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Engines

Fundamentals of Motor Vehicle Technology: Book 1

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fairly large amount of engine power. The cowling makes it difficult to get at certain parts of the engine. The engine is more liable to overheating under arduous conditions than a water-cooled engine. Mechanical engine noises tend to be amplified by the fins. The cylinders usually have to be made separately to ensure proper formation of the fins. This makes the engine more costly to manufacture. Cylinders must be spaced well apart to allow sufficient depth of fin. It is more difficult to arrange a satisfactory passenger compartment heating system.

4 There is no cowling to obstruct access to the engine. 5 The water and jackets deaden mechanical noise. 6 The engine is better able to operate under arduous conditions without overheating. The main disadvantages of water cooling are: 1 Weight, not only of the radiator and connections but also of the water. The whole engine installation is likely to be heavier than an equivalent air-cooled engine. 2 Because the water has to be heated, the engine takes longer to warm up after starting from cold. 3 If water is used, the maximum temperature is limited to about 85 to 90°C to avoid the risk of boiling away the water. 4 If the engine is left standing in very cold weather, precautions must be taken to prevent the water freezing in the cylinder jackets and cracking them. 5 There is a constant risk of leaks developing. 6 A certain amount of maintenance is needed, e.g. checking water level, anti-frost precautions, cleaning out deposits, etc.

Liquid-cooled system The main points in favour of liquid or water cooling are: 1 Temperatures throughout the engine are more uniform, thus distortion is minimized. 2 Cylinders can be placed close together and the engine made more compact. 3 Although a fan is usually fitted to force air through the radiator, it is smaller than that required in an aircooled system and is thus quieter and absorbs less engine power.

2.16

SUPERCHARGING AND TURBOCHARGING (FORCED INDUCTION)
cause a much higher pressure to be created on the compression stroke. If pressures during the compression stroke are too high, this will increase the charge temperature, which can lead to premature or preignition of the fuel mixture. To overcome the problem, when an engine is supercharged, the compression ratio is usually reduced compared with a ‘normally aspirated’ (un-supercharged) engine. Unfortunately, lower compression ratios usually result in lower combustion efficiency, which usually increases fuel consumption. Although combustion efficiency may be slightly lower, with regard to engine power, the advantage of having a much greater volume of air in the cylinder outweighs the disadvantage of lower combustion or thermal efficiency. Where a high power output is required from an engine of minimum size, there is no doubt that supercharging is a most effective approach, but fuel consumption can be high unless special arrangements are used to offset the lower compression ratio, and to allow for the energy needed to drive the unit. While the previous statement is generally true of older engines, modern electronic engine management systems enable very precise control of fuelling and ignition and this therefore allows supercharged engines to be efficient as well as powerful.

2.16.1 Principles of forced induction
Pumping air into the cylinder The power that any internal-combustion engine can develop depends fundamentally upon the mass of air it can consume per minute. The normal method of filling or charging the cylinders of a four-stroke engine consists of allowing the pressure of the atmosphere to force air into the combustion chambers. The downward movement of the piston on the intake stroke creates a partial vacuum, which is a lower pressure than that of the atmosphere. The amount of air entering the cylinder therefore depends on the difference in pressure between the atmospheric pressure and the lower pressure (vacuum) in the cylinder. If, however, air is forced into the cylinders under a pressure that is higher than atmospheric pressure, a greater mass of air will enter the cylinder and the engine will be ‘supercharged’. Forcing the air into the cylinders can be achieved by using some kind of air pump. Such a device is called a ‘supercharger’. Reducing the compression ratio It should be noted that a supercharger would cause the fresh charge to enter the cylinder at a much higher pressure than on a conventional (un-supercharged) engine. This increased fresh charge pressure would then

but relies upon air being forced into its cylinders by some kind of pump (usually the lower chamber beneath the piston). The turbocharger. Turbocharger A different type of supercharger. a two-stroke engine cannot be supercharged unless the exhaust ports are arranged to close before the inlet ports close. A two-stroke engine is normally ‘pressure-charged’ (as opposed to supercharged) either by using by using the underneath of the working piston in the lower chamber or by using a separate cylinder as a charging cylinder. two-stroke engines have been supercharged using separate air pumps such as a Rootstype blower (covered in section 2. 2 A six-cylinder turbocharged engine gives the fuel consumption of a four-cylinder normally aspirated engine. which are geared together outside the casing. because it uses the energy in the exhaust gas instead of directly robbing the engine of some of its power. With the advent of petrol injection.Supercharging and turbocharging (forced induction) 117 Position and drive arrangements of the supercharger The position of the supercharger in the induction system depends on the fuel system used. each rotor shaft is supported by a bearing at either end. A typical example of the introduction of a supercharger into a CI engine is where there is a need to raise maximum engine power to meet a legally permitted increase in the load carried by a vehicle. forced the air into the carburettor where it then mixed with the petrol and passed into the engine. (Some Roots blowers have rotors with three or even four lobes. Strictly.16. A supercharger can be positively driven by belt. In general. It can be regarded as a form of gear pump in which each gear (called a rotor in the Roots blower) normally has two teeth or lobes. This reservation is based on the fact that thermal efficiency (or fuel economy) depends on the compression ratio. referred to as a ‘Turbocharger’ is driven by energy contained within the exhaust gases as they flow from the engine. as stated earlier. modern engine management systems do now allow higher compression ratios to be used on supercharged and turbocharged engines. the arrangement has reverted to a system in which the supercharger only pumps the air. Figure 2. The Roots blower is an ‘air displacer’ and not a compressor. The two-stroke engine is therefore not supercharged unless the pressure of the air filling the cylinder is above atmospheric pressure. and to avoid detonation. and P.) The rotors have a small clearance inside the casing and are carried on shafts. Two-stroke engines Note that a two-stroke engine does not have an induction stroke created by the downward movement of the piston. compression-ignition engines may also be supercharged and in some ways are more suitable for supercharging and turbocharging. the ratio must normally be lowered slightly when a supercharger is fitted. However. many manufacturers have uprated the power of the existing engine by using a turbocharger. Roots in America and was used for a number of purposes including (in very large sizes) ventilating mines. H. The following gives a rough guide to the advantages gained by turbocharging a CI engine: 1 A four-cylinder turbocharged engine gives the power output of a six-cylinder normally aspirated engine. Depending on the size of engine for which the blower is to be used. and the speed at which the blower is driven.2). Instead of fitting a larger engine. . The combustion chamber design and fuel delivery systems are therefore designed to reduce as far as possible the potential for pre-ignition. has gained favour over recent years (although not universally).16. It is sometimes claimed that the turbocharger is the answer to emission problems as well as present day demands for better fuel consumption. the petrol is delivered independently by the injectors. However. chain or gears from the engine crankshaft. M. However improved fuel efficiency is difficult to obtain from a spark-ignition engine unless the turbocharger is very carefully matched with the engine. therefore the supercharger pulled the petrol and air mixture from the carburettor and pumped the mixture into the engine. 2. The compression ratio problem does not therefore apply to CI engines.167 illustrates the construction generally used for engine supercharging. than formerly. The air is not compressed within the blower but simply carried round from inlet side to outlet side in the spaces between the lobes and the casing. The pressure at the output side depends upon the relative swept volumes of the blower and the engine.2 Types of direct drive superchargers The Roots blower This device was patented about 1865 by F. On early spark-ignition engines the supercharger (or blower as it is often called). One shaft is driven at approximate engine speed and drives the other at the same speed. the width of the casing would be about 150–300 mm (6–12 inches). Many later designs for carburettor engines favoured an arrangement where the supercharger was fitted between the carburettor and the engine. Supercharged compression-ignition engines (diesel) Supercharging is not limited to spark-ignition engines. the CI engine is already constructed and designed to work at very high cylinder pressures with diesel fuel.

which is placed centrally in the casing. when the ECU operates the magnetic clutch. Figure 2.168a. been marketed under the names of a Centric. but it increases rapidly as pressure rises. The vanes divide the space between the rotor and the casing into a number of compartments. such as during acceleration. The vanes pass through slotted rods or ‘trunnions’ carried in the rotor and there is a very small clearance between the tips of the vanes and the casing. at various times. the drive is engaged and the supercharger then operates.168b the rotor has turned to the position where the vane (2) is just about to open the compartment to the outlet port. In Figure 2. which vary in volume as the rotor turns. The ECU controls the operation of the supercharger by a magnetic clutch.168a. which increases as delivery pressure rises but this decreases as engine speed increases. The operation of a Roots-type supercharger fitted to a modern engine is normally controlled by an electronic control unit (ECU). In Figure 2. At low pressures this disadvantage is small. When the clutch is disengaged the supercharger is not driven. Figure 2. The rotor is driven at approximately engine speed by a belt. which is fitted to the supercharger drive pulley. each vane being carried on two ball bearings so that the vanes are always radial to the casing.169 The trunnion-type radial vane compressor . which has. Arnett and Shorrocks compressor. Figure 2. Therefore. The oil level in the supercharger should be checked or renewed during routine maintenance.168 Principle of the vane compression Figure 2. the compartment shown shaded is in the position of maximum volume and the vane (1) has just cut off communication between this compartment and the inlet port.167 A Roots blower The rotors operate continuously against the full delivery pressure and thus more power is absorbed in driving this device than would be required if compression took place within the blower. which results in the air being compressed. this type of supercharger is mostly used for high-speed engines and relatively low supercharge pressures. To prevent the rotor gears from seizing they are supplied with oil. this leading edge positioning would normally be arranged to correspond with the required delivery pressure for the engine to which the compressor is fitted.169 shows one practical form of this device. chain or gears. The vanes are mounted on a shaft. Owing to the rotor clearance there will be some back leakage of air.118 Engines Fundamentals of Motor Vehicle Technology: Book 1 The vane compressor In its simplest form a vane compressor consists of a cylindrical casing in which is mounted eccentrically a cylindrical rotor carrying protruding vanes. The magnetic clutch is operated when the ECU senses that the throttle is open and the engine is also under load. typically using a rubber belt. and it can be seen that the volume of the compartment is now smaller than it was in Figure 2. The position of the leading edge of the outlet port dictates the amount of compression. The supercharger is driven by the crankshaft.

16. This action extracts energy from the gas and causes the turbine to spin at a high speed. It has a similar construction to a centrifugal blower but the gas flow through the unit is reversed (Figure 2. Figure 2. A connection to the gas outlet at the centre of the turbine casing allows the exhaust gas to be passed to the normal exhaust system. Before the gas flows from the casing to the turbine it first has to pass through either specially shaped passages or a ring of guide vanes. so only when a reasonably priced material became available for the blades was it possible to make an economical unit. While this is fairly easy to arrange it is undesirable because the oil mist carried into the engine may cause combustion difficulties. these ensure that the gas strikes the outer tips of the turbine blades tangentially so that the turbine can be driven in the required direction. Normally a turbine of the radial flow type is used to drive the compressor.3 Turbo-type supercharger (turbocharger) The difficulties of driving a centrifugal blower at very high speeds. particularly in compression-ignition engines.170 illustrates the construction. Figure 2.Supercharging and turbocharging (forced induction) 119 One minor disadvantage of the vane compressor is the necessity for lubrication due to the sliding of the vanes in the rotor. can be overcome by using the energy contained in the exhaust gas to drive a centrifugal blower or compressor. it exits via the outlet port. which transmits the drive to the centrifugal compressor. It has two main disadvantages for automobile use. but only within recent years has the method been successfully applied to motor vehicles.000 revolutions per minute under engine conditions in which the temperature and/or velocity of the exhaust gas is high. the blades slow down the gas velocity. When the unit is in operation. The impeller is more carefully designed and made than the corresponding part of the water pump and is driven at considerably higher speed. A turbine on one end of a shaft is driven by the flow of exhaust gas. The exhaust-driven turbine is supported by a shaft.171). Air is drawn in through the air inlet (intake). A cast iron casing. and the loss of up to 35% of the engine’s power to provide this drive. such as nickel or nickel–chromium alloy iron. Attempts to apply this principle to engines have been made from time to time since the early 1900s.170 A centrifugal blower Figure 2. This can be in excess of 100. 2. The combination of centrifugal compressor and an exhaustdriven turbine is called a turbo-supercharger or turbocharger. the exhaust gas expelled from the engine cylinders at high temperature and velocity is delivered into the casing and the gas is then directed to the turbine rotor.171 A radial flow turbine The advantage of this type of blower is that a small size of blower can deliver a considerable quantity of air. The driving shaft is driven at some five to six times engine speed. encloses the turbine. The first is the very high speed at which it must be driven (which introduces problems in the drive arrangements during rapid acceleration and deceleration) and the second is that it is only efficient over a very narrow impeller speed range. A flange on the part of the casing that forms the gas passage to the turbine connects the unit as closely as possible to the exhaust manifold of the engine. is used for the turbine. on the . from which it passes to the inlet manifold. carried round between the vanes of the impeller and thrown outwards by centrifugal force into the volute casing. formed like a snail’s shell to feed the exhaust gas on to the periphery of the turbine blades. The centrifugal blower If the Roots blower can be likened to a gear pump the centrifugal blower can be simply described as a glorified water pump (as used in an engine cooling system). The blades of the turbine have to operate at the high temperature (about 1000°C) of the exhaust gases. other end of the shaft is the centrifugal compressor. this is necessary because of the high temperatures. A special material. As the gas flows towards the centre of the turbine.

this is accelerated when the shaft movement allows hot exhaust gas to escape into the bearings. Figure 2. caused by a lack of pressure or dirty oil.172 A turbocharger . in addition.173 also shows the bearing-and-seal arrangement. Special care of the turbocharger is needed to ensure that the bearings are not starved of oil when the engine is either started or stopped. two plain floating bearings (often made of cast iron) are needed to support the shaft (Figure 2. which originally was normally aspirated. Oil must not enter the compressor and exhaust gas must not pass to the bearings. When this occurs the life of the unit is limited to a few seconds. This design uses cast iron sealing rings similar to a piston ring. from where it is allowed to drain back naturally into the engine sump. Unlike the spark-ignition type. The engine should not be accelerated either immediately after it has been started or just prior to switching off (it should be noted that it takes a long time for the turbine to come to rest). The onset of either condition soon becomes apparent to the driver. since this type of engine is particularly suited to pressure charging or forced induction. formed in the casing between the compressor and turbine.120 Engines Fundamentals of Motor Vehicle Technology: Book 1 The casings of aluminium alloy and cast iron for compressor and turbine respectively are bolted together to form a single unit. is a common cause of rapid bearing wear. Oil passing the compressor seal. Diesel engine applications Turbocharging has been commonly used on large CI engines (diesel) for many years.173). The bearings are supplied with oil by a pipe connected to the engine’s lubrication system. Any defect in the turbocharger that disturbs the action of the seals.173 Section through a turbocharger Turbocharging for diesel and petrol engines Fitting a turbocharger to an engine. especially when it is being pumped through by exhaust gas that is escaping from the turbine. produces a vast quantity of blue smoke. Poor lubrication. the air-only induction system of a CI unit (no fuel in the intake airflow) makes the fitting of a turbocharger much easier. the CI engine does not suffer from compression limitations and. 3 Exhaust noise is reduced owing to the smoothing out of the exhaust pulsations. Figure 2. This type of bearing requires a pressurized supply of clean oil to resist wear and an adequate flow of oil to keep the bearings cool. Since the power increase can be as high as 60%. Figure 2. soon shows up. gives the following advantages: 1 Greater torque and power.172). it is this assembly that is called a turbocharger or ‘turbo’ for short (Figure 2. such as shaft movement caused by worn bearings. In view of the high speed of operation. 2 Fuel consumption is improved by about 10%. the engine is smaller and lighter than a non-turbocharged unit of equal power. After passing through the bearings the oil is collected in a cavity. Gas and oil sealing are very important.

The valve is controlled by the engine management computer. To overcome the problem.175). diesel engine cars with small and large capacity engines have become increasingly popular across Europe and other markets. far above the normal levels of non-turbocharged engines. often called a ‘wastegate’. The electronically controlled waste-gate systems make use of engine vacuum and boost pressure to Figure 2. some petrol and diesel engines have a heat exchanger fitted between the turbocharger and engine (Figure 2. this opens when the boost reaches a predetermined maximum and allows air in the manifold to bleed to the atmosphere. the maximum pressure in the inlet manifold is 1. Such systems can control the boost pressure very accurately throughout all engine speed and load conditions. This occurs at high engine speed and/or at certain load conditions. which therefore reduces its pumping action. Even some sports saloons are now fitted with turbocharged diesel engines. The computer or ECU is then able to control the valve. The complexity of turbocharging carburettor engines restricted the use of turbochargers. However. this results in a reduction of the density of the charge as well as increasing the chance that premature detonation will occur. economy and emissions.5 times atmospheric pressure. Virtually all modern petrol engines are fuel-injected. Furthermore.5 bar. Charge-air coolers (intercoolers) Compression of the charge and its passage through a hot turbocharger raises the temperature of the air. as illustrated in Figure 2. although some systems use a separated portion of the cooling system radiator as a means of dissipating the heat from the intake air. is opened mechanically so as to allow some of the exhaust gas to by-pass the turbine. To meet emissions requirements and also to minimize the risk of engine damage. so this places extra stress on the turbocharger.e. Also if the turbocharged engine was originally designed as a normally aspirated engine. Modern engines use an electronic engine management system to set the ignition timing and control fuelling and it is therefore logical to use the same engine management system to monitor and regulate the boost pressure. but fitting turbochargers to fuel-injected engines is a relatively simple arrangement.174).174. which in turn regulates waste-gate operation. By lowering the air temperature to around 50–60°C volumetric efficiency is improved and detonation tolerance is increased. An alternative method of limiting boost pressure is to use a pressure relief valve in the induction manifold.Supercharging and turbocharging (forced induction) 121 More recently. current emission regulations relating to the discharge of NOx (oxides of nitrogen – refer to section 2. which passes the boost pressure to the waste-gate. Petrol engine applications A car fitted with a ‘turbo’ is generally associated with top-of-the-range models designed to give a performance. i. which is able to sense the boost pressure via a signal passed from a pressure sensor. turbocharging has proven to be an extremely efficient way of producing high power outputs along with excellent fuel economy. and this allows the boost pressure to be maintained at the optimum value with regard to power. this poppet-type valve. This unit.30 in this chapter) mean that the boost may need to be reduced at times when this pollutant would normally be produced in unacceptable quantities. . Under high load conditions.174 A turbocharger with boost limiting valve actuate the waste-gate. often called an ‘intercooler’. it will probably require a lowering of the compression ratio to avoid mechanical damage caused by combustion problems such as detonation. especially acceleration in mid-range. Engines that are suitable for turbocharging conversion must be structurally strong to withstand the extra load and higher speeds. Careful matching of the turbocharger to a given engine ensures that the maximum boost (pressure above atmospheric) is limited to about 1. is generally an air-to-air heat exchanger. This type of system is now not so widely used due to the superior efficiency of electronically regulated waste-gate systems. a boost-limiting valve is fitted (Figure 2. Boost limitation and boost control The exhaust gas temperature of a petrol engine is much hotter than that of a diesel engine. Due to the advances in diesel engine management systems. and this suits the process of turbocharging. an additional valve is positioned in the pipe.

A variable-geometry turbo (Figure 2.122 Engines Fundamentals of Motor Vehicle Technology: Book 1 emissions. The nozzle vanes are opened by the ECU via the operation of the actuator (Figure 2.) The main disadvantages of a turbocharged petrol engine (apart from the extra hazards created when inexperienced drivers attempt to demonstrate the extra performance) are: 1 The higher initial cost of turbocharger and allied equipment. (This advantage is seldom achieved in practice because many drivers alter their driving technique to take full advantage of the extra power of a turbocharged engine. a delay in engine response after depressing the accelerator. an acceleration delay occurs with older type units often referred to as ‘turbo-lag’.177).178) and flow of high-speed exhaust gases passing over the turbine. The turbine spins relatively slowly producing very little turbo charging effect in the inlet manifold. 2 The higher repair and servicing costs especially when other engine components are damaged by a defective unit.175 A turbocharger with an intercooler Advantages and disadvantages of turbocharging petrol engines The advantages of turbocharging petrol engines include: 1 Higher torque for acceleration from low speed.176 A variable-vane turbocharger Figure 2. The variable-geometry turbo provides lower By altering the flow of the exhaust gases at the inlet port of the exhaust turbine.177 A variable-vane turbocharger at low load When the load applied to the engine is high. driving the impellor at high speed. 3 Better fuel economy due to a reduction in the pumping energy expended during the induction stroke. especially NOx. the flow of exhaust gas at the turbine inlet port is also high.176) is normally used in conjunction with a diesel engine or with high performance petrol engines. it is possible to optimize the speed of the turbine during low and high engine loads. 3 At low engine speeds. the vanes of the turbo nozzle are closed (Figure 2. During low engine loads. Figure 2. Since the turbine takes a time to reach its effective speed. With advances in engine technology and computer-controlled engine management systems it has been possible to alter the geometry within the turbocharger during engine operation. Figure 2. Variable-geometry turbos A turbocharger is associated with turbo-lag. which directs a minimal flow of exhaust gas across the turbine impellor. The high speed of the turbine . noise and high emissions. 2 Lower exhaust noise and emission. improved engine power and torque with lower fuel consumption.

Figure 2. 2. Similarly. particularly in connection with ignition and valve timing. except at very low engine speeds. if a valve is required to be effectively open at the beginning of a stroke (TDC or BDC) it must begin to open before the dead centre. and the ECU then controls the position of the nozzle vanes via the actuator. The engine gives its best performance when the greatest mass of air and fuel is passed through the combustion chamber and burnt effectively.1 Valve operation and the fourstroke engines The first point to be appreciated is that it is not possible for a valve to move from closed to fully open (or vice versa) instantaneously. The ECU controls the nozzle actuator with the use of either a solenoid-operated vacuum valve or electrical stepper motor.2 (especially 2. The ECU can accurately control the turbo boost pressure using a variable-geometry turbocharger.178 A variable-vane turbocharger at high load 2. if a valve is required to be open at the end of a stroke. such as engine speed and engine load using information from sensors. the general principles of operation of an engine on the four-stroke cycle was described. Variable geometry turbochargers provide a faster response to throttle opening. The opening and the closing movements are each spread over a considerable angle of crankshaft rotation. and we will begin our study with the piston moving down the cylinder on the induction stroke and the inlet port already wide open (Figure 2.2. a traditional poppet valve waste-gate is no longer required to reduce or regulate the boost pressure.The petrol four-stroke cycle in detail: valve and ignition timing 123 drives the compressor.3). When boost pressure is too high. and the opening and closing of the inlet and exhaust valves. Figure 2. Note: In section 2. it must not close completely until after the dead centre.179). The engine management ECU monitors engine operating conditions. Even if the valves could be opened and closed instantaneously. the dead centres would not be the best points at which to open and close them.179 Induction stroke Induction stroke The downward movement of the piston reduces the pressure inside the cylinder so that the pressure of the atmosphere (or supercharge pressure) forces air . Thus. the nozzle vanes are closed thus reducing the speed of the turbine. resulting in a reduction of boost pressure. which provides a high boost pressure in the inlet manifold.17 THE PETROL FOUR-STROKE CYCLE IN DETAIL: VALVE AND IGNITION TIMING Consider an engine running reasonably fast. reducing the effect of turbo-lag.17. the most suitable point at which to open the inlet port depends upon conditions at the end of the exhaust stroke. The following section provides further detail on the four-stroke cycle in relationship to the petrol engine.