A =
Compute the rms values of the input voltage, output voltage, and output current as:
V
srms
1
2
0
2
a v
s
a ( )
2

d := V
srms
120.208V =
Guru/PE424CR/FCCRL 5 May 05, 2006
Full-Wave Rectifier RL Load: Continuous Operation
V
orms
2
2

+
a v
ob
a ( )
2

d := V
orms
120.208V =
0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
Angle (degrees)
O
u
t
p
u
t

c
u
r
r
e
n
t

(

A
)
Since the output voltage is continuously varying as a sinusoid, we expect its rms value
to be exactly equal to the input voltage as long as the diodes and the SCR are ideal.
DC Power Output: P
odc
V
odc
I
odc
:= P
odc
292.818W =
Total Power Output: P
oT
I
orms
2
R := P
oT
298.681W =
Apparent power output: S
o
V
orms
I
orms
:=
S
o
464.54VA =
Rectification ratio:
P
odc
S
o
:= 0.63 =
V 1
1 A 1 W 1
mH 0.001 VA 1
VAR 1 Hz 1
Guru/PE424CR/FCCRL 6 May 05, 2006