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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

BY, Y.S.MADHULIKA
(I B.tech, IT, BVRIT)

SHIVANI SHARMA
(I B.Tech, IT, MVSR)

I. INTRODUCTION:

Intelligence is the ability to think, imagine, create, understand, memorize, and learn from experience by adapting to the changes. Artificial intelligence can actually be defined as: "The study and design of intelligent agents, where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions which maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1956, defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines”. II. BRANCHES OF A.I • Logical A.I:

What a program knows about the world in general the facts of the specific situation in which it must act, and its goals are all represented by sentences of some mathematical logical language. The program decides what to do by inferring that certain actions are appropriate for achieving its goals. • Search:

AI programs often examine large numbers of possibilities, e.g. moves in a chess game or inferences by a theorem proving program. Discoveries are continually made about how to do this more efficiently in various domains. • Pattern recognition:

When a program makes observations of some kind, it is often programmed to compare what it sees with a pattern. For example, a vision program may try to match a pattern of eyes and a nose in a scene in order to find a face. More complex patterns, e.g. in a natural language text, in a chess position, or in the history of some event are also studied.

However. In the most common cases. TYPES of A. From these. when we hear of a bird. Mathematical logical deduction is adequate for some purposes. • Learning from experience : Programs do that. • Planning : Planning programs start with general facts about the world (especially facts about the effects of actions). For example. in spite of the fact that it has been an active research area since the 1950s. but this conclusion can be reversed when we hear that it is a penguin. Usually languages of mathematical logic are used. they realized that this approach was too shallow. The approaches to AI based on connectionism and neural nets specialize in that. • Representation : Facts about the world have to be represented in some way.These more complex patterns require quite different methods than do the simple patterns that have been studied the most.g. facts about the particular situation and a statement of a goal. The Cyc system contains a large but spotty collection of common sense facts. yet more new ideas are needed.I: Initially. in developing systems of non-monotonic reasoning and theories of action. others can be inferred. they generate a strategy for achieving the goal. we man infer that it can fly. The simplest kind of non-monotonic reasoning is default reasoning in which a conclusion is to be inferred by default. the strategy is just a sequence of actions. • Common sense knowledge and reasoning : This is the area in which AI is farthest from human-level. While there has been considerable progress. It is the possibility that a conclusion may have to be withdrawn that constitutes the non-monotonic character of the reasoning. e. researchers thought that creating an AI would be simply writing programs for each and every function an intelligent being performs! As they went on with this task. III. Circumscription is another form of non-monotonic reasoning. Ordinary logical reasoning is monotonic in that the set of conclusions that can the drawn from a set of premises is a monotonic increasing function of the premises.I: • Weak or applied A. but new methods of non-monotonic inference have been added to logic since the 1970s. Programs can only learn what facts or behaviors their formalisms can represent. and unfortunately learning systems are almost all based on very limited abilities to represent information. There is also learning of laws expressed in logic. in the past few decades they have moderately succeeded in creating applied AI or rather making machines . • Inference : From some facts. but the conclusion can be withdrawn if there is evidence to the contrary.

APPROACHES to A.I: Approaches to Artificial intelligence are divided into two main lines of thought: • Neural Networks Even simple functions like face recognition.I.which can at least stimulate human actions and thoughts.For example robots from movies like matrix. they must delve deeper into natural intelligence first. • Strong A. pattern recognition and language comprehension were beyond Scientists’ programming skills! They understood that to create general AI. They tried to understand how cognition. comprehension. All current forms of intelligence are applied AI which mimic humans based on their programming. They are intelligent on their own so they are called true AI . special sense. Fig 2: an image showing a future robot with natural intelligence matching human intelligence. . terminator. IV. etc.I or General Intelligence: It is referred to AI that exceeds or matches human A. Some went into the study of the brain and tried to understand how the network of neurons creates the mind. Fig 1: an image showing a robot which simply acts based on its programming. decision-making happen in the human mind.

based on Boolean logic. conducting electric signals through its network. So these researchers created network of electronic analogues of a neuron. Researchers are attempting to build a silicon-based electronic network that is modeled on the working and form of the human brain! Our brain is a network of billions of neurons. the neural networks developed have the ability to learn patterns and remember. They arrive at a decision through a logical flow developed by answering yes-no questions. Chess is known as the drosophila or experimental specimen of artificial intelligence. people create virtual neural networks. Fig 3: an image showing neural networks. They are programmed to use statistical analysis and data mining to solve problems. However. as the neurons number in billions! Currently. the combined network of all these neurons creates intelligent behavior that is unrivaled and unsurpassed. these are machines devoted to solving problems in very specific niche areas. This approach has its limitations due to the scale and complexity of developing an exact replica of a human brain. Their tools are like those of a detective or sleuth. At an individual level. to create intelligent behavior. They have total expertise in a specific domain of human thought. followers of the expert systems approach are designing intelligent machines that solve problems by deductive logic. through simulation techniques. As the name expert systems suggest. a neuron has very little intelligence. Similarly. Chess computers like Fritz and its successors that beat chess grandmaster Kasparov are examples of expert systems. in the sense that it operates by a simple set of rules.It basically aims at mimicking the structure and functioning of the human brain. This approach has not been able to achieve the ultimate goal but there is a very positive progress in the field. • Expert Systems: By taking advantage of the phenomenal computational power of the modern computers. The progress in the development of parallel computing will aid it in the future. . it learns to realize patterns and remembers them.How the human brain works is. Memory was recognized to be an electronic signal pattern in a closed neural network . each connected with the other.

Fig 5: image of a robot working in an industry.Fig 4: image of fritz. to solve problems and reduce error in operation.I . For example. Manufacturing process is now totally automated. V. Some of the applications divided by domains are as follows: A. an example of applied A. Robot expert systems are taking over many jobs in industries that are dangerous for or beyond human ability. They combine precision and computational power with pure logic. APPLICATIONS of A. Heavy Industries and Space: Robotics and cybernetics have taken a leap combined with artificially intelligent expert systems. controlled and maintained by a computer system in almost every high-tech process. .I: Artificial Intelligence in the form of expert systems and neural networks has applications in every field of human endeavor. Robotic pilots carry out complex maneuvering techniques of unmanned spacecrafts sent in space.

The plane can be put on auto pilot once a course is set for the destination. . Aviation: Air lines use expert systems in planes to monitor atmospheric conditions and system status. B. Software that can predict trends in the stock market has been created which has been known to beat humans in predictive Fig 7:image showing forgery note detector C.Fig 6: image of an unmanned spacecraft. Finance: Banks use intelligent software applications to screen and analyze financial data.

.A. MYSIN is a rule-based program for diagnosis and therapy selection for infectious diseases. it will only be a matter of time before they become as regular as cell phones in our everyday life. • Games & Toys: AI is extensively used in the manufacture of various kinds of toys like tamagotchi toys to which people get easily attached. E. Fig 9: image of Pac-man. VI.I and robots are running 40 years behind computers However. Medicine: There are computer programs that tackle difficult clinical problems in a manner similar to that of an expert physician.Fig 8: Image showing unmanned aircraft. In games like computer chess AI explores huge number of future moves by both players which has taught us a little about human like intelligence. FUTURE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: . Fig 10: image showing a robot doctor. a programmed computer game. For example.

PROBLEMS TO BE FACED IN THE NEAR FUTURE: -Robot expert systems will be taking over many jobs in industries which might increase the number of unemployed in highly populated countries like India.Fig 11: Image of a future robot.We will recreate some parts of the human (animal) brain in SILICON. -A. There are two major projects aiming for human brain simulation. VII. C Cortex and IBM Blue Brain. Fig 12: image of a silicon brain. However the field of artificial consciousness remains in its infancy. . .I might overpower human intelligence causing human devastation .In the next 10 years technologies in narrow fields such as speech recognition will continue to improve and will reach human levels.

it might be possible. CONCLUSION: Is artificial Intelligence really possible? Can intelligence like a human mind surpass itself and create its own image? The depth and the powers of the human mind are just being tapped. will it share our idiosyncrasies? This will be the next step in the evolution of intelligence. VIII.Fig 13: image of a future robot performing tasks which are impossible for ordinary beings. will it share our sense of morals and justice. only time can tell! Even if such intelligence is created. Who knows. Hope I have succeeded in conveying to you the excitement and possibilities this subject holds! .