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of the perpetrators that the victim has brought dishonor upon the family or community. Honor killings are directed mostly against women and girls. The perceived dishonor is normally the result of one of the following behaviors, or the suspicion of such behaviors: dressing in a manner unacceptable to the family or community, wanting to terminate or prevent an arranged marriage or desiring to marry by own choice, especially if to a member of a social group deemed inappropriate, engaging in heterosexual acts outside marriage and engaging in homosexual acts. Many women's groups in the Middle East and Southwest Asia suspect that more than 20,000 women are honor killed each year.
1 Definitions 2 Culture o 2.1 Relation to homosexuality 3 Religion 4 Evolutionary psychology 5 Honor killings in history 6 Locations o 6.1 Europe o 6.2 Middle East o 6.3 The Americas 6.3.1 Canada 6.3.2 United States o 6.4 Latin America o 6.5 South Asia 6.5.1 Pakistan 6.5.2 India o 6.6 Congo 7 In national legal codes 8 Support and sanction o 8.1 Victims 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links
Human Rights Watch defines "honor killings" as follows: Honor killings are acts of vengeance, usually death, committed by male family members against female family members, who are held to have brought dishonor upon the family. A woman can be targeted by (individuals within) her family for a variety of reasons, including:
refusing to enter into an arranged marriage, being the victim of a sexual assault, seeking a divorce—even from an abusive husband—or (allegedly) committing adultery. The mere perception that a woman has behaved in a way that "dishonors" her family is sufficient to trigger an attack on her life. Men can also be the victims of honor killings by members of the family of a woman with whom they are perceived to have an inappropriate relationship. The loose term "honor killing" applies to killing of both men and women in cultures that practice it. Some women who bridge social divides, publicly engage other communities, or adopt some of the customs or the religion of an outside group may be attacked. In countries that receive immigration, some otherwise low-status immigrant men and boys have asserted their dominant patriarchal status by inflicting honor killings on women family members who have participated in public life, for example, in feminist and integration politics.
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Some researchers argue that the shift towards greater responsibility for women and less for their . or reproductive power. explains how honor killings can be viewed in cultural relativist terms. upsets moral order for the culture of interest and bloodshed is the only way to remove any shame brought about by the actions and restore social equilibrium. and family members have no socially acceptable alternative but to remove the stain on their honour by attacking the woman. The honour killing is not a means to control sexual power or behavior. says that honor killing is: A complicated issue that cuts deep into the history of Arab society. What the men of the family. An Amnesty International statement adds: The regime of honour is unforgiving: women on whom suspicion has fallen are not given an opportunity to defend themselves. . professor of anthropology at Birzeit University. Women for the tribe were considered a factory for making men. an anthropology professor at Rhode Island College. She writes that the act. Foot binding Forced prostitution Human trafficking Marital rape Murder of pregnant women Rape Sati Pregnancy from rape Sexual slavery Sexual violence Violence against prostitutes Other Outline of domestic violence v t e Sharif Kanaana. of any female sexual misconduct. Women in largely patriarchal cultures who have gained economic independence from their families go against their male-dominated culture. What's behind it is the issue of fertility.. or tribe seek control of in a patrilineal society is reproductive power. or even alleged act. Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban. clan. Changing cultural and economic status of women has also been used to explain the occurrences of honor killings.
"The right to life of women in Pakistan is conditional on their obeying social norms and traditions. Relation to homosexuality There is some evidence that homosexuality can also be perceived as grounds for honor killing by relatives." A July 2008 Turkish study by a team from Dicle University on honor killings in the Southeastern Anatolia Region. In some cultures." Fareena Alam. Additionally. “In villages "back home". talk or work with.fathers may cause their male family members to act in oppressive and sometimes violent manners in order to regain authority. Christians and Muslims surveyed said they would condone any murder of someone who threatened their family‟s honor. Pakistan) says: "It is an unholy alliance that works against women: the killers take pride in what they have done. writes that honor killings which arise in Western cultures such as Britain are a tactic for immigration families to cope with the alienating consequences of urbanization. For women who trace their ancestry back to the Middle East or South Asia. Sikhs. The lawyer and human rights activist Hina Jilani says.” Alam argues that it is thus the attempt to regain control and the feelings of alienation that ultimately leads to an honor killing. the tribal leaders condone the act and protect the killers and the police connive the cover-up. the predominantly Kurdish area of Turkey. The poll demonstrated how the notion of honor killings and views of whether they are acceptable and justifiable crosses religion and is more contingent on the family‟s social culture. according to a poll done by the BBC‟s Asian network. or refusing to accept an arranged marriage are all offenses that can and have led to an honor killing. wearing clothes that are considered Western. 60 percent are either high school or university graduates or at the very least. a homosexual Turkish student. honor killings are considered less serious than other murders simply because they arise from long-standing cultural traditions and are thus deemed appropriate or justifiable. literate. In another case. In our cities full of strangers. has so far shown that little if any social stigma is attached to honor killing. Ahmet Yildiz. It also comments that the practice is not related to a feudal societal structure. Alam argues that immigrants remain close to the home culture and their relatives because it provides a safety net. This change of culture can also be seen to have an effect in Western cultures such as Britain where honor killings often arise from women seeking greater independence and adopting seemingly Western values. Of all those surveyed. editor of a Muslim magazine. with a large support system. "there are also perpetrators who are well-educated university graduates." Nighat Taufeeq of the women's resource center Shirkatgah (Lahore. In one case. a man's sphere of control was broader. a gay Jordanian man was shot and wounded by his brother. having a boyfriend. She writes that. was shot outside a cafe and later . there is virtually no control over who one's family members sit. Cultural implications can often be seen in public and private views of honor killings. 1 in 10 of the 500 Hindus.
Brazil is already in second place of this kind of movement in Latin America after Argentina. of homosexual youth suffering bullying or committing suicide. However. Tahira Shaid Khan. The first and most basic right in the Qur'an that every Muslim is expected to follow is." In the country of Brazil. biphobia or transphobia tends to be within the family among all social groups. especially boys or transgirls. Non-heterosexual children. She said that honor killings don't have "any definite connection with religion at all". but afterwards lo! many of them became prodigals in the earth. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees state that "claims made by LGBT persons often reveal exposure to physical and sexual violence. in varying degrees. can be killed if their sexuality is disclosed. in fact. the advocacy director of Human Rights Watch. followers of Hinduism. documenting the Brazilian culture as the reason for an abnormal number. (5:32).[dead link] Widney Brown. For that cause We decreed for the Children of Israel that whosoever killeth a human being for other than manslaughter or corruption in the earth. a professor of women's issues at Aga Khan University." Human rights advocates have compared "honor killing" to "crimes of passion" in Latin America (which are sometimes treated extremely leniently) and also to the killing of women for lack of dowry in India. it shall be as if he had saved the life of all mankind.died in hospital. notes that there is nothing in the Qur'an that permits or sanctions honor killings. and there is a number of homophobic extermination gangs even in regions where far-right and white supremacist groups being unimaginable. when compared to more developed countries. The act of honor killings in Brazil has roots in Latin America's version of machismo. The first time a non-heterosexual Brazilian suffers homophobia. As written in the Qur'an. honor killings show up mostly within rural regions but also in the metropolis. Judaism and Christianity have used their religions as a rationale to commit honour killings. homophobic extermination groups may have originated in a very homophobic culture native to Brazilian society. and that honor killing had been practised before any major religion came into existence. said that the practice "goes across cultures and across religions. Our messengers came unto them of old with clear proofs (of Allah's Sovereignty). and whoso saveth the life of one. . medical abuse. extended periods of detention. such as being driven from their homes or not being accepted. it is more common for homosexual individuals to suffer some psychological and physical abuse without deadly consequences. Since this kind of violence which is usually motivated by extremist ideologies appears to have come with great strength and very quickly to the country despite its limitations within globalization and its unique features. Islam. Religion According to University of Toronto professor of women's studies Shahrzad Mojab. the right to life. threat of execution and honour killing. Sociologists have called this Turkey's first publicized gay honor killing. Feminist groups explain this observance by the characterization of the dominant societal attitudes in Brazil as deeply sexist and homophobic. it shall be as if he had killed all mankind.
The Qur'an verse An-Nisa. honor killings originate from the belief that a woman‟s chastity is the property of her families. a cultural norm that comes "from our ancient tribal days. in some cases by stoning to death for both men and women. such as by legal exceptions for honor killings or crimes of passion. This may be explained by men." . 34 has been interpreted as supporting wife-beating. unlike women. including physical violence. in Jordan the official religious authorities argued that. However. believe that Islam condones and even supports murder in the name of family honor.C. These adaptive explanations have been criticized for less extreme violence possibly achieving the same thing or involving unlikely complex calculations. restoring lost social status. According to a 2000 article. ethnic and religious groups) that view women as property with no rights of their own as the motivation for honor killings. Evolutionary psychology Several different evolutionary psychology explanations have been proposed for honor killings.Khan instead blames it on attitudes (across different classes. from the Hammurabi and Assyrian tribes of 1200 B. bought and sold. Ellen Sheeley revealed that 20% of Jordanites sampled. unauthorized honor killings can be traced to pre-Islamic tribal traditions and are not part of the religion. have difficulty knowing with certainty that they are the biological parents of the children they spend considerable resources on in a long-term relationship. Sexual jealousy is argued to have evolved in order to reduce the risk of children not being biologically related and to be relatively stronger in men. General patriarchal theories may also have difficulty explaining why societies have made particular legal exceptions for killings related to adultery. Norma Khouri. (See Islam and domestic violence) and has been argued to reduce resistance to honor killings. Actual killings have been argued to be maladaptive by-products of this since by killing the woman she cannot contribute further to the man's reproductive success." A survey by author. as well as the related concept of crime of passion due to adultery. Others note how religious meaning attached to terms such as virginity and bride-price help to reinforce social traditions and the control of a woman's body and their sexuality. while adultery should be punished by the proper authorities. it has also been argued that the such killings may be adaptive by being a warning to other wives. It has also been pointed out that to argue that society must morally accept and be structured according to what is claimed to be natural. Theories referring to the influence of the patriarchy in general may have difficulty explaining why men are more likely to kill women for reasons related to adultery rather than for reasons such as laziness or stupidity. However. in order to prevent adultery. Khan also argues that this view results in violence against women and their being turned "into a commodity which can be exchanged. is an example of the naturalistic fallacy. Men may use a variety of strategies. Honor killings. have occurred and have to some degree been seen as justified in many different and separated cultures. and preventing complications from possibly not genetically related children being born. Honor killings in history As noted by Christian Arab writer. the Islamist party argued that honor killings are one part of the Islamic code.
concerning cultural practices in the family that are violent towards women (E/CN. Under these laws. In addition. and that they had also taken place in western countries such as France. Italy.4/2002/83). Israel. It is recorded that he murdered all of his daughters to prevent them from ever causing him any kind of dishonor. Qays bin Asim. Morocco. In Greece. ancient leader of Banu Tamim is credited by some historians as the first to kill children on the basis of honor. Turkey. Hatun Sürücü's brother was convicted of murder and jailed for nine years and . has also noted that honor killings were encouraged in ancient Rome.Matthew A.D. Sweden. According to Widney Brown. Lebanon. The Turkish women's organization Papatya has documented 40 instances of honor killings in Germany since 1996. Locations According to the UN in 2002: The report of the Special Rapporteur. and other Mediterranean and Persian Gulf countries. and Uganda. where male family members who did not take actions against the female adulterers in their family were "actively persecuted". who was killed by her brother for not staying with the husband she was forced to marry. The origin of honor killings and the control of women is evidenced throughout history in the culture and tradition of many regions. Jordan. indicated that honour killings had been reported in Egypt. the lives of children and wives were at the sole discretion of the men in their family. and honor killing was supposed to be a "merciful" act. (Arizona). In ancient Rome. within migrant communities. the UN Commission on Human Rights report honor killings in the nations of Bangladesh. Morocco. the lives of women were too dictated by their husbands as women were considered socially below males. The group tries to protect Muslim girls and women from oppressive families. Yemen. The Roman law of pater familias gave complete control to the men of the family for both their children and wives. being raped was seen as dishonorable to the point of destroying a woman's life and reputation. Ecuador. J. the practice of honor killing "goes across cultures and across religions. Precise statistics on how many women die every year in such honor killings are hard to come by. Among the Amerindian Aztecs and Incas adultery was punishable by death. Ancient Roman Law also established historical roots of honor killings through his law stating that women found guilty of adultery could be killed by their husband in whatever manner the husband desired. and of "living like a German". the Syrian Arab Republic. Goldstein. advocacy director for Human Rights Watch. said Myria Boehmecke of the Tuebingen-based women's group Terre des Femmes. Germany and the United Kingdom. The article went on to cover the case of Hatun Sürücü. as many crimes are never reported. six Muslim women living in Berlin have been killed by family members". Turkey..." Europe In 2005 Der Spiegel reported: "In the past four months. Pakistan. India. Brazil.
especially in patriarchal and fundamentalist communities and societies. almost exclusively within Asian and Middle Eastern families. Diana Nammi of the UK's Iranian and Kurdish Women's Rights Organisation is reported to have said: "about two-thirds are Muslim. far from diminishing. Often cases cannot be resolved due to the unwillingness of family. it asked the Council of Europe member states to 'draw up and put into effect national action plans to combat violence against women. Britain saw a 47% rise of honor-related crimes. The 2009 European Parliamentary Assembly noted this in their Resolution 1681 which noted the dire need to address honor crimes. of Britain's Crown Prosecution Service. Sadia Sheikh. However. In 2011. .three months by a German court in 2006. In the UK. Data from police agencies in the UK report 2283 cases in 2010. In March 2009 Kurdish immigrant from Turkey Gülsüm S. officials estimate that at least a dozen women are victims of honor killings. stabbed to death by her Kurdish father in London in 2002 when her family heard a love song dedicated to her and suspected she had a boyfriend. west London. Nazir Afzal. The resolution stated that: "On so-called 'honor crimes. a Sikh man who. In Sweden the 26-year-old Kurdish woman Fadime Şahindal was killed by her father in 2002. While precise figures do not exist for the perpetrators' cultural backgrounds. in February 2011." Another well-known case was Heshu Yones. a lesser-known case is that of Gurmeet Singh Ubhi.' if they have not already done so. Italy. Amrit Kaur Ubhi in 2010. a Kurdish Shia Muslim girl who immigrated with her family from Turkey. For this reason. The issue of honor killings has risen to prominence in Europe in recent years. prompting the need to address the occurrence of honor killings. Most of the attacks were conducted in cities that had high immigrant populations. in which four Pakistani family members were found guilty of killing their daughter and sibling. both in Europe and the rest of the world. has worsened. In 2011. including in Europe. Belgium held its first honor killing trial. Mr. was killed for a relationship outside her family's plan for an arranged marriage. Honour killings also affect gays in Europe.' the Parliamentary Assembly notes that the problem. including violence committed in the name of so-called 'honor. It mainly affects women. was found guilty of the murder of his 24 year-old daughter. Other examples include the killing of Tulay Goren. a man stabbed his brother 19 times because his homosexuality was a "dishonour to the family". In 2008 a man had to flee from Turkey after his boyfriend was killed by his own father. Director. in Cerignola. A 2006 BBC poll for the Asian network in the UK found that one in ten of the 500 young Asians polled said that they could condone the killing of someone who dishonored their family. relatives and communities to testify. and an estimated of 500 more from jurisdictions that did not provide reports. Ubhi was found to have murdered his daughter because he disapproved of her being 'too westernised'. who are its most frequent victims. Yet they can also be Hindu and Sikh. Likewise he also disapproved of the fact that she was dating a nonSikh man. Every year in the United Kingdom (UK)." In 2010. and Samaira Nazir (Pakistani Muslim). stated that the United Kingdom has seen "at least a dozen honour killings" between 2004 and 2005. in December 2005.
but the figure is believed to be 40 to 50 per year. not the government. As many as 133 women were killed in the Iraqi city of Basra alone in 2006—79 for violation of "Islamic teachings" and 47 for honor killings. The child's mother. There were still "honor" killings in Jordan. the news branch of the U. It added that metropolitan cities were the location of many of these. were arrested. It is believed Yildiz was the victim of the country's first gay honor killing. according to IRIN. due to growing Kurdish immigration to these cities from the East. The Palestinian Independent Commission for Human Rights has reported 29 women were killed 2007-2010. as well as women who are perceived as human rights defenders. Families often get sons under the age of 18—legally minors—to commit honor killings.N. exempts men from punishment for killing a female relative if she has brought dishonor to the family. she stated that her family had made the decision to kill the child. was shot dead leaving a cafe in Istanbul. The killing became public only when a Saudi cleric referred to the case. Amnesty International says that armed groups. A June 2008 report by the Turkish Prime Ministry's Human Rights Directorate said that in Istanbul alone there was one honor killing every week. promised to change the discriminatory law. Ahmet Yildiz. 26.Middle East In 2008 a woman was killed in Saudi Arabia by her father for "chatting" to a man on Facebook. and reported over 1. On 4 August 2011 the Lebanese parliament agreed by a majority to abolish Article 562. President of the Palestinian Authority. In Jordan there is relatively little sex discrimination compared to most other countries in the region. According to UNICEF. In 2009 a Turkish news agency reported that a 2-day-old boy who was born out of wedlock had been killed for honor. many honor killings are arranged to look like accidents. There are no exact official numbers about honor killings of women in Lebanon. also kill politically-active women and those who did not follow a strict dress code. in 2000 two-thirds of all killings in the Palestinian territories were honor killings. using a clause in the Jordanian penal code still in effect in the West Bank. which for years had worked as an excuse for honor killing. whereas 13 women were killed in 2011 and 12 in the first seven months of 2012. 25. in 2012. but men receive reduced sentences for killing their wives or female family members if they are deemed to have brought dishonor to their family. The Palestinian Authority. along with six other persons. The maternal grandmother of the infant. including a doctor who had reportedly accepted a bribe to not report the birth. was also arrested.000 during the previous five years. considered one of the most liberal countries in the Middle East. and women are permitted to vote. a Turkish physics student who represented his country at an international gay conference in the United States in 2008. her corpse was found 40 days after she went missing. A 2007 report by Amnesty International said that the Lebanese media in 2001 reported 2 or 3 honor killings per month in Lebanon. not to condemn it but to criticise Facebook for the strife it caused. The grandmother is suspected of fatally suffocating the infant. although the number is believed by lawyers to be higher. but no action had been taken as of 2012. Mahmoud Abbas. the juvenile law allows convicted minors to serve time in . In 2010 a 16-year-old Kurdish girl was buried alive by relatives for befriending boys in Southeast Turkey.'s Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.
The Council returned with a recommendation to repeal Article 340. women were given the same reduction in punishment if found guilty of the crime.a juvenile detention center and be released with a clean criminal record at the age of 18. In some cultures. states that "under the existing law. and their son Hamed were found guilty of four counts each of first-degree murder for the 2009 killing of Shafia and Yahya's three daughters. after parliament was suspended. though approved by the upper house. 'honour killings'. The report also said that the people who commit these crimes are usually mentally ill. There has been public support in Jordan to amend Articles 340 and 98. female genital mutilation. One of the amendments was that "husbands would no longer be exonerated for killing unfaithful wives." . forced marriage or other gender-based violence. a number of temporary laws were created which were subject to parliamentary ratification. it failed to pass the elected lower house". Canada. Tooba Yahya. In 2001. then killing is justified to them. Sujay Patel of Memorial University. The Americas Canada A 2007 study by Dr. allegedly regarding conflict over her wearing a traditional hijab. In 2010. The report explained that "[w]hen people come and settle in Canada they can bring their traditions and forcefully follow them. and Shafia's first wife." The report noted that "In different cultures. people feel some boundaries are never to be crossed. the brother of Khatera Sadiqi was convicted of murdering her and her fiancé. they can get away without being punished—the courts actually sanction them under religious contexts". people found guilty of committing honor killings often receive sentences as light as six months in prison". the measure was presented to parliament twice in November 1999 and January 2000 and in both cases. In 2006. Muhammad Parvez and his son Waqas were convicted of murder of 16-year-old Aqsa Parvez. In 2012 Mohammad Shafia. and if someone would violate those practices or go against it. possibly because she was accused of wanting to convert to Islam. but instead the circumstances would be considered as evidence for mitigating punishments". In 1999 King Abdullah created a council to review the sex inequalities in the country. investigated how the practice of honor killings has been brought to Canada. A 17-year-old Iraqi Kurdish girl of the Yazidi faith was stoned to death in 2007. The Canadian citizenship study guide mentions that "Canada's openness and generosity do not extend to barbaric cultural practices that tolerate spousal abuse. But parliament returned to session in 2003 and the new amendments were rejected by the lower house after two successful readings in the upper house. a leading journalist on the topic of honor killings. Rana Husseini. "[T]he cabinet approved the recommendation. there are an average of 23 honor killings per year in Jordan. Amin Muhammad and Dr. In the interest of sex equality. The 2007 Yazidi communities bombings may have been retaliations. and that the mental health aspect is often ignored by Western observers because of a lack of understanding of the insufficiently developed state of mental healthcare in developing countries in which honor killings are prevalent. According to UNICEF. he stated he wanted his sister to respect their father.
publicized the case." It is also for women or men that refuse to marry their wife or husband. family member. in just one year. boyfriend or lover. He alleged his eight-months-pregnant daughter was tortured and killed on March 7 on the orders of her father-in-law.United States Main article: Honor killing in the United States A 2009 article by Phyllis Chesler in Middle East Quarterly argues that the United States is far behind Europe in acknowledging that honor killings are a special form of domestic violence. Similar to honor killings. the overwhelming majority of honor killings are perpetrated by Muslims against Muslims (90% of honor killings known to have taken place in Europe and the United States from 1998 to 2008). Similar laws were struck down over the past two decades: according to human rights lawyer Julie Mertus "in Brazil. until 1980. honor killings are sometimes referred to as dowry deaths and bride burnings. Failing to accurately describe the problem makes it more difficult to develop public policies to address it. which was widely reported after her father. and most often jealousy or suspicions of infidelity are cited as the reasons for the murders. In these documented cases the victims were murdered because they were believed to have acted in a way against the religion of the family. In every case. until 1991 wife killings were considered to be noncriminal 'honor killings'. in Colombia. Latin America In Latin America. The article suggests that the fear of being labeled "culturally insensitive" often prevents government officials in the United States and the media from identifying and accurately reporting these incidents as "honor killings" when they occur. requiring special training and special programs to protect the young women and girls most likely to be the victim of such practices. Crimes of passion within Latin America have also been compared to honor killings. of Hajna Shah village in Khairpur district. Similarly." Recent cases include that of three teenage girls who were buried alive after refusing arranged marriages. South Asia Pakistan Main article: Honour killing in Pakistan In Pakistan honor killings are known locally as karo-kari. 57year-old Gul Sher Solangi. 70 percent of the murders of women in one year were committed by a husband. crimes of passion often feature the murder of women by a husband. who accused . although there are not many cases of honor killings within the United States. The article reports that. In Peru. An Amnesty International report noted "the failure of the authorities to prevent these killings by investigating and punishing the perpetrators. perpetrators view their victims as violating rules of religious conduct and act without remorse. for example. nearly eight hundred husbands killed their wives. a husband legally could kill his wife for committing adultery. Another case was that of Taslim Khatoon Solangi. or boyfriends and the crime is often condoned or sanctioned. 17.
largely due to the activism and influence of reformists such as Vivekananda. Once such a pardon has been secured. honor killings are rare to non-existent in South India and the western Indian states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. women killed in honor killings are recorded as having committed suicide or died in accidents. Rajasthan. The murderer then goes free. from Bhojpur who was set on fire inside her house in a case of what the police called 'moral vigilantism'. It is noted by sociologists that honor killings do not necessarily have to do with religion. Uttar Pradesh. the state has no further writ on the matter although often the killers are relatives of the victim. In May 2008. Since most honour killings are committed by a close relative. or be pressured to accept diyat (financial compensation). as a result of people marrying without their family's acceptance. despite widespread condemnation from human rights groups. marriages with members of other castes can provoke the killing of the married couple and immediate family members.her of carrying a child conceived out of wedlock.000 women have died as victims of honor killings in Pakistan from 1999 to 2004. honor killings have a high level of support in Pakistan's rural society. more than 4. and sometimes for marrying outside their caste or religion. which permits the individual and his or her family to retain control over a crime. where she later died from her injuries. are so deeply entrenched in the social. Furthermore. Among Rajputs. including the right to determine whether to report the crime. Savitri Goonesekere qualifies this claim. Bhagalpur in the eastern Indian state of Bihar has also been notorious for honor killings. only to find her smouldering body. and four in 2010. The victim had screamed for help for about 20 minutes before neighbours arrived. In contrast. She was admitted to a local hospital. Vidyasagar and Raja Ram Mohan Roy. In some other parts of India. political and economic fabric of Pakistan that the government mostly ignores the regular occurrences of women being killed and maimed by their families. among rajputs and jaats. Over the course of six years. most honor killings are encompassed by the 1990 Qisas and Diyat Ordinance. mainly in the Indian states of Punjab. if and when the case reaches a court of law. mainly in the upper caste of society. but rather the cultures in different regions. In 2002 alone over 382 people. about 245 women and 137 men. and of honor. or demand diyat (or compensation). Statistically. Ramakrishna.000 per year. notably West Bengal. Haryana is also notorious for incidents of honor killing. Recent cases include a 16-year-old girl. 20 in 2009. India Honor killings have been reported in northern regions of India. Imrana. According to data compiled by the Punjab Police. honor killings ceased about a century ago. the victim's family may 'pardon' the murderer. 34 honor killings were reported in the state between 2008 and 2010: 10 in 2008. The Indian state of Punjab has a large number of honor killings. According to women's rights advocates. prosecute the offend." Frequently. In 2005 the average annual number of honor killings for the whole nation was stated to be more than 10. Jayvirsingh Bhadodiya shot his daughter Vandana Bhadodiya . Haryana. saying that Islamic leaders in Pakistan use religious justifications for sanctioning honor killings. became victims of honor killings in the Sindh province of Pakistan. the concepts of women as property. This form of honor killing is attributed[who?] to Rajput culture and traditional views on the perceived "purity" of a lineage.
" Congo This section may contain original research. According to police officer. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. The NCW's activism has contributed significantly towards the reduction of honor killings in rural areas of North India. or leave due to shame will most likely become even more vulnerable to further abuse. the Supreme Court of India issued notices to the Central Government and six states including Uttar Pradesh. legal and other provisions as well as challenges women face. This body reviewed constitutional. "Omkar Singh told the police that his daughter Manju had relations with several men. Out of pure rage. a man and woman of the same clan who eloped and married in June 2007. frequently leading to their being abandoned by their husbands or having trouble marrying. Alarmed by the rise of honor killings. Raped women are seen as impure. He had asked her to mend her ways several times in the past. and they have suggested that governments of countries affected by honor killings use Indian law as a model in order to prevent honor killings in their respective societies. Karnal district court ordered the execution of five perpetrators of an honor killing in Kaithal. However. Punjab. In June 2010. Young women and girls who are cast outside of their homes. the Government planned to bring a bill in the Monsoon Session of Parliament July 2010[dated info] to provide for deterrent punishment for 'honor' killings. In 1990 the National Commission for Women set up a statutory body in order to address the issues of honor killings among some ethnic groups in North India. he chopped off her head with the sword. and imprisoning for life the khap (local castebased council) chief who ordered the killings of Manoj Banwala (23) and Babli (19). Indian women are considerably better protected against honor killings by Indian law and government than Pakistani women. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding references. . The most extreme versions of this stigmatization can lead to "honor killings" in which the victims of sexual violence are murdered by their family or community due to the belief that they have brought them shame and dishonor. According to Pakistani activists Hina Jilani and Eman M. she did not pay heed. Ahmed. scrutinizing the increasing number of honor killings. In a landmark judgment in March 2010. (August 2012) The most common social consequence for victims of sexual violence is isolation from their families and communities. In June 2010 some incidents were reported even from Delhi. their mutilated bodies were found a week later in an irrigation canal.and struck her on the head with an axe. Haryana and Rajasthan to take preventive measures against honor killings. In June 2012. Despite having been given police protection on court orders. a man chopped off his 20 year old daughter's head with a sword in Rajasthan after learning that she was dating men. 30% of women and 22% of men admit to being raped. they were kidnapped.
Article 242 says that a judge may reduce a sentence for murders that were done in rage and caused by an illegal act committed by the victim.4/2002/83): The Special Rapporteur indicated that there had been contradictory decisions with regard to the honour defense in Brazil. Article 418 of the penal code granted extenuating circumstances to a husband who kills." Article 192 states that a judge may opt for reduced punishments (such as short-term imprisonment) if the killing was done with an honorable intent. Countries that allow husbands to kill only their wives in flagrante delicto (based upon the Napoleonic code) include: Morocco: Revisions to Morocco's criminal code in 2003 helped improve women's legal status by eliminating unequal sentencing in adultery cases. and that legislative provisions allowing for partial or complete defense in that context could be found in the penal codes of Argentina. or beats his wife or her partner. when catching them in flagrante delicto while . in 2003: a year in which at least seven honor killings took place. Peru. Venezuela and the Palestinian National Authority. include: Haiti: Article 269 of the penal code states "in the case of adultery as provided for in Article 284. In addition to this. Egypt. Ecuador. "Article 98 stipulates that a reduced sentence is applied to a person who kills another person in a 'fit of fury'". the murder by a husband of his wife and/or her partner. Countries where the law is interpreted to allow men to kill female relatives in a premeditated effort as well as for crimes of passions. Countries that allow men to kill female relatives in flagrante delicto (but without premeditation) include: Syria: In 2009. or both. or injures one of them. injures." Jordan: Part of article 340 of the Penal Code states that "he who discovers his wife or one of his female relatives committing adultery and kills. Guatemala. is exempted from any penalty." This has twice been put forward for cancellation by the government. Article 548 states that "He who catches his wife or one of his ascendants. the article waived any punishment for males who committed murder on a female family member for inappropriate sex acts. but was retained by the Lower House of the Parliament. Iran.In national legal codes According to the report of the United Nations Special Rapporteur submitted to the 58th session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights in 2002 concerning cultural practices in the family that reflect violence against women (E/CN. Beforehand. that should not be less than 2 years in prison in case of a killing. immediately upon discovering them in flagrante delicto in the conjugal abode. in flagrante delicto in the act of committing adultery. Jordan. Article 548 of the Syrian Law code was amended. wounds. is to be pardoned. Article 98 of the Penal Code is often cited alongside Article 340 in cases of honor killings. Syria. Israel. descendants or sister committing adultery (flagrante delicto) or illegitimate sexual acts with another and he killed or injured one or both of them benefits from a reduced penalty.
in just one year. but in practice police and prosecutors often ignore it. enacted in 1979 by then ruler General Zia-ul-Haq. The most recent was on January 13. until 1991 wife killings were considered to be non-criminal 'honor killings'. Women's rights groups claimed that in most cases it is the victim's immediate relatives who are the killers.)ک اروک اریThe practice is supposed to be prosecuted under ordinary killing. The law had the effect of reducing the legal protections for women. however. committing adultery. 16. so inherently the new law is just whitewash. In March 2005. the Pakistani parliament rejected a bill which sought to strengthen the law against the practice of honor killing. Often a man must simply claim the killing was for his honor and he will go free. wary of this law as it stops short of outlawing the practice of allowing killers to buy their freedom by paying compensation to the victim's relatives. where a Turkish Court sentenced five members of the same Kurdish family to life imprisonment for the honor killing of Naile Erdas. Similarly. where Turkish courts have sentenced whole families to life imprisonment for an honor killing. On December 8. and in November 2006. Women's rights organizations were. In 2006. Italian Parliament member Souad Sbai suggested in 2010 that Italy amend these articles so that honor killings do not have extra protection under Italian law. There are well documented cases. Pakistan: Honor killings are known as karo kari (Sindhi: ( )ڪارو ڪاريUrdu: . these articles could possibly allow for honor killing offenders to ask a reduced punishment. the Women's Protection Bill amended these Hudood Ordinances by removing four male witnesses as a requirement for rape allegations. especially regarding sex outside of the marriage. as many as 1. similar laws were struck down over the past two decades: according to human rights lawyer Julie Mertus. she could be punished for having sex outside of the marriage. a husband legally could kill his wife for committing adultery. Turkey: In Turkey. the bill was brought up again. "in Brazil. Women who made accusations of rape. While this article has not been repealed. The Hudood Ordinances of Pakistan. It is doubtful whether or not the law would actually help women. Because the woman had admitted to sex outside of marriage. a punishment that ranged from stoning to public lashing. under international and domestic pressure. stated that in 2003. persons found guilty of this crime are sentenced to life in prison. It did not alter the provisions whereby the accused could negotiate pardon with the victim's family under the Islamic provisions. Pakistan enacted a law that made honor killings punishable by a prison term of seven years. In two Latin American countries. the alleged rape could not be prosecuted in the courts. 2004." Countries where honor killing is not legal but is known to occur include: Italy: Article 133 and 62 of the Italian Penal Code offer the possibility of reduced sentencing and punishment for crimes that occur within the offender's cultural norms. who got pregnant as a result of rape. or by the death penalty in the most extreme cases. 2009. This law made it that much more risky for women to come forward with accusations of rape. however. However. In the case of honor killings and other honor related crimes. after this law. nearly eight hundred husbands killed their wives. in Colombia. created laws that realigned Pakistani rule with Islamic law. it passed. were required to provide four male witnesses. until 1980. the penalty for committing this crime is at least now the same for both genders. . If unable to do this. advisor to Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz. Nilofar Bakhtiar.261 women were killed in honor killings.
the police force. . Amnesty insisted the government to assure legal access for the victims of crime in the name of honor. a suspected honor killing never even reaches court. both of them are killed. police often declare the killing as a domestic case that warrants no involvement. He said that those who are killed have "loose morals" and are rightfully shot by relatives in honor killings. also seem to reinforce inequality and in some cases sanction the murder of women considered dishonorable. or are not major enough to be pursued on a large scale. lawyers. Amnesty argued for the expansion of victim support services such as shelters. He did not vilify women alone but added that "If a woman runs around and if a man runs around with her. The rest were sentenced lightly. claim that these cases are never brought to them. the women and victims are too afraid to speak up or press charges. He stated that the Norwegian public did not understand other cultures who practiced honor killings. and that Norwegian culture "is selfrighteous". and public announcements. rather than ruling cases with gender equality in mind. Often. Also. "Pakistan: Honor Killings of Girls and Women". but in cases where they do. do not always take action against the perpetrator. according to some lawyers and women's right activists. Also. the proceeding judges rejected only eight of claims that the women were killed for honor. In other cases. The general indifference to the issue of honour killing within Pakistan is due to a deep-rooted gender bias in law. In its report. In many cases in Pakistan. and women's group to facilitate eradication of honor killings." In 2007. Under the encouragement of the killer. the alleged killer is often not charged or is given a reduced sentence of three to four years in jail. Amnesty strongly requested the Government of Pakistan to take 1) legal. To elaborate. protective measures include ensuring a safe environment for activists. First of all. judges in Pakistan (particularly at the lower level of the judiciary). and 3) protective measures. education. seemed to support the act of honor killings in the name of family honor. one of the reasons honor killing cases never make it to the courts. published in September 1999. On top of that. however. Support and sanction Actions of Pakistani police officers and judges (particularly at the lower level of the judiciary  ) have. Pakistani law enforcement do not get involved. Kremlin-appointed Chechen President Ramzan Kadyrov said that honor killings were perpetrated on those who deserved to die. a famous Norwegian Supreme Court advocate stated that he wanted the punishment for the killing from 17 years in prison to 15 years in the case of honor killings practiced in Norway. In a case study of 150 honor killings. Police enforcement. is because. Amnesty underlined the critical need to promote public awareness through the means of media. in situations of admitted murder. often used in honor killings case. noting a gender bias in favor of men in general. 2) preventive. Amnesty International criticized governmental indifference and called for state responsibility in protecting human rights of female victims. or understand their thinking. Police officials. includes one which reports on Egypt's legal system. and the judges. When it comes to preventive measures. at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London. Finally. Egypt: A number of studies on honor crimes by The Centre of Islamic and Middle Eastern Law. in the past. legal measures refer to a modification of the government's criminal laws to guarantee equal legal protection of females. and notably article 17 of the Penal Code: judicial discretion to allow reduced punishment in certain circumstance.
Minister for Tourism and Advisor to Pakistan Prime Minister on Women's Affairs. defended the honor killings of five women belonging to the Umrani tribe by a relative of a local Umrani politician. He said. "These are centuries-old traditions. Israr Ullah Zehri. resigned in April 2007 after the clerics accused her of bringing shame to Pakistan by para-jumping with a male and hugging him after landing. who had struggled against the honor killing in Pakistan. a Pakistani politician in Balochistan. Only those who indulge in immoral acts should be afraid. Zehri defended the killings in Parliament and asked his fellow legislators not to make a fuss about the incident. ." Nilofar Bakhtiar.In 2008. and I will continue to defend them.
in the case of dowry deaths. it has a very wide geographical spread. The other reason why honour killings are taking place is because the mentality of people has not changed and they just cannot accept that marriages can take place in the same gotra or outside one’s caste. to the daughter. a daughter and son in law were killed due to marriage into the same gotra. having extramarital and premarital relationships. The root of the cause for the increase in the number of honour killings is because the formal governance has not been able to reach the rural areas and as a result. the perpetrators of that action claim that they have not been given enough material rewards for accepting the woman into the family. marrying within the same gotra or outside one’s caste or marrying a cousin from a different caste. Furthermore only the State can carry out judicial punishments. the son-in-law is killed as well. Thus.An honor killing or honour killing (also called a customary killing) is the murder of a member of a family or social group by other members. though it has to be said that she has been mentally killed. or even due to a non-sexual relationship perceived as inappropriate. This tradition was first viewed in its most horrible form during the Partition of the country in between the years 1947 and 1950 when many women were forcefully killed so that family honour could be preserved. at a much faster and almost daily basis. it has been noted that the wife commits suicide rather than being killed by the in-laws. there has been a spate of honor killings in the country and this has led the government to decide what laws should be put in place to stop this heinous crime. this practices continues though it should have been removed by now. The second misconception regarding honor killing is that it has religious roots. if any daughter dares to disobey her parents on the issue of marriage and decides to marry a man of her wishes but from another gotra or outside her caste. Even if a woman commits adultery. Sociologists believe that the reason why honour killings continue to take place is because of the continued rigidity of the caste system. there have to be four male witnesses with good behavior and reputation to validate the charge. Recently. Now as has become the norm. albeit. Women and girls are killed at a much higher rate than men. Honour killings are directed mostly against women and girls. So what is the definition of honour killing and what leads families to commit this heinous crime so that they can protect their family honour? Is this practice prevalent only in India or is it prevalent in other parts of the world also? What are the misconceptions regarding honour killing and what are the solutions to stop this crime from spreading? These are the questions that society find the answer… In my opinion Honour killing is defined as a death that is awarded to a woman of the family for marrying against the parent’s wishes. is because of the fact that the caste system continues to be at its rigid best and also because people from the rural areas refuse to change their attitude to marriage. or the suspicion of such behaviors: a. The perceived dishonor is normally the result of one of the following behaviors. Now. due to the belief of the perpetrators (and potentially the wider community) that the victim has brought dishonour upon the family or community. The most obvious reason for this practice to continue in India. Also whether the Hindu Marriage Act should be reformed or not is being debated. In that case there is a lot of harassment from the in-laws and more times than one. So it can be seen clearly that honor killing is not isolated to rural areas but also to urban areas and as already pointed out. if not physically. dressing in a manner unacceptable to the family or community. there are various reasons why people or family members decide to kill the daughter in the name of preserving their family honour. According to them. The truth is that it is spread over such a large geographical area that we cannot isolate honor killings to rural areas only. The first misconception about honor killing is that this is a practice that is limited to the rural areas. But it has also been seen recently that even the metropolitan cities like Delhi and Tamil Nadu are not safe from this crime because 5 honor killings were reported from Delhi and in Tamil Nadu. We have had a tradition of honour killing. wanting to terminate or prevent an arranged marriage or desiring to marry by own choice. There are various misconceptions regarding the practice of honor killing. and d. but never an . b. c. Honour killing is different from the dowry deaths that are also a very common practice in India as. Hence the fear of losing their caste status through which they gain many benefits makes them commit this heinous crime. that is death. engaging in heterosexual sexual acts outside marriage. engaging in homosexual acts. it would bring disrepute to the family honour and hence they decide to give the ultimate sentence. though one has to admit that majority of the killings take place in the rural areas.
During the Partition. we mean to say that parents should accept their children’s wishes regarding marriage as it is they who have to lead a life with their life partners and if they are not satisfied with their life partner then they will lead a horrible married life which might even end in suicide. Honour killing is different from the dowry deaths that are also a very common practice in India as. In that case there is a lot of harassment from the in-laws and more times than one. we can clearly see that there is no religious backing or religious roots for this heinous crime. The latest case of honour killing was reported from New Friends Colony. though it has to be said that she has been mentally killed. Humans do not have the right to write down death sentences of innocent fellow humans. And then there was a search to hunt down these women who were forced to marry a person from another country and another religion and when they returned „home‟ they were killed so that the family honor could be preserved and they were not declared social outcastes from their region. the mentality of the people has to change. We have had a tradition of honour killing. after they found 28 yr old Hari from Jalandhar and Vimla in a compromising position in an under-construction building. Secondly. if not physically. Honour killing is defined as a death that is awarded to a woman of the family for marrying against the parent‟s wishes.individual vigilante. where a couple was murdered by the father of the girl. marrying within the same gotra or outside one‟s caste or marrying a cousin from a different caste. and a guard named Robin. in the case of dowry deaths. Also whether the Hindu Marriage Act should be reformed or not is being debated. Vimla (20). So. And when we say that the mentality has to change. the influence of religion and social control was much greater and hence . there has been a spate of honor killings in the country and this has led the government to decide what laws should be put in place to stop this heinous crime. having extramarital and premarital relationships. What can we do to prevent such a thing from happening? Firstly. there were a lot of forced marriages which were causing women from India to marry men from Pakistan and vice-versa. At that time. we need to have stricter laws to tackle these kinds of killings as this is a crime which cannot be pardoned because. the perpetrators of that action claim that they have not been given enough material rewards for accepting the woman into the family. it has been noted that the wife commits suicide rather than being killed by the in-laws. So what is the definition of honour killing and what leads families to commit this heinous crime so that they can protect their family honour? Is this practice prevalent only in India or is it prevalent in other parts of the world also? What are the misconceptions regarding honour killing and what are the solutions to stop this crime from spreading? These are the questions that this article seeks to find an answer to. Recently. This tradition was first viewed in its most horrible form during the Partition of the country in between the years 1947 and 1950 when many women were forcefully killed so that family honour could be preserved.
The truth is that it is spread over such a large geographical area that we cannot isolate honor killings to rural areas only. but never an individual vigilante. Now as has become the norm. a daughter and son in law were killed due to marriage into the same gotra. it has a very wide geographical spread. This is a practice that continues to be prevailing in North and South America. that is death. it would bring disrepute to the family honour and hence they decide to give the ultimate sentence. Turkey and many other countries. . Sociologists believe that the reason why honour killings continue to take place is because of the continued rigidity of the caste system. But it has also been seen recently that even the metropolitan cities like Delhi and Tamil Nadu are not safe from this crime because 5 honor killings were reported from Delhi and in Tamil Nadu. Humans do not have the right to write down death sentences of innocent fellow humans. It‟s worth mentioning here that Honor Killing is not specifically related to India only. is because of the fact that the caste system continues to be at its rigid best and also because people from the rural areas refuse to change their attitude to marriage. if not more. at a much faster and almost daily basis. And when we say that the mentality has to change. albeit. The root of the cause for the increase in the number of honour killings is because the formal governance has not been able to reach the rural areas and as a result. we mean to say that parents should accept their children‟s wishes regarding marriage as it is they who have to lead a life with their life partners and if they are not satisfied with their life partner then they will lead a horrible married life which might even end in suicide. Thus. The first misconception about honor killing is that this is a practice that is limited to the rural areas. The second misconception regarding honor killing is that it has religious roots. this practices continues though it should have been removed by now. the mentality of the people has to change. So it can be seen clearly that honor killing is not isolated to rural areas but also to urban areas and as already pointed out. There are various misconceptions regarding the practice of honor killing. Africa. According to them. So. Hence the fear of losing their caste status through which they gain many benefits makes them commit this heinous crime. though one has to admit that majority of the killings take place in the rural areas. Secondly. there have to be four male witnesses with good behavior and reputation to validate the charge. The most obvious reason for this practice to continue in India. Furthermore only the State can carry out judicial punishments. we need to have stricter laws to tackle these kinds of killings as this is a crime which cannot be pardoned because. to the daughter. there are various reasons why people or family members decide to kill the daughter in the name of preserving their family honour. Now. if any daughter dares to disobey her parents on the issue of marriage and decides to marry a man of her wishes but from another gotra or outside her caste.there were at least a couple of honour killings a day. the son-in-law is killed as well. But the thing that has to be kept in mind is that the number of incidents relating to this crime is very low and there is a very strict punishment for committing this crime in other countries. The partition years can be seen to be the beginning of the tradition of honour killing on a large scale. The other reason why honour killings are taking place is because the mentality of people has not changed and they just cannot accept that marriages can take place in the same gotra or outside one‟s caste. we can clearly see that there is no religious backing or religious roots for this heinous crime. What can we do to prevent such a thing from happening? Firstly. Even if a woman commits adultery.
youthkiawaaz.99 .Read more at http://www.com/2010/07/honour-killing-in-india-an-in-depthstudy/#R54yiwIuQL74OyrW.