KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

Self Access Learning Module

ICT Literacy for Secondary School Programme

Curriculum Development Division Ministry of Education Malaysia

ICTL For Secondary School --Visual Basic Express Module

MODULE 1

PROGRAMMING

Introduction to programming

Curriculum Development Division Ministry of Education Malaysia

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ICTL For Secondary School --Visual Basic Express Module

1.

Name of Module

: Introduction to programming

2.

Learning Outcomes

: The students should be able to:a. Define programming b. State the main steps in programme development.

3.

Knowledge and Skills

: a. Definition of programme b. Programming language.

4.

Module Summary

: At the end of the module, student should be able to :a. Understand the definition of programming language. b. Understand the phases of Program Development.

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ICTL For Secondary School --Visual Basic Express Module

Introduction to programming
1.1 What is programme? Programme refers to a series of organize instruction that directs the computer to do something for us with the help of programming language. 1.2 What is a programming language? A Programming Language is a set of rules that provides a way of telling the computer what operation to perform (according to Capron and Johnson,2004) 1.3 What programming languages are available? These programming languages are generally divided into five levels or generations. The following are the descriptions of each level of programming language:Level of language / Generations • Machine Language ( First generation ) • • • • High-Level Language (Third Generation) 3GL • • • • • • Natural Language (Fifth Generation ) • • Descriptions Computer understands only binary numberstrings of 0 and 1. Programs that are written in these 0 and 1 represent the “on” and “off”. This programming language is considered very low level. This language use mnemonic codes such as: A for add, C for compare, MP for multiply. This language is closer to human language compare to the machine language. designed to be easier for a human to understand Examples: VISUAL BASIC, ALGOL 58, 60 and 68, COBOL, FORTRAN IV, ADA and C++. This programming language is an improvement of high-level language.

Assembly Language ( Second Generation)

Very High-Level Language ( Fourth Generation or 4GL)

Designed to reduce programming effort
Examples: SHEERPOWER, OpenEdge ABL

and Informix-4GL
This language is similar to spoken or written English Language. The natural language translates human instructions into code. Examples: PROLOG, MERCURY and OPS5.

Figure 1: Level of programming language

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ICTL For Secondary School --Visual Basic Express Module

Let’s look at some of the examples of each interface for the programming languages:a) Example of C programming (taken from http://encyclopedia.laborlawtalk.com/wiki/images/thumb/5/5c/500px-Qbasic.png time downloaded on16.6.2006).

Figure 2: C programming b) Example of C++ programming (taken from http://www.originlab.com/www/products/images/origin_c_code_492px.gif downloaded on 16.6.2006).

Figura 3: C++ programming

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ICTL For Secondary School --Visual Basic Express Module

c) Example of Visual Basic taken from (www.dmst.aueb.gr/dds/etech/swdev/env.gif) downloaded on 16.6.2006)

Figure 4: Visual Basic 6 Programming d) Example of Pascal (taken from http://www.freedownloaddevelopment.com/delphi/pascal-look.html downloaded on 16.6.2006).

Figure 5: Pascal Programming

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ICTL For Secondary School --Visual Basic Express Module

e) Example of Fortran programming (taken from http://homepage.cs.uri.edu/faculty/wolfe/book/Readings/Reading13.htm downloaded on 16.6.2006).

Figure 6: Fotran Programming g) Example of Java programming (taken from http://ssrlibrary.ca/~megatron/images/screenshots/eclipse.png downloaded on 16.6.2006)

Figure 7: Java Programming

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ICTL For Secondary School --Visual Basic Express Module

The Program Development Life Cycle When we want to produce a program, we need to go through a few phases. There are five main phases in program development;

PHASE 1 Problem Analysis

PHASE 5 Documenting The Programme

PHASE 2 Program Design

PHASE 4 Testing and Debugging

PHASE 3 Coding The problem

Figure 8: Program Development Life Cycle Let’s look at the descriptions of each main phase in program development: 1. Problem Analysis What is problem analysis? The programmer need to identify and analyst the problem before developing a programme. (Example: interview the client to get information of problems). 2. Program Design Before a programme is developed it has to be design using algorithm. An algorithm is a set of steps that is able to solve a problem. It can be expressed in many ways such as Pseudo code and Flowcharts.

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ICTL For Secondary School --Visual Basic Express Module

2.1 Pseudo code

A pseudo code is a mixture of Computer and English language, used for planning program logic. Example : The following pseudocode is to input (Key-in) two marks (math & Science) and output (display) the total mark. BEGIN ; INPUT math mark INPUT science mark Total = math mark + science mark DISPLAY Total; End ; 2.2 Flowcharts Symbol Name Start / Stop Description
Shows the Start and flowcharts End of the

Input / Output

Shows any function an Input / Output device. Shows the Selection of an option depends on a given condition. Shows the function like Calculations. If the page is not enough, used to continue to the next page. Used to give the direction of the flow of data / information.

Decision

Process

Connector Flow lines

Table 1 : Flowcharts Symbols

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ICTL For Secondary School --Visual Basic Express Module

Draw a flowchart to enter your Math and Science marks and output shows the Total of Math and Science marks.

Start

Enter Math Mark, Science Mark

Total = Math Mark + Science Mark

Output Total

End
Figure 9. Example of a Flowchart: Exercise: Draw a flowchart to enter 3 marks (Math, Science and English )and output the total marks.

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ICTL For Secondary School --Visual Basic Express Module

3. Coding Coding is to translate the logic from the flowchart or pseudo code into code 4. Testing and Debugging Testing is to find error of the programme, the process of finding error is debugging. 5. Documentation Documentation is important when programming. The document helps a programmer to update and upgrade the programme. A document consists of problem analysis, pseudo code, flowcharts, code, user manual, a clear layout of the input and output records about the programme.

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