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Table of Contents
Contents Synopsis Objectives User guide to the module Syllabus Content And Delivery Mode Unit 1 What is Science ? Unit 2 How Children Learn Science Brain-Based Learning Unit 3 Learning Theories For Primary Science Piagets Cognitive Developmental Theory Bruners Inductive Learning Theory Behaviorist Learning Theory Ausubels Deductive Learning Theory Gagnes Learning Theory Information-Processing Theory- Atkins & Shiffrin; Baddeleys Constructivist Approaches What do children need to help them learn through constructivism Unit 4 Misconception Understanding childrens ideas in science Assessing childrens ideas and misconceptions in science Page ii ii iii iv

Dealing with childrens misconceptions and conceptual change Topic and Time Allocation Topic/Subtopic - Note/Activitiy/Excercise References Panel of writers Synopsis This course provides knowledge about how children perceive science, the nature of science and how children learn science. It explores the role brain development and processing have in learning as well as the effects of developmental theory of Piaget and other learning theories such as Bruner, Behaviourist, Ausubel and Gagne on the learning of science. In addition, this course also explores how we can help children learn science more effectively by considering childrens prior ideas on science and nurturing their connection-making through constructivist principles of learning. Dealing with childrens misconceptions in science and helping them in conceptual change will also be explored by using the five themes in the primary school science curriculum as examples.

Kursus ini memberi pengetahuan tentang bagaimana kanak-kanak mengamati sains, bentuk sains dan bagaimana kanak-kanak mempelajari sains. Ia meneroki peranan perkembangan dan pemerosesan otak dalam pembelajaran dan juga kesan teori perkembangan Piaget dan teori pembelajaran seperti Bruner, Behavoris, Ausubel dan Gagne ke atas pembelajaran sains. Di samping itu, kursus ini juga akan meneroki bagaimana kita boleh membantu kanak-kanak pelajari sains dengan lebih berkesan dengan mengambil kira ide sedia ada kanak-kanak tentang sains dan memupuk pembinaan perkaitan ini melalui prinsip pembelajaran konstruktivist. Menghadapi miskonsepsi kanak-kanak dan membantu mereka ke perubahan konseptual juga diteroki dengan menggunakan sebagai contoh lima tema dalam kurikulum sains sekolah rendah. Objective 1. Explain how children view science and what is the nature of science. 2. Demonstrate a knowledge of basic concepts of childrens ideas in science, where do they come from and how they influence learning in

science. 3. Describe how developmental and learning theories have contributed to childrens learning in science. 4. Demonstrate a knowledge of constructivist approach to learning.

5. Identify childrens misconceptions in science.

6. Create stimulating constructivist learning in science to help children deal with their misconceptions. GUIDE TO USE THE MODULE



This learning module has been prepared to guide you in your studies and can be used as a reference material. The module uses a learning method that is based upon the Self-Managed Learning concept. The Self-Managed Learning concept brings along with it the implication that you are responsible for your studies. This means that you are responsible to manage your time, arrange your place of study and adapt the time for study in accordance with your other responsibilities. This concept gives you the freedom to study at your leisure and at your pace. 2.0 THE ROLE OF THE STUDENT

Your commitment and dedication in handling your self-learning responsibilities will bring success in your studies. Besides studying the materials in this module on your own, you are encouraged to look for further materials and seek guidance from other sources to complement this module or to obtain further understanding of the study materials. 3.0 THE CONTENT OF THE LEARNING MODULE

This module has been prepared to fulfill the requirements and the specifications of the training curriculum. Each module consists of several units of study, which is further divided into sub-topics that cover all the curriculum specifications. At the end of each unit of study there is formative evaluation consisting of questions and assignments. You are required to prepare the answers to the questions, which will be discussed in sessions with your lecturer or colleagues. You are also required to complete the assignments on your own effort based on the instructions given. You are reminded that these assignments have to be handed in to the lecturer or supervisor when you attend lectures / interactions at the college.

TOPIC AND TIME ALLOCATION Topic 1 Content What is science? How children perceive science The nature of science - scientific knowledge/content - science as a process - science attitude and noble values How children learn science The brains unique structure and the function it plays in learning Brain-based learning Understanding Childrens Development Piaget Developmental Theory Implication for teaching primary science Bruners Learning Theory Inductive learning Concept Learning Implication for teaching primary science Behaviorist Learning Theory Reinforcement Practice Shaping Observational learning Implication for teaching primary science Ausubels Learning Theory Deductive/expository learning Verbal learning using advance organizers Implication for teaching primary science Gagnes Learning Theory Mastery learning Hierarchical learning Hours

Implication for teaching primary science 8 Information-Processing Theory- Atkins & Shiffrin; Baddeleys Short term memory Long term memory Implication for teaching primary science Constructivism as the dominant contemporary perspective on science learning Concepts Characteristics of constructivist teaching Constructivist teaching roles The constructivist approaches Needhams model Generative model (Osborne) Interactive model (Faire and Cosgrove) What do children need to help them learn through constructivism Thinking Physical activity Language Socialisation Self-esteem Time Understanding childrens ideas in science Childrens prior ideas Childrens misconceptions in science How do childrens ideas influence learning Assessing childrens ideas and misconceptions in science Interview Questionnaire Observation Prediction Dealing with childrens misconceptions and conceptual change Themes from the primary school science curriculum - Learning about living things - Learning about the world around us Dealing with childrens misconceptions and conceptual change Themes from the primary school science curriculum - Material world - Earth and the universe







- The world of technology

UNIT 1.0

What is Science ?

Science is a broad-based human enterprise that is defined differently depending on the individuals who view it. The layperson might define science as a body of scientific information; the scientist might view it as of procedures by which hypotheses are tested; a philosopher might regards science as a way of questioning the truthfulness of what we know. All of these views are valid, but each presents just partial definition of science; only collectively do they begin to define the comprehensive nature of science. Science is an enterprise that has changed over the centuries. Further, it encompasses many fields, such as physics, chemistry, biology, and the geosciences, which sometimes employ different approaches to the study of reality. Lets examine what scientists attempt to do in their work to assist in arriving at a definition is implied in the following statement by Edward Teller (1991), an eminent nuclear physicist: A scientist has three responsibilities: one is to understand; two is to explain that understanding. A scientist should have no other limitations. A scientist isnt responsible for that which he has discovered.

Scientific Knowledge According to Chiappetta (1998), science can be thought of as the study of nature in an attempt to understand it and to create new knowledge that provides predictive power and application. Scientists strive to understand the phenomena that make up the universe-from the pulsating beats of our hearts to the migration of birds to the explosion of stars. Their aim is to describe the internal and the external structure of objects, the mechanism of forces, and the occurrence of events. They will use these understanding in predicting future events with great precision. Scientific Method There is no timeless and universal conception of science or scientific methods that can distinguish science from other forms of knowledge. However scientists who were involved in exploring the knowledge were introduced to scientific method in the sixteenth century in order to describe these aspects: identifying the problems, making hypothesis, predicting, experimenting, and constructing the theory on a particular event. What is Scientific Knowledge Nowadays? Science includes three main components: process, product, and attitudes. Actually science is a set of attitudes and a way of thinking on fact. (B.F Skinner). Science also is perceived as an inquiry process, observation, and reasoning about the natural world. (K.T.Compton). Scientist always carry-out an experiment and make an observation upon objects, actions, and the change of nature.

Science Main Component Science as a Process Learning science information is more important than to memorize the content of science Scientific skill is a basic tool in understanding science Process is emphasis on how the knowledge is gained. Using the empirical procedures and analyzing to describe the natural world It involves hands-on and mind-on experience It involves the formation of hypothesis, planning, experimenting, collecting data, and analyzing before making a conclusion.

Science as a Product Scientific idea/ a new discovery is a form of experimenting outcomes. Scientific product is based on the data and it depends on the theory and the concept involved Information and idea are called a product. Through investigating the product, scientists come up with a conclusion, concept, generalization, fact, law, principle, and theory.


Laws and Principles Concepts


A Fact is often thought of as truth and the state of things. Facts represent what we can perceive through our senses and they are usually regarded as reliable data. Often two criteria are used to identify a scientific fact: (1) it is directly observable and (2) it can be demonstrated at any time. A concept is an abstraction of events, objects, or phenomena that seem to have certain properties or attributes in common. Fish, for example, possess certain characteristics that set them apart from reptiles and mammals. According to Bruner, (1956), a concept has five important elements: (1) name, (2) definition, (3) attributes, (4) values, and (5) examples. Principles and Laws are also fall into the general category of a concept but in a broad manner. These higher order ideas are used to describe what exists through empirical basis. For example gas law and the law of motion. Theory. Science goes beyond the classification and description of phenomena to the level of explanation. Scientist use theories to explain patterns and forces that are hidden from direct observation. The theory of atom, which states that all matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms, many millions of which would required to cover the period at the end of this sentence. This is the example of hidden observation.

Science as an Attitude Science learning experiences can be used as a means to inculcate scientific attitudes and noble values in students. These attitudes and values encompass the following: Having an interest and curiosity towards the environment. Being honest and accurate in recording and validating data Being diligent and persevering Being responsible about the safety of oneself, others, and the environment. Realising that science is a mean to understand nature Appreciating and practicing clean and healthy living Appreciating the balance of nature Give your opinion on these: a) Physics is an interesting area of Being respectful and well-mannered study. I like more than any other Appreciating the contribution of science and technology taking. State why you subject I am agree and disagree with this Being thankful to God statement. Having analytical and critical thinking b) Chemistry is boring and useless
to me. Do you agree or disagree? c) State why you like or dislike performing an experiment in the physics laboratory?

Being flexible and open-minded Being kind-hearted and caring Being objective Being systematic Being cooperative Being fait and just Daring to try Thinking rationally Being confident and independent.

The inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values generally occurs through the following steps: Being aware of the importance and the need for scientific attitudes and noble values. Giving emphasis to these attitudes and values. Practising and internalizing these scientific attitudes and noble values.

When planning teaching and learning activities, teachers need to give due consideration to the above stages to ensure the continuous and effective inculcation of scientific attitudes and values. For example, during science practical work, the teacher should remind pupils and ensure that they carry out experiments in careful, cooperative and honest manner. Proper planning is required for effective inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values during science lessons. Before the first lesson related to a learning objective, teachers should examine all related learning outcomes and suggested teachinglearning activities that provide opportunities for the inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values. (Refer to lesson plan in Learning Strategies Topic) Thinking Skills Thinking skills can be categorized into critical thinking skills and creative thinking skills. A person who thinks critically always evaluates an idea in a systematic manner before accepting it. A person who thinks creatively has a high level of imagination, is able to generate original and innovative ideas, and modify ideas and products.(For detail refer to unit 3)
Outline a safety program that you would institute if you were the chairperson of a science department in your institution.

Scientist Code of Ethic Scientists make public their understanding through carefully prepared papers. Often their manuscript are presented at professional meetings and published in professional journals. In both instances, especially the latter, colleagues who make critical comments carefully review the work and suggestions also can be tested by additional observation and experimentations. Further, the work is open to scrutiny by colleagues in order to determine if ethical principles have been violated such as presenting erroneous data or taking credit for

discoveries that others have claimed. Science, Technology, and Society Just as science is not easy to define, neither is technology. The differences between science and technology are not clear-cut; science and technology are inherently intertwined. In general, science can be regarded as the enterprise that seeks to understand natural phenomena and to arrange these ideas into ordered knowledge, whereas technology involves the design of products and systems that affect the quality of life, using the knowledge of science where necessary. Technology on the other hand, is an applied enterprise concerned with developing, constructing, and applying ideas. Science is intimately related to technology and society. For instance, sciences produce knowledge that results in useful applications through devices and systems. We have evidence of this all around us, from microwave ovens to compact disc players to computers. Just as scientific knowledge impacts society, society impacts science. Most scientific work is funded through government grants and private business. The money is generally targeted for projects that study important societal problems, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and weapon systems. Todays research is carried out by team of scientists working cooperatively to solve societal problems.

Stop and reflect! Give some of the beneficial uses of technology and also the potential dangers about it?

EXERCISE Task 1 Malaysian government was taking steps in order to bring them in applying the technology for global competence. Could you list down the examples of steps concerned and give further explanation.

Task 2 List down the scientific processes that involved in investigating. What are the effects if the scientific processes are ignored?

Task 3 By referring to your syllabus give an examples of facts, concepts, principles and laws, and theories on some selected topics.

Task 4 By using the graphic organizer, compare and contrast between science and technology

Science encompasses many diverse ideas and has evolved over many thousands of years. Further, various aspects of science are viewed differently by scientists, philosophers, and historians. As science educators what is your view of the knowledge of science?

UNIT 2 : How Children Learn Science 2.1 The brains unique structure and the function it plays in learning Brain Structures and their Functions

Cerebrum Cerebellum Limbic System Brain Stem

The nervous system is your body's decision and communication center. The central nervous system (CNS) is made of the brain and the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is made of nerves. Together they control every part of your daily life, from breathing and blinking to helping you memorize facts for a test. Nerves reach from your brain to your face, ears, eyes, nose, and spinal cord... and from the spinal cord to the rest of your body. Sensory nerves gather information from the environment, send that info to the spinal cord, which then speed the message to the brain. The brain then makes sense of that message and fires off a response. Motor neurons deliver the instructions from the brain to the rest of your body. The spinal cord, made of a bundle of nerves running up and down the spine, is similar to a superhighway, speeding messages to and from the brain at every second. The brain is made of three main parts: the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. The

forebrain consists of the cerebrum, thalamus, and hypothalamus (part of the limbic system). The midbrain consists of the tectum and tegmentum. The hindbrain is made of the cerebellum, pons and medulla. Often the midbrain, pons, and medulla are referred to together as the brainstem. The Cerebrum: The cerebrum or cortex is the largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function such as thought and action. The cerebral cortex is divided into four sections, called "lobes": the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe. Here is a visual representation of the cortex:

What do each of these lobes do?

Frontal Lobe- associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving Parietal Lobe- associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli Occipital Lobe- associated with visual processing Temporal Lobe- associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech

Note that the cerebral cortex is highly wrinkled. Essentially this makes the brain more efficient, because it can increase the surface area of the brain and the amount of neurons within it. We will discuss the relevance of the degree of cortical folding (or gyrencephalization) later. A deep furrow divides the cerebrum into two halves, known as the left and right hemispheres. The two hemispheres look mostly symmetrical yet it has been shown that each side functions slightly different than the other. Sometimes the right hemisphere is associated with creativity and the left hemispheres is associated with logic abilities. The corpus callosum is a bundle of axons which connects these two hemispheres. Nerve cells make up the gray surface of the cerebrum which is a little thicker than your thumb. White nerve fibers underneath carry signals between the nerve cells and other parts of the brain and body.

The neocortex occupies the bulk of the cerebrum. This is a six-layered structure of the cerebral cortex which is only found in mammals. It is thought that the neocortex is a recently evolved structure, and is associated with "higher" information processing by more fully evolved animals (such as humans, primates, dolphins, etc). The Cerebellum: The cerebellum, or "little brain", is similar to the cerebrum in that it has two hemispheres and has a highly folded surface or cortex. This structure is associated with regulation and coordination of movement, posture, and balance. The cerebellum is assumed to be much older than the cerebrum, evolutionarily. What do I mean by this? In other words, animals which scientists assume to have evolved prior to humans, for example reptiles, do have developed cerebellums. However, reptiles do not have neocortex. Limbic System: The limbic system, often referred to as the "emotional brain", is found buried within the cerebrum. Like the cerebellum, evolutionarily the structure is rather old. This system contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus. Here is a visual representation of this system, from a midsagittal view of the human brain:

Brain Stem: Underneath the limbic system is the brain stem. This structure is responsible for basic vital life functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. Scientists say that this is the "simplest" part of human brains because animals' entire brains, such as reptiles (who appear early on the evolutionary scale) resemble our brain stem. Brain-based Learning 2.2 Definition This learning theory is based on the structure and function of the brain. As long as the brain is not prohibited from fulfilling its normal processes, learning will occur. 2.2.1 Discussion People often say that everyone can learn. Yet the reality is that everyone does learn. Every person is born with a brain that functions as an immensely powerful processor. Traditional schooling, however, often inhibits learning by discouraging, ignoring, or

punishing the brains natural learning processes. The core principles of brain-based learning state that: 1. The brain is a parallel processor, meaning it can perform several activities at once, like tasting and smelling. 2. Learning engages the whole physiology. 3. The search for meaning is innate. 4. The search for meaning comes through patterning. 5. Emotions are critical to patterning. 6. The brain processes wholes and parts simultaneously. 7. Learning involves both focused attention and peripheral perception. 8. Learning involves both conscious and unconscious processes. 9. We have two types of memory: spatial and rote. 10. We understand best when facts are embedded in natural, spatial memory. 11. Learning is enhanced by challenge and inhibited by threat. 12. Each brain is unique. The three instructional techniques associated with brain-based learning are:

1. Orchestrated immersionCreating learning environments that fully immerse

students in an educational experience

2. Relaxed alertnessTrying to eliminate fear in learners, while maintaining a

highly challenging environment 3. Active processingAllowing the learner to consolidate and internalize information by actively processing it 2.2.3 How Brain-Based Learning Impacts Education CurriculumTeachers must design learning around student interests and make learning contextual. InstructionEducators let students learn in teams and use peripheral learning. Teachers structure learning around real problems, encouraging students to also learn in settings outside the classroom and the school building. AssessmentSince all students are learning, their assessment should allow them to understand their own learning styles and preferences. This way, students monitor and enhance their own learning process. 2.2.4 What Brain-Based Learning Suggests How the brain works has a significant impact on what kinds of learning activities are most effective. Educators need to help students have appropriate experiences and capitalize on those experiences. As Renate Caine illustrates on p. 113 of her book Making Connections, three interactive elements are essential to this process:

Teachers must immerse learners in complex, interactive experiences that are both rich and real. One excellent example is immersing students in a foreign culture to teach them a second language. Educators must take advantage of the brains ability to parallel process. Students must have a personally meaningful challenge. Such challenges stimulate a students mind to the desired state of alertness. In order for a student to gain insight about a problem, there must be intensive analysis of the different ways to approach it, and about learning in general.

This is whats known as the active processing of experience. A few other tenets of brain-based learning include: Feedback is best when it comes from reality, rather than from an authority figure. People learn best when solving realistic problems. The big picture cant be separated from the details. Because every brain is different, educators should allow learners to customize their own environments. The best problem solvers are those that laugh! Designers of educational tools must be artistic in their creation of brain-friendly environments. Instructors need to realize that the best way to learn is not through lecture, but by participation in realistic environments that let learners try new things safely.

UNIT 3 : Learning Theories For Primary Science 3.1 1. 2. Objectives: To describe the stages of cognitive development of a child . To relate cognitive development stages of students with classroom science teaching. Piagets Theory : Cognitive development Cognitive theorists believe that what you learn depends on your mental process and what you perceive about the world around you. In other words, learning depends on how you think and how your perceptions and thought patterns interact. According to cognitive learning theorists, a teacher should try to understand what a child perceives and how a child thinks and then plan experiences that will capitalize on these. Jean Piaget propose that children progress through stages of cognitive development. Stages of Piagets Theories are


Sensorimotor knowledge ( 0 to 2 year ) Objects and people exist only if child can see, feel, hear, touch or taste their presence. Anything outside of the childs perceptual field does not exist.


Preoperational (Representational) knowledge ( 2 to 7 years )

The ability to use symbols begins. Although the child is still focused on the there and now early in this stage, the child can use language to refer to objects and events that are not in his or her perceptual field. The child has difficulty understanding that objects have multiple properties. He or she is not completely aware that a block of wood has color, weight, height and depth all at once. The child does not conserves attributes such as mass, weight, or number.


Concrete Operation ( 7 to 11 years ) The child can group objects into classes and arrange the objects in a class into some appropriate order. The child understands the mass, weight, volume, area and length are conserved. The child has some difficulty isolating the variables in a situation and determining their relationships. The concepts of space and time become clearer.


Formal Operation ( 12 years through adulthood ) The child is able to think in abstract terms, is able to isolate the variables in a situation , and is able to understand their relationship to one another. The childs ability to solve complex verbal and mathematical problems emerges as a consequence of being able to manipulate the meanings represented by symbols.

Practical applications: Piagets Ideas for Science Classroom


Infants in the sensorimotor stage ( 0 to 2 years )

Examples: Provide stimulating environment that includes eye-catching displays, pleasant sound, human voices, and plenty of tender loving care so that the infant becomes motivated to interact with the people and things in his or her perceptual field. Provide stuffed animals and other safe, pliable objects that the child can manipulate in order to acquire the psychomotor skills necessary for future cognitive development.


Preschoolers and children in the primary grades ( 2 to 7 years )

Examples: Provide natural objects such as leaves, stones, twigs, etc for the child to manipulate. Towards the end of this stage, provide opportunities for the child to begin grouping things into classes that is living/nonliving , animal/plant. Toward the end of this stage, provide experience that gives children an opportunity to transcend some of their egocentricism. For example, have them listen to other childrens stories about what was observed on a trip to the zoo.


Children in the elementary grades ( 7 to 11 years ) Examples:

Early in this stage, offer children many experience to use them acquired abilities with respect to the observation, classification and arrangement of objects according to some property. Any science activities that should include the observation, collection, and sorting of objects should be able to be done in some ease.

As this stage continues you should be able to introduce successfully many physical science activities that include more abstract concepts such as space, time and number. For example, children could measure the length, width, height and weight of objects or count the number of swings of a pendulum in a given time.


The middle school child and beyond ( 12 years through adulthood )

Examples: Emphasize the general concepts and laws that govern observed phenomenon. Possible projects and activities include the prediction of the characteristics of an objects motion based on Newtons Laws, the making of generalizations about the outcomes of a potential imbalance among the producers, consumers, and decomposers in a natural community. Encourage children to make hypotheses about the outcomes of experiments in absence of actively doing them. A key part of the process of doing activities might appropriately be pre-lab sessions in which the child writes down hypotheses about outcomes.

Activity 1: Activity 2 : Describe three science learning activities suitable for upper secondary students based on reasons according to Piagets theory why teaching and learning aids Give three Piagets learning theories. are important to ensure effective learning.

3.2 : Bruners Theory: Discovery learning Jerome Bruners research revealed that teachers need to provide children with

experiences to help them discover underlying ideas, concepts, or patterns. Bruner is proponent of inductive thinking that is going from the specific to the general. Using idea from one experience and use it in another situation is also an inductive thinking. The inductive approach provides students with learning situation in which they can discover a concept or principle. With this approach, the attributes and instances of an idea are encountered first by the learners, followed by the naming and discussing the idea. This empirical-inductive approach give students a concrete experience whereby they obtain sensory impression and data from real objects and events.

Inductive approach to Instruction

Experiences with instances of a concept or principle

Discovering and forming a concept or principle

Practical applications: Bruners Ideas for Science Classroom


Emphasize the basic structure of new material

Examples: Use demonstrations that reveal basic principles. For example demonstrate the law of magnetism by using similar and opposite poles of a set of bar magnets. Encourage children to make outlines of basic points made in textbooks or discovered in activities.


Present many examples and concept. Examples: When presenting an explanation of the phases of the moon, have the children observe the phases in a variety of ways, such as direct observation of the changing shape of the moon in the evening s demonstration of the changes using a flashlight and sphere, and diagrams. Using magazine pictures to show the stages in a space shuttle mission, have the class make models that show the stages and list the stages on the chalkboard.


Help children construct coding system. Examples: Invent a game that requires children to classify rocks. Have children maintain scrapbooks in which they keep collected leaf

specimens that are grouped according to observed characteristics. 4. Apply new learning to many different situations and kinds of problems. Example: Learn how scientist estimate the size of populations by having count the number in a sample and estimate the numbers of children 5.

grasshoppers in a lawn and in a meadow. Pose a problem to the children and let them find the answer. Examples: Ask questions that will lead naturally to activities-why should wear Do a demonstration that raises a question in the childrens minds. For seatbelts? And What are some ingredients that most junk foods have ? example, levitate a washer using magnet or mix two colored solutions to produce a third color.


Encourage children to make intuitive guesses. Examples: Ask the children to guess the amount of water that goes down the Give the children magazine photographs of the evening sky and have drain each time a child gets a drink of water from a water fountain. them guess the locations of some constellations.

3.3 : Behaviorist Learning Theories Behavorism as a theory was most developed by B. F. Skinner. It loosely includes the work of such people as Thorndike, Tolman, Guthrie, and Hull. What characterizes these investigators is their underlying assumptions about the process of learning. In essence, three basic assumptions are held to be true. First, learning is manifested by a change in behavior. Second, the environment shapes behavior. And third, the principles of contiguity (how close in time, two events must be for a bond to be formed ) and reinforcement (any means of increasing the likelihood that an event will be repeated ) are central to explaining the learning process. For behaviorism, learning is the acquisition of new behavior through conditioning. There are two types of possible conditioning: 1) Classical conditioning, where the behavior becomes a reflex response to stimulus as in the case of Pavlov's Dogs. Pavlov was interested in studying reflexes, when he saw that the dogs drooled without the proper stimulus. Although no food was in sight, their saliva still dribbled. It turned out that the dogs were reacting to lab coats. Every time the dogs were served food, the person who served the food was wearing a lab coat. Therefore, the dogs reacted as if food was on its way whenever they saw a lab coat.In a series of experiments, Pavlov then tried to figure out how these phenomena were linked. For example, he struck a bell when the dogs were fed. If the bell was sounded in close association with their meal, the dogs learned to associate the sound of the bell with food. After a while, at the mere sound of the bell, they responded by drooling. Classical Conditioning (Ivan Pavlov) Several types of learning exist. The most basic form is associative learning, i.e., making a new association between events in the environment. There are two forms of associative learning: classical conditioning (made famous by Ivan Pavlovs experiments with dogs) and operant conditioning.

Pavlovs Dogs In the early twentieth century, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov did Nobel prizewinning work on digestion. While studying the role of saliva in dogs digestive processes, he stumbled upon a phenomenon he labeled psychic reflexes. While an accidental discovery, he had the foresight to see the importance of it. Pavlovs dogs, restrained in an experimental chamber, were presented with meat powder and they had their saliva collected via a surgically implanted tube in their saliva glands. Over time, he noticed that his dogs who begin salivation before the meat powder was even presented, whether it was by the presence of the handler or merely by a clicking noise produced by the device that distributed the meat powder. Fascinated by this finding, Pavlov paired the meat powder with various stimuli such as the ringing of a bell. After the meat powder and bell (auditory stimulus) were presented together several times, the bell was used alone. Pavlovs dogs, as predicted, responded by salivating to the sound of the bell (without the food). The bell began as a neutral stimulus (i.e. the bell itself did not produce the dogs salivation). However, by pairing the bell with the stimulus that did produce the salivation response, the bell was able to acquire the ability to trigger the salivation response. Pavlov therefore demonstrated how stimulus-response bonds (which some consider as the basic building blocks of learning) are formed. He dedicated much of the rest of his career further exploring this finding. In technical terms, the meat powder is considered an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) and the dogs salivation is the unconditioned response (UCR). The bell is a neutral stimulus until the dog learns to associate the bell with food. Then the bell becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) which produces the conditioned response (CR) of salivation after repeated pairings between the bell and food.

John B. Watson: Early Classical Conditioning with Humans John B. Watson further extended Pavlovs work and applied it to human beings. In 1921, Watson studied Albert, an 11 month old infant child. The goal of the study was to condition Albert to become afraid of a white rat by pairing the white rat with a very loud, jarring noise (UCS). At first, Albert showed no sign of fear when he was presented with rats, but once the rat was repeatedly paired with the loud noise (UCS), Albert developed a fear of rats. It could be said that the loud noise (UCS) induced fear (UCR). The implications of Watsons experiment suggested that classical conditioning could cause some phobias in humans.

2) Operant conditioning where there is reinforcement of the behavior by a reward or a punishment. The theory of operant conditioning was developed by B.F. Skinner and is known as Radical Behaviorism. The word operant refers to the way in which behavior operates on the environment. Briefly, a behavior may result either in reinforcement, which increases the likelihood of the behavior recurring, or

punishment, which decreases the likelihood of the behavior recurring. It is important to note that, a punisher is not considered to be punishment if it does not result in the reduction of the behavior, and so the terms punishment and reinforcement are determined as a result of the actions. Within this framework, behaviorists are particularly interested in measurable changes in behavior. Operant Conditioning is the term used by B.F. Skinner to describe the effects of the consequences of a particular behavior on the future occurrence of that behavior. There are four types of Operant Conditioning: Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Punishment, and Extinction. Both Positive and Negative Reinforcement strengthen behavior while both Punishment and Extinction weaken behavior. In Positive Reinforcement a particular behavior is strengthened by the consequence of experiencing a positive condition. For example: A hungry rat presses a bar in its cage and receives food. The food is a positive condition for the hungry rat. The rat presses the bar again, and again receives food. The rat's behavior of pressing the bar is strengthened by the consequence of receiving food. In Negative Reinforcement a particular behavior is strengthened by the consequence of stopping or avoiding a negative condition. For example: A rat is placed in a cage and immediately receives a mild electrical shock on its feet. The shock is a negative condition for the rat. The rat presses a bar and the shock stops. The rat receives another shock, presses the bar again, and again the shock stops. The rat's behavior of pressing the bar is strengthened by the consequence of stopping the shock. In Punishment a particular behavior experiencing a negative condition. is weakened by the consequence of

For example: A rat presses a bar in its cage and receives a mild electrical shock on its feet. The shock is a negative condition for the rat. The rat presses the bar again and again receives a shock. The rat's behavior of pressing the bar is weakened by the consequence of receiving a shock. In Extinction a particular behavior is weakened by the consequence of not experiencing a positive condition or stopping a negative condition. For example: A rat presses a bar in its cage and nothing happens. Neither a positive or a negative condition exists for the rat. The rat presses the bar again and again nothing happens. The rat's behavior of pressing the bar is weakened by the consequence of not experiencing anything positive or stopping anything negative.

3.4 : Ausubels Theory: Reception learning and expository teaching According to David Ausubel, a child learns as a result of the childs natural tendency to organize information into some meaningful whole. Ausubel says learning should be a deductive process, i.e. children should first learn a general concept and then move towards specifics. In the deductive strategy, a concept or principal is define and discussed using appropriate labels and terms, followed by experiences to illustrates the idea. It can involve hypothetical-deductive thinking whereby the learner generates idea to be tested or discovered. The deductive approach can be used to promote inquiry sessions and to construct knowledge. The first phase presents the generalization and rules about the concept or principles under study , and the second phase requires students to find examples of the concepts or principles. The teachers responsibility is to organize concepts and principles so that the child can continually fit new learnings into the learnings that came earlier. Ausubels theories, which stress preparation and organization, have practical applications for science classrooms. Deductive approach to Instruction

Receiving ideas and explanations of a concept or principle

Experiences with instances of a concept or principle

Ausubels Ideas for Your Science Classroom


Use advance organizers. Examples: List, pronounce, and discuss science vocabulary words prior to lessons that use new science terms Role-play situations that may develop on a field trip.


Use a number of examples. Examples: Ask the children to give examples related to the science phenomena observed in class from their own experiences. Use pictures and diagrams to show various examples of such things as constellations, animals, clouds, plants, etc.


Focus on both similarities and differences Examples: Discuss how plants and animals are the same and different. Explain what conventional and alternatives energy sources do and do not have in common.


Present materials in an organized fashion. Examples: Outline the content of particularly complicated lessons. Organize the materials needed for a science activity in such a way that a sign indicates whether they are to be used at the beginning, middle, or end of the activity.


Discourage the rote learning of material that could be learned more meaningfully. Examples: Children give responses to questions in activities or textbooks in their own words. Encourage children to explain the results of science activities to one another.

3.5 : Gagnes Theory : Conditions of Learning Theory A) Description Although Gagnes theoretical framework covers many aspects of learning,

"the focus of the theory is on intellectual skills" (Kearsley, 1994a). Gagnes theory is very prescriptive. In its original formulation, special attention was given to military training (Gagne 1962, as cited in Kearsley, 1994a). In this theory, five major types of learning levels are identified:

verbal information intellectual skills cognitive strategies motor skills attitudes

The importance behind the above system of classification is that each learning level requires "different internal and external conditions" (Kearsley 1994a) i.e., each learning level requires different types of instruction. Kearsley provides the following example: For cognitive strategies to be learned, there must be a chance to practice developing new solutions to problems; to learn attitudes, the learner must be exposed to a credible role model or persuasive arguments. Gagne also contends that learning tasks for intellectual skills can be organized in a hierarchy according to complexity:

stimulus recognition response generation procedure following use of terminology discriminations concept formation rule application problem solving

The primary significance of this hierarchy is to provide direction for instructors so that they can "identify prerequisites that should be completed to facilitate learning at each level" (Kearsley 1994a). This learning hierarchy also provides a basis for sequencing instruction. Gagne outlines the following nine instructional events and corresponding cognitive processes (as cited in Kearsley 1994):

1. gaining attention (reception) 2. informing learners of the objective (expectancy) 3. stimulating recall of prior learning (retrieval) 4. presenting the stimulus (selective perception) 5. providing learning guidance (semantic encoding) 6. eliciting performance (responding) 7. providing feedback (reinforcement) 8. assessing performance (retrieval) 9. enhancing retention and transfer (generalization)

B) Practical Application Gagnes nine instructional events and corresponding cognitive processes can serve as the basis for designing instruction and selecting appropriate media (Gagne, Briggs & Wager, 1992, as cited in Kearsley 1994a). In applying these instructional events, Kearsley (1994a) suggests keeping the following principles in mind: 1. Learning hierarchies define a sequence of instruction. 2. Learning hierarchies define what intellectual skills are to be learned. 3. Different instruction is required for different learning outcomes.

Gagnes Ideas for Your Science Classroom 1. Verbal information Examples: Have children recall science facts and concepts orally or in writing. Model the use of advance organizers such as diagrams and lists of key words prior to children reading science material or observing video tapes of science phenomena.


Intellectual Skills.

Examples: Have children invent rules that govern processes, find similarities and differences, and predict outcomes. Emphasize the search patterns and regularities during hands-on experiences. Whenever possible have children not only compare organisms, objects, and phenomena but also contrast them.


Cognitive strategies.

Examples: Encourage children to find their own ways to remember information and ideas. Model the use of mnemonic devices, diagrams, outlines, journaling, audio taping, and other techniques for retaining ideas 4. Attitudes. Example: Select content and experiences that are relevant to the childs daily life and intriguing to the child so that the child develops a positive attitude toward science and chooses science-related experiences during leisure time.


Acquisition of motor skills.

Example: Through the use of discovery-oriented experiences provide children with opportunities to use hand lenses, simple tools, measuring devices, etc.

Activity 1: Make a comparison between Bruners theory and Ausubel s theory.

Activity 2: Choose a topic and describe briefly how you would teach using inductive and deductive approaches.

Activity 3 Think of 3 ways to inculcate positive scientific values among students while conducting an experiment in the laboratory.

3.6 : Information-Processing Theory- Atkins & Shiffrin; Baddeleys The Atkinson-Shiffrin model, Multi-store model or Multi-memory model is

a psychological model proposed in 1968 as a proposal for the structure of memory. It proposed that human memory involves a sequence of three stages:

1. 2. 3.

Sensory memory (SM) Working memory or short-term memory (STM) Long-term memory (LTM)

Sensory memory The sense organs have a limited ability to store information about the world in a fairly unprocessed way for less than a second. The visual system possesses iconic memory for visual stimuli such as shape, size, colour and location (but not meaning), whereas the hearing system has echoic memory for auditory stimuli. Coltheart et al (1974) have argued that the momentary freezing of visual input allows us to select which aspects of the input should go on for further memory processing. The

existence of sensory memory has been experimentally demonstrated by Sperling (1960) using a tachistoscope. Short-term memory Information selected by attention from sensory memory, may pass into short term memory (STM). This allows us to retain information long enough to use it, e.g. looking up a telephone number and remembering it long enough to dial it. Peterson and Peterson (1959) have demonstrated that STM last approximately between 15 and 30 seconds, unless people rehearse the material, while Miller (1956) has found that STM has a limited capacity of around 7 chunks of information. STM also appears to mostly encode memory acoustically (in terms of sound) as Conrad (1964) has demonstrated, but can also retain visuospatial images. Long-term memory LTM provides the lasting retention of information and skills, from minutes to a lifetime. Long term memory appears to have an almost limitless capacity to retain information, but it could never be measured as it would take too long. LT information seems to be encoded mainly in terms of meaning (semantic memory) as Baddeley has shown, but also retains procedural skills and imagery.

3.7 : Constructivist Approaches What is constructivism? Constructivism is basically a learning theory based on observation and scientific study. It is about how people learn. It says that people construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world, through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. When we encounter something new, we have to reconcile it with our previous ideas and experiences. In doing so we may have to change what we believe or maybe discarding the new information as irrelevant. The

constructivist learners are active creators of our own knowledge. To be constructivist learners, we must ask questions, explore ideas and assess what we know. Constructivism proposes that children learn as a result of their personal generation of meaning from experiences. The fundamental role of a teacher is to help children generate connections between what is to be learned and what the children already know or believe. There are three principles that make up the theory of constructivism: 1. A person never really knows the world as it is. Each person constructs beliefs about what is real. 2. What a person already believes, what a person brings to new situations, filters out or changes the information that the persons senses deliver. 3. People create a reality based on their previous beliefs, their own abilities to reason, and their desire to reconcile what they believe and what they actually observe. In the classroom, the constructivist view of learning can have a number of different teaching practices. In the most general sense, it usually means encouraging students to use active techniques (experiments, real-world problem solving ) to create more knowledge and then to reflect on and talk about what they are doing and how their understanding is changing. The teacher makes sure she understands the students preexisting conceptions, and guides the activity to address them and build on them. Constructivist teachers encourage students to constantly assess how the activity is helping them gain understanding. By questioning themselves and their strategies, students in the constructivist classroom ideally become expert learners. This gives them ever-broadening tools to keep learning. With a well-planned classroom environment, the students learn how to learn. Traditional class versus constructivist class The table below compares the traditional classroom to the constructivist one. In the constructivist model, the students are urged to be actively involved in their own process of learning. One of the teachers biggest job is becomes ASKING GOOD QUESTIONS (The constructivists acknowledge that students are constructing knowledge in a traditional classrooms too but its really a matter of emphasis being on the student not the teacher.)



Teachers disseminate information to students and students are recipients of knowledge. Teachers role is directive, rooted in authority . Knowledge is seen as inert. Students work primarily alone. Assessment is through testing correct answers. Applying Constructivism in the Classroom

Teachers have discuss with their students and help them construct their own knowledge. Teachers role is interactive, rooted in negotiation. Knowledge is seen as dynamic ever changing with our experiences. Students work primarily in groups. Assessment includes students works, observations, and points of view, as well as tests. Process is as important as product.

The constructivist teachers pose questions and problems, then guide students to help them find their own answers. They use many techniques in the teaching process.

In a constructivist classroom, learning is Constructed students come to learning situations with already formulated knowledge, ideas and understandings. This previous knowledge is the raw material for the new knowledge they will create.

Example An elementary school teacher presents a class problem to measure the length of the Mayflower. Rather than starting the problem by introducing the ruler, the teacher allows students to reflect and to construct their own methods of measurement. One student offers the knowledge that a doctor said he is four feet tall. Another says she knows horses are measured in hands. The students discuss these and other methods they have heard about, and decide on one to apply to the problem. Groups of students in a science class are discussing a problem in physics. Though the teacher knows the answer to the problem, she focuses on helping students restate their questions in useful ways. She prompts each student to reflect on and examine his or her current knowledge. When one of the students comes up with the relevant concept, the teacher seizes upon it and indicates to the group that this might be a fruitful avenue for them to explore. They design and perform relevant experiments. Afterward, the students and teacher talk about what they have learned, and how their observations and experiments helped them to better understand the concept.

Active students create new understanding for him/herself. The teacher coaches, moderates, suggests but allow the students room to experiment, ask questions, try things that dont work. Learning activities require students full participation and they need to reflect on, and talk about, their activities.

Reflective students control their own learning process by reflecting on their experiences. This process makes them experts of their own learning. The teacher helps create situations where the students feel safe questioning and reflecting on their own processes, either privately or in group discussion. Collaborative the constructivist classroom relies heavily on collaboration among students. When students review and reflect on their learning processes together, they can pick up strategies and methods from one another Inquiry based students use inquiry methods to ask questions, investigate a topic and use variety of resources to find solutions and answers.

Students keep journals in carrying out science projects where they record how they feel about the project, the visual and verbal reactions of others to the project. Periodically the teacher reads these journals and holds a conference with the student where the two assess (1) what new knowledge the student has created, (2) how the student learns best and (3) the learning environment and the teachers role in it.

A group of students carrying out an experiment to determine the melting point of naphthalene. They collaborate by doing different tasks simultaneously. One reads the temperature while another reads aloud the time interval. At the same time another student tabulates the reading and draws the cooling curve. Together they interpret the data and discuss the results. Sixth graders figuring out how to purify water investigate solutions ranging from coffeefilter paper, to a stove-top distillation apparatus, to piles of charcoal, to an abstract mathematical solution based on the size of a water molecule. Depending upon students responses, the teacher encourages abstract as well as concrete, poetic as well as practical, creations of new knowledge. An elementary teacher believes her students are ready to study gravity. She creates an environment of discovery with objects of varying kinds. Students explore the differences in weight among similar blocks of Styrofoam, wood and lead. Some students hold the notion that heavier objects fall faster than light ones. The teacher provides materials about Galileo and Newton. She leads the discussion on theories about falling. The students then replicate Galileos experiment by dropping objects of different weights and measuring how fast they fall. They see that objects of different weights actually fall at the same speed, although surface area and aerodynamic properties can affect the rate of fall.

Evolving- students have ideas that they may later see were invalid, incorrect, or insufficient to explain new experiences. These ideas are temporary steps in the integration of knowledge. Constructivist teaching takes into account students current conceptions and builds from there.

Teaching Models Based on Constructivist Approach Needhams Five Phase Constructive Model

This learning model was proposed by Richard Needham (1987 ) in his work Children Learning in Science Project. It consists of five phases namely the orientation, the generation of ideas, restructuring of ideas, application of ideas and lastly the reflection .

Needham Five Phases Constructivist Model is shown in the table below :PHASE Orientation Generation of ideas Restructuring of ideas PURPOSE To attract students attention and interest. To be aware of the students prior knowledge. To realize the existence of alternative ideas , ideas needs to be improved, to be developed or to be replaced with scientific ideas. To determine the alternative ideas and critically assess the present ideas. To test the validity of the present ideas. To improvise, develop or to replace with new ideas. To test the validity of the new ideas. To apply the new ideas to a different situation. To accommodate ones idea to the scientific ideas. Small group discussion and presentation. Discussion, reading, and teachers input. Experiment, project and demonstration. METHODS Experiment, video and film show, demonstration, problem solving. Experiment, small group discussion, concept mapping and presentation.

i. Explanation and exchanging ideas. ii. Exposure to conflict ideas. iii. Development of new ideas. iv. Evaluation. Application of ideas

Writing of individuals report on the project work. Reflection Writing of individuals report on the project work, group discussion, personal notes. Adapted from Buku Sumber Pengajaran Pembelajaran Sains Sekolah Rendah, Jilid III ( 1995) ms 15-16. Further reading: Needham, R & Hill, P ( 1987 ), Teaching Strategies For Developing Understanding in Science. University of Leeds.

Osborne Generative Model

The generative learning model, developed by Roger J. Osborne and Michael C. Wittrock (1983), is both a model of how children learn and a model of how to teach children. This constructivist model is based on the premise that children come to the classroom with a body of prior knowledge that may or may not be compatible with the new concept being presented in the science lesson. The learner must be able to connect between prior knowledge and new information to successfully construct new meanings. This teaching model outlines a series of steps for a well-designed lesson, the preliminary, focus, challenge, and Application Phases as shown in the table below :-

PHASE The preliminary phase - includes any activity that allows the teacher to find out what prior knowledge the students have relevant to the new concept. This can be as simple as a brief pre-test, or it may include a quick demonstration or activity that provides a discrepant event (an activity with a surprising, unexpected results). This is an opportunity for the teacher to find out what prerequisite knowledge the students lack or what misconceptions the students have that may interfere with their understanding of the concept. The focus phase - provides an activity (which may be a hands-on inquiry activity or a brainteaser) that gives the students an opportunity to play around with an example of the concept (such as playing around with objects that sink or float). To create a discrepant event that stimulates the students curiosity, we would include objects that students would expect to sink, but which actually float. The challenge phase - is a time for the students to compare their own ideas with those of others. Although this can be done individually, it is a powerful group learning activity. Class members are encouraged to debate, challenge, and test each others ideas, while the teacher encourages all the students ideas and provides them with challenging questions about their explanations. It is up to the students to test the ideas and eliminate ideas that they determine dont work. The teacher facilitates this by helping them figure out how to test out each idea. When the teacher determines that the students are cognitively ready to understand the scientific version of the concept, the teacher can present the concept. The application phase - provides students with opportunities to find out whether the concept is applicable to a variety of situations. We suggest that students be given opportunities to examine at least five situations to which the concept can be applied. New examples may provide new twists on the concept that will lead to a new round of discussion and testing

ACTIVITY In conducting a lesson on buoyancy (sinking & floating), teacher may find that some students may lack a thorough understanding of the concepts density, mass, and volume. A lack of this knowledge will block students ability to put together a sound understanding of buoyancy. If the preliminary phase reveals that students lack that knowledge, the teacher then knows she/he will have to include time to develop those prerequisite concepts. Students in small groups conduct an experiment investigating buoyancy of several objects. Conducting these activities in small groups is very effective. The students often automatically experiment with the materials, discuss their results, and challenge and test their explanations/ideas together. Students present their findings and exchange ideas; students debate and test out their explanations. Teacher explains the concept of buoyancy.

In the lesson on buoyancy, the aluminum foil boat does not appear at first to fit the standard concept. The concept must be re-defined to include boats. Finally, the teacher can refine the students understanding by providing one or two non-examples of the concept, i.e., examples that look like they should follow the rule but, on closer examination, do not. This will help deter students from automatically applying the new concept to all situations.

Intractive Model ( Faire and Cosgrove ) Learning is an interactive process (which actively engages the learner) not a passive exercise in transmission of knowledge. Interactive learning promotes development of scientific process skills , development of conceptual understandings, student ownership of process and products of learning. Learning begins with an initiating event which motivates and directs the learner ' s attention to the task of learning e.g.

a question to be answered a problem to be solved a challenge to be met a discrepant event to be explained

Learning proceeds to children actively engaging in the learning process by:

asking their own questions stating their own existing ideas proposing hypotheses designing fair tests investigating and exploring refining their ideas stating and presenting their findings

The Teacher's Role in an Interactive Learning Environment

Provide the initiation to learning (by posing the question, challenge, problem or discrepant event and motivating the learners to the learning task).

Facilitate the learning activities by:

defining the learning environment (e.g. grouping, access to materials, setting the time frame, defining expectations) probing children ' s ideas offering guidance in the formation of hypotheses helping children refine and focus their questions helping children set up their investigations providing feedback and encouragement in the

children ' s design of fair tests

challenging children to test, apply, refine and extend their ideas.

Sequential activities in interactive model are shown in the schematic diagram below :-

Preparation Teacher and students choose a topic and search for information.

Pre-requisite Knowledge Teacher determines students prior knowledge Exploratory Activity Students investigate the topic through reading , asking questions and discussion Students Ask Questions Students pose questions regarding the topic Doing Research Teacher and students select questions to study in greater detail. Comparison

Additional Questions

Observation Students present their findings and teacher observes for changes in students

Reflection Teacher guides student to reflects on what they have learned and how they have learned.
Adapted from Buku Sumber Pengajaran Pembelajaran Sains Sekolah Rendah, Jilid III ( 1995 ), ms 67.

Activity 1 : 2: Discuss the various techniques to identify childrens alternative framework on the Define constructivism and its attributes in science classroom practices. topic electricity.

Activity 3:
Choose a topic of your specialize area and discuss briefly the teaching and learning activities using constructivist approach.

3.8 : Misconception

Students enter the classroom with pre-existing ideas about the world which are different to those held by scientists i.e. embody misconceptions. Research indicates that student misconceptions about things which have a scientific dimension or explanation:

are extremely common (unsurprising given that children have been thinking about and coping with the natural world for many years prior to their exposure to a formal scientific education)

hinder understanding of accepted scientific explanations (until they are discarded by the learner, alternative concepts will not be learned)

are not easily displaced (and will not usually be displaced simply through revelation of the scientific explanation/concept or at the behest of the teacher)

can coexist with scientific concepts (in which case they are only used in situations perceived as requiring a "scientific" answer/response, but not in the student's everyday thinking about the world)

can be found even among the "experts" (research indicates many scientists and teachers unknowingly retain misconceptions e.g. in physics, the impetus model of motion rather than the Newtonian one of inertia)

Techniques to Identify Alternative Frameworks:

Interview Questionnaires Prediction Observation Explanation

Displacing Misconceptions Misconceptions can be displaced and students will accept a scientific conception if :

the student understands the meaning of the scientific conception the scientific conception is believable (this means that it must be compatible with the student's other conceptions.

the scientific conception is found to be useful to the student in interpreting, explaining or predicting phenomena that cannot be satisfactorily accounted for by the formerly held misconceptions (i.e. the scientific concept must be seen to be better than the student's prior belief)

the student progressively gains expertise in using the new scientific concepts (a slow process requiring a long time period and gradual building of knowledge through experience).

References Abruscato, J. (2004). Teaching children science: A discovery approach. (5th edn.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Driver, R.(1983). The Pupil as Scientist. Buckingham: Open University Press. Driver, R.; Guesne,E. and Tiberghien,A.(1985). Childrens Ideas in Science. Buckingham: Open University Press. Driver,R.; Leach,J.;Miller,R. and Scott, P. (1996). Young Peoples Images of Science. Buckingham: Open University Press. Esler, W. K. & Esler, M. K. (2001). Teaching Elementary Science (8th ed.).Washington: Wadsworth Publishing Company. Fleer, M., & Hardy. T. (2001). Science for children: Developing a personal approach to teaching. (2nd Edition). Sydney: Prentice Hall. Martin, D.J. (2006). Elementary Science Methods: A Constructivist Approach. Belmont:Thomson Wadsworth. Martin, R.; Sexton, C.; Gerlovich, J. (2002). Teaching Science for All ChildrenMethods for Constructing Understanding. Boston: Allyn and Bacon Skamp, K. (2004). Teaching primary science constructively. Southbank, Victoria: Harcourt Brace.