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Impulse Buying & Demographic Characteristics

Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences; Vo. 4 No.1

A STUDY OF IMPULSE BUYING WITH REFERENCE TO DEMEGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PESHAWAR’S CONSUMERS
Dr.Farzand Ali Jan1 Muhammad Farooq Jan, Muhammad Faheem Jan2 Seema Zubair3

Abstract Impulse buying is a fun, puzzle and a research question in today’s marketing world. The same is under the study of psychologists, consumer behavior researchers, economist, fashion designers, outlet decorators and advertisers. Objective of the study was to identify the nature of convenience product, shopping product, and specialty product which may or may not affect the impulse buying. The data was collected from teaching faculty both male and female, students (both gender) of public and private universities. The total number of questioners distributed was 276 out of which 236 were received back. 36 questionnaires were considered as invalid; therefore, 200 questionnaires were processed for analysis. The analysis of the data showed no difference in overall demographic characteristics with respect to frequency of product category, purchase tendencies towards impulsive buying, hedonic needs, self identity and cognitive process components Key words; Impulse buying, Demographic characteristics, convenience and shopping products Introduction Globally research today is the belle of the ball, vying with advertising for marketer’s attention, time and money. We need better understanding of what consumer actually consume rather than what they claim they consume (Tellis 2010). Impulse buying is a fun, puzzle and a research question in today’s marketing world. The same is under the study of psychologists, consumer behavior researchers, economist, fashion designers, outlet decorators and advertisers. Attiq (2006) studied impulsive buying behavior as function of affective and cognitive components Pakistani consumers Study and having focus on identifying determinants of compulsive buying
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Dr.Farzand Ali Jan, Director Finance, Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan MS student Hazara University, Mansehra Pakistan Lecturer AUP Peshawar Pakistan

Dr Farzand, Farooq, Faheem & Seema

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In accumulation to the examination and expression of self image. or pleasant (slow) music.Impulse Buying & Demographic Characteristics Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences. Impulse purchases describe a significant segment of sales which confirms that impulse buying is a key subject to both retailers and the retail industry. 1962). Impulse buying largely depend on resources such as money. and as contributors of mirroring and idealizing response. (1998) says that impulse buying occurs when consumer’s experiences a sudden. store position point-of-sale displays at the departing point of check out counters. According to Anderson & de Palma. Though to provide these functions. Sales people and accompanying persons while shopping contribute as a symbolic transference. like manifestation of products. Faheem & Seema 10 . but about feeling and achievement. time. physical and mental effort” (Stern. and appreciate how to bundle products to attract the clientele. 4 No. often powerful and persistent urge to buy something immediately. Second. (1962) as “any purchases which a shopper makes but has not planned in advance”. Rook. Impulse Dr Farzand. 1987. Vo. Sterm. which are both characteristics of impulse purchases” and other situational variables that influence impulse buying are available time and money. Impulse buying is synonymous unplanned buying and has been defined by Baumeister. Wood. pretty and attractive colors. “In store browsing may lead to positive feelings and an urge to buy. In order to support and bring forth an impulse purchase. elicit purchase motives. A number of variables are because of retail setting. according to the commodity category. know the most famous favorable location of product placement on shelves. or leads to positive mood states and are mainly significant during in-store browsing. it ought to be understood as a process that is not about business. The majority of researchers recently have extended their description beyond a straight forward unplanned purchase to embrace an emotional element or an urge to make the purchases. His results indicated compulsive buying on the top. and self esteem. According to Beatty & Ferrell. (1998) there are many variables which stimulate impulse purchases behavior. According to Attiq (2006) shopping develops growth activity with power to give support to consumer empowerment.1 behavior and their relationship in reference to perceived social status associated with buying practices. or the internal environment like a nice smell. Farooq. (2002) the evidence on the extent of the phenomenon varies according to the definition used of “unplanned purchases” and the fraction of unplanned purchases varies from 25% to 70% of total purchases. whether this is actual or perceived. Thus there are two main elements that differentiate impulse buying from non impulse. display of products. (2002). followed by Materialism and lowest on self esteem. First impulse purchases are typically made unplanned and without a recognized buying intention before entering the store. Such emotional factors create a center of attention. the shopping desires in some consumers result from the requirement for affiliation.

Rammal (2008) further lead the argument and commented that the future is bright for the communication industry in Pakistan and the existing innovations that I see happening over the next ten years are not only going to set bench markets in the country but may also set the pace in the region. Vo. The debate further agree that advertising. nine out of ten shoppers occasionally buy on impulse. they know exactly what they want and will not accept a substitute. or after impulse purchase. Impulse buying behavior is a fact of life. and perhaps warranties. and chewing gum. and revolutionized petrol pumps in Pakistan lead to impulse buying and brand loyalty. Babin and Babin (2001) in their study Found that in stores consumer’s purchasing intentions and spending can largely be influenced by emotions. According to loudon & Della B (1993) consumer behavior is the decision process and physical activity individual engage in when evaluating. mediums. at the time of. The buyer spends little time either in planning the purchase of a convenience item or in comparing available brands or sellers.1 purchases almost always involve an emotional response. According to Ferrell 1992 the products are classified into the following categories. According to Andrew (2008) that consumer really wants an in sight into their opinions on brand advertising and changing life styles. These emotions may be specific to certain things for example. qualities. repeated emotions as well as fashion-oriented impulse buying behaviors. Buyers allocate considerable time for comparing stores and brands with respect to prices. consumer’s gauge of evaluating items and the importance they give to their purchasing at a store. The consumers make buying decisions according to nature of the product. In the sequence of research conducted by Cha (2001): findings says that impulse buying behavior regarding fashion and personality products are associated with patterns like chaste. services. young professionals on points. He says Pakistani minds are second to none and the dare to take the challenge. using or disposing of goods and services. the features of the items. customer self interest. According to Welles (1986). Convenience Products are relatively inexpensive. environment and with respect to their psychological as well as financial conditions. Buyers actually plan the purchase of a specialty product. acquiring. 4 No. either before. product features.Impulse Buying & Demographic Characteristics Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences. most all consumers have made an impulse purchase at least once in their life. Even a buyer who prefers a specific brand will readily choose a substitute if the preferred brand is not conveniently available. soft drink. Farooq. and a significant group of buyers is willing to expend considerable purchasing effort to obtain them. Specialty Products possess one or more unique characteristics. Dr Farzand. Examples include bread. gasoline. frequently purchased items for which buyers want to exert only minimal purchasing effort. newspapers. Faheem & Seema 11 . Shopping Products are items for which buyers are willing to expend considerable effort in planning and making the purchase.

Teaching faculty both male and female. the study in hand is considered necessary for the improvement. Similarly the changes in culture behavior and values is also contributing to psychological changes. Therefore. Students of universities (both male and female). Dr Farzand. The segmentation was on the following parameters. further the recent developments in marketing practices also have outstanding impacts on Pakistani consumers/society. 4 No. 200 questionnaires were processed for analysis. The total number of questioners distributed was 276 out of which 236 were received back. yet there is a need for comprehensive research on the subject. therefore. Research objective: Aim of this research paper is to identify nature of convenience product. To have representation from both public and private universities. shopping product. Scope of the study: Today the world has become a global village and the changes in one country in each field of life directly or indirectly affect/influence the citizen of the other country. and specialty product which may or may not affect the impulse buying. therefore the findings may be fruitful for marketing specialists/practitioner’s of these countries. Being qualitative and quantitative in nature the result may be of great importance to the members of Trade industries and chamber of commerce for future planning. Though much studies have been conducted on impulse buying behavior but due lack of studies on the issue in Pakistan.Impulse Buying & Demographic Characteristics Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences. Peshawar is considered to be a gate way for international trade and business with ECO. Vo. South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation member’s countries and central Asian republics. Emergency auto repairs and cemetery plots are classic examples of unsought products.1 Unsought Products are purchased because of a sudden problem that needs to be solved or when aggressive selling is used to obtain a sale that otherwise would not take place. The primary data was collected through questioners based on five points Likert Data Collection: Scale adopted by Attiq (2006). 36 questionnaires were considered as invalid. Farooq. the consumer does not think of buying these products on a regular basis. opening of new dimensions and to put forward the emerging issue for further research. Faheem & Seema 12 . In general. Research Methodology Sample Size: • • • To have data from the different segments of consumers were taken into consideration.

5% 21 10.307 69 34. Table 1: Gender * Convenience Convenience Disagree Undecided Agree Gende Male Count % of Total Female Count % of Total Total Count % of Total Pearson Chi-Square 21 10.1 Hypothesis of the Study: There is no difference in overall demographic characteristics with respect to frequency of product category. 3. 2. 4 No.5% 69 34.0% . hedonic needs. Farooq.5% 42 21.5% 2.Impulse Buying & Demographic Characteristics Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences. 4 & 5 respectively.5% 6 3. Vo.068 while the other components are non significant.5% 62 31. Faheem & Seema 13 . Findings of the Analysis The results based on convenience product purchases are at table # 1.5% 131 65. Only income level is having significant impact at the level of 0.0% 111 55.5% 200 100.0% 27 13. purchase tendencies towards impulsive buying.0% Total Dr Farzand. self identity and cognitive process components.359a 2 41 20.

0% 8 4.5% 2 1.0% 26 13.5 % Total 57 28.0% 27 13.0% 5 2.0% 3 1.102a Dr Farzand.5% 8 up to 25 years Count % of Total up to 35 years Count % of Total up to 45 years Count % of Total up to above 45 years Total Count % of Total Count % of Total Pearson Chi-Square 3.5% 36 18.1 Table 2: Age * Convenience Cross tabulation Convenience Disagr ee Undecid ed 20 10.Impulse Buying & Demographic Characteristics Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences.5% 111 55.5% 83 41.0% 9 4.5 % 22 11. Farooq.0% 200 100.0% 2 1.928 Agree 31 15. Vo. Faheem & Seema 14 .5 % 45 22.0% .0 % 10 5.5% 4 2.0% 16 8.0 % A ge up to 20 years Count % of Total 6 3.5% 62 31. 4 No.0% 12 6.0% 3 1.

068 Agree 31 15. Faheem & Seema 15 .5% 27 13.0 % 6 3.5% 8 Total Pearson Chi-Square 14.5 % 23 11.5% 111 55.0% .5% 6 3.58 7a Dr Farzand.1 Table 3: Income * Convenience Cross tabulation Convenience Disagr ee Undecid ed 15 7.0% 33 16.5 % 34 17.0% 1 .5% 17 8.5% 9 4.5% 4 2.0 % Inco me up to 25000 up to 35000 up to 45000 up to 55000 above 55000 Count % of Total Count % of Total Count % of Total Count % of Total Count % of Total Count % of Total 12 6.0% 9 4.5% 61 30.5 % Total 58 29.0% 17 8.5% 200 100. Farooq.Impulse Buying & Demographic Characteristics Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences.5% 62 31.5% 23 11.0% 5 2. Vo. 4 No.5% 5 2.5% 31 15.

5% 82 41. Dr Farzand. 4 No.001 respectively. Faheem & Seema 16 .5% 7 3.5% 15 7.0% 17 8. Count % of Total Private job Count % of Total own business Total Count % of Total Count % of Total Pearson Chi-Square 2.5 % 32 16.931a Table 5: Employment Status * Convenience Cross tabulation Convenience Disagree Undecided 6 3.5% 42 21.0 % Employment Status Govt.0% 200 100.0% 71 35. The gender and income factor show the significant results at the level of 0.0% 62 31.209a 4 Data Analyses on Buying Modes Tables below show the analysis of consumer impulse buying behavior for specially products.5% 111 55.1 Table 4: Qualification * Convenience Cross tabulation Convenience Disagree Undecided 3 1. Farooq.5% 11 5.5 % 3 1.0 % 30 15.0% Agree 35 17.5% 1 .5 % Total 26 13.0% .5% 63 31.0% 18 9.0% 200 100. Vo.697 14 7.5% 52 26.0% 9 4.03 & 0.5% 27 13.0% 45 22.5% 6 3.5% 8 10 5.0% 26 13.0 % Qualification up to FA/FSC up to BA/BSC up to MA/Msc above Master Technical Count % of Total Count % of Total Count % of Total Count % of Total Count % of Total Total Count % of Total Pearson Chi-Square 2.5% 5 2.0 % 23 11.0% 22 11.5 % Total 55 27.Impulse Buying & Demographic Characteristics Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences.0% 62 31.5% .0 % 44 22.0 % 111 55.5% 2 1.5% 12 6.939 Agree 13 6.0% 27 13.

Impulse Buying & Demographic Characteristics Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences.0 % 7 3.45000 are inclined towards impulsive buying of shopping products.0% 4 2.011 which shows that those who are having income of Rs. 4 No.000. Farooq.5 % 83 41.5% 0 .0% 27 13. Faheem & Seema 17 .0 % 56 28.0 % Dr Farzand.5% 5 2.5 % . The seasonal impulse buying is strong as compare to other.1 The gender shows significance at the level of 0.0% 2 1.5% 1 .0 % 22 11.5% 61 30.0 % 16 8.5% 8 2 18 9. The income is also having significant impact at the level of 0. Vo.0% 5 2.5 % 10 5.0% 8 4.0% 200 100.04 1a 1 .0% 4 2.0 % Total 57 28.0% 11 5. Age * Self Identity Cross tabulation Self Identity 1 A ge up to 25 years up to 20 years Count % of Total Count % of Total up to 35 years Count % of Total up to 45 years Count % of Total up to above 45 years Total Count % of Total Count % of Total Pearson Chi-Square 27.5% 128 64.001 3 38 19.5 % 36 18.

0% 25 12.5 % 6 3. Faheem & Seema 18 .0% 200 100.36 4a 0 .5% 8 2 8 4.0 % Total 26 13.5% 8 4.5 % 12 6.0% 0 .0% 1 .0% 2 1.002 3 18 9.5 % 52 26.5 % . Vo.0 % 71 35.1 Qualification * Self Identity Cross tabulation Self Identity 1 Qualific ation up to FA/FSC up to BA/BSC up to MA/M.Impulse Buying & Demographic Characteristics Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences.Sc above Master Technical Count % of Total Count % of Total Count % of Total Count % of Total Count % of Total Total Count % of Total Pearson Chi-Square 24.0 % Dr Farzand.0 % 45 22. 4 No.5 % 6 3.0% 0 .0% 44 22.0% 16 8. Farooq.5 % 21 10.0% 61 30.0% 11 5.0 % 39 19.0% 128 64.

0 % Total 26 13.5 % .0% 128 64.36 4a 0 .0 % 39 19.5% 8 2 8 4.0 % 71 35.5 % 52 26.5 % 6 3.0% 1 .5% 8 4.0% 2 1.5 % 6 3. Faheem & Seema 19 .0% 44 22.5 % 21 10. 4 No. Farooq. Vo.0 % 45 22.Sc above Master Technical Count % of Total Count % of Total Count % of Total Count % of Total Count % of Total Total Count % of Total Pearson Chi-Square 24.0% 61 30.0% 25 12.0% 11 5.0% 0 .0% 0 .5 % 12 6.0 % Dr Farzand.0% 16 8.Impulse Buying & Demographic Characteristics Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences.1 Qualification * Self Identity Cross tabulation Self Identity 1 Qualific ation up to FA/FSC up to BA/BSC up to MA/M.0% 200 100.002 3 18 9.

5 % Seasona lly 47 23.5% Total 131 65.0% 1 .5% 16 8. Faheem & Seema 20 .5% 39 19.5 % 200 100.5% 3 1.0% .5 % 81 40.5% 11 5. Farooq.69 7a 5 2.0% Mont hly 10 5.5% 1 .0% 4 More than yearly 13 6.5% 86 43.5 % 69 34. 4 No.0 % Dr Farzand.0 % 25 12.5% 6 3. Vo.030 yearl y 56 28.1 Gender * Specialty Products Cross tabulation Specialty Products Neve r Gen der Mal e Fem ale Total Count % of Total Count % of Total Count % of Total Pearson Chi-Square 10.Impulse Buying & Demographic Characteristics Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences.

hedonic needs.1 Income * Specialty Products Cross tabulation Specialty Products Neve r Inco me up to 25000 up to 35000 up to 45000 up to 55000 above 55000 Total Count % of Total Count % of Total Count % of Total Count % of Total Count % of Total Count % of Total Pearson Chi-Square 31.0% 2 1. therefore. the results can not be generalized to each product category.0% 5 2.5 % Seasona lly 19 9. The hypothesis is accepted.5% 3 1.Impulse Buying & Demographic Characteristics Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences. If the Dr Farzand.5% 200 100.5% 4 2.5% 17 8.0 % 7 3.0% 24 12. Farooq.5% Total 58 29. 4 No.0% 33 16.0% 1 .0% .5% 31 15. Though the results are not highly significant but the over all results show positive trend in case of convenience and shopping products.0% 86 43.0% 27 13. Vo.5% 61 30.0 % Status of the Hypothesis H 1: There is no difference in overall demographic characteristics with respect to frequency of product category.011 yearl y 25 12.0% 16 More than yearly 10 5.5% 11 5.5% 0 .0% 1 . self identity and cognitive process components.5% 18 9.0% 1 .0% 16 8.0% Mont hly 4 2.0% 1 .5% 6 3.5% 1 .5% 0 . Recommendation for Future Studies The study in hand was having an emphasis on the demographic characteristics self identity and cognitive behavior.0% 0 .5% 81 40.0% 6 3.5 % 12 6.5% 16 8. Faheem & Seema 21 . purchase tendencies towards impulsive buying.5% 13 6.80 8a 0 .

R. vol 19 # 3S Dr Farzand. Andrew M (2008) Consumers Supremes Aurora May-June. culture. Beatty. The Significance of Impulse Buying Today.Impulse Buying & Demographic Characteristics Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences. Vo.W (1987). Baumeister. S.L and Della Bitta AJ (1993) Consumer Behavior 4th Edition.P and Palma. S. S (2006) Impulsive Buying Behavior as a Function of Affective and Cognitive Components of Pakistani Consumers. Journal of economic Psychology. Journal of Marketing. We are in the habit of Impulsive Buying.G (!986). H (1962). 4 No. Cha. Vol 14 # 2. Stren.F (2002) Yielding to temptation.A (2008) The Ad Scope Aurora Jan –June. M. Tellis T (2010) Tales From Bollywood. A (2002) Impulse buying and equilibrium price dispersion unpublished dissertation university of Virginia US. Journal of consumer Behavior research vol 28 # 4. location of shopping malls.S Thesis SZABIST Islamabad Pakistan. Faheem & Seema 22 .E (1998) Impulse Buying Modeling its Precursors” Journal of Retailing Vol 74 # 2. Loudon D. USA Today Wood.E and Ferrell. Particularly like Bara markets and pricing policies like CSD stores the result may vary from the foreign studies. Delay in gratification and Impuls Buying. J (2001) Planning and Unplanned Apparel Purchases Typology and Related Variables. Unpublished M. Unpublished Dissertation Seoul National University Korea. McGraw-Hill International Edition. “The buying Impulse Journal of Consumer Research”. geographic location and family size because very few studies are available on these variables.M (1998)Socio Ecnomic Status. Vol 26. Rook. It is also suggested that the study needs to be carried out on other demo graphic characteristics factors like martial status.1 studies are carried out on the basis of each product category. Babin B. Farooq. J and Babin L (2001) Seeking something Different. D. LITERATURE CITED Anderson. Aurora Jan. Rammal K.Feb Welles. self control failure impulsive purchasing and consumer behavior. Attiq.