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Return to Stoichiometry Menu The solution procedure used below involves making two ratios and setting them equal to each other. This is called a proportion. One ratio will come from the coefficients of the balanced equation and the other will be constructed from the problem. The ratio set up from data in the problem will almost always be the one with an unknown in it. You will then cross-multiply and divide to get the answer. However, there is one addition to the above technique. One of the values will need to be expressed in moles. This could be either a reactant or a product. In either case, moles will have to be converted to grams or the reverse. Suppose you are given a mass in the problem. You will need to convert this to moles FIRST. You do this by dividing the mass given by the molar mass of the substances. This technique is covered in the mole section of the ChemTeam. Click this link to go to the proper mole file for review. Suppose you are asked for a mass as an answer. You will convert the moles you calculated in the proportion to grams. You do this by multiplying the moles by the molar mass of the substance. This technique is covered in the mole section of the ChemTeam. Click this link to go to the proper mole file for review.

Here is the first equation we'll use: 2 KClO3 ---> 2 KCl + 3 O2 Problem #1: 1.50 mol of KClO3 decomposes. How many grams of O2 will be produced?

The proportion (setting the two ratios equal) is: Cross-multiplying and dividing gives x = 2.25 mol of O2 produced. 2.25 mol x 32.0 g/mol = 72.0 grams. The 32.0 g/mol is the molar mass of O2.

Example #2 - If 80.0 grams of O2 was produced, how many moles of KClO3 decomposed?

The ratio from the data in the problem will be: The 2.50 mole came from 80.0 g 32.0 g/mol. The 32.0 g/mol is the molar mass of O2. Be careful to keep in mind that oxygen is O2, not just O.

The proportion (setting the two ratios equal) is: Solving by cross-multiplying and dividing gives x = 1.67 mol of KClO3 decomposed.

Example #3 - We want to produce 2.75 mol of KCl. How many grams of KClO3 would be required?

The proportion (setting the two ratios equal) is: Hopefully, it's pretty easy to see that 2.75 mol of KClO3 are needed. However, the question wants grams for an answer. 2.75 mol times 122.55 g/mol = 337 grams completes the task. The 122.55 g/mol is the molar mass of KClO3.

Practice Problems

Here's the equation to use for all three problems: 2 H2 + O2 ---> 2 H2O 1) How many grams of H2O are produced when 2.50 moles of oxygen are used? 2) If 3.00 moles of H2O are produced, how many grams of oxygen must be consumed? 3) How many grams of hydrogen gas must be used, given the data in problem two? Answers Return to Stoichiometry Menu

Return to Stoichiometry Menu Brief Introduction: The key point to look for are the conditions of temperature and pressure. If they remain constant, you may treat the volumes in the same manner you treat moles. This is because, under conditions of constant T and P, the volumes are directly proportional to the moles. This is discussed in several of the problem solutions below. While the great majority of volume-based stoichiometry problems are phrased in terms of constant T and P, they do not have to be. You can see this in problems 1b and 9, just below. If you have changing conditions of T and P, you, in general, will do this: (1) Convert volme to moles using PV = nRT and the initial set of T and P (2) Use a ratio and proportion to determine moles of other substance involved in problem (3) Use PV = nRT with new T and P as well as moles of substance from step 2. You will calculate a new volume. Be prepared! Your teacher could teach the situation where T and P do not change, then test on the situation where T and P do change.

Problem #1: The equation for the combustion of methane is: CH4 + 2O2 ---> 2H2O + CO2 a) If 50.0 L of methane at STP are burned, what volume of carbon dioxide will be produced at STP? b) If 50.0 L of methane at RTP are burned, what volume of gaseous water at STP is produced? Solution to a: Because everything occurs at STP, the volumes are directly proportional to the moles of reactant used and product produced. Why? Consider PV = nRT. Rewrite it as: n / V = P/RT Everything on the right side is constant, so the n:V ratio must also be constant. That means that volume is directly proportional to the number of moles of gas. Since there is a 1:1 molar ratio between CH4 and CO2, the answer is 50.0 L

Solution to b: 1) Use PV = nRT to determine moles of methane: (1.00 atm) (50.0 L) = (n) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (298 K) n = 2.044665 mol Note: in this problem, I am taking room temperature to be 25.0 C since RTP means room temperature and pressure. 2) Use methane:water molar ratio: 1 is to 2 as 2.044665 mol is to x x = 4.08933 mol of water produced 3) Use PV = nRT to calculate volume of water vapor at STP: (1.00 atm) (V) = (4.08933 mol) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (273 K) V = 91.61 L BTW, I know liquid water is produced in the reaction. I am pretending it is gaseous water simply for calculational purposes.

Problem #2: Given the following equation: C(s) + 2H2(g) ---> CH4(g) How many liters of hydrogen are needed to produce 20.0 L of methane? Solution: 1) P and T are not part of this problem: This is because there is no mention whatsoever of T or P in the problem. 2) State Avogadro's Hypothesis (using moles rather than molecules): Equal volumes of gas at equal temperature and pressure contain equal moles 3) State the hydrogen-methane molar ratio: 2:1

4) Use a ratio and proportion: 2 moles hydrogen is to 1 mole methane as x liters of hydrogen is to 20.0 L of methane x = 40.0 L of hydrogen

Problem #3: 2.35 L of oxygen gas reacts with 3.72 L of hydrogen gas, forming water. How many liters of the excess reactant will remain? If 2.50 L of water were actually produced, what would be the percent yield? Solution: 1) The balanced chemical equation is: 2H2 + O2 ---> 2H2O 2) Determine the limiting reagent: oxygen: 2.35 / 1 = 2.35 hydrogen: 3.72 / 2 = 1.86 Hydrogen is the limiting reagent. Please note that no mention of temperature or pressue is made in the problem. This means that everything takes place at an unchanged temperature and pressure. Consequently, those two values remain constant and drop out of consideration. We do not need moles because, in a situation of constant temperature and pressure, the volumes are directly proportional to the number of moles. Besides which, we cannot even calculate moles since we do not know the temperature or the pressure. 3) Use H2:O2 molar ratio: 2 is to 1 as 3.72 is to x 1.86 L of oxygen are used. 2.35 minus 1.86 = 0.49 L of unreacted oxygen remain 4) Percent yield: 3.72 L of water are produced.

Problem #4: How much air is needed (in m3, at 25.0 C, 1.00 atm) to completely burn 10.0 moles of propane (C3H8). Assume that the air is composed of 21.0% O2. Solution: 1) The combustion of propane: C3H8 + 5O2 ---> 3CO2 + 4H2O 2) Determine moles of pure oxygen needed to burn 10.0 mol of propane: 1 is to 5 as 10.0 is to x x = 50.0 mol of oxygen required 3) Use PV = nRT to convert mol of oxygen to liters of oxygen at the conditions stated in the problem: (1.00 atm) (V) = (50.0 mol) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (298 K) V = 1222.694 L 4) Convert to volume of air required: 1222.694 L / 0.21 = 5822.35 L 5) Convert to cubic meters: 5822.35 L = 5822.35 dm3 1 m3 = 1000 dm3 the answer is 5.82 m3

Problem #5: Propane (C3H8) burns in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water vapor. What volume of carbon dioxide is produced when 2.80 liters of oxygen are consumed. Solution: Since no T or P is given, we assume the reaction happens at constant temp and press.

That means that the coefficients of the balanced equation represent the volumetric ratio that the substances react in. 5 volumes of O2 will produce 3 volumes of CO2 From that, we find: 5/3 equals 2.8/x x = 1.68 L If we assumed the T and P changed in the reaction, we would not be able to solve the problem. However, do not make this assumption. Your teacher would be displeased.

Problem #6: Methane burns according to the following equation: CH4 + 2O2 ---> CO2 + 2H2O Calculate the volume of air that is required to burn 10.0 L of methane when both are at the same temperature and pressure. Assume that air is 20.0 percent oxygen by volume. Solution: The coefficients give the molar ratio that methane and oxygen react in when at the same T and P. 1 is to 2 as 10.0 is to x x = 20.0 L of pure oxygen required. 20.0 L / 0.20 = 100.0 L of air is required.

Problem #7: Nitrogen monoxide reacts with oxygen according to the equation below: 2NO(g) + O2(g) ---> NO2(g) How many liters of NO (reacting with excess oxygen) are required to produce 3.0 liters of NO2? Solution: 1) State pertinent ratio of volumes: 2:1

2) Write a ratio and proportion: 2 is to 1 as x is to 3.0 L x = 6.0 L of NO required By now, you should know what no mention of temperature or pressure means for solving the problem.

Problem #8: If stoichiometric quantities of X and Y are placed in a sealed flexible container with an initial volume of 30.0 L at STP, what volume of Z will be produced? (X, Y, and Z, are all present in the gaseous state) 2X + Y ---> Z Solution: Seeing as they are all gases, a mole ratio is equal to the volume ratio: 2X + Y = 30.0 L X : Y = 2 : 1 = 20L : 10L n(Y) = n(Z) therefore, v(Y) = v(Z) = 10.0 L of Z produced. I copied this answer from Yahoo Answers, so it might read in a slightly different style from my own.

Problem #9: 200.0 liters of H2 reacting at 25.0 C and 751.0 torr will require how many liters of O2 at STP? Solution: 1) The equation is: 2H2(g) + O2(g) ---> 2H2O(l) 2) Use PV = nRT to calculate moles of hydrogen: (751.0 torr / 760.0 torr/atm) (200.0 L = (n) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (298 K)

n = 8.0818 mol 3) Use H2 : O2 molar ratio: 2 is to 1 as 8.0818 ml is to x x = 4.0409 mol of O2 required 4) Use PV = nRT to calculate volume of O2 at SPT that is required: (1.00 atm) (V) = (4.0409 mol) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (273 K) V = 90.52 L

Problem #10: A mixture is prepared using 12.0 L of NH3 and 12.0 L of Cl2, both measured at the same conditions. These substances react according to the following equation: 2 NH3(g) + 3 Cl2(g) ---> N2(g) + 6 HCl(g) When the reaction is completed, what is the volume of each gas (NH3, Cl2, N2 and HCl, respectively)? Assume the final volumes are measured under identical conditions. Solution: 1) We need a limiting reagent: ammonia: 12 / 2 = 6 chlorine: 12 / 3 = 4 We have a winner! Chlorine. Remember, I can treat the volumes in the same way I would moles. This is because, at constant T and P, the volumes are directly proportional to the number of moles. 2) Final volume of the ammonia: 2 is to 3 as x is to 12 x = 8.0 L of ammonia used volume remaining is 12.0 L - 8.0 L = 4.0 L 3) Final volume of chlorine:

Mole-Volume Stoichiometry You are given the moles of one component and needed to find the volume of another gaseous component. The temperature and pressure must be stated in a problem such as this. The following steps are applied: 1. Convert moles of given to moles of needed using the coefficients of the balanced chemical equation 2. Convert moles of needed to volume of needed using the Ideal Gas Law Equation Here is an example problem: Given the Haber Process: N2(g) + 3H2(g) -----> 2NH3(g) How many liters of NH3 can be produced at a temperature of 27 degrees Celsius and a pressure of 760 torr, if 20 moles of N2 are consumed? 1. Convert moles of given to moles of needed: According to the balanced equation: 1 mole N2 = 2 moles NH3 20 moles N2 X 2 moles NH3 / 1 mole N2 = 40 moles NH3 produced 2. Convert moles of needed to liters of needed: If we use the Ideal Gas Law Equation PV = nRT and R=0.0821 liter-atm / mole-K, then we will have to make sure the pressure is in atm and the temperature is in Kelvin. P = 760 torr X 1 atm / 760 torr = 1 atm T = 27 + 273 = 300 K solve the Equation for V = nRT / P = (40 moles NH3) (0.0821 liter-atm / mol-K) (300 K) / 1 atm = 985.2 liters NH3 Now it is your turn:

How many liters of O2 will be produced at a temperature of 37 degrees Celsius and 1520 torr if 2 moles of KClO3 decompose according to the following balanced equation: 2KClO3 ------> 2KCl + 3O2(g)

ANSWER

1. Convert moles of KClO3 to moles of O2 using the balanced equation According to the balanced equation: 2 moles KClO3 = 3 moles O2 2 moles KClO3 X 3 moles O2 / 2 moles KClO3 = 3 moles O2 2. Convert moles O2 to liters O2 using PV = nRT Convert the temperature to Kelvin, K = 37 + 273 = 310 K Convert the pressure to atm, 1520 torr X 1 atm / 760 torr = 2 atm Solve for V = nRT / P = (3 moles O2) (0.0821 liter-atm / mole-K) ( 310 K) / 2 atm = 38.18 liters O2 produced If you are given the volume of a gaseous component and asked to find the number of moles involved of some other component, then you would simply reverse the two steps above.(First use the formula PV = nRT, to convert volume of the gaseous component to moles of gaseous component and then convert moles of gaseous component to moles of other component by using the mole to mole ratio from the balanced equation.)

Return to Stoichiometry menu Example Problem #1: How many liters of O2 gas measured at 782.0 mmHg at 25.0 C are required to completely react with 2.40 mol Al? 4 Al + 3 O2 ---> 2 Al2O3 Solution: 1) Determine the moles of O2 required to react with 2.40 mol of Al:

the molar ratio for Al and O2 is 4 to 3, so we set up the following ratio and proportion:

PV = nRT V = nRT / P

Comment: I converted 782.0 mmHg to atm.

Example Problem #2: What volume of carbon dioxide, at 1.00 atm and 112.0 C, will be produced when 80.0 grams of methane (CH4) is burned? Video: the solution to the above problem If we wished to determine the volume of O2 required, we would use 9.9732 mol. This is because of the 1:2 molar ratio between methane and oxygen. To burn 4.9866 mol of methane requires 9.9732 mol of oxygen. Using PV = nRT, this is 315 L (I doubled the 157.5 figure from the video, not the 158.)

Example Problem #3: Propane, C3H8 reacts completely with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water vapor. If 1.50 mole of propane is reacted with an excess of oxygen and the water vapor is collected and measured at 546 K and 1.00 atm, what volume of water vapor will be collected? Solution: 1) Write a balanced chemical equation:

C3H8 + 5 O2 ---> 3 CO2 + 4 H2O

the molar ratio between propane used and water vapor produced is 1 to 4

therefore, water vapor will be produced in the following ratio and proportion:

1 is to 4 as 1.50 is to x

x = 6.00 moles of water vapor produced 3) Determine the volume of water vapor at the given temperature and pressure:

PV = nRT V = nRT / P

x = [ (6.00 mol) (0.08206 L atm mol-1 K-1) (546 K) ] / 1.00 atm x = 269 L (to 3 sig. fig.)

Example Problem #4: Oxygen gas is sometimes prepared in labs by the thermal decomposition of potassium chlorate (KClO3). The balanced chemical equation is as follows: 2 KClO3(s) ---> 2 KCl(s) + 3 O2(g) If 5.150 grams decompose, what volume of O2 would be obtained at STP? Solution: 1) Determine moles of KClO3:

5.150 g / 122.6 g mol-1 = 0.042006525 mol (I kept some guard digits.)

the molar ratio of KClO3 used to O2 produced is 2 to 3

2 is to 3 as 0.042006525 is to x

PV = nRT V = nRT / P

x = [ (0.063009788 mol) (0.08206 L atm mol-1 K-1) (273 K) ] / 1.000 atm x = 1.412 L (to 4 sig. fig.) Example Problem #5: When heated to high temperatures, silver oxide (Ag2O) decomposes to form solid silver and oxygen gas. Calculate the volume of oxygen produced at STP by the decomposition of 7.44 g of Ag2O.

Stoichiometric Calculations

Applying Conversion Factors to Stoichiometry

Now you're ready to use what you know about conversion factors to solve some stoichiometric problems in chemistry. Almost all stoichiometric problems can be solved in just four simple steps:

1. 2. 3. 4. Balance the equation. Convert units of a given substance to moles. Using the mole ratio, calculate the moles of substance yielded by the reaction. Convert moles of wanted substance to desired units.

These "simple" steps probably look complicated at first glance, but relax, they will all become clear.

Let's begin our tour of stoichiometry by looking at the equation for how iron rusts:

Fe + O2Fe2O3

The constituent parts of a chemical equation are never destroyed or lost: the yield of a reaction must exactly correspond to the original reagents. This fact holds not just for the type of elements in the yield, but also the number. Given our unbalanced equation:

Fe + O2Fe2O3

This equation states that 1 iron (Fe) atom will react with two oxygen (O) atoms to yield 2 iron atoms and 3 oxygen atoms. (The subscript number, such as the two in O2 describe how many atoms of an element are in a molecule.) This unbalanced reaction can't possibly represent a real reaction because it describes a reaction in which one Fe atom magically becomes two Fe atoms.

Therefore, we must balance the equation by placing coefficients before the various molecules and atoms to ensure that the number of atoms on the left side of the arrow corresponds exactly to the number of elements on the right.

4Fe +3O22Fe2O3

Let's count up the atoms in this new, balanced version of the reaction. On the left of the arrow we have 4 atoms of iron and 6 atoms of oxygen (since 32 = 6 ). On the right we also have 4 iron (since 22 = 4 ) and 6 oxygen ( 23 = 6 ). The atoms on both sides of the equation match.

The process of balancing an equation is basically trial and error. It gets easier and easier with practice. You will likely start to balance equations almost automatically in your mind.

Step 2. Converting Given Units of a Substance to Moles

The process of converting given units into moles involves conversion factors. Below we will provide the most common and important conversion factors to convert between moles and grams, moles and volumes of gases, moles and molecules, and moles and solutions. These conversion factors function in the same way as those discussed in the previous section Note also that though these conversion factors focus on converting from some other unit to moles, they can also be turned around, allowing you to convert from moles to some other unit. Converting from Grams to Moles The gram formula mass of a compound (or element) can be defined as the mass of one mole of the compound. As the definition suggests, it is measured in grams/mole and is found by summing the atomic weights of every atom in the compound. Atomic weights on the periodic table are given in terms of amu (atomic mass units), but, by design, amu correspond to the gram formula mass. In other words, a mole of a 12 amu carbon atom will weigh 12 grams. The gram formula mass can be used as a conversion factor in stoichiometric calculations through the following equation:

Moles =

Gram formula mass is also known as GFM. You may also see the term gram molecular mass, abbreviated GMM. This term is often used instead of GFM when the substance is molecular and not ionic. However, only the terminology is different, GMM is used in the same way as GFM. Therefore, I will use the catchall term GFM in this study guide.

The Ideal Gas law, discussed at length in the Sparknote on Gases, provides a handy means of converting between moles and a gas, provided you know certain qualities of that gas. The Ideal Gas Law is PV = nRT , with n representing the number of moles. If we rearrange the equation to solve for n , we get:

n=

with P representing pressure in atm, V representing volume in liters, T representing temperature in Kelvins, and R the gas constant, which equals .0821 L-atm/mol-K. Given P , V , and T , you can calculate the number of moles of substance in a gas.

In those instances when a problem specifies that the calculations are to be made at STP (Standard Temperature and Pressure; P = 1 atm, T = 273 K)), the problem becomes even simpler. At STP, a mole of gas will always occupy 22.4 L of volume. If you are given a volume of a gas at STP, you can calculate the moles in that gas by calculating the volume you are given as a fraction of 22.4 L. At STP, 11.2 L of a gas will be .5 moles; 89.6 L of gas will be 4 moles. Converting between Individual Particles and Moles Avogadro's Number provides the conversion factor for moving from number of particles to moles. There are 6.021023 formula units of particles in every mole of substance, with formula unit describing the substance we are looking at, whether it is a compound, molecule, atom, or ion. A formula unit is the smallest unit of a substance that still retains that substance's properties and is the simplest way to write the formula of the substance without coefficients. Some representative formula units are listed below.

Since 1 mole = 6.021023 formula units, the conversion from formula units to moles is simple: Moles =

Solutions are discussed in much greater detail in the series of Solutions SparkNotes. But it is possible, and fairly easy to convert between the measures of solution (molarity and molality) and moles. Molarity is defined as the number of moles of solute divided by the number of liters of solvent. Rearranging the equation to solve for moles yields:

Moles = molarity liters of solution

MolaLity is defined as the number of moles of solute divided by the number of kilograms of solvent. Rearranging the equation to solve for moles yields:

Moles = molality kilograms of solution Using the Mole Ratio to Calulate Yield

Before demonstrating how to calculate how much yield a reaction will produce, we must first explain what the mole ratio is. The Mole Ratio Let's look once again at our balanced demonstration reaction:

4Fe +3O22Fe2O3

The coefficients in front of iron, oxygen, and iron (III) oxide are ratios that govern the reaction; in other words, these numbers do not demand that the reaction can only take place with the presence of exactly 4 moles of iron and 3 moles of oxygen, producing 2 moles of iron (III) oxide. Instead, these numbers state the ratio of the reaction: the amount of iron and oxygen reaction together will follow a ratio of 4 to 3. The mole ratio describes exactly what its name suggests, the molar ratio at which a reaction will proceed. For example, 2 moles of Fe will react with 1.5 moles of O2 to yield 1 mole of Fe2O3 . Alternatively, 20 moles of Fe will react with 15 moles of O2 to yield 10 moles of Fe2O3 . Each of these examples of the reaction follow the 4:3:2 ratio described by the coefficients. Now, with a balanced equation, the given units converted to moles, and our understanding of the mole ration, which will allow us to see the ratio of reactants to each other and to their product, we can calculate the yield of a reaction in moles. Step 4 demands that we be able to convert from moles to back to the units requested in a specific problem, but that only involves turning backwards the specific converstion factors described above.

Sample Problems

N2(g) + H2(g)NH3(g)

N2(g) + 3H2(g)2NH3(g)

Step 2: Convert the given quantity to moles. Note in this step, 22.4 L is on the denominator of the conversion factors since we want to convert from liters to moles. Remember your conversion factors must always be arranged so that the units cancel.

= 10 moles of NH3(g)

= 15 moles H2(g)

= 336 L H2(g)

2H2S(g) + O2(g)SO2(g) + 2H2O(s)

Solution Step 1. The equation is partially balanced already, but let's finish the job.

2H2S(g) +3O2(g)2SO2(g) + 2H2O(s)

Step 2, convert to moles: 1 formula unit of H2O has 2 atoms of H and 1 atom of O The atomic mass of H is 1 gram/mole Atomic mass of O = 16 grams/mole

GFM of H2O(s) =

= 18 grams / mole

Is this the answer? No. The question asks for ATOMS of oxygen. There are two atoms of oxygen in each molecule of O2(g).

Now we're done. Note how important it was to write out not only your units, but what substance you're currently working with throughout the problem. Only a brief check was needed to ascertain if we were really answering the given question. Always check to make sure you have answered the correct question. Problem : 4NH3(g) + 6NO(g)5N2(g) + 6H2O(g)

How many moles of each reactant were there if 13.7 moles of N2(g) is produced? Solution for Problem 1 >>

4 moles NH3(g) = 10.96 moles NH3(g) 6 moles NO(g) = 16.44 moles NO(g) So we have 10.96 moles NH3(g) and 16.44 moles NO(g). Close

Problem : What is the mass of 2 moles of H2S ? Solution for Problem 2 >> GFM of H = 1 GFM of S = 32>br> GFM of H2S = 21 + 32 = 34 grams / mole

34 grams = 68 grams

Close

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