You are on page 1of 7


Performance Enhancement of Wireless Ad Hoc Network Using Cross Layer and Diversity Scheme
A. M . E. ALSAYAH, S. J. Muhammad, U. C. Ahamefula and S. H. Hadya.

Abstract— Ad hoc network provides efficient and innovative telecommunication technology scenarios where infrastructures are not accessible. This unique form of wireless network facilitates the use of reliable and efficient information and communication system in areas that are constrained by fixed line networks. However, numerous challenges limits its mobility leading to interference with other unpredictable radio station channel that potentially disrupts its network links and proper transportation as significant fraction of packets are lost resulting and or are received as erroneous. To overcome these limitations, the present study exploites potential technique that detects and uses reliable route among which include cross layer and diversity technique. The use of cross-layer measurements could be to detect various reliable routes while multi-path diversity improves the reliability of packet and route operating robustness. Integration of these techniques could potentially improve the reliability and effectiveness of wireless ad hoc network by leveraging interactions between spectrums of network layers. The present study provides developmental phases for cross layer ad hoc network protocols which are reliably supportive to congestion control and tolerant to delayed network. The study further investigated diversity schemes with focus on network coding and coding erasure implementation. Index Terms— Ad hoc network, Coding erasure, Cross layer, Network coding, Routing protocols.

——————————  ——————————



obile wireless ad hoc network (MANET) represents a dynamic reconfigurable organized wireless network of mobile nodes with no need for central administrative infrastructure. Nodes used in MANET establish communication structure instantly as individual node moves arbitrarily. Change in the node topological link causes mobility of all nodes to act as router while forwarding unrelated packets [1]. Enhanced performance of MANETs makes it viable for use in wide range of applications such as recovery during disaster and for content distribution communications such as used for IP, VoIP, TV and P2P TV. The flexibility in the performance of MANET provides an ideal communication architectural network where fixed communication infrastructures are restricted. Viable potentials of MANET network allows their used for personal communication, in battlefield, for disaster relief and as vehicular networks [2], [3] [4], [5]. Ad hoc networks technology requires no fixed infrastructure as user devices communicate through its arbitrary and tem————————————————

 A. M. E. ALSAYAH is MSc student at the Department of Telecommunication Engineering, Faculty of Electronic and Computer Engineering (FKEKK), Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM).  S. J. Muhammad is a senior lecturer at the Department of Telecommunication Engineering, Faculty of Electronic and Computer Engineering (FKEKK), Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM).  U. C. Ahamefula is a physicist (PhD) at School of Applied Physiscs, Faculty of Science and Technology National University of Malaysia 43600 Bangi, Selangor D.E Malaysia.  S.H. Hadya is a PhD candidate at Faculty of Computer Sciemce and Mathematics, Universiti Technologi Mara (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

porary network topologies that esablishes its infrastructural topology base on a stable traditional WLAN [5], [6], [7], [8] and [9]] that is potentially dynamic in a MANET [10] and has been extensively been supportive to emergency response telecommunication network [4], [7], [8], [11]. Mobility results to change in the network topology and frequently breaks communication link. Moreover, shared medium in wireless causes interference, contention and congestion which collectively amount to increase in erroneous packet making it difficulty to implement an efficient end-to-end control. Solution to these problems is visible from the integration of cross layer feedback with lower layer comprising physical and MAC layer which can potentially detect reliable links [3], [4]. In addition, flow of information from upper layer is helpful in detecting transmission methods. However, temporal diversity such as its network coding and coding erasure also provide alternative pathway to ensure efficient and reliable communication. Therefore the present study on routing in ad hoc networks explored cross layer interactions as well as the diversities in ad hoc network which are needed to understand and enhance the operational principles of an MANET characteristic features specifically fot protocols that exploits cross layer interaction with diversities in network coding and erasure.

Routing in telecommunication network engineering entails mechanism that are used to direct data flow packet from source to the required destination. Various routing

© 2012 JOT


protocols have been used for different algorithms [12]. The topology of ad hoc wireless networks is often constraints by factors such as maximum path capacities at reduced costs. Although different routing protocols and algorithms have been used for ad hoc networks, the use is application-specific. For instance, ad hoc network requires no fixed topology which makes managing its routing an important task to maintain service quality. This adds to complexities of routing in ad hoc networks compare to routing networks in fixed topology [13]. In MANET, three major routing protocols classifications are constrained specifically base on their operational scenario to realized mobile network [10]. Three common protocols in use comprise proactive routing, source-initiated ondemand routing and hybrid routing protocols.

Traditionally, OSI communication model have strict boundaries layers. However, using cross layer approach could break the strict boundaries to transporting feedback thereby improving the overall protocol performance of the MANET network [20]. Additionally, cross layer feedback provides updated quality information to neighboring layers making it possible for the routing protocol to cope with the changes in the environment and the flow transmission [21].

3.2 Enhancement Incorporated with ODMRP with Motion Adaptive Refresh
Most MANET routing protocols operate using on demand architect base on which routing information exchanges when needed. On demand routing protocols (ODMRP) uses two way techniques to select appropriate path to sender or receiver. Senders, first broadcasts request packet for protocol route through to the network as receivers sends back reply to route packet. However, alternative destination route could be searched upon detection of disconnection. Adaptive demand driven multicast routing (ADMR) [22] and multicast ad hoc on demand distance vector network protocol (MAODV) [23] are typical examples of on demand multicast protocol that uses this technique. Building a multicast in-between source and receivers helps in detecting a broken link while the use of ODMRP enables the reconstruction of the forwarding mesh in a short interval [24]. The periodic broadcasting offered by ODMRP provides robust routing and route refresh which is important performance enhancement parameter for the protocol efficiency. In situation where the refresh period is short, control packets more than needed are usually generated for mesh construction so as to enable the ODMRP to keep with network dynamics that avoid link breakage resulting from packet losses [25], [26]. High performing ODMRP incorporated with adaptive route refresher drive link breakages base on receiver’s reports through the use of simple and uniform recovery receiver scheme [25]. Long refresh interval causes isolated node to momentarily lose data in wait for subsequent route reconstruction and maintenance. To connect back a broken route, need arises for a localize node to perform route recovery to facilitate proactive reattachment to a forwarding mesh or for route refreshment from information source [27]. These performance enhancement processes are facilitated through the use of cross layer technique. Typical illustration can be found in E-ODMRP flow information system via application layers that collect link information through lower layer, PHY and MAC layers while in ODMRP lower packet is delivered in E-ODMRP under slight load as packet losses are used as an indicator for link breakage. However, overhead is reduced (about 90%) causing better information delivery at high load and uses ODMRP as a basic protocol for ADMR, E-ODMRP and PathchODMRP [27].

2.1 Proactive Routing Protocol Proactive routing algorithm often referred to as table driven algorithm operate on a frequently updated routing table to keep every node in the network active [14]. This enables the routing tables to always be available when a packet is needed to be sent through the node whose route is detected by certain algorithm. Proactive routing protocols are constrained by dynamic maintenance nature of their network topology which requires large network bandwidth [15] such as found in destination sequenced distance vector routing (DSDV) [16], cluster-head gateway switch-routing (CGSR) [16] as well as in optimizedlink-state routing protocol (OLSR) [17]. 2.2 Source initiated on-demand Routing Protocol On-demand routing protocol is often referred to as reactive protocol. Its paths are designed out of demand to send packets and require no constant updating of the routing tables. However, the path discovery algorithm used for sending packets is initiated by source node. Information is resent back through constructed path to the source node as soon as it reaches its destination node. This form of routing protocol use little bandwidth compare to proactive routing protocol that require more time to construct a route to resend information from its source through to its destination nodes. Typical algorithm used includes ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) [18] and dynamic source routing (DSR) [19]. 2.3 Hybrid Routing Protocols Hybrid as its name implies is a form of routing protocol that combines the advantages of proactive and source ondemand routing protocols which aims at minimizing weaknesses in the individual routing protocol and are used as MANET routing protocol [12]. Zone routing protocol (ZRP) is borne out hybrid routing protocol and uses proactive routing for neighboring nodes among specific number of hops. Routing for farther destinations uses reactive path discovery [10], [11], [12].

3.1 Cross Layer Performance Technique


3.3 On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP) ODMRP [24] requires query and reply section to forwarding mesh. A source sending data broadcasts and are included in the query packet allowing for constituted network nodes to stores upstream addresses so as to facilitate reverse rebroadcasting. Receiver develops and broadcasts reply packet to surrounding neighbors which is relayed back to the source making the reversed nodes a forwarding mesh that delivers data after which the source simultaneously joins query packet to refresh the forwarding mesh. Rejoining of the node to mesh receivers requires waiting for response to join query packet. However, in ODMRP, soft-state technique reconstructs member groups explicitly controls messages. Join queries are terminated when node has no packet and does not respond to receivers messages making forwarding nodes nonforwarders. This time is referred to as timeout and requires multiple refresh [26]. 3.4 Adaptive Demand-Driven Multicast Routing (ADMR)
Construction of ADMR route follows the same step as in ODMRP (forwarding mesh through query and replying packet control exchange) [22]. ADMR differs in that its forwarding structure is designed for individual sender whereas in ODMRP, group shares mesh. Secondly, ADMR refresh route every tens seconds trying to repair local path breakages and uses passive scheme noted with unnecessary multicast branches to detect broken link and to monitor traffic pattern.

low and high mobility. Although network connection in ODMRP and EODMRP is similar, behavior of the nodes differs as a result of differences in network maintenance. Therefore the implementation of a passive acknowledges (ACK) requires that every nodes in E-ODMRP network and intermediate nodes forwards and receives non-duplicates data packets indicating sender’s node. Forwarder lifetime is absent in E-ODMRP while in ODMRP, forwarders timeout exist and are set at 3-times of the refresh interval and discharges when forwarding expires [27]. The inter

Fig. 1. E-ODMRP interconnections (queries and reply flow).

3.5 Motion Adaptive Refresh E-ODMRP is ODMRP adaptive refresh that enhances mobility through the creation of a forwarding mesh initiated by a source. This operation follows the same pattern in ODMRP to transmit data packets through to controlling of signaled information referred in this study as joint query packets which the receives sends back to the source using intermediate nodes to transmit non-duplicated data packets. E-ODMRP sources refreshes at interval and the forwarded mesh vary from minimum prefixed to maximum via adaptive refresh [26], [27], [28]. Adaptive refresh request estimates route lifetime when recovery fails and detects route breakages. The maximum period establishes forwarding mesh function for receivers and is recorded in route refresh packets which are delivered through to the network sources. The network delivery sources reverse the refresh rate which is adapted to route’s lifetime. Importantly, E-ODMRP refreshes forwarding interconnections before they break. Refresh request packets is sent at interval during when the route refreshes scheme in an attempt to reduce slowing down of the overhead refresh update [29]. Decrease refresh rate in the maximum limit could result to short refresh interval which could potentially lead to waste in channel bandwidths which reduces the performance of network. Local recovery contributes to maintaining a dynamic network in E-ODMRP with increase in efficiency in

mediate node in E-ODMRP forwards data packets using passive ACK network mechanisms and is as illustrated in Fig. 1.

3.6 Link breakage detection and local recovery Receivers and intermediate notes can be isolated from interconnected network resulting from mobility. In situation where nodes are disconnected from source, it is important to perform local recovery so as to reconnect to the proactively mesh. Disconnection/breakage and malfunctioning link during traffic is detected and monitored using E-ODMRP. This is achieved by estimating packet arrival interval from application and informing the receiver through recording the signaled information source to the join query packet. Based on which individual nodes calculate and update packet arrival interval before receiving subsequent join query. A node is detached if it does not receive data during packet arrival. The mesh starts recovery which is similar to receiver join processes except that it could send dummy packets. Dummy packet is generated and transmitted via sub tree when receiver join packet is received from source node which is a performance measure to prevent explosion of recovery [28]. Nodes dummy packets waits for subsequent packet recovery when new packet is received from the application before timeout. However, the source resends dummy packet when the timer expires and removes information about multicast group.


3.7 Passive ACK and Pruning During route refreshment and recovery, the forwarder becomes bigger because of the addition of new forwarders. Forwarding unnecessary data result to increase in delivery ratio, high overhead and degrades system performance. These effects necessitates pruning of redundant data forwarding through the use of passive ACK scheme. Packets are sent as passive ACK with no control and are self-pruned from the mesh when forwarders omit many passive ACK [27]. This strategy helps remove unnecessary forwarding that impedes the system performance. However, the overhead could be high because the entire interconnected nodes forwards packets. The overhead could be reduced using passive ACK suppression strategy incorporated with leaf nodes to forward packets after short delay and allowing the intermediate nodes to forward packets immediately they are received and to skip from sending packets during short delay by passive ACK due to change in mobility. 3.8 PatchODMRP PatchODMRP is derived from ODMRP and operates in similar principles to forward interconnecting structure but differs in mesh maintenance [27]. However, PatchODMRP local maintenance technique is used to detect broken link as all nodes periodically send signal via MAC layer in about 3 second interval, making it difficult to avoid extra overhead. Hop ADVT packet is flooded as soon as a broken link is detected [28]; Passive data acknowledges ODMRP (PDAODMRP) [29] as an improved versions of PatchODMRP. However, the overhead route repair reduces route collection information using passive ACK.

nificant overhead in ad hoc mobile network and interferes with QoS support. In addition, Lantern tree (LTM) that utilizes multipath often referred to as lantern-path could be used as routing network path in ad hoc multicast employing CDMA-TDMA model at MAC interface layer that allows for overlapping of flows. The use of LTM could be used to exploit CDMA multiuser ability to distribute additional flow in occupied network. However, QoS guarantees are kept within the load limit and are being constrained by need for unstandardized CDMA-TDMA MAC incorporated with time synchronizer. The use of on-demand mesh-base protocol such as QoS multicast routing protocol (QMR) [35], [36], [37] to forward ODMRP mesh [24] are useful for establishing a multiple-path forwarding mesh that reserves bandwidth for multicast sessions. This could be achieved when data packets are received from multicast session with no reservations and are forwarded when shared bandwidth are available. This is a form of hybrid scheme and requires that nodes divides bandwidth as fix and shared bandwidth. This structure could ensure efficient delivery ratio by employing redundant forwarding [38]. In the other hand, flood redundancy could result to traffic congestion as well as excessive overhead which can potentially impede the performance of QoS reserved flow.



Nodes selected from different destination can be uniformly moved at a steady minimum speed of using metrics of packet delivery ratio of received packets, normalized packet overhead (total packet transmitted through a network /total data packets received), total control packets transmitted is the total number of transmitted control. EODMRP's, ODMRP's, and ADMR's performance in different mobility conditions can be used to vary node maximum speed [30], [31], [32].

4.2 Bandwidth Fair Sharing The use of FairCast algorithm designed by Marfia et al. [39], [40] for sharing across multicast flow which does not reject flows could be employed to control congestion. In this situation, FairCast algorithm operates in the basis that the inelastic flow posses sufficient erasure coding redundancy that tolerate substantial losses and can be adjusted using local-base flow interaction and packets drops to obtain fairness through introducing distribution proportionality in wireless interconnection [38]. The local flows interact by exchanging information on packet losses rate and drops in packets to optimize operating performance. 4.3 Exploiting Diversity
Disruptive MANET network result to networks and transportation of protocols failure. To overcome this problem, need arises to provide reliable and efficient networking system with spatial, temporal and spectrum diversity scheme. MANET multicast uses coding scheme by injecting packets that are redundant through the nodes to the network by allowing receivers to recover packet without requesting for retransmission. Ad hoc network coding and erasure coding schemes are compatible with ad hoc multicast and increases efficient transmission, reliability and are robustness [41]. The variables base on which the design ad hoc network are made are subject to perturbation after the optimal performance is determined and results to their robustness with change in design of the variables that delivers satisfactory services. Spatial diversity in ad hoc routing using multipath packet replication is used for robust communication

4.1 Bandwidth Estimation and Resource Reservation
Ad hoc QoS Multicasting (AQM) network could be used to support neighboring nodes by broadcasting hello message at interval with inclusion of own bandwidth [33 and 34]. The nodes records neighbors’ information on receiving the message in a table and could be used to calculate bandwidth of multicast session. This is achieved by flooding initiation packets during the beginning of a multicast session which is being forwarded by intermediate nodes through neighboring table. The message introduces sig-


to withstand link breakages resulting from mobility. Packets that are duplicated get through to destination that travels through all paths causing the packet delivery to increases in losses over the channel. The major problem to multipath routing in ad hoc network is overhead channeling which as earlier discoursed, can be reduced through the use of network coding onto multipath routing protocol. However, dynamic multipath routing can be used to flexibly change the routing mode and channel losses. This measure could successfully reduce overhead and maintain high data delivery efficiency [42]. Currently, wireless network communications exploits multiple channel such as seen in multiple-input multiple output (MIMO), cognitive radio as well as in ultra-wideband system and has been noted for improved performance compare to conventional-base systems [43]. Multiple channels can be used to solve problems associated with hidden terminal which is common with IEEE 802.11 MAC by forwarding mesh such as ODMRP to exploit selective receptions capacities to overcome possible hidden terminal [44], [45].

[1] C. Yuh-Shyan and K.O Yun-Wen. "A Lantern-Tree-Based QoS OnDemand Multicast Protocol for a Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Network." IEICE transactions on communications, vol. 87, no. 37, pp.17-726, 2004. [2] C. Tracy, J. Boleng, and V. Davies. "A Servey of Mobility Models for Ad Hoc Network Research." Wireless Communication and Mobile Computiong (WCMC): Special Issue on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 483-502, 2002. [3] F. Altiparmak, B. Dengiz, and A.E. Smith, "Reliability estimation of computer communication networks: Ann models," in: Proceedings of the 8th IEEE International Symposium on Computers and Communication (ISCC 2003), pp. 1353-1358, 2003. [4] H. Ammari, and H. El-Rewini, "A location information-based route discovery protocol for mobile ad hoc networks," in: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Performance, Computing, and Communications, pp. 625-630, 2004. [5] I. Chlamtac, M. Conti and J. J. N. Liu, "Mobile ad hoc networking: Imperatives and challenges," Ad Hoc Networks vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 13-64, 2003. [6] T. Chu, and I. Nikolaidis, "Node density and connectivity properties of the random waypoint model," Computer Communications vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 914-922, 2004. [7] C. R. Dow, P. J. Lin, S. C. Chen, J. H. Lin, and S.F. Hwang, "A study of recent research trends and experimental guidelines in mobile ad-hoc network," in: Proceedings of the 19th Intrernational Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA'05), pp. 72-77, 2005. [8] M. Forodigh, P. Johansson and P. Larsson, "Wireless ad hoc networking-the art of networking without a network," Ericsson Review no. 4, pp. 248-263, 2000. [9] D. Simplot-Ryl and I. Stojmenovic, "Data communications and topology control in wireless ad hoc networks," Ad Hoc Networks vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 507-508, 2005. [10] B. Ishibashi and R. Boutaba, "Topology and mobility considerations in mobile ad hoc networks," Ad Hoc Networks vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 762-776, 2005. [11] N. Aschenbruck, M. Frank, P. Martini and J. Tolle, "Human mobility in manet disaster area simulation - a realistic approach," in: Proceedings of the 29th Annual IEEE International Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN'04), pp. 668-675, 2004. [12] M. R. Pearlman and Z. J. Haas, "Determining the optimal configuration for the zone routing protocol," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1395-1414, 1999. [13] T. Camp, J. Boleng and V. Davies, "A survey of mobility models for ad hoc network research," Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing (WCMC): Special issue on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking: Research, Trends and Applications vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 483-502, 2002. [14] R. Huang and G. V. Zaruba, "Location tracking in mobile ad hoc networks using particle filters," Journal of Discrete Algorithms vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 455-470, 2007. [15] C. E. Perkins and P. Bhagwat, "Highly dynamic destinationsequenced distance vector routing (dsdv) for mobile computers," ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 234-244, 1994. [16] C. C. Chiang, "Routing in clustered multihop, mobile wireless networks with fading channel," in: Proceedings of the IEEE Singapore International Conferenceon Networks, pp. 197-211, 1997. [17] P. Jacquet, P. Muhlethaler, T. Clausen, A. Laouiti, A. Qayyum, and L. Viennot, "Optimized link state routing protocol for ad hoc networks," in: Proceedings of the IEEE International Multi Topic Confe-

5 CONCLUSION An enhanced performance of ODMRP with motion adaptive refresh has been presented. Periodic refresh at adapted rate to the nodes mobility enhances unified local recovery and receiver joining processes. The operation facilitates nodes to perform search during when a broken route is detected in other to be grafted to forwarding interconnection proactively. These features can be implemented via cross-layer approaches. Multipath routing technique utilizes spatial redundancy through the injection of duplicated data in the network which increases robustness to cope with channel errors arising from mobility. However, the occurrence of additional overhead could result to network congestion and can be resolved through the use of dynamic routing mode switching to correct routing mode to suit with the channel features. Network coding and erasure coding provides potential pathway that can be used to increase the reliability of ad hoc wireless network communications. This can be achieved through the exploitation of temporal diversity by injecting redundant packets in such a way to reconstruct a destination to its original data by retrieving subset of packets. However, the use of network coding could be used to obtain highly reliable saving network resources. It has been shown that erasure coding is reliable with low code rating although they generate high overhead that can possibly degrade the performance of the entire network as a result of congestion. The usefulness of temporal diversity in MANET topology is pronounced in its ability to improve the reliability of redundant packets which enables network to overcome unstable losses in channel. However, the performance of ad hoc wireless network can potentially be enhanced through the use of cross layer and diversity scheme and are prerequisite to the innovative advances in telecommunication technology.


rence (INMIC 2001), Technology for the 21st Century, pp. 62-68, 2001. [18] C. E. Perkins and E.M. Royer, "Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing," in: Proceedings of the Second IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications (WMCSA '99), pp. 90-100,1999. [19] D. B. Johnson and D. A. Maltz, Dynamic source routing in adhoc wireless networks, in: H.K. T. Imielinski (Ed.), Mobile computing, Kluwer, Boston, pp.153-181, 1996. [20] N. Rahnavard and F. Fekri. "CRB cast: a reliable and energyefficient broadcast scheme for wireless sensor networks using rateless codes." IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications,vol. vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 5390-5400, Dec 2008. [21] S. Katti, D. Katabi, W. Hu, H. Rahul, and M. Medard. "The Importance of Being Opportunistic: Practical Network Coding for Wireless Environments." In 43rd Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing, Monticello, IL, Sep 2005. [22] G. J. Jetcheva and D. B. Johnson. "Adaptive demand-driven multicast routing in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks." In MobiHoc '01: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM international symposium on Mobile ad hoc networking & computing, pp. 33-44, Long Beach, CA, USA,2001. [23] M. E. Royer and C. E. Perkins. "Multicast Operation of the Adhoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol." In The 5th annual ACM/IEEE international conference on Mobile computing and networking (MobiCom '99), Seattle, WA, USA, 1999. [24] J. L. Sung, W. Su, and M. Gerla. "On-demand multicast routing protocol in multihop wireless mobile networks." Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 441-453, 2002. [25] Y. O. Soon, J. S. Park and M. Gerla. "E-ODMRP: Enhanced ODMRP with Motion Adaptive Refresh." In 2nd International Symposium on Wireless Communication System (ISWCS 2005), pp. 130-134, Siena, Italy, Sep 2005. [26] Y. O. Soon, J. S. Park, and M. Gerla. "E-ODMRP: Enhanced ODMRP with Motion Adaptive Refresh." Journal of Parallel and Distributed System, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 1044-1053, 2008. [27] M. Lee and Y. K. Kim. "Patch ODMRP: an ad hoc multicast routing protocol." In The 15th International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN '01), Oita, Japan, Jan 2001. [28] S. Cai and X. Yang. "The performance of PoolODMRP." In The 6th IFIP'/IEEE International Conference on Management of Multimedia Networks and Service (MMNS 2003), Belfast, Northern Ireland, Sep 2003. [29] S. Cai, X. Yang, and L. Wang. "PDAODMRP: An extended PoolODMRP based on passive data acknowledgement." Journal of Communications and Networks, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 362-375, 2004. [30] L. Seoung-Bum, A. Gahng-Seop, X. Zhang, and A. T. Capbell. "INSIGNIA: an IP-based quality of service framework for mobile ad Hoc networks." Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 374-406, 2000. [31] A. Gahng-Seop, A. T. Campbell, A. Veres and S. Li-Hsiang. "Supporting Service Differentiation for Real-Time and Best- Effort Traffic in Stateless Wireless Ad Hoc Networks (SWAN)." IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. l, no. 3, pp.192-207, 2002. [32] H. Xiao, K. Chua, W. Seah and A. Lo. "A Flexible Quality of Service Model for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks." In Proceedings of Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC), pp. 445-449, Tokyo, Japan, 2000. [33] K. Birr and C. Ersoy. "Multicast Routing for Ad Hoc Networks with a Multiclass Scheme for Quality of Service." In 19th International Symposium on Computer and Information Sciences (ISCIS), pp. 187-197, Kemer-Antalya, Turkey, 2004. [34] K. Birr and C. Ersoy. "Multicast Routing for Ad Hoc Networks

with a Quality of Service Scheme for Session Efficiency." In 15th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communication (PIMRC 2004), pp. 1000-1004, Barcelona, Spain, 2004. [35] M. Saghir, T. C. Wan, and R. Budiarto. "Load Balancing QoS Multicast Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks." In Proceedings of Asian Internet Engineering Conference (AINTEC 2005), pp. 83-97, Bankok, Thailand, 2005. [36] M. Ghaderi, D. Towsley, and J. Kurose. "Network Coding Performance for Reliable Multicast." In Military Communications Conference, 2007. MILCOM 2007. IEEE, Orlando Florida, USA, 2007. [37] M. Ghaderi, D. Towsley, and J. Kurose. "Reliability Gain of Network Coding in Lossy Wireless Networks." In IEEE INFOCOM, Phoeniz, AX, USA, Apr 2008. [38] Szymon Chachulski, Michael Jennings, Sachin Katti, and Dina Katabi. "Trading Structure for Randomness in Wireless Opportunistic Routing." In In Proceedings of SIGCOMM 07, 2007. [39] Gustavo Marfia, Paolo Lutterotti, Stephan J. Eidenbenz, Giovanni Pau, and Mario Gerla. "FairCast: Fair Multi-Media Straming in Ad Hoc Networks through Local Congestion Control." In 11th ACM International Conference on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile System (MSWiM '08), Vancouver, BC, Canada, Oct 2008. [40] J. S. Park, A. Nandan, M. Gerla, and H. Lee. "SPACE-MAC: Enabling spatial reuse using MIMO channel-aware MAC." In in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Communications (ICC), Seoul, Korea, Seoul, Korea), May 2005. [41] A. Fujimura, S. Y. Oh, and M. Gerla. "Network Coding vs. Erasure Coding: Reliable Multicat in Ad hoc Networks." In IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM '08), San Diego, CA, USA, Nov 2008. [42] S. Y. Oh, M. Gerla, and A. Tiwari. "Robust MANET Routing using Adaptive Path Redundancy and Coding." In THE FIRST International Conference on COMmunication Systems and NETworkS (COMSNETS), Bangalore, India, Jan 2009. [43] S. Y. Oh, M. Gerla, P. Zhao, B. Daneshrad, G. Pei, and H. J. Kim. "MIMO-CAST:A Cross-Layer Ad Hoc Multicast Protocol Using MIMO Radios." In IEEE Military Communications Conference (Milcom 07), Orlando Florida, USA, 2007. [44] A. Laouiti, A. Qayyum, and L. Viennot. "Multipoint Relaying: An Efficient Technique for Flooding in Mobile Wireless Networks." In Proceeding of 35th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS' 2001), Maui, Hawaii, USA, Jan 2001. [45] J. Rachit and L. Shrivastava, Study and Performance Comparison of AODV & DSR on the basis of Path Loss Propagation Models International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, Vol. 32, July, 2011 [45] J. Rachit and L. Shrivastava, Study and Performance Comparison of AODV & DSR on the basis of Path Loss Propagation Models International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, Vol. 32, July, 2011. Mr. A. M. E. ALSAYAH is a MSc student at the Department of Telecommunication Engineering, Faculty of Electronic and Computer Engineering (FKEKK), Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). He obtain his bachelor degree in 2006 in telecommunication enegineering and is currently researching on Ad Hoc Network. Assoc. Prof. S. J. MUHAMMAD is a senior lecturer (PhD) at the Department of Telecommunication Engineering, Faculty of Electronic and Computer Engineering (FKEKK), Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). Dr. C. U. AHAMEFULA obtained his Dip. in Mech. & Electrical


/Electronic Engineering and Adv. Dip. In Mech. & Electrical/Electronic Engineering from City & Guides of London Institute (1999-2003), BSc in Mechnical Engineering from University of Lagos, Nigeria in 2003, MSc in Energy Technology from National University of Malaysia in 2008 and PhD (Physics) from National University of Malaysia in 2012. He is currently research on Nanotechnology application in low-cost quantum dot sensitized solar cell. Mr. S. H. HADYA is a PhD candidate at Faculty of Computer Sciemce and Mathematics, Universiti Technologi Mara (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. He received the degree in Computer Science from Al Mirqab University Libya in 1998. In 2007, he obtain a master degree in Information Technology and Communications from Academy of Graduate Studies, Tripoli, Libya. He is currently research on organizational intelligence and management practices in Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Malaysia.