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Compilation of Notes of MTE3112

By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)


MTE3112 ASSESSMENT PRACTICES IN
MATHEMATICS

TOPIC 1: TESTING AND EVALUATION

Definition
A
s
s
e
s
s
m
e
n
t

/

T
e
s
t

A systematic way to measure changes in an
individual behaviour. (R.M. Gagne,1965)
Required pupils to show explicitly in the form
of activities
Measuring instrument: observation and
formal test (e.g.: exercise, quiz)
Always happened in the class during the
lesson and on-going process.
Aims:
o Determine pupils behavioural changes
o Determine pupils achievement in certain
lesson
o Place pupils in suitable group according
to result
o Motivate pupils to revise
o Train pupils make appropriate
preparation for public examination
M
e
a
s
u
r
e
m
e
n
t

A process or system used to determine the
quantitative value of a certain test in
learning. (Mok Soon Sang, 2004)
Expressed in a fixed unit of number (e.g.: %,
or Grade)
Covers all aspect of testing to determine the
position and achievement of pupils in class:
o Ordinal scale
measuring instrument to rank pupils
grade / position
Compare the rank of pupils in a class
Determine pupils performance and
achievement
o Interval scale
unit of mark with same weightage in
its value
Compare the grades between one
class to another
Compare the pupils achievement
among pupils of a number of classes.
Aims:
o Determine level of achievement and
pupils position in same / among several
classes.
o Compare pupils achievement and
position in certain subject / overall
academic achievement
o Allocate pupils for appropriate streaming
o Make analysis, interpretation and
conclusion for certain research based on
result measurement
o Award certificate in certain school level.
E
v
a
l
u
a
t
i
o
n

A process to determine, obtain and provide
useful information so as to make objective
consideration for follow-up action. (Dr.
Shufflebeam, 1971)
In education a system or process which
cover activities to collect information relating
to strategy of T&L activity and to make
analysis and interpretation of result, with the
aim to take appropriate follow-up action.
5 stages of evaluation:
o Test preparation
o Test implementation
o Assessment and measurement
o Analysis of result
o Interpretation and follow-up action
Aims:
o Collect information concerning pupils
achievement after T&L activities, so as to
interpret and take appropriate action
o Determine pupils strength and
weaknesses in T&L certain skill so as to
plan for enrichment and remedial
activities.
o Determine the effect of teachers
presentation in class so as to plan for a
more effective T&L strategy
o To determine the achievement of pre-
determined learning objective so as to
plan for T&L activities that follow.
o Record the evaluation result in the
individuals Performance and Profile
Record
o Assess the effectiveness of implementing
a certain new programme (e.g.: KBSR)

Relationship among Test, Measurement and Evaluation

Assessment / test refer to the collection of data to
describe or better understand an issue.
Measurement is the process of quantifying
assessment data.
Evaluation refers to the comparison of assessment
data that measured to a standard for the purpose of
judging worth or quality.
Evaluation
Measurement
Assessment /
Test


Compilation of Notes of MTE3112
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
Evaluation in KBSR
Roles:


Types of Evaluation in KBSR
o Evaluation to ascertain the effect in:



Assessment Design

Principles of Assessment


Planning a Assessment / Test






Improve pupils' learning by modifying the T&L
activities based on the result obtain in School-based
Evaluation
Understand clearly the pupils' leraning strength and
weaknesses so that appropriate follow-up activities
can be carried
Stimulate pupils to improve leraning through
teacher's guidance
Prepare pupils to acomodate themselves in testing
situation through contonuous evaluation
To raise standard of evaluation by constructiong
high quality test items
Improve teacher ability and efficiency in conducting
test and T&L activity
Conducted in class during lesson
Find out weakness and correct it on the
spot
Informal evaluation
Skill mastering
Carried after complete several related skills
in class
To understand pupils' progress in certain
learning skills
To determine the goup of pupils which
need enrichment or remediation
Can be formal or informal evaluation
Result recorded to Pupils' Performance
Record
Learning process
Carried out after teacher has taught a few
learning topics
Usually held before the end of a school
term
To differentiate pupils' achievement after a
few learning topics
Carried out in formal way
Acheivement
Determine the reasons why you are
assessing the students
Design an assessment that will fulfil your
needs
The purpose of the assessment
and task fluffiness
Ensure assessment is both valid - in that it
tests a relevant skill or ability
Reliable - in that the same result would be
achieved if assessment repeated later.
The validity and reliability of the
assessment
To compare the candidates abilities with a
common measure objective criteria or
candidates performance
The referencing of the assessment
Consider the difficulty level of the items
Consider how well the assessment
differentiates between the candidates - to
provide maximum information the assessment
The construction quality of
assessment items
Grades awarded are very concise summaries
of students abilities.
Should be clear and easily understood
The grading of the assessment
1. Determine aim of testing
2. Determine test content
3. Formulate test blueprint
4. Construct items / questions
5. Check items / question


Compilation of Notes of MTE3112
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
Principles of Item Construction
When constructing items, the teacher should put
himself in pupils shoes.
The question that can help teacher construct the
items:
o How these items are understood by students
which have various levels of ability?
o Is there any clue of the answer in the item to help
pupils?
o Is there any ambiguity?
o Is the item was too easy or not?
o Is the item related to the important knowledge
and skills?
o Is the item was too long or too short?
o Is there any relationship between item and the
objective of the subject?

Types of Items Construct
Objective Items
o Multiple Choice Question

o Multiple Completion Question


Subjective Items
o Structural objective / Short Answer Question

o True / False Question





o Matching Items

o Mechanical Problem (Calculation Question)

o Problem Solving Question


Solo / Bloom Taxonomy
Solo Taxonomy
o SOLO taxonomy stands for:
Structure of
Observed
Learning
Outcomes
o Developed by Biggs and Collis (1982), and is
well described in Biggs and Tang (2007).
o Describes level of increasing complexity in a
student's understanding of a subject through five
stages.
o It is claimed to be applicable to any subject area.



What is the sum of 403 and 607?
A. 100
B. 1000
C. 1010
D. 1100
Which statements are TRUE?
I. A cube has 6 faces
II. All cuboid must contain 6 rectangular
faces
III. Cube and cuboid are three
dimensional objects
IV. A tower is a type of cuboid

A. I, II and III
B. I, II and IV
C. I, III and IV
D. II, III and IV
What is product of 3 and 8?
Answer: _____________________________
(a) 100 + 23 = 123 True False
(a) 110 20 = 80 True False
45 + 86
193 - 80
25 x 5
981 9
109
113
131
125
Calculate 25% from RM 264.00

Answer: __________
The price of an exercise book is RM 0.50.
Ahmad bought 7 exercise books from the
bookstore. How much Ahmad need to pay?

Answer: __________


Compilation of Notes of MTE3112
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
Level of Understanding
Phrase of
Learning
Pre-structural
No understanding demonstrated
Quantitative
Phase
The amount of
detail in the
students
response
increase

Uni-structural
Concrete, minimalistic
understanding of an area.
Focuses on one conceptual
issue in a complex case.
Multi-structural
Indicates understanding of
boundaries but not of systems.
Understanding of several
components but the
understanding of each is
discreet.
Disorganised collection of ideas
or concepts around an issue.
Has not been able to relate the
items in the list.
Relational
Indicate orchestration between
facts and theory, action and
purpose.
Understanding of several
components which are
integrated conceptually. Can
apply the concept to familiar
problems or work situations
Qualitative
Phase
The detail in the
response
becomes
integrated into a
structural pattern
Extended Abstract
Student conceptualizes at a
level extending beyond what
has been dealt with in the actual
teaching.
Can generalize to a new area.


















Bloom Taxonomy


Level Description
K
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e

o Recall data or information.
o Key Words: defines, describes, identifies,
knows, labels, lists, matches, names,
outlines, recalls, recognizes, reproduces,
selects, states.
o Questions like: What are the health benefits
of eating apples?
C
o
m
p
r
e
h
e
n
s
i
o
n

o Understand the meaning, translation,
interpolation, and interpretation of
instructions and problems. State a problem
in one's own words.
o Key Words: classify, describe, discuss,
explain, express, identify, indicate, locate,
recognize report, restate, review, select, and
translate.
o Questions like: Compare the health benefits
of eating apples vs. oranges.
A
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n

o Using new knowledge. Solve problems to
new situations by applying acquired
knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a
different way.
o Key Words: apply, choose, demonstrate,
dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret,
operate, practice, schedule, sketch, solve,
use, and write.
o Questions like: Which kinds of apples are
best for baking a pie, and why?


Compilation of Notes of MTE3112
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
A
n
a
l
y
s
i
s

o Examine and break information into parts by
identifying motives or causes.
o Make inferences and find evidence to
support generalizations Analysis of
elements
o Analysis of relationships / organizational
principles
o Key Words: analyzes, breaks down,
compares, contrasts, diagrams,
deconstructs, differentiates, discriminates,
distinguishes, identifies, illustrates, infers,
outlines, relates, selects, separates.
o Questions like: List four ways of serving
foods made with apples and explain which
ones have the highest health benefits.
Provide references to support your
statements.
S
y
n
t
h
e
s
i
s

o Refers to the ability to put parts together to
form a new whole.
o Involve the production of a unique
communication (theme or speech), a plan of
operations (research proposal), or a set of
abstract relations (scheme for classifying
information).
o Learning outcomes in this area stress
creative behaviours, with major emphasis on
the formulation of new patterns or
structures.
o Key Words: arrange, assemble, collect,
compose, construct, create, design,
develop, formulate, manage, organize, plan,
prepare, propose, set up, and write.
o Questions like: Convert an "unhealthy"
recipe for apple pie to a "healthy" recipe by
replacing your choice of ingredients. Explain
the health benefits of using the ingredients
you chose vs. the original ones.
E
v
a
l
u
a
t
i
o
n

o Make judgments about the value of ideas or
materials.
o Key Words: appraises, compares,
concludes, contrasts, criticizes, critiques,
defends, describes, discriminates,
evaluates, explains, interprets, justifies,
relates, summarizes, supports.
o Questions like: Do you feel that serving
apple pie for an after school snack for
children is healthy? Why or why not?







Curriculum Specification and Planning of Test (Test
Blue Print)
Also known as Test Specification Table (Jadual
Spesifikasi Ujian - JSU)
Purpose of preparing Test Blueprint
o To guide for teacher to construct questions follow
accurately to test blueprint
o To ensure the appropriate weightage for various
topics and their skills level reflect accurately the
pupils overall ability.
Important elements:
o Topics / skills
Refer to curriculum specification
o Skill level
Follow the Bloom Taxonomy level (6 levels)
For diagnostic test simply use 3 levels easy,
moderate and hard
o Number of items of according topic and skill level


Example of Test Specification Table for Diagnostic Test
for Year 4 Pupils in Topic of Length









Compilation of Notes of MTE3112
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
School Based and Classroom Assessment

Formative and Summative Assessment
Aspects Formative Summative
Concept
A type of formal and
informal test to
assess the
effectiveness of skill
mastering and
progress of learning
in class.
A type of formal test
to access pupils
achievement in
certain schooling
level
Aim
To ascertain the
effectiveness of skill
mastering and
pupils progress
To correct
weaknesses
immediately in class
To determine pupils
achievement based
on a few learning
units and arrange
their grades level
accordingly
Activity
To carry out formal
or informal test
individually, in group
or in class during
learning
To use a few period
to carry out formal
test in class or year
(cohort)
Time
To carry out after
teaching one or
several skills
To carry out after
teaching a few
learning units
Format
Informal
observation /
questioning and
discussion
Formal paper &
pencil test in short
time
Formal paper &
pencil / oral test
within suitable
period
Target
Individually, groups
or whole class
The whole class or
year (cohort)
Coverage
Cover certain skill
(informal) or a few
skill (formal)
Cover a few learning
units or certain
schooling level
Record
No record (informal)
and the use of check
list / performance
record (formal)
Profile record /
certificate
Follow
Up
Action
Correct
weakness
immediately /
carry out
remediation /
enrichment
Replacing pupils
in suitable
learning group
Place pupils in
suitable group /
class
Plan and modify
lesson /
curriculum /
panels plan
Award certificate
based on
achievement in
examination

Alternative Assessment
An ongoing process involving the student and
teacher in making judgments about the students
progress using non-conventional strategies.
(Hancock,1994/1)
Form of alternative assessment:
o Portfolios
o Scrap book
o Rubrics & checklists (criterion-reference)
o Anecdotal records teacher, or person who is
observing, writes down their observations of the
student providing a record of student growth,
strengths and needs.
o Oral performances
o Projects
o Performance tasks
Reason / Purposes:


Formal and Informal Evaluation
Formal Informal
Formal assessments
have data which
support the
conclusions made from
the test (standardized
measures)
Informal assessments
are not data driven but
rather content and
performance driven.
Standardized
measures
Non-standardized
measures
Pupils will be assessed
and graded according
to standardized grade
Pupil will be assessed
according rubric scores
Pupils achievement
written in % or grade
(standard score)
Pupils achievement
written in score (such
10/15 in non-standard
score)
Students are able to display knowledge in many
different ways.
Students who are not skilled test takers will be able to
succeed in showing their abilities and therefore build
self-esteem.
Alternative Assessment methods do not interrupt
class time as do traditional tests, but instead are
measurements of day to day growth.
Gives ongoing information on strengths and
weaknesses of each student providing the teacher
opportunity to work within those.
Not tied to a specific culture or language, but rather,
is free from prejudice and unfair assumptions.
Directly connected with the curriculum and therefore
provides a direct reflection of what is being taught


Compilation of Notes of MTE3112
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
Assess overall
achievement, to
compare a student's
performance with
others
Assess criterion
referenced measures
or performance based
measures
More to quantitative
measurement
More to qualitative
measurement
Written test, oral test,
examination,
coursework, monthly
test
Questioning and
discussion,
observation, self-
assessment test,
homework, in class
exercise

Norm-referenced and Criterion-referenced Evaluation
Aspects Norm-referenced Criterion-referenced
Concept
Relative-achievement
evaluation (shows
performance of group
of candidates in form
of normal graph)
Objective-referenced
evaluation
(determine individual
achievement based
on minimum criterion
fixed earlier
Aim
To compare and
distinguish
performance between
candidates / group
To determine ability
to master learning
based on the certain
fixed criterion
Uses
Summative test to
distinguish candidates
in performance level
of distinction, credit,
pass and fail
Formative test to
improve T&L based
on the test result
Target
Comparison of
performance among
candidates
Determination of
performance
individually or in
small group
Question
Charac-
teristic
Arranged from easy to
hard, and with
discrimination among
candidates
Have almost the
same level of
difficulty based on
learning objective
Grading
Passing mark /
grading is determined
after the test result
Passing mark /
grading is
determined before
the test is carried out
Coverage
Wide range of
learning skills
Limited learning
skills
Example
Public examination as
UPSR, PMR & SPM
Oral test, MUET,
Coursework, written
exercise




Norm-referenced Evaluation
o Obtained normal graph from candidates score


Interpretation of Assessment

Item Analysis and Interpretation of Items
Difficulty Index
o Used in general to ascertain the degree of
difficulty of a certain item or question set whether
it is too difficult, average or too easy.
o Formulae for n < 30:

o Formulae for n 30:


o Interpretation
D. I. Interpretation Decision
D. I. < . 3 Too Difficult Modify
. 3 D. I. . 8 Average Accept
D. I. > . 8 Too Easy Modify







iiculty InJcx, . I
=
Numbcr o conJiJotcs onswcr corrcctly ( C)
Iotol conJiJotcs ottcmpt tc itcm/ oucstion ( I)


iiculty InJcx, . I =
C
H
+ C
L
I
H+L

Whereas:
C
H
- Total number of candidates in the high-
score group who answer correctly the items
or questions
C
L
- Total number of candidates in the low-
score group who answer correctly the items
or questions
I
H+L
- Total number of candidates in both groups
with high and low score



Compilation of Notes of MTE3112
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
Discrimination Index
o Function to differentiate candidates between
high-score and low-score group
o Determine whether a certain item or question is
suitable and can be used for a test
o Formulae:


o Interpretation
Dx. I. Interpretation Decision
Dx. I. > . 4 Positive
Discrimination
High
Very suitable
and can be
accepted
. 2 < Dx. I.
. 4
Positive
Discrimination
Moderate
Modify the
item / question
Dx. I.
. 2
Positive
Discrimination
Low
Item / question
needs to be
reconstructed
Dx. I. < Negative
Discrimination
Performance of
low-score group
is better than
high-score group
Item / question
is bad and
should be
removed
















Evaluation of Reports and Reporting
Stages of evaluation reporting:

Data collection
o Collect the marks of pupils after the test.
o Commonly represent in the form of table

Measurement of mean, mode, median and standard
deviation
o Mean the standard average of the set of data /
arithmetic average of a set of values, or
distribution
Ungrouped data

Ungrouped data in frequency table

Grouped data

o Mode
Ungrouped data

Ungrouped data in frequency table


Data
collection
Measure-
ment of
mean,
mode,
median
and
standard
deviation
Data
represen-
tative and
analysis
Interpre-
tation
based on
analyzed
data
iscriminotion InJcx ( s. I. ) =
C
H
C
L
1
2
I
H+L

Whereas:
C
H
- Total number of candidates in the high-
score group who answer correctly the items
or questions
C
L
- Total number of candidates in the low-
score group who answer correctly the items
or questions
I
H+L
- Total number of candidates in both groups
with high and low score

Hcon, x =
x
n

Whereas:
x - Sum of all score
n - Number of score
Hcon, x =
x


Whereas:
x - The score
- Frequency
Hcon, x =
x


Whereas:
x - The class midpoint
- Frequency
The value / score t hat repeat ed t he most
number of t ime in a set of dat a
The value / score t hat has highest frequency
on t he frequency t able


Compilation of Notes of MTE3112
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
Grouped data

o Median the centre / mid value / score of a set of
data
Ungrouped data data arranged in ascending
or descending order

Ungrouped data in frequency table

Grouped data

o Standard deviation
Ungrouped data

Ungrouped data in frequency table

Grouped data


Representative of data
o Frequency table

o Histogram

o Frequency polygon

HoJc = I + |

1

1
+
2
1 c
Can be obt ained from t he highest bar of
hist ogram


Or formulae:
Whereas:
I - Lower class boundary of modal class

1
- Frequency of modal class frequency
of before modal class

2
- Frequency of modal class frequency
of aft er modal class
c - Size of median class
= upper boundary lower boundary
HcJion, m = In+1
2

In+1
2
=
( n + 1)
2
t obscr:otion
Whereas:
n - Number of score
HcJion, m = In+1
2

In+1
2
=
( n + 1)
2
t obscr:otion
Whereas:
n - Number of score
HcJion, m = I
m
+ |
n
2
F

m
c
Whereas:
I
m
- Lower boundary of median class
n - Sum of frequencies
F - Cumulat ive frequency immediat ely
before t he median class

m
- Frequency of median class
c - Size of median class
= upper boundary lower boundary

StJ, o =

x
2
n
( x )
2

Whereas:
x
2
- Sum of all score square
StJ, o =
x
2

( x )
2

Whereas:
x
2
- Sum of all frequency x score square

StJ, o =
x
2

( x )
2

Whereas:
x
2
- Sum of all frequency x class midpoint



Compilation of Notes of MTE3112
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
o Cumulative frequency table

o Ogive

o Frequency curve


Interpretation of statistical data frequency curve
o Normal curve

Symmetric and has no skew
Pupils scores are balance
Question is effective and acceptable
Question constructed can discriminate the
level of weak, moderate and good pupils
The data can represent the level of pupils.
mcon = mcJion = moJc

o Positive-skewed curve

The tail is on right of the curve
Many pupils get low score since cannot
answer the question given
The question constructed is too difficult
The question constructed cannot discriminate
well the level of pupils
The data cannot represent the level of pupils
accurately.
The question need to be modified
moJc mcJion mcon

o Negative-skewed curve

The tail is on the left of the curve
Many pupils get high score since can answer
the question easily
The question constructed is too easy
The question constructed cannot discriminate
well the level of pupils
The data cannot represent the level of pupils
accurately.
The question need to be modified
mcon mcJion moJc

o Bimodal

The curve has two modes.
It is a mixture of two normal distributions with
the same standard deviation but different
means.
The frequency of average score is lower than
lower and high score
The frequency of lower score almost same /
same with the frequency of high score.


Compilation of Notes of MTE3112
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
Recording Progress and Monitoring of Students
Achievement
Progress Record
o Usually a checklist
o Used to assess and trace the pupils progress in
certain topic of Mathematics lesson
o Aims:
Identify pupils for enrichment and remediation
o Contains:
Skills taught
Pupils name (alphabetically order)
Note / follow up actions
o E.g.:
Progress Record
Class : 2 Amanah
Topics : Unit 8 Length
Skills : 8.1 Use Vocabulary related to Length
8.2a Compare the length of objects by direct comparison
8.2b Measure the length of objects using uniform non-
standard unit
8.3 Measure the length of objects using standard unit
No Name
Skills Notes /
follow up
actions
8.1 8.2a 8.2b 8.3
1 Adam Aiman bin Mansor / / / / E
2 Afiq Fahmi bin Azli / / / / E
3 Azim Faizudin bin Ali / x x x R
4 Imran Fadli bin Rosman / / / / E
5 Irfan Danial bin A.Karim x x x x R
6 Aina Syafiqa binti Hashim / / x x R
7 Nur Hani binti Mohd Azmi x x x x R
8 Hanan Sufiyah binti Mohd / / / / E
9 Liyana Safiah binti Ahmad x / x x R
10 Madihah binti Zulkifle / / / / E
Notes:
E Enrichment
R Remediation

Performance Record
o Record the pupils result in a certain formative or
summative result.
o The result can be used to determine the pupils
level of performance.
o Record the marks and grade achieved by the
pupils.
o Usually prepared and kept by teacher in teaching
record book.
o Contains:
The test name (monthly / term)
Pupils name (alphabetically order)
Marks
Grade
Analysis of achievement according to grade



o E.g.:


Assessment Administration

Test Administration
Three main stages:

Checking number of
test question paper
Arrangement of the
candidates' seating
according to
examination rules and
confortable
Facilities needed : wall
clock, candidates
checklist name,
additional answer
paper, etc.
Preparation
Ensure the candidates
enter the room early,
10-15 minutes before
examination start
Ensure pupils sit
according to their seat
Give instruction clearly
Observe pupils during
the test
Remind the time left so
as the aware about it
Implemen-
tation
Collect the pupils
answer and ensure they
write their particular
Ensure all pass up the
answer sheet
The answers script need
to bundle up and safely
handed to examiners
Coordination


Compilation of Notes of MTE3112
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
Test moderation
The process of eliminating or lessening extremes
To ensure normality throughout the medium on
which it is being conducted
Normally occur in public examination such UPSR,
PMR and SPM.
Rarely happened in school since the examiners of
the answer script is the subject teacher that marks
all the pupils answer of his class. But some teacher
still discuss with other teacher about the way giving
the marks. (can be considered as informal
moderation)
Purposes of test moderation:
o To standardize the marks given by the different
examiners that marks the same paper.
o To decide the grade range of pass, credit,
average, good and excellent.
o To balance up the number of candidates achieve
high, moderate and low scores close to the
normal distribution curve.

Marking scheme
A set of crit eria used in marking t he candidat es
answer paper t hat be st andardized.
The purposes:
o To decide the minimum answer that pupils need
to write as to get a mark.
o To guide the examiners on how to marks the
candidates answer script.
o As the main reference on how to marks.
o To avoid the biased feeling among examiners by
prepared a guide for them.
o Help to reduce the influence of subjective
elements while examiners marking the script.
3 important criteria in marking scheme for
subjective:




Test Characteristics
Validity
o Refer to what level the test is able to measure
what it is supposed to measure
o Also can be said as tests for determining whether
the test is measuring the concept / skills that the
teacher thinks is being measured
o Can be classified into several categories:
Face validity

Content / curriculum validity

Criterion-related validity




covers the informations aspects / related fact
of answer
show the understanding and mastering of the
concept / skills in mathematics
Content criterion
covers the aspect of accurate usage of
language / skills of represent ideas logically
and maturely
Organization criterion
covers the technique aspect of accuracy,
suitability, perfectness, cinsistency, originality
and creativity in candidates' answer
Process criterion
Refer t o t est as if it perceived as
assessing what it is supposed t o t est ,
checked by t eacher t hat const ruct ed t he
quest ion on his specialized.
The format and present at ion of t est
paper also can be considered as face
validit y
The quest ion const ruct ed need t o fulfill
t he aims and skills level t hat have been
det ermined.
Test blueprint prepared wit h specific skills
and weight age of t he skills t o be t est ed
Ensure t he pupils already learn t he skills
t hat will be t est ed
The const ruct ion of it ems is following t he
t est blue print accurat ely
Used t o compare scores on a cert ain
assessment wit h value from ext ernal
crit erion
Predictive validity
Refer to criterion evaluated
Relates to the ability to predict the
capability or qualification of an
individual in carrying out certain
duty / work in the future
E.g.: The SPM trial result can be
used (valid) to apply the ESU
Forecast Universiti Teknologi
Petronas Engineering Programme
Concurrent validity
Refer to individual achievement in
a test which highly correlated with
previous similar test.
Determined by conducting a similar
test so as to correlate with result of
a previous test.


Compilation of Notes of MTE3112
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
Construct validity


Reliability
o Refer to the degree to which a measurement
procedure produces similar outcomes when it is
repeated.
o When designing an assessment, need to consider
whether the results achieved will be consistent.
o Several different ways of measuring reliability:
Test-retest reliability

Parallel forms reliability

Internal consistency




Objectivity
o Refer to the accuracy of an examiner in marking
any candidates answer.
o Examiners need to give same marks of the same
answer of candidates according to marking
scheme
o Closed-ended question has highest objectivity
rather than open-ended question.
o To improve the marking for open-ended question,
the analytical marking scheme and moderation.
Administrability
o Refer to the smooth implementation of the testing
process in room / examination room.
o The whole process of conducting the test from
beginning stage of preparing the question papers
until the ending stage of marking the candidates
answer script can be carried out smoothly.
Assessibility
o Refer to the result of the candidates
achievement which can easily interpret and
assessed by the way providing clear and useful
information according to the objective of the test.
o This mean:
The result is easily collected and converted to
statistical form
Clear picture of interpretation that can guide
the analyser to make follow up action

Bank Items
Can be described as the databank that keeps all the
examination questions whether pre-existing or
constructed by teacher.
The past items / question were arranged in
systematic file to ensure it is easy to access the
items / question.




















Refer t o t he mat ching bet ween t he
assessment and t hose const ruct which
are presumed t o inspire t est performance
Should include all previous skills relat ed
t o t he assessment of t he const ruct s.
The correlation between candidates
attempts at the same test. (a candidate
attempt a same test more than one time)
The correlation between candidates
attempts at two tests which are supposed
to be identical. (Two test paper from a
same test blueprint answer by a
candidates)
Essentially is a pseudo-measure of
reliability. It actually is the correlations
between the test items.
Can be considered as an estimate of the
correlation between the test that was
actually delivered with other possible tests
that might have been constructed using
those items.


Compilation of Notes of MTE3112
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
TOPIC 2: MATHEMATICAL DIFFICULTIES AND
DIAGNOSTIC TEST

Diagnostic Test

Standard IQ Test
An Intelligence Quotient (IQ) indicates a person's
mental abilities relative to others of approximately
the same age.
Everyone has hundreds of specific mental abilities
some can be measured accurately and are reliable
predictors of academic and financial success.
Most IQ tests measure verbal, non-verbal, working
memory and processing speed abilities.
Intelligence tests also assess the following:
o Mathematical skills
o Verbal skills
o Spatial skills
o Pattern recognition
o Logical reasoning
o Short term memory
o General knowledge
o Classification skills
Purposes of IQ test:

Range of IQ test score:

IQ Range Classification
Above 145 Genius or near genius
130-145 Very superior
115-130 Superior
85-115 Normal
70-85 Dullness
Below 70 Borderline deficiency

Example of IQ test:


School Based Assessment (SBA)
SBA is the assessment of students progress which
occurs, on an on-going basis during the year, as an
important part of the students learning.
Purposes:
o Teachers give regular feedback to their students
to help them learn better.
o Enable develop students thought process and
their ability to solve problems.
o Enable the improvement of students personal
development and communicative ability.
With SBA, student assessment include:
o Students coursework-the school work they do in
the classroom and at home during the year
It yields specific information regarding areas
of cognitive strength and weakness.
Self-knowledge and growth
IQ tests help identifies situations in which the
overall ability is significantly higher than ability
in one specific area.
Identification of learning disabilities
Identification of above-average or gifted
intelligence. Knowing areas of significant
strength can help parents advocate for
advanced classes, specialized assignments
and a better appreciation of their child's
presentation in the classroom.
Identification of gifted children
Our abilities correspond with specific locations
in the brain, a decline in ability in certain
areas, compared with previous levels of
functioning, can help doctors locate and better
understand the nature of a cognitive problem.
Identification of illness or damage


Compilation of Notes of MTE3112
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
o Students personal development (their behavior
within the school, their development of personal
and social values and their participation in co-
curricular activities of the school).
Form of SBA:
o Project-based learning
o Oral presentations
o Group work
o External class activity
o Co-curricular activity
Student can be assessed on:
o Attendance in class and interest in learning
o Assessment (class wise)
o Assignments (individual/group)
o Behavior, values and honesty
o Presentation of speech
o Individual and group discussions
o Leadership qualities
o Discipline
o Participation in cultural activities
o Performance in sports and games
o Practical classes in science subjects

Classroom Assessment / Test
A series of tools and practices designed to give
teachers accurate information about the quality of
student learning.
Purposes:

Steps in the classroom assessment process:

Diagnostic Assessment and Administration

Definition of Diagnostic Test
An individually administered test designed to identify
the weakness and problem in the learning process.
The test is required to assess the current
mathematical ability of pupils.
Characteristic:


Implementation and Administration








Aimed at learning improvement, rather than at
assigning grades.
Give better understand your students' learning and so
to improve your teaching.
Help student become better monitors of their own
learning.
Help break down feelings of anonymity, especially in
larger courses.
Point out the need to alter study skills.
Provide concrete evidence that the teacher cares
about learning.
Check for student background
knowledge
Identify areas of confusion
Enable students to self-assess
their learning level
Determine students learning
styles
Target and build specific skills
Test is to analyse which skill that pupils have problem
to understand it.
Not covered on all the skills learn, only specific skills
that need to be analyse the problem.
Test is to observe the behavioural change in pupils
understanding on certain skills.
Every item in the diagnostic test is specifically
deciding the skill that need to be diagnose.
The level of item is easy and moderate, the hard level
is not recommended (<65% difficulty).
Conducted before any lesson or during the lesson.
Remediation activity needs to be planned to
overcome the pupils problem.
Marks of pupils in diagnostic test are record as
individual profile (Easily know the behavioural
change)
Decide the skills that need to be tested (in
more specific and unit skill)
Draft and prepare the blueprint of the
diagnostic
Items need to be constructed based on
blueprint built.
Decide its validity, reliability, objectivity,
administrability and assessibility
Decide how the items will be tested; test paper
or in-class exercise
Prepare record table for the pupils
achievement
Plan the suitable remediation activity


Compilation of Notes of MTE3112
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
Misconception and Mathematical Difficulties

Misconception
Misconceptions incomplete half-truths idea that
actively constructed by the from the children
everyday experiences.
Effects:
o It affect with learning when students use them to
interpret new experiences.
o Students are emotionally and intellectually
attached to their misconceptions, because they
have actively constructed them.
o Hence, students give up their misconceptions,
which can have such a harmful effect on
learning, only with great reluctance.

Newman Error Analysis









Reading
o Reading the problem question
o Recommend question:
Please read the question to me.
Read the question to me. If you dont
know a word tells me.
Comprehension
o Understand what the question ask
o Recommend question:
Tell me what the question is asking you
to do.
Transformation Skills
o Carrying out a transformation from the
words of the problem to the selection of an
appropriate mathematical strategy
o Recommend question:
Tell me a method you can use to find
and answer to the question.
Now tell me what method you used to
find the answer.
Process Skills
o Applying the process skills demanded by
the selected strategy
o Recommend question:
Show me how you worked out the
answer to the question. Explain to me
what you are doing as you do it.
Now go over each step of your working,
and tell me what you were thinking.
Encode
o Encoding the answer in an acceptable
written form
o Recommend question:
Now write down your answer to the
question.
Tell me, what is the answer to the
question? Point to your answer.
Carelessness
o When the pupils know redo the question for
second time and answer it correctly, the
pupils is said careless.

Motivation
o The motivation of pupils during answering
the question is something implicit to be
measured.



Compilation of Notes of MTE3112
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
TOPIC 3: SPECIAL NEEDS IN MATHEMATICS
EDUCATION

Effective Teaching Skills for Special Needs

Teaching and Learning Strategies for Special Education
Needs
Classroom management

Time management and transitions

Presentation of materials

Assessment, grading and testing

Behaviour


Enrichment Activities
A learning activity which is interesting, challenging
and provide opportunities for students to develop
and support curious properties, self-reliance, critical
and creativity thinking skills.
Carried out after the students master basic skills to
enriching their mathematical skills.
Usually the task given is more challenging and out
of ordinary thinking in the class.
Purposes:
o Apply basic mathematical skills to solve problems
(complex and challenging)
o Developing trends and talent
o Nurturing interests
o Strengthen the concepts and skills
o Promoting self-reliance

Seat student in area free from distractions
Eliminate all unnecessary materials from student desk
to reduce distractions.
Keep an extra supply of pencils, pens, books and
paper in the classroom.
You may have to allow the student frequent breaks.
Have an agreed upon cue for student to leave the
classroom.
Reduce visual distractions in the classroom.
Space short work periods with breaks
Provide additional time to complete
assignment.
Allow extra time for homework
completion.
Inform student with several reminders,
several minutes apart, before changing
from one activity to the next.
Reduce amount of work from usual
assignment.
Provide a specific place for turning in
assignments.
Modify expectations based on students needs.
Break assignments into segments of shorter tasks.
Provide a model of end product.
Provide written and verbal direction with visuals if
possible.
Number and sequence steps in a task.
Provide outlines, study guides, copies of overhead
notes.
Explain learning expectations to the student before
beginning a lesson.
Make sure you have the students attention before
beginning a lesson.
Limit the number of concepts presented at one time.
Provide incentives for beginning and completing
material.
Divide test into small sections.
Grade spelling separately from content.
Allow as much time as needed to
complete.
Avoid time test.
Change percentage of work required for
passing grade.
Permit retaking the test.
Provide monitored breaks from test.
Avoid confrontations and power struggles.
Provide an appropriate peer role model.
Modify rules that may discriminate against student
Develop a system or code that will let the student
know when behaviour is not appropriate.
Ignore attention seeking behaviours that are not
disruptive to the classroom.
Arrange a designated safe place that student can go
to.
Develop a code of conduct for the classroom and
visually display it in an appropriate place where all
students can see it, review it frequently.
Develop a behaviour intervention plan that is realistic
and easily applied.
Provide immediate reinforces and feedback.


Compilation of Notes of MTE3112
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)

Way to do enrichment activity:
Among students With teachers
o Suitable for moderate
or advance student
o Suitable for all
o Informal o Formal
o Teacher as facilitator o Teacher fully conduct
the activity
o Occur interaction
among students
o Occur interaction
among teacher and
students

Guide to select materials:
o Help pupils to do self-learning (individual / group)
o Links with the mathematical skills they have
learned
o Can help reinforce math skills
o Can broaden knowledge
o Interesting, challenging and relevant to the their
ability of interests and talents
o Suitable time allocation
Form of enrichment activity:
o Math games
o Puzzle
o Project
o Competition
o Experiments
o Worksheet
Steps to execute the enrichment activity

Example:


Remedial Activities
Remediation is a plan to help students with learning
difficulties in acquiring a skill by using alternatives
approach, teaching materials and activities.
Sign of students who have difficulties:
o Repeating the mistakes
o Always make error in calculation
o Unable to give an explanation when asked
o Have difficulty solving the problem solving
questions
o Showed a negative attitude
o Low achievement in test
Steps in remediation:

Factors of learning difficulties:
o Learning environment
o Students' lives and personal (family background)
o Lack of intelligence
o Physical factors











Enrichment
Horizontal enrichment
(based on ability of
students)
Vertical enrichment
(based on students'
interest and talent)
Teach the basic mathematics skills
Give instruction on how to do the activity
Give suitable time to student to finish up the
activity
Teacher monitor students work, help student
which face any problem
Evaluation of students' work
Apply the value, award for students that can
execute the activity well
Identify students with difficulty
(screening test)
Analyze the problem (diagnostic test)
Planning and execution of remedial activity
Evaluation from last activity
Follow up action


Compilation of Notes of MTE3112
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
Other Types of Learning Disabilities

Dyslexia
Meaning
o Learning disability that impairs a person's ability
to read,

and which can manifest itself as a
difficulty with phonological awareness,
phonological decoding, orthographic coding,
auditory short term memory and / or rapid
naming.
Symptoms
o Noticeable difference between the pupil's ability
and their actual achievement
o Family history of learning difficulties
o Difficulties with spelling
o Confusion over left and right
o Writing letters or numbers backwards
o Difficulties with mathematics
o Difficulties with organizing themselves
E.g.:


Dyspraxia
Meaning
o Difficulties with movement and coordination.
o It is also known as "motor learning disability".
o Somebody with dyspraxia finds it hard to carry
out smooth and coordinated movements.
Symptoms
o Early childhood
Many will have difficulties getting dressed.
Problems carrying out playground movements
(jumping, playing hopscotch, catching a ball,
kicking a ball, hopping, and skipping)
Problems with classroom movements, such
as using scissors, coloring, drawing, playing
jig-saw games.
Problems processing thoughts.
Difficulties with concentration (hard to focus
on one thing for long period)
o Pre-school
Finds it hard to keep friends
Hesitates in most actions, seems slow
Does not hold a pencil with a good grip
Such concepts as in, out, in front of are hard
to handle automatically

o Later on childhood
Tries to avoid sports and physical education
Learns well on a one-on-one basis, but
nowhere near as well in class with other kids
around
Reacts to all stimuli equally
Mathematics and writing are difficult
Spends a long time getting writing done
Does not follow instructions
Treatment
o Occupational therapy
Observe how the child manages with
everyday functions both at home and at
school.
Then help the child develop skills specific to
activities which may be troublesome.
o Speech and language therapy
Carry out an assessment of the child's speech
Then help him / her communicate more
effectively.
o Perceptual motor training
Involves improving the child's language,
visual, movement, and auditory skills.
A series of tasks, which gradually becoming
more advanced, are set - the aim is to
challenge the child so that he/she improves,
but not so much that it becomes frustrating or
stressful.

Dyscalculia
Meaning
o Specific learning disability or difficulty involving
inborn difficulty in learning or comprehending
mathematics (math disability).
o It is akin to dyslexia and can include confusion
about math symbols.
o Dyscalculia can also occur as the result of some
types of brain injury
Symptoms
o Confusing signs (+, -, /, *)
o Reversing and/or transposing numbers
o Reliance on counting strategies rather than
knowing
o Difficulty with mental arithmetic and
measurements
o Disability to grasp and remember math rules /
formulas
Treatment
o No therapy has been properly verified and
proven to be effective
o Anecdotal evidence also suggests dyscalculia
individuals might pursue such systems out of
need or interest.
o Software intended to remediate dyscalculia has
been developed.



Compilation of Notes of MTE3112
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
E.g.:


Dysphasia
Meaning
o A language disorder, where the person
experiences an impairment of power of speech,
writing or signs and of comprehension of spoken
or written language.
Symptoms
o Having difficulty in talking, understanding,
listening and writing on his language
o Difficulty in doing numeral calculations (writing)
and word problems in Math
o Difficulty in comprehension reading
comprehension,
o Difficulty in the usage of language abstractions
(verbal), semantic meaning, complex
grammatical structure and linguistic function
Treatment
o Speech therapy to improve their
communication.
o Talking slowly and repeating things
o Using gestures or drawings
o Avoiding noisy areas
o Need a lot of emotional support.



















TOPIC 4: APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY IN
ASSESSMENT

ICT in Assessment
The potential for the use of new technologies in
education was recognized from the earliest days of
interactive computing, and courseware (computer
based learning materials) usually includes some
self-assessment for formative purposes.
The examinations bodies can use only the simplest
forms of ICT based assessment (objective or
multiple choice tests) until learners are familiar with
newer styles.
Roles for ICT in assessment:
o Improve efficiency and effectiveness in
assessment
o Systematically manage the data of assessment
o Opportunities in association with new styles of
learning that using ICT
o Administrate the test with easy and speed way.



Item Construction

Item Construction
The usage of specific software can help teacher
build a good item.
o Word processing software
Teacher type the questions / item easily and
set up the margin and paging.
E.g.: Microsoft Office Word




ICT i n
Assessment
It ems
Const r uct i on
It ems
Anal ysi s


Compilation of Notes of MTE3112
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
o Mathematical diagram sketch software
Teacher can draft / sketch mathematical
diagram easily in this software.
E.g.: Geometers Sketchpad

o Data and Graphical sketch software
Teacher can key in data and produce the
graph easily.
E.g.: Microsoft Office Excel


Items Construction using Hot Potatoes
The Hot Potatoes is a web-based software suite that
includes six applications, enabling you to create
interactive multiple-choice, short-answer,
jumbled-sentence, crossword,
matching/ordering and gap-fill exercises for the
World Wide Web (online).

But it also can be used in offline mode.
Hot Potatoes is freeware, and you may use it for any
purpose or project you like. It is not open-source
(e.g: Linux, Mozilla Firefox).
Can be downloaded its homepage from:
http://hotpot.uvic.ca/
Applications in Hot Potatoes:

Jclose Create fill-in-the-blanks
exercise

Jquiz Create multiple-choices or
short-answer quiz


JCross Create a crossword
puzzle


Jmix Create a jumbled-sentence
exercise


Jmatch Create a matching
exercise

The Masher Build a sequence of
exercises into a complete indexed
unit


Item Analysis
Item analysis is the process for determining the
items that was built achieving a standard or a set
criterion.
Rasch Measurement Model (George Rasch, 1960):
o Assumptions: The probability of successful
candidates to answer an item is dependent on
the ability of the candidate and the difficulty of the
item.
o Calibration and item difficulty measure the ability
to place candidates on a linear scale.
o Feature allows the comparison is made between
the ability of the candidate and the difficulty of the
item.
o Items found to be suitable (fit) will be stored in
the Item Bank
o Rasch model is a mathematical formula based on
the following formula:

P = J ( h d)
where P = probability
= function
b = the ability candidates
J = difficulty of item
Unit for the difference (b - d) is in logits (the
probability of expression)


Compilation of Notes of MTE3112
By Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (IPG KDRI)
Item analysis software
o QUEST
o ConQUEST
o RUMM
o BigSteps
o WinSteps

Item Analysis using Quest
QUEST is item analysis software developed by the
Australian Centre for Educational Research (ACER)
from Australia.
Interface of Quest:


Advantages:
o Correcting item identify items such errors with
have no answer, two answers and wrong
answers
o Candidate diagnostic information items that are
difficult (not mastered), distractor that was
chosen (misconception) and identify students
with difficulty
o Improving the quality of testing and assessment
for building a better item and maintaining
documentation of the statistical assessment
instruments
Useful for the analysis of items:
o Objective test
o Subjective tests
o Rating scales
QUEST analysis gives:
o Item estimation
o Cases estimation
o Fit statistics in table form
Estimation is reported in units of Logits.
Fit statistics reported in the Mean Square Residuals.
To implement the estimation and output, QUEST
only need:
o Control files
o Data files

Analyze QUEST output:
o Please refer to appendix.













































Prepared by:
Cg M ohd Ri dzuan al -K i ndy
Mohd Ridzuan bin Mohd Taib
(Facebook - Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy)
http://jilmuallim.blogspot.com
PISMP Mathematics Semester 6
IPG Kampus Dato Razali Ismail.

Copyright 2010