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UNIT – 6 FORMING PROCESS 1 Introduction Forming means changing the shape of existing solid body.

In forming processes, the starting material may be in the shape of a plate, sheet, bar, rod, wire or tubing of various cross-sections. Plastic deformation of the material occurs in the forming process. This happened by stresses applied in the process exceed the yield strength of the material caused the material to take shape of the die. Learning points o Metal forming o Types of metal forming process o Plastic forming

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Learning Outcomes Upon completion of this module, you would be able to: 1. Explain what is metal forming process 2. Describe different types of forming process 3. Identify the application of each forming process 4. Notify the basic plastic forming and shaping process

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Teaching Materials 3.1 METAL FORMING PROCESS In metal forming process, it can be divided into three categories:

strips and coils (thickness is range from 0. drawing and shearing. 3. forging. Types of sheet metal working processes are bending.4 to 6 mm).1 Rolling It is a process of reducing the thickness or changing the crosssection of a long workpiece by compressive force applied through a set of rolls (Figure 6.1). Sometimes this process known as stamping.2.2 TYPES OF METAL FORMING 3. b) sheet metal working process: process that carried out on metal sheets. extrusion and drawing. .a) bulk deformation processes: for example to change the shape of a steel block. Types of bulk deformation processes are rolling.

3. 5th Edition The rolling process can be divided into two types: a) Flat rolling: this process will reduce the thickness and increase the width of the workpiece (Figure 6. Schmid.Figure 6.1: Various flat-rolling and shape rolling processes. Source: Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. sheets and plates. L-beam and U-channels. Schmid. The workpiece passes through rolls that have the desired shape. Example of shape process is shown in Figure 6. strips.2: Decrease the thickness and increase in width Source: Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R.2). . Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. Figure 6. 5th Edition b) Shape roll: in this process the rectangular cross-section is changed to other shapes as I-beam. It is used to roll the slabs.

5th Edition 3. gears.2.Figure 6. It is used to make crankshaft. Source: Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. There are several types of forging process such as open-die forging. a) Open-die forging: in this process workpiece is compressed between two flat dies as shown in Figure 6.2 Forging process It is a process where the workpiece is deformed by compressing it between two dies either applying impact or gradual pressure to shape the part. turbine shaft and tools such as spanar.4.3: Steps in the shape rolling of an I-beam part. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. closed die forging and flash-less forging. .

Figure 6. This process is not suitable to produce parts with good dimensional accuracy. 5th Edition b) Closed-die forging: It is carried out by using dies that have the inverse of the desired shape of the part. Figure 6. Schmid. the force is applied to rectangular shape workpiece and it will deform according to the shape of cavity. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology.5: The closed-die forging process Source: Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R.5. .6). As in Figure 6. Schmid. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. 5th Edition c) Flashless forging: It is a type of closed-die forging with no flash is formed (Figure 6.4: The open-die forging process Source: Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R.

magnesium and other metals and alloys. .7). a cylindrical billet is forced through a die (similar to squeezing toothpaste from a tube (Figure 6. 5th Edition 3. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology.2. Schmid.6: The flashless forging process Source: Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. copper. aluminum ladders and etcs. Typical products made by extrusion are sliding doors. window frames.Figure 6. Extrusion can be economical for large production runs.3 Extrusion processes In this process. It is used to extrude material as aluminum.

b) Cold: It is a combination of extrusion and forging (Figure 6. 5th Edition There are two types of extrusion: a) Hot: It is carried out at high temperature. bolts and rivets. cables and . 5th Edition 3. This process is used to produce shafts.9). dimensional accuracy.8).2.4 Drawing processes It is a process where the cross section of a rod or wire is reduced or change by pulling through a die (draw die) (Figure 6.Figure 6. Schmid.8: The cold extrusion process Source: Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. firstly the billet is heated to above the recrytallization temperature. surface finish and the disadvantage is high magnitude of stresses. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. The advantages of this process are better mechanical properties. This will assist the material to lower its strength and increases its ductility.7: The extrusion process Source: Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. In hot extrusion. Figure 6. Schmid. Examples of part produced by this process are components for automobiles.

Bending is defined as the straining of metal a round a straight axis. It is used to increase the stiffness of a part.2. Die and punch is used in the bending process to perform the force which will plastically deformed the sheet metal and the bend takes a permanent once the forces are removed (Figure 6. The bending machine (press brake) is used in this process (Figure 6. dimensional accuracy and improved mechanical properties. Schmid. . Manufacturing Engineering and Technology.11). 5th Edition 3.5 Sheet metal bending process The most common sheet metal forming processes.10). Figure 6.etcs. The advantages of drawing are good surface finish.9: The drawing process Source: Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R.

10: The bending process Source: Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. 5th Edition Figure 6.11: The bending machine (press brake) Source: Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. Schmid. 5th Edition . Manufacturing Engineering and Technology.Figure 6.

6 Sheet metal drawing process Drawing is done by placing a piece of sheet metal (blank). Schmid. In this process. similar in cutting a paper using a pair of scissors. the workpiece will having a complex stresses and strains and slowly formed according to the shape of the die cavity and punch. 5th Edition 3.7 Sheet metal shearing process It is a cutting process using shearing action between two sharp cutting edges. . Figure 6. over a die cavity and pushing the metal into cavity using a punch (Figure 6. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology.2.12: The sheet metal drawing process Source: Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R.3. the sheet metal will have plastic deformation. penetration and fractures (Figure 6. In this process.12).2.13).

toys are made from plastic. for example sheets.Figure 6. In plastic shaping process. they are differing from each other in terms of their mechanical properties and chemicals. plastic powders or pellets will be melted just before the shaping process. Types of plastic forming process are: .3 PLASTIC FORMING Nowadays most products such as computers. rods etcs. Plastic is categorised as a polymeric material. There is various form of plastic similar to metals. 5th Edition 3.13: The sheet metal shearing process Source: Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. For each type of plastics. Schmid. automobiles. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. tubes.

it will flow into the mold cavity under a high pressure. 5th Edition . Injection molding machine is used to carry out the process.a) Injection molding b) Compression molding c) Transfer molding 3.1 Injection molding This process is done by firstly plastic pellet is heated and after the plastic pellet melted. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. (b) reciprocating rotating screw Source: Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.3.14: Injection molding with (a) plunger. Figure 6.

Schmid.15: Typical products made by injection molding Source: Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. 5th Edition Figure 6.Figure 6. In this process. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. two mold halves will close to .3.2 Compression molding The oldest molding process for making especially rubber tires. Schmid.15: Injection-molding machine Source: Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. 5th Edition 3.

(d) Die design for making a compression-molded part with undercuts. a process similar to forging: (a) positive. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. 5th Edition 3. Source: Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. The flash in part (c) has to be trimmed off. and (c) flash.3 Transfer molding This process is done by loading the charge into the chamber and heated before the soften charge is given pressure to flow into the heated mold. Schmid.compress the charge (compound) which will flow into the cavity. Figure 6.3.16: Types of compression melding. . (b) semipositive.

Figure 6. Schmid.17: Sequence of operations in transfer molding for thermosetting plastics. Source: Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. 5th Edition . Manufacturing Engineering and Technology.