Resources

Building Comprehension Strategies (Alison Davis) Building Reading Comprehension Habits in Grades 6-12 (Jeff Zwiers) Guided Comprehension Grades 3-8 (Maureen McLaughlin and Mary Beth Allen) Revisit, Reflect, Retell (Linda Hoyt) The Reading Activity Handbook (Sheena Cameron) Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies (Sheena Cameron)
Busy Teachers Cafe Reading lady Education oasis Into the Book Instructional Strategies Interactive Literacy Continuum

Comprehension Strategies
Strategy
Activating Prior Knowledge Determining Importance (evaluating) Inferring

Description
Readers activate what they currently understand or Readers judge, justify and or defend understanding to determine importance based on stated criteria. Readers think about and search the text, and sometimes use personal knowledge to construct meaning beyond what is literally stated.

Kids’ Language
To use what I already know to help me Good readers think about what is going to Making judgements about what I have read and explain why. Use clues to find out what the author really means.

Locate Key Words and Phrases Making Connections

Monitoring Predicting and Previewing Questioning Sequencing Summarising

Readers relate what they read to personal experiences (text-to-self), to information from other text 9toto-text) and to information about

Making connections between different Good readers connect what they know to what they have read. Good readers stop to think about what they

Readers ask questions about the Ask questions to understand what I am text and the author’s intentions and Good readers ask themselves questions Readers identify key elements and condense important information Tell what is important. Good readers identify the most important

Synthesising

Visualising Vocabulary Development

Readers create original insights, perspectives and understandings by reflecting in texts and merging elements from text and existing schema. Readers create images in their minds that reflect or represent the Vocabulary knowledge is the single most important factor in contributing to reading comprehension. Vocabulary is a reader’s knowledge of words and word meanings.- print and oral

Put the pieces together and see them in a new way.

Create a movie in my mind while I am Good readers picture what is happening Use the sentence to work out the meaning of new words.

Know that words may have lots of meanings.

Activating Prior knowledge
Before During Strategy
Anticipation guide

Explanation
A graphic organiser. The teacher writes several statements related to the text. The students indicate whether they agree or disagree with the statements. After reading the text they indicate if they were right or not and write a reflection about their thinking. Students write up to 8 facts about the topic in the inner web. After studying the topic, they add new knowledge to the outer web.

After

Reference
Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 43

P

P

Before and After Web

P

P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 35

Brainstorm it- sort it!

Teachers present the students with P a word, phrase, question and a concrete item associated with the topic. Students brainstorm their prior knowledge about the topic. They then sort the phrases or words into categories and justify how they have sorted them.

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 37

P Label charts of paper with a question appropriate to a topic. Students start at a different ‘busstop’ and record their ideas on the chart. P Dot-to-dot connections Teacher chooses 6-8 meaningful words from the text. 1-2 of the words would be new/difficult words. Explain the meaning of these words. Choose some similar words and some words that don’t seem to fit in. Write the words randomly on paper with a dot beside each word. Bus-stop

P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 39

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 42

In small groups the students connect the dots and explain the connection. They then predict what the text may be about Draw it! Students draw what they know about a word, topic or idea. P Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 36 Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 38 Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 40

KWL

Last word

Stand and Share

P A graphic organiser 1. What we think we know 2. What we want to find out 3. What we have learned P Students are given 2 minutes to write as many words or phrases about a topic. Then work in small groups and share one word or phrase. They add phrases/words from the other’s lists. Students stand. One student shares P what they know about the topic and sits down. If another student had that idea, they also sit down. The next student then shares.

P

P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 34

Table talk

Teacher writes a thought provoking P question about the topic. Students have 2 minutes to write a response. They share their response with a partner. Partners reflect on each other’s responses and writes and response. Form small groups and share responses. Choose one to share with the whole class.

P

P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p41

During

Before

Strategy
Alphaboxes

Explanation
Students work in pairs to determine the importance of words that reflect important points in the story. Students identify the cause and its effect. Write a set of cards with causes on some, and effects on others. Students match the cards. Partners place sticky notes throughout the text, to remind them to stop and reflect. They turn to their partner and offer views and opinions. The students jot a thought or sketch a quick picture based on the ideas shared by their partners. They then share their partners ideas with the class Teacher reads a passage aloud, and the students share what they remember with their thinking partner. Model with a professional book review. Discuss conversational oral reviews, pictorial and written reviews

After

Determining Importance
Reference
Revisit, Reflect, Retell (p 30-31) P

Cause and Effect Chart

P

P

The Reading Activities Handbook p 15

My partner said…

P

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 21-22

I remember

P

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 22-23

Book Review

P

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 28-29

Alphaboxes

Students complete the Alphaboxes (A-Z) with words that reflect important points in the story. To extend, the students might write questions to go with the words in the boxes. The students select a character from the book, and compares them to themselves. A Venn diagram may be used. Students place a sticky notes at points of interest- points of significance, confusion or personal interest. Students anticipate t=what they think might be a memorable moment in the text. After reading they state what the memorable moment was. The students find a quote as an example of how the author created the memorable moment. List or draw the most important events from the story. Plan any props required. Practice- inside your head -with a partner - in front of a mirror - recording Remember characters, setting, events, opinion Students list the four key story elements or facts the text. They order them from least important to most important, adding words to justify ranking. 

P

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 31-32

The character and me

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 42-43

VIP

Revisit, reflect, Retell p 45-46

Memorable Moment

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 52

Retelling the story

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 77- 78

What is important?

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 82-83

The students are divided into two groups- storytellers and listeners. The storytellers work together to reflect on the most important elements of the story. The listener comes up with a list of important points. The students are matched. While the storyteller talks, the listener records the elements of the story that are provided. When the storyteller has finished, the listener provides clues about the remaining items on the list. Partner retelling Draw or write 3 points for each chapter, ie Novel Reflections Problem, solutions, setting Literary devices Mood 3 key events points of tension Students illustrate a key setting from a story on the front of a paper bag. They illustrate and cut out drawings that represent characters and elements of the story that are important. Paper bag theatre Students collect real items that represent key points in the story and place them in a bag. Story bag Students draw character and setting elements from the story on the iwb. They use theses to assist their Storytelling on the IWB retelling. Students draw the characters from the story and have them laminated. They are them attached to the garment with velcro, and used in Storytelling apron/vest retelling Students can record an oral retell. Upload this to a QR Code. Place the QR Code inside the book.

 

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 84-85 Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 87

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 94

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p m94

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 94

Revisit, Reflect, Retell pm95

QR Codes Retells Dramatic Interpretations

Predicting/previewing
Before During Strategy
Character crystal ball

Explanation
Students write bullet points about P what they know about a character. They make predictions about what will happen to the character in the future to create an epilogue.

After

Reference
Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 61

P

Key word story strip

Teacher makes a list of 10 key P words from the text. Students write a possible story using the words. Partner Read and Think Use the Partner Read and Think guide during each segment of text that is read. The steps involve placing a stop sign in the text, predicting words they think are likely to appear, reading the section, identifying words that are interesting or unknown, followed by summarising the learning. Postcard predictions Give small groups of students a postcard or magazine picture of a destination. Explain a friend has sent this postcard. Students answer questions about the picture, ie What country was it taken in? What food might your friend be eating P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 63 P Revisit, Reflect, Retell (p 16-17)

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 60

Predict the headline

Teacher cuts out a number of P newspaper headlines, and then removes an interesting headline from the headlines. Students predict the missing words The students read the title of the P text and write 5-6 words they think will be in the text. They justify their choices with a buddy. P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 59

Predict the words

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 56

As they read the text, they tick off the words. The Reading Activity handbook p 18 Predict-o-Gram Select vocabulary from text to stimulate predictions. Working with partners, students decide which story elements the word tells about and writes each work on the Predicto-Gram. Introduce the story and involve students to read it. Teacher uses stickynotes to indicate P stopping points in the text to make predictions. Students predict the story after seeing the cover, title and reading the blurb. At each predetermined point, the students revise their predictions Show the students the cover of the P book/title. Students predict what type of text they think it is (narrative, newspaper report etc) Predict what they think the text is about Write one sentence they think may appear in the text. The students circulate around the room and read their predictions to others. In groups of 4 write a group prediction. Teachers read the text and students confirm or reject their predictions. P Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 189190)

Prediction flowchart

P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 62

Walk and Talk

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 57

Word Predictions

After modelling this strategy, P students work as partners or individuals to engage the word predictions. Before reading the text, preview the text (look at pictures/illustrations) and list all the words you think you will encourage and explain why. During reading, place a tally mark each time a word from your list appears. After reading, discuss why some of the words did not appear in text. Place a photograph in the middle of P a y chart. Students predict what is happening before, during and after the photo was taken.

P

P

Revisit, Reflect, Retell (p 173-174)

Y chart predictions

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 58

Questioning
Before During Strategy
I wonder

Explanation
Guide students to wonder about the world, their lives, story events and ideas presented in texts. Encourage students to wonder throughout the reading if a text. Use students’ ‘I wonder’ statements to provide structure for further reading.

After

Reference
Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 197)

P

Magic Jigsaw

Create a magic jigsaw with each P piece containing a question. Question themes could include a post-reading summary, to showcase questions before reading, to profile questions that guide research during reading, to collect questions that remain unanswered and need further research.

P

P

Revisit, Reflect, Retell (pp 188-189)

Questioning

Preview a text. Read titles, P subheadings and the table of contents. Look at images. Read the first paragraph. Create an ‘I wonder’ question. Read the text to answer your question. Repeat again and draw to show the most important ideas you learned Personal questions readers generate about a text stimulate connections, represent inferences, activate prior knowledge and help to clarify understanding. Guide students in generating questions and assist them in generation questions and responses that are aesthetic, efficient and critical/analytical Students develop a survey related to an issue in the text. Findings are then collated and a statement prepared to summarise results. One student takes on the role of a character. The other students ask the ‘character’ pre-prepared questions. Create questions by using one word from the left hand column and one word from the top row. The questions become more complex the further down and across the words are chosen. P

P

Revisit, Reflect, Retell (pp 182-183)

Stimulating discussion through questioning

P

P

Revisit, Reflect, Retell (pp 46-47)

Survey

P

P

The Reading Activities Handbook p 14

The hot seat

The reading activity handbook p 31

Q-chart

Q-chart

The 5 Ws and How

5 Ws and How

Vocabulary Development
Before During Strategy
ABC Brainstorming AlphaBoxes

Explanation

After

Reference
ABC Brainstorming AlphaBoxes

Affix cards

Using games to explicitly teach prefixes and suffixes.

Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 174-175 P Alliteration

Alliteration

A sentence that contains words beginning with the same sound. Write three word clusters that describe the topic. Use the clusters to write factual sentences or poems. After reading about a topic, the students make a list of related words. They then use these words to create a book about the topic. Ie “W” is for eagle, because they can
have up to an eight-foot WINGSPAN.

AlphaAntics

P

AlphaAntics

Alphabetical line up

Make a set of word cards, with each words beginning with a different letter. Give each student a word and have them line up in alphabetical order. For older students, have words that begin with the same letter. Students are given a sticky note. They choose a word they don’t know the meaning of. Students place the sticky notes on a chart to discuss. Alternately, the students may choose a word they like the sound of, recognised a root word or appealed to them for another reason. Assist students understanding words (that have multiple meanings) in context by getting them to locate clues in the text to assist them.

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 174

Best Word

P

The Reading Activity handbook p 20

Clarification

P

P

Clarification

Class dictionary

Each student makes a page for the class dictionary, including features of the dictionary such as parts of speech, pronunciation and other dictionary features Place the word to be explored in the P centre of the chart. Determine a broad category describing the word What is it / Describe the focus word in What is it like? Provide specific examples in What are some examples? Determine a comparison See relationships and connections P between important vocabulary terms. Write theme word in middle of the page. Add 2-3 important words. Write how these words are connected Explain the 8 context clues P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 175

Concept of Definition Map

Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 210)

Connect the words

P

P

Building Reading Comprehension habits (150-151) BLM p 164

Context Clues

P

- Definition examples/illustration, compare/contrast, logic. Root words and affixes, grammar, cause and effect, mood and tone

Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 211212) Building Reading Comprehension Habits (p141-1440

Decoding and Analogy

Teach students to decode new words by analogy in context.

P

Dictionary activities

Alphabetical line up - Give students a word card and have them line up in alphabetical order. Dictionary word hunt

Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 212213) Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 174-175

Strategies p 174-175

- One student calls out a word from their spelling list. The others race to find it in the dictionary and read the meaning.

What is the meaning of this? - Work in pairs. One student writes a difficult word on a card, the other writes the meaning on another card. Can play a variety of games matching the cards. Word bluff - Students choose difficult words. Write one true and 2 false definitions. Other students choose the correct definition,

Make your own class dictionary - Each child makes a page for a class dictionary, using their name as the word. Include features such as parts of speech, pronunciations, and other dictionary features Dictionary word hunt Students work is spelling groups. The leader calls out a spelling word. The other students race to find the word in the dictionary. Choose a key term from the text. Add examples of the of the term P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 174

Example Web

P

P

FigFigs

Choose an unknown word from the P text (figurative, symbol, metaphor, analogy, multiple meanings) Write down what the word in actually describing.
Write an explanation of the word’s meaning.

P

Building Reading Comprehension habits (p151-152) Building Reading Comprehension habits (152-153)

BLM p 165 P P Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 154)

Guess and Adjust

Write the title of the text in the graphic organiser.

Guess and Adjust

P

P

Write 6-10 clue words and 3-5 new words. Students predict the meaning of the words. Do a QuickWrite (p84-85) that predicts the text’s content. Write predictions on the sheet. Read aloud the text, the students follow in their own book. Mentally adjust their predictions. Students finish reading the text and fill in the adjusted meaning. Keyword Web Write a central theme or concept in the centre of the page. Fill in 2-3 keys with important words. Students choose 1-2 more key words. Write descriptive words around each key. Students could choose symbols to represent the words Have students brainstorm words or P concepts related to a topic. Group the words and explain the groupings. Gather words from a common topic and place on strips of paper or sticky notes. Sort into groups and discuss why they go under the heading they chose. More P - Interesting texts - Teach vocab in context - Model strategies - Connect vocab to concepts - Use new words - Make inferences about words - Teach prefixes, suffixes and root words - Extend meanings of words from concrete to abstract P P

BLM p 166

Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 154-155) BLM p 167

List-Group-Label

P

Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 213) Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 156)

List-Group-label Plus

P

P

More and Lesses

P

P

Building Reading Comprehension habits (p147-148)

- Connect new words to background knowledge - Provide reading options related to topic at reading level of the students - Provide MI approach to understanding meanings of words - Provide time for lots of reading Less - Teach vocab out of context - Words lists unrelated to topic - Rote memorization of definitions - Rely solely on context or decoding - All words must be figured out to understand the text - Looking up definitions as the primary way of figuring out word meaning - Use vocab assessments not connected to real reading - Writing sentences using new words and concepts they are just beginning to learn Multiple Meanings table Use graphic organisers, lists, pictures diagrams etc to show the multiple meanings of words.

P

P

Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 157) BLM p 168

Choose several important words with multiple meanings form the text. Write the word on the sheet. Discuss the parts of the words and write the parts and meanings in the columns. Make a short list of similar words. Look up the meaning in the dictionary and summarise meanings. Write what the definitions have in common.

New Words in Context Chart

In a matrix put a sentence from the text with a new word or phrase in Colum 1 and circle the new word. Put word parts and related words in Column 2. Predict the meaning of the word. Read further and see if the text helps the meaning of the word. Find the meaning of the word. Create a sentence, rhyme or picture to remember the word Teacher chooses 2-3 unknown P words and 7 familiar words from a text. Students use 2 words to create a sentence which may appear in the text List 6-8 difficult words and 4-6 more P common words related to the text. Students write a sentence using two of the words. Choose important words from the text. Use a line for each letter. Fill in the letters one by one. Predict the word. Discuss the meaning of the word P

P

Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 157-158)

Possible sentence

Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 171

Possible sentences

P

Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 214)

Rivet

P

P

Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 215)

Scuba diving into New Words

Sound it Out

P

Self-selected Vacab Quizzes

Check the clues Use the main idea Break the words into parts Ask for help Students choose 5-7 words from the ✓ text. They write the words on two pages in their book. Page 1 is for words and meanings. Page 2 is for word only.

Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 167 Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 157-158) Poster p 169

Building Reading Comprehension Habits p 159

Habits p 159

Quiz- students copy the words. They then write the word meaning, or a sentence with the word in it. They assess themselves, using the definitions in the book. Choose some words and categories P related to the text. List the words in the Semantic Feature Analysis chart. List the characteristics in the chart. Identify the characteristics for each word. Explicitly teach the students how to use the context to predict the meaning of unknown words. After reading a text, the students choose two words (unrelated) which represent the key idea. The students then justify their choice. They then write a sentence explaining how the words are related to the topic. Students write two new words they P want to learn on sticky notes. Write a sentence that uses both words. Using pictorial and syntactic context P

Semantic Feature Analysis

P

Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 216)

Spot the clues

P

Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 173 P Two Word Reflection

Two word Reflection

Two-Word Sentence Stickies

P

Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 159-160)

Using Context with Signals

P

Vocabulary Bank Notes Choose words that have value in the classroom. Create a list of bank notes using those words. Students can earn the notes when they use the words in writing and talking Teach students the common meanings of roots, prefixes and suffices.

P

P

Building Reading Comprehension habits (p144) Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 159-160) BLM p 170-171

Vocabulary by Analogy

P

Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 217)

P

Model how to use the parts of words to work out unknown words.

Building Reading Comprehension habits (p147)

Word surgery Vocabulary SelfSelect words that the students Collection Strategy VSS would like to learn more about. Share the word, the context, where it was found, what they think it means, shy the class should study it. Display the list of words and encourage students to use them What’ s the meaning of Each pair of students find a this? new/interesting words in the dictionary. They write the meaning on one card, and the word on the other. Give out the cards randomly. Students walk around the room reading their card until they find a match. Topic words can also be used. Wheel of Fortune Divide the class into 2 teams. Teacher draws a line to represent each letter in the word. Each team chooses a letter. Teacher fills in the blanks. The team who guesses the word is the winner. The word bank (word wall) should ✓ be categorised, ie topic words, words from Chpt 5, long words. Write the word on card in large letters. Write the definition in small letters underneath. Students work in small groups. They find a new and interesting word. They write the true definition, plus two false definitions.

P

Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 217218)

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 174

P

P

Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 167

Word Bank

Building Reading Comprehension Habits p 160

Word bluff

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 175

comprehension strategies p 175

Take turns reading their definitions aloud once. The other groups choose the correct meaning Word chart Define the word. Give examples and non-examples Word chart Word chart 2 Word chart 3 Word chart 5 Word chart 6 The Reading Activity handbook p 20

Word Cline

Word Investigation chart Word map

Clines focus in the intensity of meaning of words. They can be written on cards or sticky notes. Students place them on the cline according to their strength of meaning. When a student comes to an unknown word, they note it on the chart. A graphic organiser Includes the word, definition, synonyms, word in a sentence and an illustration The teacher selects vocabulary that ✓ may be challenging. Words and their meanings are in two columns. Students match the words Choose a new word. Students are ✓ encouraged to use the word throughout the week. Teacher chooses the word of the week models how to present the new word. Students try to use the word in context. Students then take turns to choose a word of the week.

P

P

P

P

P

Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 172 Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 170 The Reading Activity Handbook p 22

Word Match

Word of the Week

Word of the Week

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 169 Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 169

Word Remembering

Pronounce the word several times. Relate it to similar words. Create a visual image in your mind. Draw or find a picture to illustrate the word. Make up a sentence or rhyme for the word.

P

P

Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 60)

Word remembering

1. Pronounce the words several times 2. Relate it to a similar word 3. Create a visual image or connection in your mind 4. Draw or find a picture that illustrates the word 5. Make up a sentence or rhyme that uses the word and helps you remember the meaning

Building Reading Comprehension Habits p 161

Word Search

Word Sort

Students plot words form the story onto a grid, (or use Puzzlemaker.com). Swap word searches to solve. The words could have a particular focus. Students sort words associated with P the topic. 1. Open- students decide on the categories 2. Teacher decides on the categories 3. Teacher gives the students the categories and the students write the words as they are called out

P

The Reading Activity Handbook p 19

P

P

Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 168

Word Webs

Choose a topic word and write it in the centre of the page. Then create offshoots- definition, antonyms, synonyms, part of speech etc.

P

P

Word Webs

flect, Retell p 82-83

flect, Retell p 84-85

flect, Retell p 87

flect, Retell p 94

flect, Retell p m94

flect, Retell p 94

flect, Retell pm95

Activating Prior knowledge
During Before Strategy
Anticipation guide

Explanation
A graphic organiser. The teacher writes several statements related to the text. The students indicate whether they agree or disagree with the statements. After reading the text they indicate if they were right or not and write a reflection about their thinking. Students write up to 8 facts about the topic in the inner web. After studying the topic, they add new knowledge to the outer web.

After

Reference
Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 43

P

P

Before and After Web

P

P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 35

Brainstorm it- sort it!

Teachers present the students with P a word, phrase, question and a concrete item associated with the topic. Students brainstorm their prior knowledge about the topic. They then sort the phrases or words into categories and justify how they have sorted them. P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 37

P Label charts of paper with a question appropriate to a topic. Students start at a different ‘busstop’ and record their ideas on the chart. P Dot-to-dot connections Teacher chooses 6-8 meaningful words from the text. 1-2 of the words would be new/difficult words. Explain the meaning of these words. Choose some similar words and some words that don’t seem to fit in. Write the words randomly on paper with a dot beside each word. Bus-stop

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 39

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 42

In small groups the students connect the dots and explain the connection. They then predict what the text may be about

Draw it!

Students draw what they know about a word, topic or idea.

P

KWL

Last word

P A graphic organiser 1. What we think we know 2. What we want to find out 3. What we have learned P Students are given 2 minutes to write as many words or phrases about a topic. Then work in small groups and share one word or phrase. They add phrases/words from the other’s lists. Students stand. One student shares P what they know about the topic and sits down. If another student had that idea, they also sit down. The next student then shares. Teacher writes a thought provoking P question about the topic. Students have 2 minutes to write a response. They share their response with a partner. Partners reflect on each other’s responses and writes and response. Form small groups and share responses. Choose one to share with the whole class.

P

P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 36 Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 38 Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 40

Stand and Share

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 34

Table talk

P

P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p41

Determining Importance
Before During Strategy
Alphaboxes

Explanation
Students work in pairs to determine the importance of words that reflect important points in the story. Students identify the cause and its effect. Write a set of cards with causes on some, and effects on others. Students match the cards. Partners place sticky notes throughout the text, to remind them to stop and reflect. They turn to their partner and offer views and opinions. The students jot a thought or sketch a quick picture based on the ideas shared by their partners. They then share their partners ideas with the class Teacher reads a passage aloud, and the students share what they remember with their thinking partner. Model with a professional book review. Discuss conversational oral reviews, pictorial and written reviews Students complete the Alphaboxes (A-Z) with words that reflect important points in the story. To extend, the students might write questions to go with the words in the boxes. The students select a character Students place a sticky notes at points of interest- points of significance, confusion or personal interest.

After

Reference
Revisit, Reflect, Retell (p 30-31)

P

Cause and Effect Chart

P

P

The Reading Activities Handbook p 15

My partner said…

P

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 21-22

I remember

P

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 22-23

Book Review

P

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 28-29

Alphaboxes

P

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 31-32

The character and me VIP

 

Revisit, Reflect, Retell Revisit, reflect, Retell p 45-46

Memorable Moment

Students anticipate t=what they think might be a memorable moment in the text. After reading they state what the memorable moment was. The students find a quote as an example of how the author created the memorable moment. List or draw the most important events from the story. Plan any props required. Practice- inside your head -with a partner - in front of a mirror - recording Remember characters, setting, events, opinion Students list the four key story elements or facts the text. They order them from least important to most important, adding words to justify ranking.

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 52

Retelling the story

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 77- 78

What is important?

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 82-83

Partner retelling Novel Reflections

The students are divided into two groups- storytellers and listeners. The storytellers work together to reflect on the most important elements of the story. The listener comes up with a list of important points. The students are matched. While the storyteller talks, the listener records the elements of the story that are provided. When the storyteller has finished, the listener provides clues about the remaining items on the list. Draw or write 3 points for each chapter, ie Problem, solutions, setting Literary devices Mood 3 key events points of tension

 

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 84-85 Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 87

Students illustrate a key setting from a story on the front of a paper bag. They illustrate and cut out drawings that represent characters and elements of the story that are important. Paper bag theatre Students collect real items that represent key points in the story and place them in a bag. Story bag Students draw character and setting elements from the story on the iwb. They use theses to assist their Storytelling on the IWB retelling. Students draw the characters from the story and have them laminated. They are them attached to the garment with velcro, and used in Storytelling apron/vest retelling Students can record an oral retell. Upload this to a QR Code. Place the QR Code inside the book.

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 94

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p m94

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 94

Revisit, Reflect, Retell pm95

QR Codes Retells Dramatic Interpretations

flect, Retell p 82-83

flect, Retell p 84-85

flect, Retell p 87

flect, Retell p 94

flect, Retell p m94

flect, Retell p 94

flect, Retell pm95

Predicting/previewing
During Before Strategy
Character crystal ball

Explanation
Students write bullet points about what they know about a character. They make predictions about what will happen to the character in the future to create an epilogue. P

After

Reference
Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 61

P

Key word story strip

Teacher makes a list of 10 key words P from the text. Students write a possible story using the words. Partner Read and Think Use the Partner Read and Think guide during each segment of text that is read. The steps involve placing a stop sign in the text, predicting words they think are likely to appear, reading the section, identifying words that are interesting or unknown, followed by summarising the learning. Postcard predictions Give small groups of students a P postcard or magazine picture of a destination. Explain a friend has sent this postcard. Students answer questions about the picture, ie What country was it taken in? What food might your friend be eating Teacher cuts out a number of newspaper headlines, and then removes an interesting headline from the headlines. Students predict the missing words P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 63 P Revisit, Reflect, Retell (p 16-17)

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 60

Predict the headline

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 59

Predict the words

The students read the title of the P text and write 5-6 words they think will be in the text. They justify their choices with a buddy. As they read the text, they tick off the words.

P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 56

The Reading Activity handbook p 18 Predict-o-Gram Select vocabulary from text to stimulate predictions. Working with partners, students decide which story elements the word tells about and writes each work on the Predicto-Gram. Introduce the story and involve students to read it. Teacher uses stickynotes to indicate P stopping points in the text to make predictions. Students predict the story after seeing the cover, title and reading the blurb. At each predetermined point, the students revise their predictions Show the students the cover of the P book/title. Students predict what type of text they think it is (narrative, newspaper report etc) Predict what they think the text is about Write one sentence they think may appear in the text. The students circulate around the room and read their predictions to others. In groups of 4 write a group prediction. Teachers read the text and students confirm or reject their predictions. After modelling this strategy, P students work as partners or individuals to engage the word predictions. Before reading the text, preview the text (look at pictures/illustrations) and list all the words you think you will encourage and explain why. During reading, place a tally mark each time a word from your list appears. After reading, discuss why some of the words did not appear in text. P P P Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 189190)

Prediction flowchart

P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 62

Walk and Talk

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 57

Word Predictions

Revisit, Reflect, Retell (p 173-174)

Y chart predictions

Place a photograph in the middle of P a y chart. Students predict what is happening before, during and after the photo was taken.

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 58

Questioning
During Before Strategy
I wonder

Explanation
Guide students to wonder about the world, their lives, story events and ideas presented in texts. Encourage students to wonder throughout the reading if a text. Use students’ ‘I wonder’ statements to provide structure for further reading. Create a magic jigsaw with each P piece containing a question. Question themes could include a post-reading summary, to showcase questions before reading, to profile questions that guide research during reading, to collect questions that remain unanswered and need further research. Preview a text. Read titles, P subheadings and the table of contents. Look at images. Read the first paragraph. Create an ‘I wonder’ question. Read the text to answer your question. Repeat again and draw to show the most important ideas you learned Personal questions readers generate P about a text stimulate connections, represent inferences, activate prior knowledge and help to clarify understanding. Guide students in generating questions and assist them in generation questions and responses that are aesthetic, efficient and critical/analytical

After

Reference
Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 197)

P

Magic Jigsaw

P

P

Revisit, Reflect, Retell (pp 188-189)

Questioning

P

Revisit, Reflect, Retell (pp 182-183)

Stimulating discussion through questioning

P

P

Revisit, Reflect, Retell (pp 46-47)

Survey

Students develop a survey related to an issue in the text. Findings are then collated and a statement prepared to summarise results.

P

P

The Reading Activities Handbook p 14

The hot seat

Q-chart

One student takes on the role of a character. The other students ask the ‘character’ pre-prepared questions. Create questions by using one word from the left hand column and one word from the top row. The questions become more complex the further down and across the words are chosen.

The reading activity handbook p 31

Q-chart

The 5 Ws and How

5 Ws and How

Activating Prior knowledge
Before During Strategy
Anticipation guide

Explanation
A graphic organiser. The teacher writes several statements related to the text. The students indicate whether they agree or disagree with the statements. After reading the text they indicate if they were right or not and write a reflection about their thinking. Students write up to 8 facts about the topic in the inner web. After studying the topic, they add new knowledge to the outer web.

After

Reference
Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 43

P

P

Before and After Web

P

P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 35

Brainstorm it- sort it!

Teachers present the students with P a word, phrase, question and a concrete item associated with the topic. Students brainstorm their prior knowledge about the topic. They then sort the phrases or words into categories and justify how they have sorted them. P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 37

P Label charts of paper with a question appropriate to a topic. Students start at a different ‘busstop’ and record their ideas on the chart. P Dot-to-dot connections Teacher chooses 6-8 meaningful words from the text. 1-2 of the words would be new/difficult words. Explain the meaning of these words. Choose some similar words and some words that don’t seem to fit in. Write the words randomly on paper with a dot beside each word. Bus-stop

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 39

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 42

In small groups the students connect the dots and explain the connection. They then predict what the text may be about Draw it! Students draw what they know about a word, topic or idea. P Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 36 Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 38 Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 40

KWL

Last word

Stand and Share

P A graphic organiser 1. What we think we know 2. What we want to find out 3. What we have learned P Students are given 2 minutes to write as many words or phrases about a topic. Then work in small groups and share one word or phrase. They add phrases/words from the other’s lists. Students stand. One student shares P what they know about the topic and sits down. If another student had that idea, they also sit down. The next student then shares. Teacher writes a thought provoking P question about the topic. Students have 2 minutes to write a response. They share their response with a partner. Partners reflect on each other’s responses and writes and response. Form small groups and share responses. Choose one to share with the whole class.

P

P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 34

Table talk

P

P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p41

Determining Importance
Before During Strategy Explanation After Reference

Alphaboxes

Students work in pairs to determine the importance of words that reflect important points in the story. Students identify the cause and its effect. Write a set of cards with causes on some, and effects on others. Students match the cards. Partners place sticky notes throughout the text, to remind them to stop and reflect. They turn to their partner and offer views and opinions. The students jot a thought or sketch a quick picture based on the ideas shared by their partners. They then share their partners ideas with the class Teacher reads a passage aloud, and the students share what they remember with their thinking partner. Model with a professional book review. Discuss conversational oral reviews, pictorial and written reviews Students complete the Alphaboxes (A-Z) with words that reflect important points in the story. To extend, the students might write questions to go with the words in the boxes. The students select a character Students place a sticky notes at points of interest- points of significance, confusion or personal interest.
P

P

Revisit, Reflect, Retell (p 30-31)

Cause and Effect Chart

P

The Reading Activities Handbook p 15

My partner said…

P

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 21-22

I remember

P

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 22-23

Book Review

P

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 28-29

Alphaboxes

P

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 31-32

The character and me VIP

 

Revisit, Reflect, Retell Revisit, reflect, Retell p 45-46

Memorable Moment

Students anticipate t=what they think might be a memorable moment in the text. After reading they state what the memorable moment was. The students find a quote as an example of how the author created the memorable moment. List or draw the most important events from the story. Plan any props required. Practice- inside your head -with a partner - in front of a mirror - recording Remember characters, setting, events, opinion Students list the four key story elements or facts the text. They order them from least important to most important, adding words to justify ranking.

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 52

Retelling the story

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 77- 78

What is important?

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 82-83

Partner retelling Novel Reflections

The students are divided into two groups- storytellers and listeners. The storytellers work together to reflect on the most important elements of the story. The listener comes up with a list of important points. The students are matched. While the storyteller talks, the listener records the elements of the story that are provided. When the storyteller has finished, the listener provides clues about the remaining items on the list. Draw or write 3 points for each chapter, ie Problem, solutions, setting Literary devices Mood 3 key events points of tension

 

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 84-85 Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 87

Students illustrate a key setting from a story on the front of a paper bag. They illustrate and cut out drawings that represent characters and elements of the story that are important. Paper bag theatre Students collect real items that represent key points in the story and place them in a bag. Story bag Students draw character and setting elements from the story on the iwb. They use theses to assist their Storytelling on the IWB retelling. Students draw the characters from the story and have them laminated. They are them attached to the garment with velcro, and used in Storytelling apron/vest retelling Students can record an oral retell. Upload this to a QR Code. Place the QR Code inside the book.

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 94

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p m94

Revisit, Reflect, Retell p 94

Revisit, Reflect, Retell pm95

QR Codes Retells Dramatic Interpretations

Predicting/previewing
Before During Strategy
Character crystal ball

Explanation
Students write bullet points about P what they know about a character. They make predictions about what will happen to the character in the future to create an epilogue.

After

Reference
Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 61

P

Key word story strip

Teacher makes a list of 10 key P words from the text. Students write a possible story using the words.

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 63

Partner Read and Think Use the Partner Read and Think guide during each segment of text that is read. The steps involve placing a stop sign in the text, predicting words they think are likely to appear, reading the section, identifying words that are interesting or unknown, followed by summarising the learning. Postcard predictions Give small groups of students a postcard or magazine picture of a destination. Explain a friend has sent this postcard. Students answer questions about the picture, ie What country was it taken in? What food might your friend be eating P

P

Revisit, Reflect, Retell (p 16-17)

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 60

Predict the headline

Teacher cuts out a number of P newspaper headlines, and then removes an interesting headline from the headlines. Students predict the missing words The students read the title of the P text and write 5-6 words they think will be in the text. They justify their choices with a buddy. As they read the text, they tick off the words. P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 59

Predict the words

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 56

The Reading Activity handbook p 18 Predict-o-Gram Select vocabulary from text to stimulate predictions. Working with partners, students decide which story elements the word tells about and writes each work on the Predicto-Gram. Introduce the story and involve students to read it. Teacher uses stickynotes to indicate P stopping points in the text to make predictions. P Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 189190)

Prediction flowchart

P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 62

Prediction flowchart

P

P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 62

Students predict the story after seeing the cover, title and reading the blurb. At each predetermined point, the students revise their predictions Walk and Talk Show the students the cover of the P book/title. Students predict what type of text they think it is (narrative, newspaper report etc) Predict what they think the text is about Write one sentence they think may appear in the text. The students circulate around the room and read their predictions to others. In groups of 4 write a group prediction. Teachers read the text and students confirm or reject their predictions. After modelling this strategy, P students work as partners or individuals to engage the word predictions. Before reading the text, preview the text (look at pictures/illustrations) and list all the words you think you will encourage and explain why. During reading, place a tally mark each time a word from your list appears. After reading, discuss why some of the words did not appear in text. Place a photograph in the middle of P a y chart. Students predict what is happening before, during and after the photo was taken. P P Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 57

Word Predictions

Revisit, Reflect, Retell (p 173-174)

Y chart predictions

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 58

Questioning

Before

During

Strategy
I wonder

Explanation
Guide students to wonder about the world, their lives, story events and ideas presented in texts. Encourage students to wonder throughout the reading if a text. Use students’ ‘I wonder’ statements to provide structure for further reading. Create a magic jigsaw with each P piece containing a question. Question themes could include a post-reading summary, to showcase questions before reading, to profile questions that guide research during reading, to collect questions that remain unanswered and need further research. Preview a text. Read titles, P subheadings and the table of contents. Look at images. Read the first paragraph. Create an ‘I wonder’ question. Read the text to answer your question. Repeat again and draw to show the most important ideas you learned Personal questions readers generate about a text stimulate connections, represent inferences, activate prior knowledge and help to clarify understanding. Guide students in generating questions and assist them in generation questions and responses that are aesthetic, efficient and critical/analytical Students develop a survey related to an issue in the text. Findings are then collated and a statement prepared to summarise results. P

After

Reference
Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 197)

P

Magic Jigsaw

P

P

Revisit, Reflect, Retell (pp 188-189)

Questioning

P

Revisit, Reflect, Retell (pp 182-183)

Stimulating discussion through questioning

P

P

Revisit, Reflect, Retell (pp 46-47)

Survey

P

P

The Reading Activities Handbook p 14

The hot seat

Q-chart

One student takes on the role of a character. The other students ask the ‘character’ pre-prepared questions. Create questions by using one word from the left hand column and one word from the top row. The questions become more complex the further down and across the words are chosen.

The reading activity handbook p 31

Q-chart

The 5 Ws and How

5 Ws and How

Vocabulary Development
Before During Strategy
ABC Brainstorming AlphaBoxes Affix cards

Explanation

After

Reference
ABC Brainstorming AlphaBoxes Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 174-175 Alliteration

✓ Using games to explicitly teach prefixes and suffixes.

Alliteration

A sentence that contains words beginning with the same sound. Write three word clusters that describe the topic. Use the clusters to write factual sentences or poems. After reading about a topic, the students make a list of related words. They then use these words to create a book about the topic. Ie “W” is for eagle, because they can
have up to an eight-foot WINGSPAN.

P

AlphaAntics

P

AlphaAntics

Alphabetical line up

Make a set of word cards, with each words beginning with a different letter. Give each student a word and have them line up in alphabetical order.

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 174

strategies p 174

Best Word

Clarification

Class dictionary

For older students, have words that begin with the same letter. Students are given a sticky note. They choose a word they don’t know the meaning of. Students place the sticky notes on a chart to discuss. Alternately, the students may choose a word they like the sound of, recognised a root word or appealed to them for another reason. Assist students understanding words (that have multiple meanings) in context by getting them to locate clues in the text to assist them. Each student makes a page for the class dictionary, including features of the dictionary such as parts of speech, pronunciation and other dictionary features Place the word to be explored in the P centre of the chart. Determine a broad category describing the word What is it / Describe the focus word in What is it like? Provide specific examples in What are some examples? Determine a comparison See relationships and connections P between important vocabulary terms. Write theme word in middle of the page. Add 2-3 important words. Write how these words are connected Explain the 8 context clues

P

The Reading Activity handbook p 20

P

P

Clarification

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 175

Concept of Definition Map

P

Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 210)

Connect the words

P

P

Building Reading Comprehension habits (150-151) BLM p 164

Context Clues

P

Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 211212)

Context Clues

P

- Definition examples/illustration, compare/contrast, logic. Root words and affixes, grammar, cause and effect, mood and tone

Building Reading Comprehension Habits (p141-1440

Decoding and Analogy

Teach students to decode new words by analogy in context.

P

Dictionary activities

Alphabetical line up - Give students a word card and have them line up in alphabetical order. Dictionary word hunt - One student calls out a word from their spelling list. The others race to find it in the dictionary and read the meaning.

Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 212213) Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 174-175

What is the meaning of this? - Work in pairs. One student writes a difficult word on a card, the other writes the meaning on another card. Can play a variety of games matching the cards. Word bluff - Students choose difficult words. Write one true and 2 false definitions. Other students choose the correct definition,

Make your own class dictionary - Each child makes a page for a class dictionary, using their name as the word. Include features such as parts of speech, pronunciations, and other dictionary features

Dictionary word hunt

Students work is spelling groups. The leader calls out a spelling word. The other students race to find the word in the dictionary. Choose a key term from the text. Add examples of the of the term P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 174

Example Web

P

P

FigFigs

Choose an unknown word from the P text (figurative, symbol, metaphor, analogy, multiple meanings) Write down what the word in actually describing.
Write an explanation of the word’s meaning.

P

Building Reading Comprehension habits (p151-152) Building Reading Comprehension habits (152-153)

BLM p 165 P P Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 154) BLM p 166

Guess and Adjust

Write the title of the text in the graphic organiser. Write 6-10 clue words and 3-5 new words. Students predict the meaning of the words. Do a QuickWrite (p84-85) that predicts the text’s content. Write predictions on the sheet. Read aloud the text, the students follow in their own book. Mentally adjust their predictions. Students finish reading the text and fill in the adjusted meaning.

Keyword Web

Write a central theme or concept in the centre of the page. Fill in 2-3 keys with important words. Students choose 1-2 more key words. Write descriptive words around each key. Students could choose symbols to represent the words Have students brainstorm words or P concepts related to a topic. Group the words and explain the groupings.

P

P

Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 154-155) BLM p 167

List-Group-Label

P

Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 213)

List-Group-label Plus

More and Lesses

Gather words from a common topic and place on strips of paper or sticky notes. Sort into groups and discuss why they go under the heading they chose. More P - Interesting texts - Teach vocab in context - Model strategies - Connect vocab to concepts - Use new words - Make inferences about words - Teach prefixes, suffixes and root words - Extend meanings of words from concrete to abstract - Connect new words to background knowledge - Provide reading options related to topic at reading level of the students - Provide MI approach to understanding meanings of words - Provide time for lots of reading Less - Teach vocab out of context - Words lists unrelated to topic - Rote memorization of definitions - Rely solely on context or decoding - All words must be figured out to understand the text - Looking up definitions as the primary way of figuring out word meaning - Use vocab assessments not connected to real reading - Writing sentences using new words and concepts they are just beginning to learn

P

P

Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 156)

P

P

Building Reading Comprehension habits (p147-148)

Multiple Meanings table Use graphic organisers, lists, pictures diagrams etc to show the multiple meanings of words.

P

P

Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 157) BLM p 168

Choose several important words with multiple meanings form the text. Write the word on the sheet. Discuss the parts of the words and write the parts and meanings in the columns. Make a short list of similar words. Look up the meaning in the dictionary and summarise meanings. Write what the definitions have in common. In a matrix put a sentence from the text with a new word or phrase in Colum 1 and circle the new word. Put word parts and related words in Column 2. Predict the meaning of the word. Read further and see if the text helps the meaning of the word. Find the meaning of the word. Create a sentence, rhyme or picture to remember the word Teacher chooses 2-3 unknown P words and 7 familiar words from a text. Students use 2 words to create a sentence which may appear in the text List 6-8 difficult words and 4-6 more P common words related to the text. Students write a sentence using two of the words. Choose important words from the text. P P

New Words in Context Chart

P

Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 157-158)

Possible sentence

Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 171

Possible sentences

P

Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 214)

Rivet

P

Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 215)

Rivet

P

P

P

Use a line for each letter. Fill in the letters one by one. Predict the word. Discuss the meaning of the word

Scuba diving into New Words

Sound it Out

P

Self-selected Vacab Quizzes

Check the clues Use the main idea Break the words into parts Ask for help Students choose 5-7 words from the ✓ text. They write the words on two pages in their book. Page 1 is for words and meanings. Page 2 is for word only. Quiz- students copy the words. They then write the word meaning, or a sentence with the word in it. They assess themselves, using the definitions in the book. Choose some words and categories P related to the text. List the words in the Semantic Feature Analysis chart. List the characteristics in the chart. Identify the characteristics for each word. Explicitly teach the students how to use the context to predict the meaning of unknown words. After reading a text, the students choose two words (unrelated) which represent the key idea. The students then justify their choice. They then write a sentence explaining how the words are related to the topic.

Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 167 Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 157-158) Poster p 169

Building Reading Comprehension Habits p 159

Semantic Feature Analysis

P

Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 216)

Spot the clues

P

Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 173 P Two Word Reflection

Two word Reflection

Two-Word Sentence Stickies

Students write two new words they P want to learn on sticky notes. Write a sentence that uses both words. Using pictorial and syntactic context

P

P

Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 159-160)

Using Context with Signals

P

Vocabulary Bank Notes Choose words that have value in the classroom. Create a list of bank notes using those words. Students can earn the notes when they use the words in writing and talking Teach students the common meanings of roots, prefixes and suffices. Model how to use the parts of words to work out unknown words.

P

P

Building Reading Comprehension habits (p144) Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 159-160) BLM p 170-171

Vocabulary by Analogy

P

Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 217) Building Reading Comprehension habits (p147)

Word surgery Vocabulary SelfSelect words that the students Collection Strategy VSS would like to learn more about. Share the word, the context, where it was found, what they think it means, shy the class should study it. Display the list of words and encourage students to use them What’ s the meaning of Each pair of students find a this? new/interesting words in the dictionary. They write the meaning on one card, and the word on the other. Give out the cards randomly. Students walk around the room reading their card until they find a match. Topic words can also be used. Wheel of Fortune Divide the class into 2 teams.

P

Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 217218)

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 174

P

P

Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 167

Wheel of Fortune Teacher draws a line to represent each letter in the word. Each team chooses a letter. Teacher fills in the blanks. The team who guesses the word is the winner. The word bank (word wall) should ✓ be categorised, ie topic words, words from Chpt 5, long words. Write the word on card in large letters. Write the definition in small letters underneath. Students work in small groups. They find a new and interesting word. They write the true definition, plus two false definitions. Take turns reading their definitions aloud once. The other groups choose the correct meaning Word chart Define the word. Give examples and non-examples

P

P

Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 167

Word Bank

Building Reading Comprehension Habits p 160

Word bluff

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 175

Word Cline

Word Investigation chart Word map

Clines focus in the intensity of meaning of words. They can be written on cards or sticky notes. Students place them on the cline according to their strength of meaning. When a student comes to an unknown word, they note it on the chart. A graphic organiser Includes the word, definition, synonyms, word in a sentence and an illustration The teacher selects vocabulary that ✓ may be challenging. Words and their meanings are in two columns. Students match the words

P

P

Word chart Word chart 2 Word chart 3 Word chart 5 Word chart 6 The Reading Activity handbook p 20

P

P

P

Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 172 Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 170 The Reading Activity Handbook p 22

Word Match

Word of the Week

Word of the Week

Choose a new word. Students are ✓ encouraged to use the word throughout the week. Teacher chooses the word of the week models how to present the new word. Students try to use the word in context. Students then take turns to choose a word of the week.

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 169 Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 169

Word Remembering

Pronounce the word several times. Relate it to similar words. Create a visual image in your mind. Draw or find a picture to illustrate the word. Make up a sentence or rhyme for the word. 1. Pronounce the words several times 2. Relate it to a similar word 3. Create a visual image or connection in your mind 4. Draw or find a picture that illustrates the word 5. Make up a sentence or rhyme that uses the word and helps you remember the meaning

P

P

Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 60)

Word remembering

Building Reading Comprehension Habits p 161

Word Search

Word Sort

Students plot words form the story onto a grid, (or use Puzzlemaker.com). Swap word searches to solve. The words could have a particular focus. Students sort words associated with P the topic. 1. Open- students decide on the categories 2. Teacher decides on the categories 3. Teacher gives the students the categories and the students write the words as they are called out

P

The Reading Activity Handbook p 19

P

P

Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 168

Word Webs

Choose a topic word and write it in the centre of the page. Then create offshoots- definition, antonyms, synonyms, part of speech etc.

P

P

Word Webs

flect, Retell p 82-83

flect, Retell p 84-85

flect, Retell p 87

flect, Retell p 94

flect, Retell p m94

flect, Retell p 94

flect, Retell pm95

Vocabulary Development
Before During Strategy
ABC Brainstorming AlphaBoxes Affix cards

Explanation

After

Reference
ABC Brainstorming AlphaBoxes Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 174-175 Alliteration

✓ Using games to explicitly teach prefixes and suffixes.

Alliteration

A sentence that contains words beginning with the same sound. Write three word clusters that describe the topic. Use the clusters to write factual sentences or poems. After reading about a topic, the students make a list of related words. They then use these words to create a book about the topic. Ie “W” is for eagle, because they can
have up to an eight-foot WINGSPAN.

P

AlphaAntics

P

AlphaAntics

Alphabetical line up

Make a set of word cards, with each words beginning with a different letter. Give each student a word and have them line up in alphabetical order. For older students, have words that begin with the same letter. Students are given a sticky note. They choose a word they don’t know the meaning of. Students place the sticky notes on a chart to discuss. Alternately, the students may choose a word they like the sound of, recognised a root word or appealed to them for another reason.

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 174

Best Word

P

The Reading Activity handbook p 20

Clarification

Class dictionary

Assist students understanding words (that have multiple meanings) in context by getting them to locate clues in the text to assist them. Each student makes a page for the class dictionary, including features of the dictionary such as parts of speech, pronunciation and other dictionary features Place the word to be explored in the P centre of the chart. Determine a broad category describing the word What is it / Describe the focus word in What is it like? Provide specific examples in What are some examples? Determine a comparison See relationships and connections P between important vocabulary terms. Write theme word in middle of the page. Add 2-3 important words. Write how these words are connected Explain the 8 context clues

P

P

Clarification

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 175

Concept of Definition Map

P

Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 210)

Connect the words

P

P

Building Reading Comprehension habits (150-151) BLM p 164

Context Clues

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- Definition examples/illustration, compare/contrast, logic. Root words and affixes, grammar, cause and effect, mood and tone

Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 211212) Building Reading Comprehension Habits (p141-1440

Decoding and Analogy

Teach students to decode new words by analogy in context.

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Dictionary activities

Alphabetical line up - Give students a word card and have them line up in alphabetical order.

Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 212213) Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 174-175

Dictionary activities

Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 174-175

Dictionary word hunt - One student calls out a word from their spelling list. The others race to find it in the dictionary and read the meaning.

What is the meaning of this? - Work in pairs. One student writes a difficult word on a card, the other writes the meaning on another card. Can play a variety of games matching the cards. Word bluff - Students choose difficult words. Write one true and 2 false definitions. Other students choose the correct definition,

Make your own class dictionary - Each child makes a page for a class dictionary, using their name as the word. Include features such as parts of speech, pronunciations, and other dictionary features Dictionary word hunt Students work is spelling groups. The leader calls out a spelling word. The other students race to find the word in the dictionary. Choose a key term from the text. Add examples of the of the term P

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 174

Example Web

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FigFigs

Choose an unknown word from the P text (figurative, symbol, metaphor, analogy, multiple meanings) Write down what the word in actually describing.
Write an explanation of the word’s meaning.

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Building Reading Comprehension habits (p151-152) Building Reading Comprehension habits (152-153)

BLM p 165

Guess and Adjust

Write the title of the text in the graphic organiser. Write 6-10 clue words and 3-5 new words. Students predict the meaning of the words. Do a QuickWrite (p84-85) that predicts the text’s content. Write predictions on the sheet. Read aloud the text, the students follow in their own book. Mentally adjust their predictions. Students finish reading the text and fill in the adjusted meaning.

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Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 154) BLM p 166

Keyword Web

Write a central theme or concept in the centre of the page. Fill in 2-3 keys with important words. Students choose 1-2 more key words. Write descriptive words around each key. Students could choose symbols to represent the words Have students brainstorm words or P concepts related to a topic. Group the words and explain the groupings. Gather words from a common topic and place on strips of paper or sticky notes. Sort into groups and discuss why they go under the heading they chose. More P - Interesting texts - Teach vocab in context - Model strategies - Connect vocab to concepts - Use new words - Make inferences about words

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Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 154-155) BLM p 167

List-Group-Label

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Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 213) Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 156)

List-Group-label Plus

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More and Lesses

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Building Reading Comprehension habits (p147-148)

- Teach prefixes, suffixes and root words - Extend meanings of words from concrete to abstract - Connect new words to background knowledge - Provide reading options related to topic at reading level of the students - Provide MI approach to understanding meanings of words - Provide time for lots of reading Less - Teach vocab out of context - Words lists unrelated to topic - Rote memorization of definitions - Rely solely on context or decoding - All words must be figured out to understand the text - Looking up definitions as the primary way of figuring out word meaning - Use vocab assessments not connected to real reading - Writing sentences using new words and concepts they are just beginning to learn Multiple Meanings table Use graphic organisers, lists, pictures diagrams etc to show the multiple meanings of words.

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Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 157) BLM p 168

Choose several important words with multiple meanings form the text. Write the word on the sheet. Discuss the parts of the words and write the parts and meanings in the columns. Make a short list of similar words.

New Words in Context Chart

Look up the meaning in the dictionary and summarise meanings. Write what the definitions have in common. In a matrix put a sentence from the text with a new word or phrase in Colum 1 and circle the new word. Put word parts and related words in Column 2. Predict the meaning of the word. Read further and see if the text helps the meaning of the word. Find the meaning of the word. Create a sentence, rhyme or picture to remember the word Teacher chooses 2-3 unknown P words and 7 familiar words from a text. Students use 2 words to create a sentence which may appear in the text List 6-8 difficult words and 4-6 more P common words related to the text. Students write a sentence using two of the words. Choose important words from the text. Use a line for each letter. Fill in the letters one by one. Predict the word. Discuss the meaning of the word P

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Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 157-158)

Possible sentence

Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 171

Possible sentences

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Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 214)

Rivet

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Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 215)

Scuba diving into New Words

Sound it Out

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Check the clues Use the main idea Break the words into parts Ask for help

Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 167 Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 157-158) Poster p 169

Self-selected Vacab Quizzes

Students choose 5-7 words from the ✓ text. They write the words on two pages in their book. Page 1 is for words and meanings. Page 2 is for word only. Quiz- students copy the words. They then write the word meaning, or a sentence with the word in it. They assess themselves, using the definitions in the book. Choose some words and categories P related to the text. List the words in the Semantic Feature Analysis chart. List the characteristics in the chart. Identify the characteristics for each word. Explicitly teach the students how to use the context to predict the meaning of unknown words. After reading a text, the students choose two words (unrelated) which represent the key idea. The students then justify their choice. They then write a sentence explaining how the words are related to the topic. Students write two new words they P want to learn on sticky notes. Write a sentence that uses both words. Using pictorial and syntactic context

Building Reading Comprehension Habits p 159

Semantic Feature Analysis

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Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 216)

Spot the clues

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Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 173 P Two Word Reflection

Two word Reflection

Two-Word Sentence Stickies

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Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 159-160)

Using Context with Signals

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Vocabulary Bank Notes Choose words that have value in the classroom. Create a list of bank notes using those words.

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Building Reading Comprehension habits (p144) Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 159-160) BLM p 170-171

Vocabulary by Analogy

Students can earn the notes when they use the words in writing and talking Teach students the common meanings of roots, prefixes and suffices. Model how to use the parts of words to work out unknown words.

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Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 217) Building Reading Comprehension habits (p147)

Word surgery Vocabulary SelfSelect words that the students Collection Strategy VSS would like to learn more about. Share the word, the context, where it was found, what they think it means, shy the class should study it. Display the list of words and encourage students to use them What’ s the meaning of Each pair of students find a this? new/interesting words in the dictionary. They write the meaning on one card, and the word on the other. Give out the cards randomly. Students walk around the room reading their card until they find a match. Topic words can also be used. Wheel of Fortune Divide the class into 2 teams. Teacher draws a line to represent each letter in the word. Each team chooses a letter. Teacher fills in the blanks. The team who guesses the word is the winner. The word bank (word wall) should ✓ be categorised, ie topic words, words from Chpt 5, long words.

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Guided Comprehension in grades 3-8 (p 217218)

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 174

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Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 167

Word Bank

Building Reading Comprehension Habits p 160

Word Bank

Building Reading Comprehension Habits p 160

Word bluff

Write the word on card in large letters. Write the definition in small letters underneath. Students work in small groups. They find a new and interesting word. They write the true definition, plus two false definitions. Take turns reading their definitions aloud once. The other groups choose the correct meaning

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 175

Word chart

Define the word. Give examples and non-examples

Word Cline

Word Investigation chart Word map

Clines focus in the intensity of meaning of words. They can be written on cards or sticky notes. Students place them on the cline according to their strength of meaning. When a student comes to an unknown word, they note it on the chart. A graphic organiser Includes the word, definition, synonyms, word in a sentence and an illustration The teacher selects vocabulary that ✓ may be challenging. Words and their meanings are in two columns. Students match the words Choose a new word. Students are ✓ encouraged to use the word throughout the week. Teacher chooses the word of the week models how to present the new word. Students try to use the word in context. Students then take turns to choose a word of the week.

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Word chart Word chart 2 Word chart 3 Word chart 5 Word chart 6 The Reading Activity handbook p 20

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Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 172 Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 170 The Reading Activity Handbook p 22

Word Match

Word of the Week

Word of the Week

Teaching reading comprehension strategies p 169 Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 169

Word Remembering

Pronounce the word several times. Relate it to similar words. Create a visual image in your mind. Draw or find a picture to illustrate the word. Make up a sentence or rhyme for the word. 1. Pronounce the words several times 2. Relate it to a similar word 3. Create a visual image or connection in your mind 4. Draw or find a picture that illustrates the word 5. Make up a sentence or rhyme that uses the word and helps you remember the meaning

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Building Reading Comprehension habits (p 60)

Word remembering

Building Reading Comprehension Habits p 161

Word Search

Word Sort

Students plot words form the story onto a grid, (or use Puzzlemaker.com). Swap word searches to solve. The words could have a particular focus. Students sort words associated with P the topic. 1. Open- students decide on the categories 2. Teacher decides on the categories 3. Teacher gives the students the categories and the students write the words as they are called out

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The Reading Activity Handbook p 19

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Teaching Reading Comprehensions Strategies p 168

Word Webs

Choose a topic word and write it in the centre of the page. Then create offshoots- definition, antonyms, synonyms, part of speech etc.

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Word Webs

Resources
Building Comprehension Strategies (Alison Davis) Building Reading Comprehension Habits in Grades 6-12 (Jeff Zwiers) Guided Comprehension Grades 3-8 (Maureen McLaughlin and Mary Beth Allen) Revisit, Reflect, Retell (Linda Hoyt) The Reading Activity Handbook (Sheena Cameron) Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies (Sheena Cameron)
Busy Teachers Cafe Reading lady Education oasis Into the Book Instructional Strategies Interactive Literacy Continuum

Comprehen sion Strategies
Strate Descri Kids’ gy ption Langu (from age Into the Book)
Activating Readers To use Prior activate what I Knowledg what already e they know to currentl help me y nd or stand about the topic, and use this knowledg understa somethin understa nd misunder g new.

misunder stand about the topic, and use this Good readers think

knowledg about what is e before, during and after reading to clarify happen

going to based on what they already know and

misconce what they ptions read. Determini understa Making Readers ng judge, judgeme Importanc justify nts e and or about defend what I understa have nding to read and determin explain e importan ce based on (evaluati ng) stated criteria. why. and have

Inferring

Readers Use think about and search and sometim es use personal knowledg e to construc t meaning beyond what is literally stated. clues to find out what the author means.

the text, really

Locate Key Words and Phrases

Making Readers Making Connectio relate connecti ns what ons they read to between differen

personal t things experien I read ces (textto-self), to informat ion from other text 9toto-text) and to informat ion about the world (text-toworld) in order to enhance understa nding of self, text and life. Good readers connect what they know to what they have read.

Monitorin g

Good readers stop to think about what they are reading, and they know what to do when they do not understa nd.

Predicting and Previewin g Questioni Readers Ask ng ask question question s to s about and the intention s and seek informat ion to clarify and extend their thinking before, during and after understa I am the text nd what author’s reading.

informat ion to clarify and extend their thinking before, during and after reading. Good readers ask themselv es question s while they

read. Sequencin g Summarisi Readers Tell ng identify what is key and condense importan t informat Good ion into readers their own words during and after reading to solidify identify the most importan t points and restate them in their own importan elements t.

meaning. words.

Synthesisi Readers Put the ng create pieces original together insights, and see perspect them in a ives and new way. understa ndings by reflectin g in texts and merging elements from text and existing schema.

Visualising Readers Create a create their minds that reflect or represen t the ideas in the text. These images may include any of the five senses and serve to movie in while I am reading. images in my mind

may include any of the five Good senses readers and serve to what is enhance happenin understa g while nding of they picture

the text. Vocabular Vocabula read. Use the y ry sentence Developm knowledg to work ent e is the out the single most t factor in contribu ting to reading compreh ension. Vocabula Know ry is a that reader’s words knowledg may have e of words meanings .- print and oral lots of meanings meaning of new

importan words.

and word .

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