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Could Enabled Application Programming Suite

Introduction
Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network (typically the Internet). Cloud computing provides computation, software, data access, and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services. The concept of cloud computing fills a perpetual need of IT: a way to increase capacity or add capabilities on the fly without investing in new infrastructure, training new personnel, or licensing new software. Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort. The paper aims to describe an online compiler which helps to reduce the problems of portability and storage space by making use of the concept of cloud computing. The ability to use different compilers allows a programmer to pick up the fastest or the most convenient tool to compile the code and remove the errors. Moreover, a web-based application can be used remotely throughout any network connection and it is platform independent. The errors/outputs of the code are stored in a more convenient way. Also, the trouble of installing the compiler on each computer is avoided. Thus, these advantages make this application ideal for conducting examinations online. Cloud computing is rapidly gaining the interest of service providers, programmers and the public as no one wants to miss the new hype. While there are many theories on how the cloud will evolve no real discussion on the programmability has yet taken place. In this project a online complier is described, that enables user compile programs to run in a distributed manner in the cloud. This is done by creating an object orientated syntax and interpretation environment that can create objects on various distributed locations throughout a network and address them in a scalable, fault tolerant and transparent way. This is followed by a discussion of the problems faced and an outlook into the future.

Statement of Problem

Cloud computing is seen to bring together many services that are provided through the “world wide computer”. A trend to multifunctional environments is currently taking place on the operating system kernel level encouraged by new virtualization techniques On the other hand, on the highest level of abstraction, object orientated notations and ideas are mostly used. The general concept is that once the cloud provider is chosen, a lock-in to their techniques and libraries occurs. Service compatibility is then achieved by adding specific output filters to the program, which emulate object usage. This results in that every “Software as a Service (SaaS)” provider creates his own format. Other programs then have to retrieve this information and parse it accordingly and create local object representations, if they want to communicate with this service. This creates many difficulties especially when the format has to change. By these methods, both ends of a cloud service stack have become scalable, and in a nutshell “cloud enabled”. Since the important layer of compilers and interpreters and as such the program constructs, have been neglected in the past few years, it is still the case that to use other services of a cloud provider, the programmer has to include some specific library or write the interface himself. Efforts to make compilers and/or interpreters more “cloud friendly” have only resulted in non-complete products and are not generally used. As seen by the success in the usage of SOAP and the object orientated paradigm, an object oriented distribution approach bears many advantages for the cloud, but has not been implemented in the layer of language compiler yet.

Scope & objectives:
    User Personalization Online Programming Suite Cloud Managed Compilation Distributed Processors for Compilation
Users will be allowed to register to the system & can manage their profiles. A user can write Programs online & save those in their profile. Also is allowed to later can update / delete the programs. Online Programming allows the user to write and manage their programs. The programs then stored on the could Manager & the compilation of the programs will be managed by the cloud for forwarding the request to the required processor for compilation. A Cloud managed Distributed architecture will be used for Processor load balancing for the compiler allocation. The project will create an innovative Turing complete online programming language compilers that enables and promotes distribution of objects throughout a network. The core principle of the compiler will be that it will make no difference to the syntax of the code if the object is initialized locally or on an unknown resource indicated by an URL (Uniform Resource Locator). The syntax of the compiler should seem familiar to any C, C++, Java and PHP. Provide the basis for a discussion of how and if distributed objects can be used for cloud programming purposes.

Personal Objectives
    Gain a sound understanding of compilers, interpreters and the technology involved. Understand the issues and problems associated with distributed computing and try to find solutions. Define cloud computing and gain knowledge about the general topic. Become familiar with PHP and the tools linked to it.

Literature review
“What is the Cloud?”
Cloud computing is said to be one of the biggest shifts ever seen in the way computers are used, but first it has to be clarified what “the cloud” stands for and how a cloud can compute. The term “cloud” was coined based on the image of a cloud for the internet which should resemble a large amount of anonymous, interlinked computers

A typical network diagram using a cloud

In essence this means that a “cloud” of computers and/or servers acts and reacts as a single computer. These computers can be owned by a big company and as such be housed in big server farms, can be personally owned home machines or virtualized resources. The important thing is that this conglomerate of machines can be accessed via the internet. Lots of synonyms have been associated with the cloud like Utility Computing (UC), Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS) [Armbrust et al., 2009]. To discuss the topic in more detail, the ambiguous term “cloud computing” has to be divided into two categories:

Storage
Data storage forms the base of all computing, this is one of the main requirements to be able to process anything. In terms of cloud computing “cloud storage” can be defined as data being saved on multiple third party servers. The storage appears to the user as one coherent block of space that he has for his use. One of the most used storage providers is the Amazon S3 (Simple Storage Service) R service, which charges the user dynamically based on usage by a metric consisting of upload/download and data held. For the user, the storage seems unlimited and is only bound by the amount of money he can pay. The user does not know where the data is housed, and it is known that Amazon holds redundant copies in different countries. This, of course, holds some risks for companies as laws and regulations might change from country to country, but this issue will not be discussed here. Further, as currently seen with the Google document error; by uploading data into the cloud it might become involuntarily accessible to the whole world. However the feature of being able to share all documents that “live” in the cloud is seen as one of the great advantages By uploading data into a cloud storage service, data security (loss, corruption, access) is outsourced to the storage provider. There are many such storage providers but they all conform in that they offer online accessible storage to the actual implementation hidden from the user.

Software
Cloud programs are very similar to Software as a Service in that they are hosted online and mostly accessible through a web browser. However, they are different in the respect that the underlying hardware is not always provisioned by the creator of the service. Software as a service is a well researched area, but Utility Computing is just at the beginning. By having the administration of the services outsourced maintenance and software installation are greatly simplified. There are two main areas of thought here: The first one is the way Amazon is taking. It is possible to buy time on a virtual machine which can then be installed and configured as needed. Further scaling horizontally, with only money posing as a boundary, is possible by adding machines through a web interface. The other way of thought is the way Google and Microsoft are proposing, in this context the developer has to write his program in a special programming environment and using vendor specific libraries. This makes the maintenance, scalability and installation very easy as it is independent of the users So cloud computing can be defined by accessibility on the internet; mostly through a browser; nearly infinitive pool of resources; horizontal scalability and dynamic payment . Finally, it has to be stated that cloud computing is not grid or grid computing. Clouds may have properties similar to the grid and can internally use grid software to manage the underlying architecture but the cloud consists of a stack of services whereas grid computing is one layer of this stack.

Pros and Cons of Cloud Computing The great advantage of cloud computing is “elasticity”: the ability to add capacity or applications almost at a moment‟s notice. Companies buy exactly the amount of storage, computing power, security and other IT functions that they need from specialists in data-center computing. They get sophisticated data center services on demand, in only the amount they need and can pay for, at service levels set with the vendor, with capabilities that can be added or subtracted at will. The metered cost, pay-as-you-go approach appeals to small- and mediumsized enterprises; little or no capital investment and maintenance cost is needed. IT is remotely managed and maintained, typically for a monthly fee, and the company can let go of “plumbing concerns”. Since the vendor has many customers, it can lower the per-unit cost to each customer. Larger companies may find it easier to manage collaborations in the cloud, rather than having to make holes in their firewalls for contract research organizations. SaaS deployments usually take less time than in-house ones, upgrades are easier, and users are always using the most recent version of the application. There may be fewer bugs because having only one version of the software reduces complexity. This may all sound very appealing but there are downsides. In the cloud you may not have the kind of control over your data or the performance of your applications that you need, or the ability to audit or change the processes and policies under which users must work. Different parts of an application might be in many places in the cloud. Complying with federal regulations such a Sarbanes Oxley, or FDA audit, is extremely difficult. Monitoring and maintenance tools are immature. It is hard to get metrics out of the cloud and general management of the work is not simple.3 There are systems management tools for the cloud environment but they may not integrate with existing system management tools, so you are likely to need two systems. Nevertheless, cloud computing may provide enough benefits to compensate for the inconvenience of two tools. Cloud customers may risk losing data by having them locked into proprietary formats and may lose control of data because tools to see who is using them or who can view them are inadequate. Data loss is a real risk. In October 2009 1 million US users of the T-Mobile Sidekick mobile phone and emailing device lost data as a result of server failure at Danger, a company recently acquired by Microsoft.4 Bear in mind, though, that it is easy to underestimate risks associated with the current environment while overestimating the risk of a new one. Cloud computing is not risky for every system. Potential users need to evaluate security measures such as firewalls, and encryption techniques and make sure that they will have access to data and the software or source code if the service provider goes out of business.

It may not be easy to tailor service-level agreements (SLAs) to the specific needs of a business. Compensation for downtime may be inadequate and SLAs are unlikely to cover concomitant damages, but not all applications have stringent uptime requirements. It is sensible to balance the cost of guaranteeing internal uptime against the advantages of opting for the cloud. It could be that your own IT organization is not as sophisticated as it might seem. Calculating cost savings is also not straightforward. Having little or no capital investment may actually have tax disadvantages. SaaS deployments are cheaper initially than in-house installations and future costs are predictable; after 3-5 years of monthly fees, however, SaaS may prove more expensive overall. Large instances of EC2 are fairly expensive, but it is important to do the mathematics correctly and make a fair estimate of the cost of an “onpremises” (i.e., in-house) operation. Standards are immature and things change very rapidly in the cloud. All IaaS and SaaS providers use different technologies and different standards. The storage infrastructure behind Amazon is different from that of the typical data center (e.g., big Unix file systems). The Azure storage engine does not use a standard relational database; Google‟s App Engine does not support an SQL database. So you cannot just move applications to the cloud and expect them to run. At least as much work is involved in moving an application to the cloud as is involved in moving it from an existing server to a new one. There is also the issue of employee skills: staff may need retraining and they may resent a change to the cloud and fear job losses. Last but not least, there are latency and performance issues. The Internet connection may add to latency or limit bandwidth. (Latency, in general, is the period of time that one component in a system is wasting time waiting for another component. In networking, it is the amount of time it takes a packet to travel from source to destination.) In future, programming models exploiting multithreading may hide latency.5 Nevertheless, the service provider, not the scientist, controls the hardware, so unanticipated sharing and reallocation of machines may affect run times. Interoperability is limited. In general, SaaS solutions work best for nonstrategic, non-mission-critical processes that are simple and standard and not highly integrated with other business systems. Customized applications may demand an in-house solution, but SaaS makes sense for applications that have become commoditized, such as reservation systems in the travel industry.

Existing System Compilers
A compiler is a program that reads a well defined source language and outputs a related target language. This target language can be an executable, that can be run directly on an architecture or a byte code, an Abstract Syntax Tree, or similar which can be interpreted. To be able to translate there are four distinctive steps as seen in Fig.

1. Lexical Analysis
In this step, the Lexical analyzer or “scanner” reads the source program and creates meaningful tokens out of the characters. This means it tries to split the input up into little lexemes.

2. Syntax Analysis
The parser uses the tokens to create a tree-like structure which is normally called a Parse Tree. This is created based on a set of rules which describe how the syntax is recognized and how the tree should be created. The regular appearance of such a tree is that the operator is the root and the children are the parameters. This can be seen in fig. on the preceding page after the step named “PARSER”.

3. Semantic Analysis
The semantic analyzer checks if the syntax tree has the correct semantic form and might perform some optimizations. This means that the input is correct and can be understood by further steps (semantic rules). Some compilers also do type checking and other changes to the tree like type conversions. The output is then called an Abstract syntax tree (AST).

4. Code Generation
This is the final step were the intermediate representation is then converted into actual output code. If this output is some form of Assembly language the registers are allocated and the output is generated. This step can vary from implementation to implementation: some compilers split it into three sub areas Intermediate Code Generation, Code Optimization and Code Generation, whereas other compilers optimize based on the syntax tree.

Compiler versus interpreted languages
Higher-level programming languages are generally divided for convenience into compiled languages and interpreted languages. However, in practice there is rarely anything about a language that requires it to be exclusively compiled or exclusively interpreted, although it is possible to design languages that rely on re-interpretation at run time. The categorization usually reflects the most popular or widespread implementations of a language — for instance, BASIC are sometimes called an interpreted language and C a compiled one, despite the existence of BASIC compilers and C interpreters. Modern trends toward just-in-time compilation and byte code interpretation at times blur the traditional categorizations of compilers and interpreters. Some language specifications spell out that implementations must include a compilation facility; for example, Common Lisp. However, there is nothing inherent in the definition of Common Lisp that stops it from being interpreted. Other languages have features that are very easy to implement in an interpreter, but make writing a compiler much harder; for example, APL, SNOBOL4, and many scripting languages allow programs to construct arbitrary source code at runtime with regular string operations, and then execute that code by passing it to a special evaluation function. To implement these features in a compiled language, programs must usually be shipped with a runtime library that includes a version of the compiler itself.

Problems with Existing System:

Basically a compiler is a program whose purpose is to translate high level languages like C, C++ etc into the machine code which is the binary code which is understandable by the computer. After being converted into machine code, the program can be run on the computer. Besides having the benefit of fast execution among others, there are some disadvantages related to a compiler. The compiler is not very good at finding errors in a program which makes the removal of errors (Debugging) a little difficult. Another disadvantage of compiler is that even when an error has been removed for the program, the whole program would start compiling from the beginning, so the time consumed in executing a program may take longer.

The Main disadvantage is actually a lack of flexibility in handling less well-designed languages and/or target architectures. Any compiler that you are trying to specify and generate with a compiler must be specifiable using the various grammars and transformation specification languages used by the given compiler. Not all programming languages or their constraining/type checking or to-target-code transformations fall into that specification space, take some of the more archaic languages such as C, C++ or JAVA. You have the most amount of control/flexibility when you write the compiler by hand, at the obvious cost of the considerably higher level of effort required for that compared to generating a compiler from specifications with a compiler.

Proposed System
The project tries to create an online multiple programming languages compiler that acts as a layer of glue between the hardware cloud providers and the presentation of the user interface where objects are already emulated and used. It should be possible to use an array of services provided in the cloud, through published objects, in an independent and transparent way. Users will be allowed to register to the system & can manage their profiles. A user can write Programs online & save those in their profile. Also is allowed to later can update / delete the programs. Online Programming allows the user to write and manage their programs. The programs then stored on the could Manager & the compilation of the programs will be managed by the cloud for forwarding the request to the required processor for compilation. A Cloud managed Distributed architecture will be used for Processor load balancing for the compiler allocation. Multiple users can write programs in different programming languages and also can run, compile and debug program. While the program is running user can give input in program so the program is execute and also displays the output.

Role of cloud computing in proposed system
The programs then stored on could manager & the compilation of the programs will be managed by the cloud for forwarding the request to the required processor for compilation. For Example suppose one user writing program is „C‟ language and at a same time another user is writing program in JAVA language. Both the users compiling their programs at same time at that time cloud manager act as identifier. It identifies the programming language and sends the program in „C‟ language to the „C‟ compiler and program in JAVA sends to JAVA Compiler.

Advantages of Proposed System
 Using cloud computing we can share any kind of data between a numbers of clients.  The idea of the project is “Carry Less, Use More!”  This is an web Based application so that can open on your home pc, office pc, your tablet and also on your mobile  Main advantage of this project is it supports multiple languages compiling.  User can save their programs, update and also can delete it.

Block Diagram

Could Enabled Application Programming Suite

Technology Used .NET Framework The .NET Framework is an environment for building, deploying, and running XML Web services and other applications. It is the infrastructure for the overall .NET platform. The .NET Framework consists of three main parts: the common language runtime, the class libraries, and ASP.NET. The common language runtime and class libraries, including Windows Forms, ADO.NET, and ASP.NET, combine to provide services and solutions that can be easily integrated within and across a variety of systems. The .NET Framework provides a fully managed, protected, and feature-rich application execution environment, simplified development and deployment, and seamless integration with a wide variety of languages.

ASP.NET ASP.NET is more than the next version of Active Server Pages (ASP); it is a unified Web development platform that provides the services necessary for developers to build enterprise-class Web applications. While ASP.NET is largely syntaxcompatible with ASP, it also provides a new programming model and infrastructure that enables a powerful new class of applications. You can migrate your existing ASP applications by incrementally adding ASP.NET functionality to them.

ASP.NET is a compiled .NET Framework -based environment. You can author applications in any .NET Framework compatible language, including Visual Basic and Visual C#. Additionally, the entire .NET Framework platform is available to any ASP.NET application. Developers can easily access the benefits of the .NET Framework, which include a fully managed, protected, and feature-rich application execution environment, simplified development and deployment, and seamless integration with a wide variety of languages. What is Classic ASP?
Microsoft's previous server side scripting technology ASP (Active Server Pages) is now often called classic ASP. ASP 3.0 was the last version of classic ASP.

ASP.NET is NOT ASP
ASP.NET is the next generation ASP, but it's not an upgraded version of ASP. ASP.NET is an entirely new technology for server-side scripting. It was written from the ground up and is not backward compatible with classic ASP. You can read more about the differences between ASP and ASP.NET in the next chapter of this tutorial. ASP.NET is the major part of the Microsoft's .NET Framework.

What is ASP.NET?
ASP.NET is a server side scripting technology that enables scripts (embedded in web pages) to be executed by an Internet server.
     

ASP.NET is a Microsoft Technology ASP stands for Active Server Pages ASP.NET is a program that runs inside IIS IIS (Internet Information Services) is Microsoft's Internet server IIS comes as a free component with Windows servers IIS is also a part of Windows 2000 and XP Professional

What is an ASP.NET File?
   

An ASP.NET file is just the same as an HTML file An ASP.NET file can contain HTML, XML, and scripts Scripts in an ASP.NET file are executed on the server An ASP.NET file has the file extension ".aspx"

How Does ASP.NET Work?
 

When a browser requests an HTML file, the server returns the file When a browser requests an ASP.NET file, IIS passes the request to the ASP.NET engine on the server The ASP.NET engine reads the file, line by line, and executes the scripts in the file Finally, the ASP.NET file is returned to the browser as plain HTML

Microsoft SQL Server Business today demands a different kind of data management solution. Performance scalability, and reliability are essential, but businesses now expect more from their key IT investment. SQL Server 2005 exceeds dependability requirements and provides innovative capabilities that increase employee effectiveness, integrate heterogeneous IT ecosystems, and maximize capital and operating budgets. SQL Server 2005 provides the enterprise data management platform your organization needs to adapt quickly in a fast changing environment. Benchmarked for scalability, speed, and performance, SQL Server 2005 is a fully enterprise-class database product, providing core support for Extensible Markup Language (XML) and Internet queries. Easy-to-use Business Intelligence (BI) Tools Through rich data analysis and data mining capabilities that integrate with familiar applications such as Microsoft Office, SQL Server 2005 enables you to provide all of your employees with critical, timely business information tailored to their specific information needs. Every copy of SQL Server 2005 ships with a suite of BI services.

Self-Tuning and Management Capabilities Revolutionary self-tuning and dynamic self-configuring features optimize database performance, while management tools automate standard activities. Graphical tools and performance, wizards simplify setup, database design, and performance monitoring, allowing database administrators to focus on meeting strategic business needs. Data Management Application and Services Unlike its competitors, SQL Server 2005 provides a powerful and comprehensive data management platform. Every software license includes extensive management and development tools, a powerful extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL) tool, business intelligence and analysis services, and analysis service, and such as Notification Service. The result is the best overall business value available. Enterprise Edition includes the complete set of SQL Server data management and analysis features are and is uniquely characterized by several features that makes it the most scalable and available edition of SQL Server 2005 .It scales to the performance levels required to support the largest Web sites, Enterprise Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) system and Data Warehousing systems. Its support for failover clustering also makes it ideal for any mission critical line-of-business application. Additionally, this edition includes several advanced analysis features that are not included in SQL Server 2005 Standard Edition.

Requirement Analysis
FEASIBILITY STUDY
The very first phase in any system developing life cycle is preliminary investigation. The feasibility study is a major part of this phase. A measure of how beneficial or practical the development of any information system would be to the organization is the feasibility study. The feasibility of the development software can be studied in terms of the following aspects:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Operational Feasibility. Technical Feasibility. Economical feasibility. Motivational Feasibility. Legal Feasibility

OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY

The site will reduce the time consumed to maintain manual records and is not tiresome and cumbersome to maintain the records. Hence operational feasibility is assured.

TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY

Minimum hardware requirements:        At least 166 MHz Pentium Processor or Intel compatible processor. At least 16 MB RAM. 14.4 kbps or higher modem. A video graphics card. A mouse or other pointing device. At least 3 MB free hard disk space. Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.0 or higher.

ECONOMICAL FEASIBILTY
Once the hardware and software requirements get fulfilled, there is no need for the user of our system to spend for any additional overhead. For the user, the web site will be economically feasible in the following aspects:  The web site will reduce a lot of paper work. Hence the cost will be reduced.  Our web site will reduce the time that is wasted in manual processes.  The storage and handling problems of the registers will be solved.

MOTIVATIONAL FEASIBILITY The users of our system need no additional training. Visitors do not require entering password and are shown the appropriate information.

LEGAL FEASIBILITY
The licensed copy of the required software is quite cheap and easy to get. So from legal point of view the proposed system is legally feasible.

Software Development Model Used:
Software process model deals with the model which we are going to use for the development of the project. There are many software process models available but while choosing it we should choose it according to the project size that is whether it is industry scale project or big scale project or medium scale project. Accordingly the model which we choose should be suitable for the project as the software process model changes the cost of the project also changes because the steps in each software process model varies. This software is build using the waterfall mode. This model suggests work cascading from step to step like a series of waterfalls. It consists of the following steps in the following manner

Waterfall model:
Analysis Phase

Design Phase

Coding Phase

Testing Phase

Analysis Phase: To attack a problem by breaking it into sub-problems. The objective of analysis is to determine exactly what must be done to solve the problem. Typically, the system‟s logical elements (its boundaries, processes, and data) are defined during analysis. Design Phase: The objective of design is to determine how the problem will be solved. During design the analyst‟s focus shifts from the logical to structures, screens, reports, files and databases. Coding Phase: The system is created during this phase. Programs are coded, debugged, documented, and tested. New hardware is selected and ordered. Procedures are written and tested. End-user documentation is prepared. Databases and files are initialized. Users are trained. Testing Phase: Once the system is developed, it is tested to ensure that it does what it was designed to do. After the system passes its final test and any remaining problems are corrected, the system is implemented and released to the user.

PROJECT PLAN
5.1 IMPLEMENTATION PLAN The following table gives the project plan for the Phase 1 & 2 of our project:

Activity

Description

Effort in person weeks

Deliverable

Phase 1

P1-01 P1-02 P1-03 P1-04 P1-05

Requirement Analysis Existing System Study & Literature Technology Selection Modular Specifications Design & Modeling Total

2 weeks 3 weeks 2 weeks 2 weeks 4 weeks 13 weeks

Requirement Gathering Existing System Study & Literature >NET Module Description Analysis Report

Activity

Description

Effort in person weeks

Deliverable

Phase 2

P2-01 P2-02

Detailed Design UI and user interactions design

2 weeks Included above 12 weeks 2 weeks 4 weeks Included above 20 weeks

LLD / DLD Document in UI document

P2-03 P2-04 P2-05 P2-06

Coding & Implementation Testing & Bug fixing Performance Evaluation Release

Code Release Test Report Analysis Report in System Release

Total

Deployment efforts are extra

Gantt Chart
Gantt Charts:

The Gantt Chart Shows planned and actual progress for a number of tasks displayed against a horizontal time scale. It is effective and easy-to-read method of indicating the actual current status for each of set of tasks compared to planned progress for each activity of the set. Gantt Charts provide a clear picture of the current state of the project.

References

Realization of open cloud computing federation based on mobile agent

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Baliga, J.; Ayre, R.W.A.; Hinton, K.; Tucker, R.S.; Proceedings of the IEEE Volume: 99 , Issue: 1 Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/JPROC.2010.2060451 Publication Year: 2011 , Page(s): 149 - 167 Cited by: 1  Analysis and Research of Cloud Computing System Instance

Shufen Zhang; Shuai Zhang; Xuebin Chen; Shangzhuo Wu; Future Networks, 2010. ICFN '10. Second International Conference on Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ICFN.2010.60 Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 88 - 92