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Introduction The very beginnings of fermentation technology the use of micro-organism s for the production of foods such

as cheeses, yoghurts, sauerkraut, fermented p ickles and sausages, soy sauce, and other oriental products, and beverages such as beers, wines and derived spirits Microorganisms play an important role in removing obnoxious and unhealth ful wastes, in water purifi¬cation, effluent treatment and solid waste management New products are increasingly being derived from microbial fermentations, namely : 1. To overproduce essential primary metabolites such as acetic and lactic a cids, glycerol, acetone, butyl alcohol, organic acids, amino acids, vitamins and polysaccharides; 2. To produce secondary metabolites (metabolites that do not appear to have an obvious role in the metabolism of the producer organism) such as peni¬cillin, s treptomycin, cephalosporin, giberellins, etc. 3. To produce many forms of industrially useful enzymes, e.g. exocellular e nzymes such as amylases, pectinases and proteases, and intracellular enzymes suc h as invertase, asparaginase, restriction endonucleases, etc. Plant cell culture is aimed largely at secondary product formations such as flavours, per¬fumes and drugs whereas mammalian cell culture has been concerned with vaccine and antibody formation and the production of protein molecules suc h as interferon, interleukins, etc. The organisms must be cultivated and motivated to form the desired produ cts by means of a Physical/technical containment system (the bioreactor), The correct medium composition Environmental growth regulating parameters such as temperature and aerat ion. The same apparatus, with modifications, can be used to produce an enzyme , an--antibiotic, an amino acid or single cell protein. With a nutrient broth and allowing the components to react, e.g. yeast c ells with a sugar solution to give alcohol. All the biological systems are essentially performed in a bioreactor by choosing correct medium and optimized conditions for growth

Fermentation products according to industrial sector Sector Activities Organic (Bulk) Ethanol, acetone, butanol Organic acids (citric, itaconic) Organic (Fine) Enzymes Perfumeries

bioaccumulation and leaching (Cu and U) Pharmaceuticals Antibiotics Diagnostic agents (enzymes. monoclonal antibodies) Enzyme inhibitors Steroids Vaccines Energy Ethanol (gasohol) Methane (biogas) Biomass Food Dairy products (cheeses.Polymers (mainly polysaccharides) Inorganic Metal beneficiation. fish and meat products Beverages (alco holic. pectins Agriculture Animal feedstuffs (SCP) Veterinary vaccines Ensilage and composting processes Microbial pesticides Rhizobium and other N-fixing bacterial inoculants Mycorrhizal inoculants Plant cell and tissue culture (vegetative propagation. flavors. handle and dispose of large volume of water Very specific towards catalytic reaction Are very slow when compared with Conventional chemical process Achieve exclusive production of an . tempeh. embryo production. tea and coffee) Baker's yeast Food additives (antioxidants. miso) Mushroom products Amino acids. vitamins Starch products Glucose and high fructose syrups Functional modifications of proteins. Novel foods (soy sau ce. yogurts. colors. stabilizers. geneti c improvement) Advantages and disadvantages of producing organic compounds by biological rather than chemical means Advantages Disadvantages Complex molecules such as protein and antibodies can be produced by chemical means Can easily be contaminated by foreign and unwanted microorganisms Bioconversions give higher yields The desired product will usually be present in a complex product mixture requiring separation Biological systems are operated at lower temp. near neutral pH Need to provide.

mould fungi 2-6. anaerobic digestion Principles of microbial growth The growth of organisms may be seen Increase of cell material in terms of mass or cell number Growth depends upon availability and transport of nutrients and environm ent conditions like temp.25-1hr. ideal environmental paramet . with in excess. vitamins. pH and aeration The quantity of biomass in bioreactor is determined by gravimetrically i . 6-aminopenicillanic acid Waste treatment Activated sludge.5h. methane. Initial lag phase: No apparent growth. DNA or protein or numerically Doubling time means time required for the doubling in the weight of biom ass Generation time means doubling cell number Average doubling time increases the cell size.isomeric compound Examples of products in different categories in biochemical industries Category Example Cell mass Bakerâ s yeast. three ways for the growth of microorganisms in the bioreactor batch. bacteria 0. cells are in the process of adapting environmental condition and that new growth will eventually begin 2. Transient acceleration: Inoculum begins to grow 3. plant cell 20-70 hr and animal cell 15-48 hr Biotechnologically.e. Exponential phase: Growth is of limited duration proceeds at the maximum possible rate for that organism. by dry and wet weight. single cell protein Cell components Intracellular protein Biosynthetic products Antibiotics. metabolites) accumulate Nutrient environment within the bioreactor is changing thus affecting ce ll metabolism Cell multiplication ceases due to limitation of nutrients Accumulation of toxic exerted waste products Growth characteristics in a batch culture of a microorganism: 1. lactic acid Bioconversion High fructose corn syrup. amino and organic acids Catabolic products Ethanol. semi-continuous and continuous Batch process Fixed volume of medium in bioreactor As growth takes place nutrients are consumed and products of growth (biomass.

. Deceleration phase: Due to change of nutrition condition growth rate decrease s 5. Death phase when growth rate has ceased. Stationery phase: when overall growth can no longer be obtained because of nutrient exhaustion.ers and growth inhibitor absent 4. 6.