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AIDS a disease of the immune system characterized by increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, as pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and candidiasis

, to certain cancers, as Kaposi's sarcoma, and to neurological disorders: caused by a retrovirus and transmitted chiefly through blood or blood products that enter the body's bloodstream, especially by sexual contact or contaminated hypodermic needles. 1981: The Beginning In 1981, the first cases of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) were identified among gay men in the United States, acquiring the designation, GRID (Gay-Related Immune Deficiency); however, scientists later found evidence that the disease existed in the world for some years prior, i.e., subsequent analysis of a blood sample of a Bantu man, who died of an unidentified illness in the Belgian Congo in 1959, made him the first confirmed case of an HIV infection. Source: CNN In an article, "1959 and all that: Immunodeficiency viruses," by Simon Wain-Hobson of the Pasteur Institute in Nature (Volume 391, 5 February 1998, pp. 532533), Wain-Hobson wrote: "Where did HIV [Human Immunodeficiency Virus] come from? Both of the AIDS viruses, HIV-1 and HIV-2, originated in Africa... As is often the case with microbes, a jump from one species to another is probably to blame... chimpanzees (for HIV-1) and sooty mangabeys (for HIV-2)... When did the AIDS epidemic begin?... the Big Bang seems to have occurred around, or just after, the Second World War. Emerging microbial infections often result from adaption to changing ecological niches and habitats." Cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP, a lung infection) and Kaposi's sarcoma (a rare skin cancer) were reported by doctors in New York and Los Angeles in 1981, then the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began tracking a growing population of young men, women, and babies, whose immune systems were nearly destroyed. Late in 1982, the condition began to be referred to as AIDS. Source: American Red Cross For a few at first, their awareness of AIDS began with the publishing of a little noticed entry on page two of the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report of June 5, 1981, where a strange outbreak of killer pneumonia was spreading among gay men. Since this report, AIDS has graduated from a seemingly local phenomenon to a global epidemic. Source: CNN 1982-1985: The Faces of AIDS Cases of AIDS in 1982 began to be reported by fourteen nations. And, as early as 1982, CDC received its first report of "AIDS in a person with hemophilia (from a blood transfusion), and in infants born to mothers with AIDS." Source: CDC Historical Highlights A contemporary update on this, concerning AIDS and blood transfusions, from the American Red Cross: "Like most medical procedures, blood transfusions have associated risk. In the more than fifteen years since March 1985, when the FDA first licensed a test to detect HIV antibodies in donated blood, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has reported only 41 cases of AIDS caused by transfusion of blood that tested negative for the AIDS virus. During this time, more than 216 million blood components were transfused in the United States... Scientific studies have proven that volunteer donors are the single greatest safeguard of the blood supply today." Source: Myths About AIDS and the Blood Supply To continue, Dr. Luc Montagnier of the Pasteur Institute in France announced the isolation of the LAV retrovirus (lymphadenopathy-associated virus) in 1983, which later was identified as the cause of AIDS. Source: CNN By 1983, 33 countries reported cases of AIDS. And, on the other side of the Atlantic, Dr. Robert Gallo of the National Cancer Institute isolated the HTLV-III (Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus III) retrovirus in 1984. Medical periodicals such as

(2) KS (Kaposi's sarcoma). What are the complications of AIDS? Any secondary condition.The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) continued to reference HTLV-III as the "primary etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)" as late as 1985. in 1986. when the germs normally in our body take advantage of the weakness of the immune system to cause health problems. AND 90% OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV DON'T EVEN KNOW THEY HAVE IT. (3) Robert Reed (Mike Brady of The Brady Bunch) died in 1992 of intestinal cancer and complications of AIDS. throat. AIDS awareness was soon brought to the public's consciousness. and they were given the new designation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV. Some of the more common opportunistic infections in conjunction with HIV are: (1) PCP (Pneumocystis pneumonia). 1987. or other disorder caused by an AIDS weakened immune system is a complication of AIDS. the pianist Liberace died of AIDS on February 4. so that any number of opportunistic infections can take advantage of that weakness.000 PEOPLE ARE INFECTED WITH HIV. Another entertainer. and (6) Herpes simplex (can cause oral herpes or genital herpes). . when they succumbed to AIDS: (1) Amanda Blake (Miss Kitty of Gunsmoke) died in 1989 of AIDS related throat cancer. (3) CMV (Cytomegalovirus. Rock Hudson. Source: JAMA However. 1985. when popular film star. 1985. shortly after making public his AIDS on July 25. (4) Candidiasis (Thrush: an infection of the mouth. or vagina). died of AIDS on October 2. thus becoming the first major public figure to announce that he had AIDS. Many other well known personalities from the entertainment industry added their familiar faces to the cumulative weight of the AIDS crisis. an infection usually affecting the eyes). symptom. OVER 34 MILLION PEOPLE ARE INFECTED WITH HIV/AIDS IN THE WORLD. (5) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB). (2) Anthony Perkins (Norman Bates of Hitchcock's Psycho) died in 1992 of pneumonia brought on by AIDS. An opportunistic infection (OI) occurs. it was determined that HTLV-III and LAV were the same virus. HALF OF THOSE PEOPLE ARE FROM THE AGES OF 15-24 YEARS OLD. then you have AIDS. EVERY 24 HOURS OVER 15. If you have HIV and any of a list of about 24 designated Center for Disease Control opportunistic infections. and (4) Dack Rambo (Jack Ewing of Dallas) died in 1994 of complications of AIDS.

Table Topics Participants – Secrets to Success "Oh." 2. you are well on your way to taking the terror out of Table Topics. What – Table Topics subjects can range from serious to sublime. deciding on the number of topic questions to be asked based on meeting time remaining. A strong opening and closing. Table Topics is a terrifying experience. It provides members with time to think about their subject and offers them a chance to practice at the lectern. Table Topics Master – The Five W’s of Success Who – Participants should be those members who do not have a duty on the agenda.Enjoy the experience. When – Table Topics can appear on the agenda before or after speeches. along with a message in the body of the topics speech. Try matching your questions to the members’ experience. Other clubs like Table Topics after speeches. no the Table Topics Master is looking my way! Now if I can just keep my head down and avoid eye contact! Oh no…my name was called. Look positive when the Table Topics Master asks you the questions. "The fact which you know by personal experience beats a dozens which you may have borrowed from others." Your Table Topics terror will dissolve by adding personal anecdotes to your topics speech. especially those from personal experiences. Shake hands with the Table Topics Master and take control of the lectern. wrote. Seize the opportunity and have fun. Ralph Smedley. Have Fun . We are in Toastmasters to develop communication skills and participation is an excellent way to improve impromptu speaking skills. and you take control of the meeting. What have you done? You look confident in front of the group. offering newer members more flexible subjects. smile. Why – Explain the purpose of Table Topics at the start of your session. Share a story – Stories capture and entertain your audience. Dr. Table Topics is an enjoyable opportunity to develop impromptu speaking skills. The founder of Toastmasters. Allow Time to Prepare – When you rise from your chair. Consider Table Topics as a Short Speech – Use the fundamentals of good speech. Do you need a little bit more time? Try repeating the question or start by saying "I’m glad you asked me that. What are the secrets of successful participants? 1. Some clubs like Table Topics before speeches to warm up the audience. Where – Ask participants to come to the front of the room. look confident and proceed to the front of the room. for others. By following these four tips and participating at every opportunity. now what I do?" For many Toastmasters. A brief description of why we put ourselves through this type of "terror" is especially important for guests and new members! . you have time to think. 4. Review the agenda and then direct your questions to those members who have not had the opportunity to speak. will have you winning Table Topics contest on a regular basis – or at least reduce your terror! 3.

inspiration will come. and explain what it means. Such as. Instead. Cinderella. football helmet.Table Topics Continuous Story . and there were three reasons why. quickly preparing a relevant response. and organized thoughts in a limited time.Provide each participant with a saying and ask them to explain where it originated and what the phrase means. DON’T PANIC: If you can. Each participant chooses a hat and role plays a character who would wear that hat. construction hat. read the fortune. clear. “My best holiday ever was in Tibet. derby. Santa Claus. impromptu speech. Daily News . and do so right at the start. Lady Godiva. and will block the big idea from ever getting through. a little idea will pop into your head. The last time used by each speaker is the first one used by the next speaker. Even if it’s just a little idea. Ask the audience to guess who the character was. Remember the rule of three: You can put some structure onto your speech by breaking it down into three main points that justify your opinion or reinforce it.Collect a variety of hats and place them on a table. Acknowledge the audience and repeat the question. answer the question or express an opinion. it’ll sulk. Different Sayings . Examples are baseball cap. Examples are "A stitch in time saves nine". A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words . Fortune Cookies . start talking about it. Mother Goose.Provide headlines from the daily newspapers and ask the participants what the story means. Role Play .Take old records or tapes to the meeting and play a portion of the song.Begin a story and ask participants to continue it. 2. right at the start: Unless you’re a beginner. has probably dried up at some point and is willing you to do well. Peter Pan. Ten Top Tips for Terrific Table Topics 1. 5. 4. Music Time Machine .Provide each of the participants with a character and ask them to act it out or tell about the character without mentioning who the character is. try not to give a long introduction. Table Topics provides you with an opportunity to practice careful listening. Remember. If you need to. Sit at the back of the room and walk slowly to the front. who calls on each Table Topics Speaker to give a short. magazine or post card. and expressing fluent. Ask each participant what memories the song brings back. so you don’t need to worry about their reaction. or even about something totally unrelated: sooner or later. Go with the first little idea that comes into your head: Sooner or later. They open the cookie. Don’t reject it in the hope that a bigger idea will come along: the little idea has to be expressed first. etc. but you can also do it for open questions (eg “Talk about holidays”).Ask participants to tell a story after looking at a picture from a newspaper.”) You don’t need them all before . Express an opinion. everyone in the audience has been in your position. Presided over by the Table Topicsmaster.Offer each participant a fortune cookie. (For example. Another twist to the music time machine is showing an album cover to each participant and asking for their memories. Take the real fortune out of the cookie and replace it with your own unique fortune! Hats . 3. just stop caring about table topics. If you do reject it. Buy time: Give yourself time for your nerves to die down and for you to think of something to say. etc. This is easier for closed questions (eg “What was your favourite holiday?”). so long as you can seize your little idea and turn it into something concrete. TABLE TOPICS The portion of a club meeting devoted to exercises in impromptu speaking. just talk for a while about something vaguely related to the theme.

including names. some echolalia and extensive jargon. As well as making it easier for you to answer the question.5 years Vocabulary of 400 words. 75% of speech understood by strangers 2. For example. diminishing echolalia. Know when to stop: Try not to ramble your way through a long conclusion. Prepare something in advance: You can often use the theme of the topic to suggest a framework for your speech. By doing this. and instead tries something unusual or entertaining. a style of delivery or a direction to take it in. you can fit your answer into the framework you’ve already thought of. you can develop your argument by using Kipling’s six honest serving men to trigger ideas in your mind. we can give ourselves both the material and the framework to put together a well-structured speech. 50% of speech understood by strangers 22-24 months Vocabulary >50 words. almost all speech understood by strangers 4 to 5 years Six to eight words per sentence. three to five words per sentence. counts three objects correctly.5 to 3 years Use of plurals and past tense. you can grab the audience’s attention. counts 10 pennies correctly . 20 to 25% of speech understood by strangers 19-21 months Vocabulary of 20 words. asks questions. finish with a punchy ending and hand back to the table topics master.to three-word phrases. 80 to 90% of speech understood by strangers 3 to 4 years Three to six words per sentence. then think of the second point while talking about the first. you can think of the first point while answering the question. tells stories. and so on. Be eccentric: The best topics are often those where the speaker avoids a serious or conventional answer. Draw on your own experience: When you’re given a table topic. 60 to 70% of speech understood by strangers 2-2. you can ask yourself if there’s anything in your own experience that will help you answer the question or illustrate your argument. 6.you start: instead. names four colors. Instead. Age Activities 1-6 months Coos in response to voice* 6-9 months Babbling* 10-11 months Imitation of sounds. related experiences. When your question arrives. (For example: What was my favourite holiday? Why did I do there? When did I go? How did I travel? Where did I stay? Who did I meet?) By actively looking for answers to these questions. a personal reply will often sound more heartfelt than other answers you might give. knows age and sex. often imitates two. 7. use of pronouns. two-word phrases. 8. It’s surprising how often this works. you can deliver your speech in character. two. and can free yourself from the constraints of a conventional approach. says "mama/dada" without meaning 12 months Says "mama/dada" with meaning. or deliver an unexpected or contrarian argument. 10.and three-syllable words 13-15 months Vocabulary of four to seven words in addition to jargon. Remember the six honest serving men: Alternatively. dropping out of jargon. recap your answer and the main points of your speech. 9. <20% of speech understood by strangers 16-18 months Vocabulary of 10 words. converses.