This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Author-Ar. Suvarna Lele
Integrated work spaces
Author-Ar. Suvarna Lele Organizational structures are changing due to globalization, technology, information, innovation, creativity, sustainability and change in management. The effectiveness of an organization is measured on utilization of available space to achieve its goal. In order to remain competitive companies need to change the way they are organized. Workplace performance is a measure of the effectiveness of a workplace in meeting the occupant’s needs. The primary goals of an effective work space fulfills both aesthetical and strategic needs which include minimization of the cost, provision of good ergonomics, support collaborator and effective work process. The most important goal seems to be to retaining and attracting the employees. The three major developments in work patterns today that influence the work space planning are1) The work is based more on information and it is becoming more abstract. 2) Frequent rearrangements of the teams are necessary as per the requirements of the organization. 3) Business carried more through electronic Medias as computers, telephones, video conferencing or mobiles; hence the requirement of physical space is lessening. The space is designed as per the work groups, activities and the type of projects. The designed workspace needs to be economically viable, intelligently planned and follow the sustainable principles.
Significance and characteristics of an effective workspace: Integrated work space is development of a strategic physical plan to achieve the organizations business goals. Today, huge companies are involved in designing these work spaces .Their services include services as concept development, work place design, documentation of interior design guidelines,
furniture and filling selection, design of specialist joinery, furniture construction management and site supervision. An efficiently designed workplace that is also comfortable and technologically advanced enables to increase the productivity of an individual as well as a group. The adaptability and interchangeability depends on specific design of the workplace. The workplace needs to be flexible enough to maximize its usage along with the satisfaction and productivity of a user. The designed workspaces also need to be applicable worldwide and independent, adhering to the specific type of work. Quality of work space directly affects the performance and psychology of the people which is affected by appropriate planning, colours and furniture, daylight and indoor air quality.
Elil-Lilly- DCOE,Australia providing and optimal work environment with a pleasing ambience
The economy also plays a major part in process planning as an interior expenditure should be in coherence with the life cycle cost. The technological accommodation should support all electronic equipments such as computers, telephones, faxes, printing machines and other tools needed presently but might not be necessary in future. Aesthetics and the ambience reflect the image of the organization which should be pleasing as well as soothing. Francis Daffy in his book New office describes the modern work space as mobile and flexible with varied work setting and modern furniture. Architectural module is the basic measure of spatial plan, lighting plan, and mechanical plan; essentially, it is the most fundamental planning factor in workplace design. Spatial Planning: Spatial planning depends on the type of tasks performed by the organization and their inter relationship. Workplace planner needs to integrate the various component and factors required for spatial planning. The planning models for today’s business world need to be flat, fast and flexible. According to the results of recent survey carried out by a Korean team for their offices, the most commonly used module used in space planning is 3mx3m (modular co-ordination), a thumb rule that is applied world over. In domestic buildings, the architectural modules of multiples of 3 such as 1.5 1.8, 2.7, 3, and 3.9m are mainly applied, following the standards. The design of systems needs to maximize the personal comforts of an individual. The spatial performance is mainly influenced by architectural modules and workstation layout. The spaces can be categorized into typologies as per their work patterns such as fixed workers, flexible workers, free workers, leadership workers, administrative heads and directors. The spaces occupied by these people can be calculated as per their positions and the time they occupy their work space. The other spaces considered can be collaborative spaces, meeting rooms, kitchen facilities and storage spaces.
Significance of Modular furniture in modern office space design: Modular furniture systems can provide considerable amenities within the small spaces. The shared spaces can be easily accommodated and lot of a space is saved due to their configurations. Businesses need to apply that flexibility in layout of their offices. One of the easiest ways to accomplish this level of flexibility in your office space is through the use of modular office furniture. The thing that makes modular office furniture so valuable is that it’s modular. The word Modular means is that it can be broken apart and then reassembled back to a number of different variations. This means that you can reconfigure your entire office space whenever you feel appropriate. Some of the leading names in manufacture of modular furniture are Herman Miller, Technion, , Steelcase in International brands and Godrej, Wipro, Tangent, Prism, Mobler, Rolex in Indian along with a few more.
Modular furniture by Technion Enterprise- a leading international designer, manufacturer and marketer of mid- to high-end office systems
Environmental planning – A productive workplace fulfills the environmental requirements of a space. An effective workplace allows the worker to adjust comfortably to thermal, lighting and acoustic system with effective use of atmospheric factors. A perfect co-ordination should prevail between the space planners and the planners of all mechanical systems. The systems are selected by different agencies on the basis of the performance and space requirement. The systems as lighting, ac ducting, plumbing, water supply services need to be designed in co-ordination with the architectural plan.
Energy efficient aspects incorporated in an office space
Energy efficient Office of Buck O’Neill Builders, san Francisco
Lighting- Efficient Planning of light concentrates on maximizing the usage of natural light and provision of the least quantity of artificial light. If the structure is already constructed with specific window sizes and positions, it is necessary to take benefit of the maximum day light penetrating. An ideal lighting system-reduces the load, meets all prescribed design standards, allows the user to control the quantity and intensity, and considers aesthetics of the space keeping the project cost down. Ambient and direct lighting systems are mainly applied in the workplaces. Energy-efficient lamp technologies and lighting control systems can be integrated with daylight to provide reductions in overall consumption. Based on the survey results, the layout type of lighting fixtures could be classified into the line, spot and square types. Energy-efficient lamp technologies and lighting control systems can be integrated with daylight to provide reductions in overall consumption. The best advantage can be gained from automatic control of electric lighting as a function of ambient daylight levels. Daylight level sampling equipment can be placed at roof level, while internal space sensors can allow control of electric lighting.
With high quality and Effective LED task lighting system designers can choose ambient light systems .
The effective LED systems light the task,illuminate the vertical surfaces and create a pleasant and inviting ambience reducing the energy consumption levels. Planning mechanical systems and other services-The mechanical systems planning of a space might affect thermal environment of a space, and it should meet the standards of acceptable thermal values
as well. These systems specifically heat, cool and ventilate a building. A well designed mechanical system with good controls is vital to ensure good Indoor environmental Quality and maximize energyefficiency. The issue of cooling in new offices depend on the usage of the building , desirability of control over the internal environment and the climatic conditions of the location. The avoidance of energy-intensive air conditioning is a growing concern for environmentally-conscious designers. Ducting for watersupply and waste water needs to be co-ordinated with Architectural plan for their most efficient working. Good solid water and waste management, based on the waste action hierarchy of reduction, reuse and recycling, is a key component of sustainable development. it will be increasingly advantageous to devise systems that minimise water consumption and waste water discharge through new approaches in services design. Usage of several elements in toilet areas would save a considerable amount of water such as low flow wash basins with spray taps used in conjunction with sensor operation ,dry urinals,dual flow wcs along with recyling of water . Wide choice of different building control disciplines like heating, ventilation, air conditioning applications, lights and blinds, safety features, and electronic equipments can be integrated through building automation systems. The BAS functionality reduces building energy and maintenance costs . (P.T.O)
Case study 1- Studio 8-8-8 ‘Abhalmaya’ office planning. Studio 8-8-8 ‘Abhalmaya’an office Designed by Ar.Pramod Chaugule is an outcome of conscious efforts towards creation of an integrated and environment friendly or a ‘Green’ Office Design. Planning plays a significant role in making building an ideal integrated workplace along with an environment friendly atmosphere.
Office Area of Abhalmaya- An integrated work space with flexible space Design and Environmental Planning
Spatial Planning- Plan of the structure is open, airy and uncomplicated. The floor to opening ratio is nearly 80% which provides a feel of openness to the space. The Ground floor has a reception ares, conference and multimedia presentation along with an accountants spavce. Upper floor is designed as a complete technical area with spaces allocated to three directors, two Engineers and one Architect. An effective communication is maintained by placing the related work areas near the cabins of three directors one of whom is an Architect and other two are engineers.The cabins are alternately used as meeting places too. Nearly 20-25 workers are accomodated in open desk modules which can be easily rearranged if necessary.Space occupied by three directors overlook the work space.The cabins and furnitures are constructed from recycled and Green materials. The office space is free flowing without any full sized partitions which give a feel of one-ness and open-ness to the whole space. Very basic materials with simplest modes of construction are found in interiors. Technical areas are separated by half partitions made up of Green ply resting on 'M.S. pipe' structure. Jute pin up boards are mounted on the ply for display of the drawings. Table tops are made up of ceramic Jaisalmere stone.
Table tops made up of ‘Ceramic Jaisalmer’ stone
Wooden partitions also used for storage
Architects working space with a table made up of wastages of ‘Gokak’ and Marble stone along with green ply.
Mural made up of foam concrete block
Architects space is made interesting by a table made up of wastages of 'Gokak' and 'Marble' stone along with Green ply. A divan made-up of wooden wastages is placed at the corner serving as resting area for the Architect. All the furniture can be easily dis-assembled and reused. Environmental aspects in planning- Building is designed to meet the occupant’s need for thermal and visual comfort at reduced levels of energy and resources consumption. The open planning and huge windows at North allow sufficient daylight and airflow throughout the day . Due to the exact amount of the glazing area provided, no artificial lighting and cooling measures are used in daytime reducing the energy consumption by 3185 KW and also reducing CO2 generation by 2708 Kg.Renewable forms of energies like application of wind mills rain water harvesting, air conditioning by earth tunnel, provision of SIBF system, recycling of wastes is used in design. A wind catcher from tunnel helps the reduction of south west heat while protecting that side of structures. Moreover cavity walls are used at the west side of the structure to protect from extensive heat. The fresh and pleasant environment of ‘Ahalmaya’ has definitely increased the working potential of the staff and their sense of well being during the working hours in turn increasing the productivity. Case Study2-New York Times Office Planning-Renzo piano
The building is occupied by the newspaper's editorial offices up to the 28th of its 52 floors but also contains other offices, commercial spaces and green areas. The multifunctional areas include office spaces, other services and green areas. Office plan is open type which is designed to accommodate newsroom operations with a space for reporters, the copy desk, and editors to see and work together. The provision of red open stairs in the corners of the tower in the newsroom saves the use of elevators connecting two levels. Informal groupings of tables and chairs are also scattered about, creating a variety of social spaces. Private rooms having glass walls take care of private meetings. A designer dining area is provided for the staff with a double height with excellent light, ventilation and views.
The desks are arranged considering the heirarchy.The window spaces along the perimeter are occupied by the editors while the space between cores .Top editors are places in glass offices near cores. Copydesk personnel have to work only for specific hours hence they have very small spaces allocated to them interlinked with reporters, editors and production people. Most arresting feature of the elevation is use of slender ceramic rods on external face of the building along with the automatically adjustable shades which cut the heat loads by 30% and thus reduce the energy costs by 13%.They get adjusted as per the sunlight pattern. The air vents are placed under the floors for fresh air which bring in the fresh air with vents near the work stations. Carbon sensors are provided to detect the requirement of fresh air. Dematerialization and transparency are the operative descriptive terms inside and out. The case studies above show that the modern work spaces clearly reflect the modern flexible work environments. They have technological infrastructure to support "anywhere, anytime and any device" concept. They fulfill the major factors of spatial as well as environmental planning.
Ref1.www.sciencedirect.com- pdf by Ji-Hyun Kima, Sun-Sook Kima, In-Ho Yangb, Kwang-Woo Kima, 2.The integrated workspace-Amor Patriae Ducit. 3 Breakthrough in Office lighting-Terry Clark,Finelite,Inc 4.Implementing integgrated work to create a dynamic Workplace-Knoll Workplace Research. 5.Tall buildings and sustainaibility-Faber Maunsell.