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P OWER Q U ALIT Y STUDIE S

Modelling an Industrial Power Network

A PPLICA TI O N NO TES

The network shown illustrates a model of an industrial power network used to analyse certain power quality issues. Some of the issues addressed are: • Voltage ampliﬁcation problems due to capacitor bank switching • Performance of an industrial drive • Modelling of motor start up • Modelling of motor loads and normal industrial loads • Transformer saturation issues • Harmonics and ﬂicker • Methods to reduce transients. The single line view of the PSCAD™ model of this network is shown in Figure 1. The main distribution network is modelled as an impedance behind a voltage source. For the study concerned, a simple representation as shown in Figure 3 was identiﬁed as sufﬁcient. If the study required a more accurate representation of the network frequency response, more buses behind the 11 kV system bus must be added to the model. The source impedance can be determined from the short circuit level at this bus. The user may select a more detailed representation for the system equivalent where a combination of L-R-C elements can be used to represent the impedance. The zero sequence can be deﬁned to be different from the positive sequence impedance. The data can be entered as R, L and C values or in the more common impedance/ phase angle format.

Figure 1 Single line view of the PSCAD™ model of an industrial power network.

Figure 2 Voltage Source Parameters.

Figure 3 11 kV System Bus.

PSCAD™ simulations can be used to design the optimum value of the insertion resistor.
Figure 4 shows the arrangement of the utility side capacitors. If there is more than a single bank, more parallel units are to be added to the model. The short line connecting the capacitors to the system bus at the substation is represented using series R-L elements. The user may decide to represent this as a coupled PI section where the mutual effects between the phases are included. The utility side capacitors used for voltage support of the bus also include a 400 Ohm damping resistor. PSCAD™ simulations can be used to design the optimum value of the resistor. The capacitor breaker is controlled by Timed Breaker Logic unit but the user may design the breaker on/off signals using many different arrangements.

Figure 4 Utility Capacitor Bank.

Figure 5 Single and double circuit pi section models.

The transformer at the customer location is modelled as a Delta-wye unit made up of single phase banks. PSCAD™ includes models for three-limbed cores as well as ﬁve-limbed cores. The appropriate model should be selected depending on the actual arrangement of the unit under study. The following standard data are required to model the transformer: • MVA rating and the winding voltage ratings • Impedance • Percentage no load current • Losses. The transformer model takes into account the non-linear behaviour of the core. Additional data pertaining to the non-linear no-load characteristics needs to be entered if saturation is to be included in the solution. Some studies that would require the inclusion of saturation effects include: • Harmonic distortion issues at the bus • Inrush current and protection issues • Ferro-resonance investigation.

High frequency transients, a serious power quality issue, can lead to production line shutdown and unplanned down time.
Figure 6 shows the model of the industrial load. The power factor correcting capacitors and the motor drive units are modelled along with the rest of the loads. The loads can be represented as R-L-C combinations, constant P-Q load, constant current load or any other method. The power factor correcting capacitor breaker is manually controlled to easily simulate the switching of the utility capacitors when this power factor correcting unit is in service and out of service. The main capacitor bank was turned on at 0.5 s in the simulation results shown in Figure 7. When the PF correcting unit is on, there is energy exchange between the two capacitors and the result is an ampliﬁed voltage at the customer low voltage bus. Inclusion of properly sized damping resistors in parallel with the main capacitors will help reduce the transient peaks. The high frequency voltage transients can charge the DC link capacitor of the machine drive converter. The power electronic devices are quite susceptible to excessive voltage and the protection is designed so that the drive will be disconnected in the event of excessive DC link voltage. This is a serious power quality issue as production lines associated with the drive will undergo unplanned down time. The capacitor energizing transient can be suppressed using different strategies. Synchronized Switching of Breaker Poles The individual poles of the breaker are closed at corresponding voltage zero points. A separate control unit is required to issue the synchronized breaker signals (Figure 8).

Figure 7 PF unit off, PF unit on and PF unit on and with no damping resistor on main caps.

Figure 8 Synchronized Switching Control.

Figure 14 Load torque as a function of speed.

The Multiple Run component of PSCAD™ can be used to run a number of simulations, with selected parameters changed in a controlled manner for each run.
Figure 9 Machine drive arrangment.

Pre-Insertion Resistance The breaker model in PSCAD™ allows the user to select the pre-insertion option and the option to close individual poles separately. The detailed model of the Induction motor drive (arranged in a PSCAD™ page module) is shown in Figure 9. The overvoltage at the DC link capacitor bank can be limited by the proper design of the capacitor size and the use of a series inductor in the DC link to limit the rate of charging of the capacitor. The Multiple Run component of PSCAD™ can be used to run a number of simulations, with selected parameters changed in a controlled manner for each run. The application note on the use of multiple run component lays out the steps involved in detail. In the drive example shown in Figure 9, the system side converter is modelled as an uncontrolled diode bridge. The machine side is a controlled bridge using IGBT units. The ﬁring pulses are generated using the control model shown in Figure 11. The control system blocks required to drive the ﬁring pulses are found in the CSMF part of the master library. Some useful blocks in designing a more complex ﬁring control system are shown in Figure 12. These include the PLL, VCO, Interpolated ﬁring pusle module, comparators and signal generators. The control blocks can be used to model the load torque proﬁle. This is an input to the machine model (Figure 14). The drive converters produce harmonics. It is necessary to analyse harmonics produced by the non-linear loads and determine if ﬁltering is required. Figure 13 shows the FFT module that can be used. Polymeters can be used to display the harmonic proﬁle. This model can be extended to study the following without much modiﬁcation and effort: • Motor starting transients • MOV duty during switching events • Breaker Transient Recovery Voltage issues. Prepared by Dr. Dharshana Muthumuni. Please email info@pscad.com if you have an article you would like ™ to submit on the use of PSCAD.

Figure 10 Multiple Run component.

Figure 11 Firing pulses generated using the control model.

Figure 12 Blocks in the CSMF library.

Figure 13 FFT module.

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The Manitoba HVDC Research Centre performs innovative research and development into advanced power system technologies, power electronics and power system simulation. We offer specialized engineering services and develop leading-edge technology products for the power systems community. Founded in 1981, we are part of the Manitoba Hydro family, Canada’s fourth largest electrical power and gas utility. PSCAD™ – Setting the Standard Through the introduction of the PSCAD™ simulation software, now used in over 60 countries, the Centre has helped revolutionize power system simulation. RTDS™ – World’s First RTDS™, the world’s ﬁrst real time digital simulator of power systems was developed at the Centre. RTP™ – Making Waves Our RTP™ (Real Time Playback) power system wave-form generator offers portable, low cost, high ﬁdelity transient testing capability. Successful Partnerships Longstanding strategic technology alliances with organisations such as ABB and Siemens, and a technology advisory board with representation from research organizations, universities and electrical equipment manufacturers have fostered our success – we continue to seek new technology initiatives and research partnerships. Power of Positive Thinkers It is thanks to the extraordinary efforts of our researchers that the Centre has become a world leader in power systems simulation technologies, power systems analysis and related technologies. With our large worldwide base of technology users and research partners, we have our ﬁnger on the pulse of the electric energy industry – around the globe.

Articles and submissions addressing the use of PSCAD™ in the real world are always welcome.

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