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ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY 3 NOTES PART A - BUILDING THERMAL DESIGN (40 marks) MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Large single-glazed windows on the north side wall of an Auckland house are A. good for indoor thermal comfort at night during winter B. not good for passive solar heating and energy efficiency C. not good for thermal insulation buy good for winter thermal comfort D. not good for indoor thermal comfort at night during the winter 2. Thermal comfort zones for building thermal design can be calculated using A. local annual mean climate conditions B. local monthly mean climate conditions C. local monthly mean radiation D. local people's skin temperature 3. The best thermal roof design for a hot-humid tropical house can A. prevent daytime solar heat gain only B. supply good shading C. provide good insulation D. limit daytime solar heat through the roof structure and promote heat loss through the roof structure after sunset 4. Indirect evaporate cooling control A. can only be applied for a hot dry climate and tropical climate B. can only be applied for a hot day climate C. can only be applied for tropical climates D. can be applied for the hot season of all climates 5. In a typical house, stack-effect natural ventilation is not sufficient to restore the occupant's thermal comfort during the summer because it cannot achieve A. sufficient indoor air speed B. sufficient indoor air change C. sufficient indoor air temperature D. sufficient relative humidity 6. For winter building thermal design, solar passive heating control can expand the local winter thermal comfort zone to A. a lower temperature B. a lower temperature and higher relative humidity C. a higher temperature and lower relative humidity D. both higher temperature and higher relative humidity

7. For a tropical house design, the passive control of air movement (natural ventilation) can expand the summer thermal comfort zone to A. a lower temperature B. a higher temperature and lower relative humidity C. a higher temperature and higher relative humidity D. a higher temperature only 8. A small ratio of building surface and building volume is not suitable for A. cold climates B. cold and tropical climates C. cold and hot-dry climates D. tropical climates 9. Aluminium sheet used as reflective insulation material has ???? A. the same thermal resistance (R-value) for radiative heat from all different directions B. higher thermal resistance (R-value) for the upward radiative heat than the downward radiative heat C. higher thermal resistance (R-value) for the radiative heat than the upward radiative heat D. the same thermal resistance (R-value) for both downward and upward radiative heat 10. Indoor thermal comfort conditions of a house are not related to A. relative humidity of indoor air B. internal surface temperatures C. absolute humidity of indoor air D. the R-value of house envelope 11. A high density house with a small ratio of surface and volume, small openings, thickmass walls and light surface colour is designed for A. tropical climates B. hot climates C. cold and tropical climates D. temperate climates 12. In hot-humid climates, the walls of a house are A. more important than the roof for indoor thermal comfort B. less important than in any other climate conditions for indoor thermal comfort C. normally high heat capacity materials D. dark in colour

13. The most important factor for direct solar passive heating design is A. opening areas B. building structure C. building shape D. building orientation 14. The best roof thermal design for a hot-humid tropical house will A. prevent daytime solar heat gain only B. supply good shading and small ratio of building surface to volume C. prevent outdoor ventilation and supply good indoor ventilation D. prevent daytime heat gain and encourage night time internal heat loss 15. A large ratio of building surface to building volume is not suitable for A. Tropical climates B. cold and tropical climates C. Hot dry and tropical climates D. cold climates 16. Indoor direct evaporative cooling can be applied in for A. hot dry climates B. tropical and cold climates C. tropical climates D. tropical and hot dry climates 17. For an Auckland brick veneer house, wall insulation materials are located at the internal surface not the external surface of the wall, because A. building thermal design is for temporary heating B. building thermal design is for permanent heating C. it increases the R-value for the house envelope D. in decreases the R-value of the house envelope 18. Indoor thermal comfort is not directly related to A. Indoor temperatures B. Indoor relative humidity C. Indoor surface temperature D. Indoor surface humidity 19. Indoor direct evaporative cooling control cannot be applied in for A. a hot dry climate B. a hot dry climate and cold climate C. a tropical climate D. a tropical climate and hot dry climate

20. For summer building thermal design, the passive control of air movement (natural ventilation) can expand the summer thermal comfort zone to A. a lower temperature B. a higher temperature and lower relative humidity C. a higher temperature and higher relative humidity D. a higher temperature only 21. A large ratio of building surface and building volume is suitable for A. cold climates and tropical climates B. cold and temperate climates C. cold and hot-dry climates D. tropical climates

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS 1. List any two functions of external wall insulation for building thermal design under cold climate conditions. - Good thermal storage 2. For an Auckland brick veneer house, why is wall insulation material located at the internal surface and not the external surface of the wall? Because building thermal design is for permanent heating 3. List any two types of climate where "solar passive heating" can be applied - Cold climate - Temperate climate 4. What is the best building form for the hot-dry climate? Hot dry = trapezoid Cold dry = circle 5. List three functions of natural ventilation in building design Replace the stale indoor air with fresh outdoor air Improve indoor thermal comfort, especially on hot humid environments Cool the structure of the building when the indoor temperature is above outdoor's 6. List any three architectural features affecting the building thermal design. Overhangs Louvres Openings e.g. window and doors

7. List two basic functions of a roof overhang on the north side wall of an Auckland house. Decrease solar heat gain on northern wall Decrease amount of sunlight entering from northern windows 8. List the basic climate data needed for building thermal design Temperature Humidity Rainfall Irradiation Wind 9. List any three functions of a low pitch roof space in building thermal design for tropical climate conditions. 10. List any three functions of a high pitch roof with roof space in building thermal design for temperate climate conditions. - More solar gain 11. Supply design recommendations for each of the following building thermal design factors, for a building design in a cold climate. Your answer can be a few key words or a couple of sentences or simple sketches for each building thermal design factor. A. building layout: building orientation and building form - Orientation is towards the equator (north in the southern hemisphere and south in the northern half of the globe). Form should be compact and regular. B. ratio of building surface to building volume - Reduce the surface/ volume ratios C. indoor space arrangement - Regular shaped plan, compact as possible D. building material: wall and roof materials - They must be insulated to a high standard and surfaces must be of smooth non-sorbent materials. E. building thermal passive control - Shade protected openings, double glazing, high thermal mass.

Supply design recommendations for each of the following building thermal design factors, for a building design in a hot-dry climate. Your answer can be a few key words or a couple of sentences or simple sketches for each building thermal design factor. A. building layout: building orientation and building form - Orientation is towards the equator (north in the southern hemisphere and south in the northern half of the globe). Form should be compact and regular. B. ratio of building surface to building volume - Increase the surface/ volume ratios C. indoor space arrangement - Irregular shape plan to promote natural cross ventilation D. building material: wall and roof materials - A mixture if light and heavy mass, e.g. concrete and timber. Light structure is too hot for daytime but is warm and comfortable at night when the temperature drops. Heavy mass loses heat slowly + heat rises. E. building thermal passive control - Shade protected openings, single glazing, use of louvres 12. List any three functions of a courtyard in building thermal design Provides a place to bask in the sun, or airy place to be cool when it's too hot indoors. Prevent or reduce dust Help maintain cool indoor temperature, ventilation 13. List any three functions of a veranda in building thermal design Provide shading Rain protection Encourage natural indoor ventilation 14. List any three types of climate where "mass effect" can be used in the envelope of a building Hot-dry Cold-dry Cold-humid 15. Supply three design recommendations for an Auckland house to achieve energy efficiency. Thermal mass East sun protection North facing orientation 16. List any three passive controls for building thermal design Passive solar heating Natural ventilation Openings e.g. windows and doors

17. List (or describe) three types of insulations (not three insulation products). Reflective insulation Resistive insulation Capacitive insulation 18. Heat can be transmitted by three processes. List three processes. Conduction Convection Radiation 19. Describe two types (two steps) of design factors for natural cross ventilation - First type of factor mainly affects the potential of indoor ventilation e.g. building form, density of surrounding buildings and vegetation, building elements - Second type of factor mainly affects the distribution of air flow in indoor spaces e.g. internal requirement, window size, type and position, subdivision of internal spaces.

PART B - LIGHTING (15 marks) 1. a) Explain in your own words the terms Visual Acuity and Visual Performance Visual acuity is a measure of the human eye's ability to distinguish fine detail. Visual performance is a measure of a how a person's speed and accuracy in performing a task is affected by just the visual component of performing that task. b) What are the critical factors that affect visual performance and why is visual performance important for some tasks more than others. Give an example to support your explanation. The critical factors are the visual task size, contrast, and task luminance. Different tasks require varying amounts of visual performance, some more than others e.g. surgery will require high visual performance because of the fine detail involved, whereas for other activities it may be of little concern, due to high contrast or large size. 2. a) Explain in your own words the terms Colour Rendering Index (CRI) & Correlated Colour Temperature (CCT) CRI is a measure of the degree to which the appearances of coloured surface illuminated by a given source conform to how they would appear if illuminated by a reference source having the same CCT . CCT is a way of describing the colour appearance of nominally white light sources. b) give an example for each situation where you would use lamps with a CCT of approximately 3000k, approximately 4000k and approximately 5000k or greater. To achieve colour appearance that is warm (yellowish white) = 3000k E.g. restaurants and intimate places To achieve colour appearance that is intermediate (white) = 4000k E.g. art galleries To achieve colour appearance that is cool (bluish white) = 5000k E.g. surgery operation room c) Give 3 examples of a lighting installation where a high CRI would be important.

3. a) In your own words describe what you understand by the terms illuminance, luminance and exitance and explain the basic difference between them. Illuminance (E) is a measure of the total luminous flux incident on a surface, per unit area. Luminance (L) is a measure of the sensation of brightness Exitance (M) is a measure of the density of emerging luminous flux They are all measured with different units, and have different roles in lighting. b) Name one application for each where your lighting design would be based on illuminance and one that would be based on luminance. Illuminance - Emergency related signs Luminance - Desk lamp c) List the main benefit of a small lamp source compared to a larger source with the equivalent wattage. The optical components can more accurately redirect the luminous flux into chosen directions. They can be more easily controlled in terms of focus. d) What are the potential problems with small light sources and how can these problems be minimised. Smaller light sources have higher luminance and more glare. This can be minimised through precise optical control, and using diffusely transmitting or reflecting materials to achieve soft glow effects and diffuse the light. 4. a) Explain how you can change the appearance of a space from spacious to intimate with the use of light, surface colour and reflectance. A diagram can be used to assist your explanation. It affects the atmosphere through different light colours. White light can help you see the true colours of the room, with less distortion. Yellow light shows colours with a Light can be used to guide you b) Why is a low CCT (warm appearance) or higher CCT (cool appearance) important for some applications whilst for others it is less critical? Give examples with your explanation. Low CCT produces a warm appearance (yellowish) which is good for intimate spaces e.g. restaurants. Whereas high CCT which produces a cool (bluish white) colour appearance, would be appropriate for desk lamps, because the cool colour appearance provides a more comfortable background for reading and writing.

c) List 3 reasons why it is important to consider daylight as an integral part of the design of all new buildings Health and well being - human body relies on light to maintain its circadian system Daylight plays an essential part in our psychology. 5. a) Describe how you would measure the daylight factor in a real room using a diagram and list the components that make up the daylight illuminance.

The illuminance at P, Ep, is due to the sum of three components of daylight illumination: The Sky Component (SC) The Externally Reflected Component (ERC) The Internally Reflected Component (IRC)

b) why is a uniform overcast sky used to calculate the daylight factor? This is so the sky component can be accurately represented. If daylight is adequate on an overcast day, this assumes it will be more than efficient on a bright sunny day. c) List the main factors that need to be considered when developing any lighting design. Make people feel safe & comfortable. Be appealing to people (aesthetics). Display the architecture, building features and/or space in a complimentary way. Be suitable for the task. Be complimentary & not conflicting with other lighting (natural & artificial).

6. a) Explain in your own words why contrast is important in a lighting design. A major factor which affects visual performance is contrast. It is through strong contrast that the human eye can have better visibility, hence why contrast is important in lighting design. b) How does glare affect the visual performance and how can this effect be minimised? Glare occurs when a bright source within the field of view causes a loss of visibility. The cause is scattered light within the eye, which is a proportional to the luminance at the eye due to direct light from the light source. The loss of visibility is immediate and may also cause discomfort glare. This effect can be minimised by having the task brighter than it's surroundings. 7. a) give an example of an application where a low colour rendering index (CRI) is appropriate and where a high CRI is appropriate? Low CRI would be appropriate for intimate spaces where a warm colour appearance is wanted, e.g. restaurants High CRI would be appropriate for desk lamps, the cool (bluish white) colour appearance provides a more comfortable background for reading and writing. b) Why is a high CRI not used for all applications? This is because a high CRI produces a cool (bluish white) colour appearance, which may not suit the space or atmosphere that is needed to be achieved. For example, intimate spaces where a warm colour appearance is wanted, e.g. restaurants EXTRA NOTES

PART C - ACOUSTICS (15 marks) 1. Explain the difference between sound insulation and sound absorption and give examples of materials that provide good performance in these domains. Sound insulation - the act of reducing noise levels, measured in decibels. High insulation materials include fibreglass, polyester, pinkbatts. Sound absorption - occurs when sound is incident on a surface, some is reflected and some is absorbed. When sound is absorbed into a material, the acoustic energy of sound waves is changed into another form, often heat. High absorption materials include porous materials, fibreglass batts, polyester, wool. NOT polystyrene 2. Low frequency noise has been identified as a major source of problem in buildings. This is explained by the fact that different building materials behave differently at low frequencies. Explain why and give examples of materials. Modern entertainment systems produce significant bass/low frequency acoustic energy which is outside the frequency range of STC. Lightweight plasterboard walls do not have the same low frequency performance as brick/concrete. 3. a) Describe the general objectives of Clause G6 of the New Zealand Building Code. Include a description of the two quite different types of sound that are covered in Clause G6. Clause G6 of the New Zealand Building Code sets down performance requirements for sound transmitted between the habitable spaces of separated tenancies. Airborne sound and impact sound are both covered in Clause G6. Airborne sound propagates from sources through air. Impact sounds are noise sources created from impact such as walking, furniture moving, doors and cupboards etc. b) What do you regard as shortcomings of the current Building Code in terms of noise issues it doesn't address. It does not apply to buildings built before 1992, internal noise sources such as plumbing, lifts, air-conditioning. As well as external noise such as traffic, aircrafts. Hotels, hostels and boarding houses. c) State the performance requirements set down in Clause G6 for each type of sound. Airborne sound: STC of walls, floors and ceilings, shall be no less than 55 Impact sound: Impact Insulation Class (IIC) of floors shall be no less than 55 4. a) Speech clarity is important in a lecture theatre. Explain the three main acoustical issues that influence the speech clarity in such a space. Control reverberation time - If not kept low, a large amount of unwanted echoes may be caused. Thus, speech clarity will be affected negatively. Control intrusive noise Provide early reflections -

b) Give an example of a plan shape that would be problematic for a lecture theatre and explain why This plan causes sound waves from the speaker (located at middle left) to bounce off the curved rear wall, causing echo back to the stage and thus, a "hole" in the central audience zone. There is limited diffusion and low sense reverberation, which will create difficulty in hearing.

5. a) The fan-shaped concert halls of the 20th century were found to be an acoustical failure. Discuss two of the main problems experienced in these halls. The fan-shaped concert halls caused sound waves from the speaker (located middle left) to bounce off the curved rear wall, causing echo back to the stage and thus, a "hole" in the central audience zone. There was limited diffusion and low sense reverberation, thus the acoustic quality was very bad and guests were unable to hear clearly. b) name 3 other concert hall forms and explain the technical reasons for their success. Use specific examples of halls in your explanation. Boston Symphony Hall - Based on a systematic design, lower and longer design with RT of 1.8s Royal Festival Hall London - ceiling is profiled for early reflections to the grand tier. Side balconies are removed and the middle balcony is made very deep. Resulting in extreme clarity and very low RT. Christchurch Town Hall - large oblique reflectors which generate lateral reflections. It had an oval form, with short reverberation time. 6. a) In the context of Resource Management issues, what is the meaning of the term "Reverse Sensitivity" Reverse sensitivity describes the impact that new development of one kind may have on existing activities. b) Describe two examples where this might occur The impact of new residential development on mixed use neighbourhoods. The impact of new road developments that causes extra noise and pollution for existing nearby neighbourhoods. 7. a) Explain what the term STC stands for. STC stands for Sound Transmission Class, which is an integer rating for how well a building partition attenuates airborne sound.

b) What is the minimum STC requirement between habitable rooms of separate tenancies in Clause G6 of the Building Code? Walls, floors and ceiling should be no less than 55 c) Describe two typical wall constructions that would comply with the building code STC requirement Concrete Plasterboard 8. a) Explain the meaning of the term "Reverberation Time". Describe the two main factors which determine reverberation time. Reverberation Time is the time taken for sound to decay by 60dB. The two factors include size and shape of a room, and the objects inside e.g. people and furniture. b) give examples of room types that typically have a: - short reverberation time - long reverberation time Short reverberation = bedroom, lounge, Long reverberation = sports gymnasium, assembly halls

EXTRA NOTES Impact Insulation Class (IIC) is a measurement of the noise caused by a standard impact source (Tapping Machine). The IIC is dependent on: - the floor structure (material, thickness, etc) - the floor covering (carpet, vinyl, parquet tiles) - the ceiling beneath (isolated, layers etc.) The tapping machine - meant to roughly simulate the impact from a person in high heeled shoes. But doesnt adequately represent low frequency thump from soft shoes/bare feet Transmission Loss is a measure of the energy loss through a material (STC) Sound Level Difference is simply the noise in the source room minus the noise in the receiving room (Dw) The mass law - doubling the mass increases the STC by 6 points

PART D: SUSTAINABLE DESIGN (30 marks) Note form, not exceeding 200-250 words 1. General environmental issues (i) Consideration and selection of materials involves a balancing of several environmental factors of which the main factors are: - pollution caused by manufacturing; - production of carbon dioxide; - resource depletion; - recyclability - and subsequent disposal of the material Discuss briefly the advantages of one common material in New Zealand building: either radiata pine timber, or mass concrete (17.5 mpa) in terms of its environmental impact. Mass concrete has good durability and low maintenance requirements, ensuring minimal environmental impact. Mass concrete has good thermal mass, can store heat quite well, which can then be released slowly during the night, providing thermal comfort. This decreases the need for gas/electrical appliances, which has negative environmental impacts. (ii) The calculation of whole-building embodied energy introduces the issue of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA, or LCC, Life Cycle Cost) to building design. Explain the principle of "pay-back" in the context of an argument in favour of selecting a more expensive heating system for a house in the Auckland area. In your answer, you should indicate a time-frame in which you would expect the higher cost to be recovered, and the LCA calculation to move into a theoretical capital "profit" for the client. Assume $1,000 invested @ net 5% Assume return increases @ 5% Accumulated saved costs as graph gradually overtake, then intersect with rising value of the investment discounted @ 5% The time line (horizontal) indicates the point where the accumulated saved capital overtakes the accumulating value of the investment If this occurs within 10 years the pay-back is usually considered acceptable

Outline 3 other suggestions you could make for improving the environmental performance of the hotel in the process of its up-grading programme.

(iii) The Massey Library (Architects: Dodd Patterson and Bukowski Rheim, 2001). This building uses numerous strategies to achieve a low-energy, low-impact form of architecture. Choose two of its primary features, and summarise the principles involved. Your answer should include sketches to show how the element or feature works. Solar Power Generation - Photovoltaic panels on the roof generate electricity for the building. The system is fully integrated into the national power grid, drawing extra power when needed and selling excess power back to the grid when available. The water feature treats the first rain to fall onto the library roof - called 'first flush'. This water is often contaminated with dust and other pollutants. It travels through flow forms and air is mixed into it, cleansing and re-vitalising the water. The water feature cools the library space and is an educational feature.

(iv) The principles of Ecologically Sustainable Design (ESD) now affect the work of most architects in New Zealand, and, in particular, govern the work of designers in higher density urban house. From the short introduction to this area of architecture included in the environmental design section of the course, outline four primary issues that, in your opinion, influence the development of this housing typology. Your answer should recognise both technical and social issues raised in the review of housing at higher densities. Social - Plan variations that provide graded public-private external spaces including private roof terraces. Central public courtyard which promotes interaction. Energy performance - Solar water heating, passive design (allowing summer and winter sun), natural ventilation, must all be taken into account in order to design ecologically and be sustainable. In doing so, electrical and gas energy use will decrease. Sustainability - Materials used for high density house construction should have good durability and low maintenance requirements, ensuring minimal environmental impact and have longer life. Building design issues - Use of suitable architectural features such as eaves, louvres and correct openings (windows and doors), size and location, to provide good thermal design.

(v) Two architects from leading practices in Auckland contributed lectures to the class on prominent new highly-rated ESD developments: one of these is a large commercial building, and the other is a primary school. a) for each example describe four ESD strategies that have been prioritized in the building's design. b) Explain how these strategies have affected the architecture of the building in each case and the operation and management of the buildings c) Name the two practices involved, and the names of both buildings

2. Identifying ESB strategies in Design The images "A" and "B" show the BedZed development in South London designed by Bill Dunster (below) are selected from illustrations used in the environmental section of the course: (i) Describe all visible external features in the 2 illustrations that identify the buildings as examples of "sustainable" architecture. Good use of glazing for optimal passive solar heating and natural ventilation in building Wind driven ventilation with heat recovery on the roof for optimal cross ventilation Good mixture of vegetation with architecture and helps promote greenery Use of low embodied energy materials, such as timber and steel (ii) Outline the benefits of these features to the building users as you would expect them to experience these benefits in practical everyday use. Large open able windows on the facades allows optimal sunlight to enter through and warm the rooms. The large amount of glazing on the facades also mean there is a lot of natural light, so the use of artificial lighting is decreased and money is saved. Natural and cross ventilation is also made possible by the use of wind driven ventilation with heat recovery on the roof. As warm air rises, it is released through the roof efficiently, as well as through the windows on the side of the building. As a result, the internal temperature can be easily controlled by the building users. Trees, shrubbery, and timber are materials that are soft and easy on the eyes. They are durable and provide a warm feel for the building users.

Image A: South elevation of one of the main blocks: three-storey single-aspect town houses.

Image B: Gable end wall (west-facing) of one of the main blocks: mixed use buildings with workshops, retail and office space below residential accommodation.

Image C: Earth song housing development, RANUI, West Auckland (above) approximately 28th dph.

(i) Describe all visible external features in the illustration that identify the buildings as examples of "sustainable" architecture. Solar water heating system on roof Sufficient glazing on building facades to allow natural ventilation and lighting Sufficient use of eaves and roof overhangs to provide protection for windows and doors, as well as preventing overheating and rain penetration. Use of low embodied energy materials, such as timber and steel (ii) Outline the benefits of these features to the building users as you would expect them to experience these benefits in practical everyday use. Solar water heating system allows water to be heated without the use of an gas/electrical heating system, which decreases . Glazing on the facades allow natural ventilation and lighting, so building users can control room temperatures easily and amount of light via curtains. Eaves and overhangs provide extra shade and protection from the scorching summer sun which can be damaging and uncomfortable. Openings can also be protected from the brutal winter weather. Materials like timber provide a softer and warm touch, due to its surface. Thus, it is more comfortable for building users, compared to a material like concrete.

1. i) Sustainable building for the future is informed by an understanding of the macro issues in the wider environment. The New Zealand Green Building Council (NZgbc) star ratings system connects these world-wide environmental issues to our building practices and is the preferred process for evaluating building performance. Outline in note form THREE macro issues discussed in the course that will affect building design in New Zealand during the next twenty years Materiality sustainability - construction, embodied energy, demolition energy Energy efficiency - passive heating, energy performance Water efficiency - collection, reuse, disposal (ii) Concepts of water efficiency in building are an important aspect of sustainable practice for designers. Define the term WATER EFFICIENCY as proposed in the course. Water efficiency is the resource management practice that incorporates analysis of costs and uses of water; specification of water-saving solutions, installations of water-saving measures, and verification of savings to maximise the costeffective use of water resources. Planned management of water to prevent waste, over-use and exploitation of resource. Efficient water planning seeks to do more with less, without sacrificing comfort or performance. iii) Low insulation standards in existing houses are a significant problem for building energy efficiency in New Zealand due to the stock of older houses. The payback principle is essential to arguments for improving performance. Outline the methodology demonstrated in the course for providing the future value of investment in additional insulation in an existing building. PAYBACK

(iv)Summarise FIVE technical objectives for construction standards in new higher density housing developments put forward in the course. Function and construction Social dimensions Regulations (constraints) Economic issues (investment etc) Technical issues of construction (methods and supply) Improved environmental performance

(v) The Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) in the UK has published research into a system for measuring embodied energy in buildings. In this system embodied energy is measured in five separate elements. The example used in the research study was a typical medium sized office building. (vi) List the five building elements proposed by the RICS, and briefly describe the short and long term effects on the embodied energy of a typical structure of this type. Structure Central plant Skin and facade Roof Fit-out

Structure and central plant has the most important embodied carbon energy Skin/facade and fit-out can be easily replaced and have lower embodied energy 35% of the building's embodied carbon lasts 60 years or more 2. Design briefing - You are a member of a team advising a hotel board on the expansion of an Auckland hotel. The brief requires the new works to improve the environmental performance of the hotel in terms of energy consumption, and ecological impact on the site. Draft your notes for this brief. Divide your notes of strategies you will recommend in THREE subheadings: general principles, energy and embodied energy, and site impacts (water, footprint, and site surfaces). Summarise your "shopping list" of priorities for the project. General principles Provide elements that reflect environmental ideas - wind catchers, solar panels, creating a statement for the general public, that we are environmentally conscious. Set a high standard of energy performance, try and meet/exceed 5 star energy ratings transfer ideas into accessible data format for the public Energy and embodied energy Use low embodied energy materials such as engineered lumber (keeps carbon low) using timber in general helps balance the carbon footprint, as concrete and structural elements have high carbon Have a recycling plan for all materials, and how to treat them. Use recyclable materials wherever possible Utilize passive solar heating for spaces to decrease amount of artificial lighting usage

Site impact Water foot print - Reuse grey water, minimalisation of waste water. Water catchment and filtering units Site surface (maintaining the landscape) and consider typography Respect existing local Shopping list Green roofs Septic tanks Grey water tanks Vegetation Solar panels Wind turbines Recycled materials Thermal massing floors Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL)

EXTRA NOTES