:=
Let us now verify if the operation is really discontinuous. To do so, find the extinction angle
when the current is zero again. The angle should be less than or equalt to + , where
+ 225deg = .
Let us guess the value of extinction angle as :=
We use the root function to obtain the extinction angle as
root i
o
( ) ,
( )
:= 7.51rad = or 430.305deg =
Since 430.305deg = is greater than + 225deg = , the condition for discontinuous
mode is not satisfied. Hence, the operation of the circuit is continuous.
The output voltage v
o
t ( ) varies as v
s
t ( ) from t = to t = + = and as
v
s
t ( ) from t + = to t 2 + = .
For the sketching purposes, let us construct the output voltage waveform by defining it as a
sum of 4 waveforms in the tiem period of little over one complete cycle.
v
oa
t ( ) if t v
s
t ( ) , 0 ,
( )
:=
v
ob
t ( ) if t + v
s
t ( ) , 0 ,
( )
:=
v
oc
t ( ) if + t 2 + v
s
t ( ) , 0 ,
( )
:=
v
od
t ( ) if 2 + t 3 + v
s
t ( ) , 0 ,
( )
:=
v
o
t ( ) v
oa
t ( ) v
ob
t ( ) + v
oc
t ( ) + v
od
t ( ) + :=
Guru/PE424CR/FCCRL 2 May 05, 2006
FullWave Rectifier RL Load: Continuous Operation
0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420
200
160
120
80
40
0
40
80
120
160
200
Input and Output Voltages
Angle in degrees
I
n
p
u
t
(
s
o
l
i
d
)
,
O
u
t
p
u
t
(
D
o
t
t
e
d
)
For a continuous current in the circuit, we can represent the output voltage in terms of its
Fourier series.
The dc component of the output voltage:
V
odc
2
2
+
a v
ob
a ( )
d =
Upon integration, we get V
odc
2 V
m
cos ( ) := V
odc
76.527V =
The general expressions for the Fourier components are given below: n 2 :=
a
n
2
V
m
cos 1 n + ( )
n 1 +
cos n 1 ( )
n 1
:= a
n
102.036 =
b
n
2
V
m
sin n 1 + ( )
n 1 +
sin n 1 ( )
n 1
:= b
n
51.018 =
Guru/PE424CR/FCCRL 3 May 05, 2006
FullWave Rectifier RL Load: Continuous Operation
We can also use the equations to compute the components for the first 8 harmonics as
n 1 8 .. :=
a
n
1
+
a v
ob
a ( ) cos n a ( )
d
+
2 +
a v
oc
a ( ) cos n a ( )
d +

\



:=
b
n
1
+
a v
ob
a ( ) sin n a ( )
d
+
2 +
a v
oc
a ( ) sin n a ( )
d +

\



:=
In terms of maximum values, the strengths of the Fourier components are
C
n
a
n
j b
n
:=
The impedance for the nth harmonic: Z
n
R j n L + :=
Hence, the nthorder current through the RL circuit: I
n
C
n
Z
n
:=
The results are tabulated below:
arg I
n
( )
180
6.479
70.99
127.788
10.242
28.809
96.931
111.466
174.774
=
n
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
= a
n
0
102.036
0
10.204
0
26.238
0
2.429
= b
n
0
51.018
0
40.814
0
4.373
0
19.435
= I
n
0
0.75
0
0.139
0
0.059
0
0.032
=
Note that the output voltage contains only even harmonics.
Guru/PE424CR/FCCRL 4 May 05, 2006
FullWave Rectifier RL Load: Continuous Operation
C
n
0
102.036 51.018j +
0
10.204 40.814j +
0
26.238 4.373j
0
2.429 19.435j

\











= Z
n
20 75.398j +
20 150.796j +
20 226.195j +
20 301.593j +
20 376.991j +
20 452.389j +
20 527.788j +
20 603.186j +

\











=
The dc componewnt of the output current: I
odc
V
odc
R
:= I
odc
3.826A =
The general expression for the current is
i
o
t ( ) I
odc
1
8
n
I
n
cos n t arg I
n
( ) + ( ) ( )
=
+ :=
I
orms
1
2
0
2
a i
o
a ( )
2
d := I
orms
3.864A =
Since we already know the strength of each harmonic component of the current, the
rms value of the output voltage can also be obtained as
I
oeff
I
odc
2
1
8
n
I
n
2

\


=
+ := I
oeff
3.864A =
Compute the rms values of the input voltage, output voltage, and output current as:
V
srms
1
2
0
2
a v
s
a ( )
2
d := V
srms
120.208V =
Guru/PE424CR/FCCRL 5 May 05, 2006
FullWave Rectifier RL Load: Continuous Operation
V
orms
2
2
+
a v
ob
a ( )
2
d := V
orms
120.208V =
0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
Load Current
Angle (degrees)
O
u
t
p
u
t
c
u
r
r
e
n
t
(
A
)
Since the output voltage is continuously varying as a sinusoid, we expect its rms value
to be exactly equal to the input voltage as long as the diodes and the SCR are ideal.
DC Power Output: P
odc
V
odc
I
odc
:= P
odc
292.818W =
Total Power Output: P
oT
I
orms
2
R := P
oT
298.681W =
Apparent power output: S
o
V
orms
I
orms
:=
S
o
464.54VA =
Rectification ratio:
P
odc
S
o
:= 0.63 =
V 1
1 A 1 W 1
mH 0.001 VA 1
VAR 1 Hz 1
Guru/PE424CR/FCCRL 6 May 05, 2006