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cJOMNR-OGS

1981

Ministry of

Natural Ontario

J

Minister

*oa Alan w-

Deputy Minister

ONTARIO GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Open File Report 5357

Geology, Geotechnique, Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Leda Clay from Deep Boreholes, Hawkesbury, Ontario.

by Robert M. Quigley, Janet E. Haynes, Anne Bohdanowicz and Q.H.J. Gwyn

1981

Parts of this publication may be quoted if credit is given. It is recommended that reference is given in the following form: Quigley, Robert M., Haynes, Janet E., Bohdanowicz, Anne, and Gwyn, Q.H.J. 1981: Geology, Geotechnique, Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Leda Clay from Deep Boreholes, Hawkesbury, Ontario, Ontario Geological Survey OFR 5349, 175 p., and 7 appendices.

Ontario KOK 3JO The right to reproduce this report is reserved by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Check with the Library or Region al or Resident Geologist's office as to whether there is a copy of this report that may be borrowed. Director Ontario Geological Survey . Recommendations and statements of opinion expressed are those of the author or authors and are not to be construed as statements of government policy.Ontario Geological Survey OPEN FILE REPORT Open file reports are made available to the public subject to the following conditions: This report is unedited. A copy of this report is available for Inter-Library Loan. Discrepancies may occur for which the Ontario Geological Survey does not assume liability. E. This report is on file in the Regional or Resident Geologists' officers) located at: Metcalf Street Tweed. Pye. The Library or Regional or Resident Geologist's office will also give you information on copying ar rangements. Handwritten notes and sketches may be made from this report. Permission for other reproductions must be obtained in writing from the Director.G. Open file copies may be read at the following locations: Mines Library Ontario Ministy of Natural Resources 3th Floor. Toronto The office of the Regional or Resident Geologist in whose district the area covered by this report is located. Ontario Geological Survey. 77 Grenville Street.

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geochemistry and geotechnical characteristics of Leda clay from deep boreholes at Hawkesbury. Owen L. The initial work was done over a 12 month period in 1975-76 and consisted of extensive mineralogical and geochemical investigations of soil samples provided by the Ministry. D. Haynes and Robert M. A report authored by Janet E. Hawkesbury. Quigley entitled "Mineralogy and Physico-chemistry. Division of Mines. Geological Branch. Ontario" was submitted on July 24. Piezometric Water Conditions. Ontario. 1976. The second phase was carried out between July 1978 and July 1979 and consisted of geotechnical engineering studies necessary to interpret the geochemical profiles obtained in phase one.H. Quigley and Anne Bohdanowicz entitled "Supplementary Research. Preconsolidation and Isotope Analyses on Leda Clay from Deep Boreholes. White. Gwyn of the Phanerozoic Geology Section. Q. 111 . The work has been done under contract to the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Province of Ontario. Close contact was maintained with Dr. 1979. Ontario" was submitted on August 16. During this phase close contact was maintained with the late Dr. A report authored by Robert M. Hewitt and Dr.J. Hawkesbury. Chief of the Engineering and Terrain Geology Section of the Ontario Geological Survey during this phase. High quality samples were taken for engineering testing and piezometer nests were installed in two borings to determine the in situ groundwater conditions.PREFACE This report presents the final results of a three-phase study of the mineralogy. Leda Clay from Deep Boreholes.F.

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It should be especially noted that this is essentially a report of work done.The third and final phase of the work has been carried out since July 1979 and has consisted of preparing an organized final report based on a critical review of the first two reports. The report is presented in summarized format followed by a series of Appendices. not a literature review. IV .H. The authors would particularly like to extend a word of appreciation to Dr. The list of references is therefore slim and pertains only to material featured in the report. now at the Universite de Sherbrooke. has been involved from the beginning of the project. Gwyn. Imperfect test results obtained on disturbed samples for phase one have been excluded. White for his continued strong support of this project.J. and has prepared the geology section for this final report. Dr. Owen L. Q. Two extensions to the original contract have enabled us to assemble an extremely interesting interdisciplinary study which we hope will be of value in future research on Champlain Sea clays.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
PREFACE
TABLE OF CONTENTS CONVERSION FACTORS DEFINITION OF SELECTED TERMS SUMMARY INTRODUCTION SITE LOCATION QUATERNARY GEOLOGY

lil
v viii fX xi l 2 2

Introduction Marine Deposits Deltaic and Fluvial Deposits Fluvial Erosion Geochronology
FIELD INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS

2 6 , ' 8 9 10
11 12

Geotechnical Studies Geochemical Studies Mineralogical Studies Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Studies Scanning Electron Microscopy '

13 13 14 14 15

Page
GEOTECHNIQUE 15

General Soil Classification and Index Testing Shear Strength Consolidation Water Conditions Discussion
MINERALOGY

16 19 31 33 38 41
47

Qualitative Mineralogy
Clay Mineralogy* Oxidized Crust Clay Mineralogyt Deposit Below Crust Mineralogy of Non-clay Components Amorphous Materials

47
47 49 53 56

Semi-Quantitative Mineralogy Scanning Electron Microscopy
GEOCHEMISTRY

61 64
68

Carbonates pH Salinity

68 72 72

Porewater Cations Organic Matter Discussion -

72 73 73

vi

Page POREWATER ISOTOPES Introduction Results Discussion REFERENCES APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C TESTING PROCEDURES FOR GEOTECHNICAL. GEOCHEMICAL AND MINERAL ANALYSES UNCONFINED COMPRESSION TEST RESULTS CONSOLIDATION TEST RESULTS 79 79 81 81 95 APPENDIX E APPENDIX F APPENDIX G TABULATIONS OF GEOCHEMICAL DATA ANALYSES OF FLUID EXTRACTS AFTER SELECTIVE DISSOLUTION TREATMENT 1978 FIELD INVESTIGATIONS 140 154 Vll .

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l pound force l pound/cu ft 100 pound/cu ft ~ * - 4.590 sq km 0.76 kPa Vlll .CONVERSION FACTORS LENGTH: l ft l in.093 m2 WEIGHT: UNIT WEIGHT. l mile 1 micron 1 angstrom 0.609 km l ym l A ^ TO" 6 m 0.4536 kg 16.602 Mg/m 3 STRESS: ' l psf l psi l tsf * * * 0.895 kN/m2 95.1 nm (nanometre) AREA: l sq mile l sq ft 2.540 cm 1.448 N 0.048 kN/m2 (kPa) 6.71 kN/m 3 MASS: DENSITY: l pound l pound/cu ft 100 pound/cu ft E E i 0.157 kN/m 3 15.3048 m 2.02 kg/m 3 1602 kg/m 3 * 1.

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That water content at which a soil behaves essentially like a solid. Defined as weight of water x weight of solid That water content at which a soil behaves essentially like a fluid. Plastic limit. t.0)n Liquidity Index. ^. Liquid limit. Ac Defined as 2ym U)n . Soils with a natural water content greater than the liquid limit become extremely soft when disturbed. Defined as the ratio ""disturbed strength Remoulded Descriptive (verbal) strength designation for clays as in the following table: Consistency Very soft Soft Medium (firm) Stiff Very stiff Undrained shear strength. u)p . Li Defined as .DEFINITION OF SELECTED TERMS Water content. Sensitivity. Activity. A high liquidity index generally signifies a high sensitivity. kN/m2 O 12 25 50 100 12 25 50 100 200 Consistency .

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Pee Dee Limestone (reference rock for standard 18Q/16Q ratio 'on mineral matter) PDB .C. O. av Total stress less the porewater pressure.Salinity Normally expressed as grams/1000 grams ( 0700 ) but approximated as g/2. Preconsolidation pressure. Framboid Agglomeration of tiny pyrite crystals into a raspberry-1 ike cluster.R. pc Maximum stress to which a soil can be stressed before consolidation commences in a consolidation test. A value of unity indicates the present vertical stresses are the maximum ever experienced by the clay soil. Probably of bacterial origin. In situ effective stress. Nad equivalent for this report. Overconsolidation ratio. 6 180 An expression of the deviation of '"O relative to its normal abundance in standard sea water (defined on page 33 of the text). SNOW Standard mean ocean water (reference water for standard 1897160 ratio). Normally caused by previous consolidation but may be caused by cementation. Ratio of pc to av . del oxygen-18.

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vane tests. The main conclusions of the study are summarized in point form under four main headings below. engineering testing). The lower level clay plain is believed to have been covered by silty rythmites and deltaic sands deposited during isostatic uplift some time after 10. 1.500 B. Geology Field mapping carried out by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and others is summarized in the report. porewater cation chemistry.75 m elevation. Significant differences in the geotechnical and chemical characteristics of the two clay deposits suggest different depositional environments. Two major clay plains occur in the study area.SUMMARY An interdisciplinary study of the geology. piezometer observations. Ontario is presented. a westerly one at ~ 50 m elevation and an easterly one at .P. mineralogy. soil sampling) and laboratory analyses (mineralogy. 2. The following points are of special significance to the soft clays studied. porewater isotopes. geochemistry and geotechnique of soft Champlain Sea clays at Hawkesbury. The work has extended from 1975 to 1980 and has consisted of field studies (boreholes. . A N-S trending bedrock high separates the two clay basins.

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In the lower level clays. The natural water content of the clays.200 years B.P. 75 m) is estimated to have emerged 9. particularly by the ancestral Ottawa River. is generally close to the liquid limit (70S. shorelines and channel fl utings have been mapped.3. Geotechnique Both clay deposits consist of firm to very stiff grey and brown marine clay deposits capped by a l to 3 m thick oxidized and desiccated crust. ) yielding an average liquidity index of close to unity.P. 5.600 years B. 4. The upper level clay plain (elev. 50 m) is estimated at 9.P. Subsequent erosion.P.000 years B. with contained erosion channel fillings dated 9. the liquidity index generally decreased with xi i . Lower level emergence (elev. is believed to have removed between 18 and 33 m of sediments from the lower level clay plain where extensive terrace scarps. Beaches related to isostatic uplift are dated at 10. Major differences in properties between the upper and lower level deposits are as follows: 1. Occasionally soft clay is found directly beneath the crust. Erosion of the fluvial sands is believed to have taken place very soon after their deposition since the marine clays were only partly consolidated by the sands as summarized under Geotechnique.000 years B.500 to 10.

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56 and 57. The sensitivity values noted above are quite low. 1975). Preconsolidation pressures measured on the clays show marked preconsolidation near top and bottom drainage boundaries of the strata. with respect to the many important geochemical factors in m the sensitivity equation as detailed by Quigley. 56) shows direct correlations of higher sensitivity with reduced salinity and increasing carbonate but no correlation with amorphous matter. The plot of sensitivity versus depth for the low elevation clays (Fig. in part at least. and essentially normally consolidated conditions in the central portions. 1980. The upper level clays. the sensitivity reaching a maximum of about 20 near the centre of the stratum at ~ 15 m depth. probably reflecting the relatively high pore fluid salt contents of greater than l g/A to as high as 20 g/fc (Torrance. The sensitivity of the lower level clays varied from about 25 at surface to about 5 at depth. 5. This means that both sites were probably loaded by sandy fluvial sediments which were subsequently removed by erosion before 1002 consolidation was reached. These trends reflect. 2. the differences in liquidity index of the two clay deposits. however. however.) 3. (Compare Figs. were quite different. Two xiii . 4. The dominant controls at this site have not yet been defined.depth (the usual situation) whereas In the upper level clays the liquidity index actually increased with depth.

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the clays are not presently consolidating and settling). 23 and 24) are suggested in the report. the piezometers indicate that the clays are not underconsolidated relative to current in situ stresses (i.schemes that are compatible with the different pc versus depth curves obtained on the upper and lower level clays (Figs. Variable erosion and interrupted consolidation make it difficult to compare preconsolidation pressures with elevation as done by Crawford. Piezometer installations in the two 1978 holes established that although there are slight gradients in both holes. the groundwater conditions are very close to hydrostatic. More importantly. approx.e. 1. All samples consisted of quartz. for Champlain Sea clays near Ottawa.e. xiv . 7 m of each in the scheme suggested). 6. Mineralogy The clays exhibited a constant suite of minerals whose individual percentages seemed affected mostly by variations in grain size probably controlled by proximity to source sediments and the depositional mechanisms. 1961. plagioclase feldspar. On the low level clay plain it is inferred that up to 20 m of deltaic sands were removed whereas on the upper clay plain it appears that both sand and clay may have been removed by erosion (i.

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carbonate. upward flow of salty pore fluid should xv . The clay minerals chlorite and vermiculite tended to increase in relative abundance towards surface probably reflecting distal sedimentation. 5. the feldspars and quartz tended to increase at depth probably reflecting more proximal conditions. Interesting framboidal pyrite was observed cementing some of the more granular layers indicating highly reducing conditions and anaerobic bacterial activity. 3. Illlte/mica. and small amounts of smectite. Scanning electron photomicrographs show a very open structure compatible with the high natural water contents. chlorite. 56) show an increase from about 52 at depth to about 81 near surface. 2. Even if overlain by freshwater clays. Summary plots of carbonate (Fig. amphibole. Illite/mica seemed fairly uniformly distributed throughout the clay strata. Geochemistry Consolidation of soft clays at upper and lower drainage boundaries under their own weight and by overlying sands will redistribute pore fluid from the central region through an entire clay stratum. Correspondingly. vermiculite. Trace amounts of heavy minerals and amorphous constituents were also present. Much of this increase may be due to increased planktonic activity during distal later phase sedimentation. 4.potassium feldspar.

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56 and 57). 2. A lower average organic matter content of Q. The pore fluid salinity generally increases from l or 2 g/Jl at surface to about 15 gA at 25 m depth in the low elevation clays. The upper level clays show bow-shaped salinity curves with values of l or 2 gA at surface and at 30 m depth increasing to 4 or 5 g/fc at mid layer. 48).render them essentially saline depending of course on many consolidationtime controls.12) also suggests a different depositional environment in the two basins (Fig. 3. 4. a feature difficult to explain in view of the piezometric and flow data discussed in the report. 1. It is speculated that the upper level clays were deposited in a less saline sea (Figs. 6 180 values of -10 to -Il 07oo for tne upper level clays compared to -9 0700 for the lower level clays also suggest a less saline depositional environment (Fig. Therefore. 55). xvi . Tritium values are high (10-20 tritium units) to depths of 15 m (Fig. Final interpretation of depositional salinity awaits isotopic assessment of marine shells in the clay deposits as discussed in the text. uniformity of pore fluid chemistry through a clay deposit would normally be anticipated unless subjected to subsequent modification by convection and diffusion. 5. 48).85% in the upper level clays (compared to 1.

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XVll . Further work will also be undertaken on some of the mathematical aspects of the preconsolidation characteristics of the clays as discussed in the report. the first author will be continuing with scientific studies dealing with the isotopic composition of marine shells in the clays and carbon dating of the organics. These results should establish the depositional salinities and the relative ages of the clays in the two basins.Although this project Is now complete.

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soil mineralogy and soil index tests. A sustained effort has been made to obtain a maximum of inter disciplinary information. especially with respect to post-depositional erosion. This is presented in essentially factual form although some interpretation is made.J. geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sensitive clays in eastern Canada have been frequently examined. GEOTECHNIQUE. LEDA CLAY FROM DEEP BOREHOLES. geochemical and mineralogical aspects of deep deposits of Leda clay deposited in the Champlain Sea near Hawkesbury. has concentrated on landslide and building sites and usually focused on only one of the above three areas of research. Q. nine in 1975 followed by two in 1978. Ontario. The bulk of the previous work. . Piezometers installed in the 1978 holes have served to define the present-day groundwater conditions. Gwyn. the geotechnical. Samples from the 1978 holes have been used to determine the preconsolidation state of the clays and have provided water samples for oxygen isotope analyses. MINERALOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY. A total of eleven borings has been put down in an area just south and west of Hawkesbury.GEOLOGY. Ontario. Furthermore.H. HAWKESBURY. the work is intended to supplement field mapping studies by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources in the Hawkesbury area carried out by Dr. however. ONTARIO INTRODUCTION Over the past twenty years. The main aim of this project has been to obtain a fairly comprehensive assessment of the geotechnical. Samples from the 1975 holes served to define the geochemistry.

Figs. The definition and distribution of marine sediments 2. An east-west profile showing the main topographic features is given in Fig. . 1 and 2 are maps of the area showing the surficial geology and the borehole locations. The definition and distribution of fluvial sediments 3.2 - SITE LOCATION The area under study is located south of the Ottawa River and extends from Hawkesbury in the east to Plantagenet in the west. respectively. 3. the region consists of a central. Topographically. The majority of creeks in the study area drain northwards to the Ottawa River although a few of the more southerly areas such as Alfred Bog also drain in the opposite direction towards South Nation River. The subsequent erosion of the fluvial and marine deposits 4. Much of the low-level plain is believed to represent an erosion surface created by an ancestral meander of the Ottawa River following isostatic uplift of the region. four aspects in particular are discussed: 1. The chronology of the post-glacial evolution.. low-level plain at elevation 50 m which rises irregularly to the east to an upper plain at elevation 75 m . QUATERNARY GEOLOGY Introduction In summarizing the Quaternary geology in the Hawkesbury area.

e - .•n S c 70 m o m o O i 7* CO CO x m m m m m m o m m x O m .

dol ostones.4 - QUATERNARY LEGEND FOR FIGURE 1 QUATERNARY 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 Landslide debris: highly disturbed medium to fine sand silt and clay Bog deposits: peat. organic silt and marl Older alluvium: mainly silt and sandy silt. shale and sandstone SYMBOLS Geological boundaries River-cut terrace scarp and earth flow escarpment T Borehole site and number . some medium to fine sand Deltaic deposits: medium to fine sand Rythmites: rythmically interbedded clay and sandy clayey silt or silty sand and very sandy clayey silt Marine deep-water deposits: clay with rare fossils Fort Covington Till: cobbly to bouldery sandy silt till LOWEft AND MIDDLE ORDOVICIAN l Limestone..

3! o c ro m CD OD m H 33 O O TO m CD ro- IS) 51 ' N OD H •en O O) m o TI ^ ? s m (O z f.s - . Si o "D I O "H 33 O 25 m 33:C71 .

Coarse grained fossil iferous marine sand and beach gravels. Marine Deposits Two types of fine grained marine and transitional sediments were identified and mapped.6 - Following the retreat of ice from the Ottawa-Saint Lawrence Lowland. The marine sediments were identified primarily on the basis of their texture. The sediments typically consist of massive. fossil content and their primary structures. which was approximately 60 m above the highest point in the study area (122 m) at Vankleek Hill (Fig. fine grained deposits are found as a patchy cover of variable thickness (up to 10 m). In the zone mapped as till. They were easily penetrated with a hand soil auger since they never had a resistant crust that was greater than one metre thick.. 1). 1). grey coloured clay containing infrequent specimens of Portlandia aretica. the Hawkesbury area was inundated by marine waters of the Champlain Sea. Based on landforms and deposits on the Canadian Shield north of the Ottawa River. McCrimmon and Plantagenet (Fig. Thus the primary process active after deglaciation was deep-water marine sedimentation. also mapped. . These include deep-water deposits and shaHower-water rythmites. the maximum elevation of the Champlain Sea itself was 180 to 190 m relative to present sea level. The clays are widely distributed across the area but are most extensive in the low lying flat area defined by the villages of L'Orignal. do not concern us directly in this study.

The rythmites are easily traced in the field because of their distinctive structure and their association with the marine clays. 1). 1). . the rythmite unit is clearly a transitional sequence (possibly a distal deltaic facies) between the marine clays and the overlying freshwater sediments. In section.. Fournier and Routhier (Fig. In the less extensive area of clays to the east and west of Little Rideau Creek they have a maximum thickness of about 30 m (Fig. The second type of fine grained deposits consists of rythmically interbedded sandy clay and slightly sandy clayey silt in the lower part of the unit. Typically. They underlie the surface deposits to the northwest and extend as far as the terrace scarps trending through the hamlets of Riceville.7 - The clays vary in thickness from a feather edge along their eastern and southern limits to a maximum of about 60 m at the Ottawa River east of Lefaivre (Fig. 2 km wide. It is suggested that these sediments were formerly more extensive and may have covered much of the zone between the Alfred-Piantagenet area and the Riceville-Fournier-Routhier area (Fig. they are in the order of 30 to 35 m thick. The rythmites are exposed in a band. 1). the rythmites are less than 7 m thick and grade down into the massive marine clays. They also underlie the large area of deltaic sediments between Plantagenet and Alfred where they are exposed in several sections. extending southwestwards from Proulx. The rythmic banding is the most easily mapped characteristic. and silty very fine sand and very sandy clayey silt in the upper part of the unit. 1). They contain very few fossils. Though discussed here with the marine sediments.

An island first appeared at Vankleek Hill (elevation 122 m) between 10. From that time until the land had risen sufficiently to form the lowest beaches at 91 m. plain bedded and ripple-drift laminations. The deltaic sediments consist of medium to fine sand and silty sand contained in massive bedded units. Their characteristic textures and structures make them easy to trace over large areas. the land surface gradually emerged isostatically. The most widespread consists of grey and red-brown banded. the water continued to support marine fauna. However. some time following this. The lateral limits of the deltaic deposits are for the most part defined by erosional terrace scarps (Fig.285). They are presently distributed as large remnants in the Plantagenet-Alfred area and in the Riceville-Fournier-Routhier area as well as in smaller remnants east and south of L'Orignal (Fig. stiff silts and sandy silts. 1). that are restricted to an area . (QU-283. During this transition. The sands range between 8 and 10 m in thickness and have a maximum elevation of about 85 m.. 1). the transition from marine to fluvial sedimentation occurred.8 - Deltaic and Fluvial Deposits Following the marine transgression.P. . Subsequent to the formation of the delta. though perhaps at a slower rate than other areas that were never submerged.500 and 10. the main process active in the area was the sedimentation of the upper units of the rythmite deposits and the deposition of an extensive delta by the emerging ancestral Ottawa River.800 radiocarbon years B. Two types of fluvial sediments have been found. the predominantly depositional processes were replaced by dominantly erosional processes but including some fluvial sedimentation.

5 km wide) channel which had begun to dissect this section of the delta. 1). as were all the channels of the ancestral Ottawa River. plain laminated and cross laminated fine to medium sand and silty sand. Alfred Bog is located in one of these channels (Fig. because of a bedrock sill encountered in the channel during the down cutting. which in general parallel the main channels. An intermediate-level set of scarps occurs . The primary evidence for an erosion origin of these channels includes the presence of several persistent terrace-scarp systems. are a maximum of 2 to 3 km long.. The sand both overlies and underlies the silts. Fluvial Erosion With continued emergence of the area. First recognized on air photographs because of their darker tone. 1). The scarp is on the northeast side of a small (0.9 - bordering the Ottawa River and which were probably deposited during overbank flooding. The second and very patchy unit includes massive. It was abandoned. the Ottawa River both maintained and eroded large channels in the surficial deltaic sediments. The flutings were clearly cut or gouged into the soft marine clays because the banding in the clay has been both contorted and truncated in the flutes. The terrace scarps have a maximum elevation of 85 m and range progressively down to between 60 and 55 m. they are usually infilled with bog deposits. the general absence of fluvial sediments in the larger channels and the presence of curvi linear flutings cut into the marine clays in the channels. The flutings. 10 m wide and 2 m deep. They are irregularly spaced a few tens of metres apart and are subparallel to one another. The highest terrace is at the northwest end of the large deltaic deposit between Plantagenet and Alfred (Fig.

Two dates on wood from a channel-fi 11 deposit of sandy gravel (elevation 53 to 61 m) at Hawkesbury.P.-10- between 75 and 68 m elevation in the Alfred-Piantagenet area as well as in the area between L'Orignal and Hawkesbury (Fig. (Ref.P. QU-282. an approximation can be made of the time of emergence of these two areas using the later rate of emergence. The Little Rideau Creek sites at approximately 75 m elevation may have .P.200 years B. it is calculated that erosion has removed a maximum of 33 m and a minimum of 18 m of sediments in the large channel in the study area. These data yield an approximate rate of emergence of 30 m in 500 years. The lowest level beaches (four sites at elevation 91 m) have an approximate age of 10. Two areas where the clays were drilled and sampled are below the lowest marine beaches.500 years B. therefore. QU-292.000 years B. give an average age of 9.293. (Ref.BGS-257). 1). Based on the elevation of these terrace scarps and the correlation of the marine and deltaic sediments into which they were cut. Geochronology A series of radiocarbon dates on shells from marine beaches and two dates on wood from a channel fill deposit permit the quantitative estimation of the date and rate of emergence of the study areaN.283). 1). QU-297. even lower set of terrace scarps were mapped at 65 m down to 55 m between L'Orignal and Hawkesbury and in the Riceville-Fournier-Routhier area (Fig.294'). This corresponds to an approximate rate of emergence of 30 m in the 800 years between the formation of the lowest marine beaches (elevation 91 m) and channel infilling. A third. (Ref. A beach built on the highest point of land at elevation 122 m was dated at 10.

-11 - emerged some 9. whereas the Ritchance sites at elevations of approximately 52 m may have emerged some 9. Phase l The first phase of drilling was carried out by the Ministry under the direction of Dr.P.J.000 years B.H. geochemical. holes (#75-1 to 9) are shown on Fig. 2.P. Gwyn and consisted of nine soil borings put down during the early summer of 1975. Three-inch diameter piston samples were taken in each hole and these provided high quality samples for consolidation testing. The locations of these In situ strength testing using a standard 2-inch diameter vane was carried out at each^hoi e location. . 2. Q. and engineering index or classification testing.600 years B. FIELD INVESTIGATIONS The field investigations pertinent to this report consisted of two phases of drilling which included vane testing. Phase 2 The phase 2 drilling was carried out in July 1978 by Golder Associates (Ottawa) and consisted of two auger borings (78-1 and 78-2) at the locations shown on Fig. Soil sampling was carried out in holes 75-1 to 8 and consisted of 2-inch diameter Shelby tubes which provided good samples for mineralogical. soil sampling and piezometer installations.

a minor amount of scanning electron microscopy was done to assess soil fabric and framboid agglomeration of some samples.H. Geochemical analyses of the 1975 and 1978 samples 3. Five sets of piezometer readings were taken between July 1978 and May 1979 by Golder Associates with the first author present for the November 1978 readings. piezometer layout. details of the borehole locations. Oxygen. 2. # - ' In addition. Geotechnical index testing on the 1975 samples and consolidation testing on the 1978 samples 2. In view of the importance of these two holes to the overall success of this project. In order to keep the number of analyses to a manageable size. 4 and 6 were analyzed at depths where anomalous values appeared in the . Mineralogical analyses of the 1975 samples 4. Gwyn to ensure their location near 1975 borehole sites. samples from boreholes 75-3. are presented in Appendix G from data supplied by Golder Associates LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS The laboratory testing program may be divided into four main areas of concentration: 1. However. only five of the nine original boreholes (75-1.-12- Nests of four piezometers were installed in each hole at depths of 3. 9. etc.J. The holes were spotted by Q. 7 and 8) were selected for detailed analysis. 5. deuterium and tritium analyses on pore water squeezed from the 1978 samples. 18 and 28 m to accurately assess the in situ piezometric groundwater conditions.

Consolidation tests were run on samples from boreholes 75-2. Check tests were also run on samples from boreholes 78-1 and 78-2. Geotechnical Studies Classification tests included Atterberg limits. carbonate determination and pH measurement.7 and 8 were selected for porewater salinity and cation analysis. boreholes 75-1. Na.5. 2. Geochemical Studies In order to investigate any relationships between the engineering and geochemical properties. The samples from borehole 75-2 were only 2 inches in diameter and hence were somewhat disturbed. 78-1 and 78-2. K and Fe were measured by conductivity and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. and samples selected at zones where sudden changes in geotechnical properties occurred. only the consolidation data obtained on the 3-inch diameter samples from the latter two holes are included in this final report. The total porewater salinity and the concentrations of Ca. The percentage of carbonate was determined by the gasometric method using a Chittick apparatus. The porewater specimens were obtained by pressure squeezing of samples selected from regular intervals in the boreholes. Therefore. Mg. Unconfined compression tests and laboratory vane tests were run on many samples as a check on the field vane results. respectively. specific gravity tests and wet and dry unit weights and moisture contents.-13- field vane strength data. Check . grain size analyses. These data provide a good engineering description of the deposits in this part of the Champlain Sea.

7 and 8 were selected for semi-quantitative analysis. The main tool in all of the mineral analyses was x-ray diffraction. Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Studies In an attempt to unravel the depositional history of the Hawkesbury clays. The percentage of organic matter was determined on all samples from boreholes 78-1 and 78-2 using the modified Walkley Black method. deuterium and tritium determinations were made on . 1979). with chemical analysis being used in the semi-quantitative mineral determinations. and after examining the geotechnical and geochemical data. qualitative analyses were performed on a large number of samples to identify any gross mineralogical trends in the deposit. 39 samples from boreholes 75-1. Mineralogical Studies Initially. 4. 6. On the basis of this preliminary work. and from samples of medium and stiff strength. 5. 2. A final stage of the mineral analyses was the measurement of the amorphous constituent commonly reported for Champlain Sea clays (Yong et al. More details concerning the testing procedures may be found in Appendix A. at different depths and elevations.. Eighteen samples were chosen from four boreholes. oxygen-!8.14 - testing of porewater salinity was also done on samples from boreholes 78-1 and 78-2. in order to provide specimens for all soil conditions in the deposit.

. Peter Fritz at the University of Waterloo. it was hoped that these determinations would aid in explaining the bow-shaped salinity profiles encountered in the geochemical analyses.15 - the pore water squeezed from samples taken from boreholes 78-1 and 78-2. The analyses were performed by Dr. In particular. One of the samples (75-6 #3) was selected because of the excessively low remoulded shear strength recorded immediately above it. drilled in July 1978. Fritz who has contamination-free porewater squeezing techniques necessary to obtain reliable mass spectrometer results. some brassy coloured cemented materials discovered in various samples were prepared for SEM examination.. More detailed information including selected stress-strain curves and consolidation test results may be found in Appendices B and C. GEOTECHNIQUE The important features of both the field and laboratory engineering testing program are described in this section. Scanning Electron Microscopy Four soil samples were selected for scanning electron microscope (SEM) examination. In addition. The intention of this testing was to visually characterize the soil fabric and to examine any differences in fabric with depth. Bulk samples of the soil were submitted to Dr.

5 to 15 inclusive. there is a thin (l to 3 m thick) crust of medium to stiff. This is underlain by stiff to very stiff. separated by a N-S trending bedrock ridge as shown in Fig. brown and brown grey clay and silty clay about 14 m thick. at different elevations. oxidized and fissured. The Champlain Sea clays are located in two rock-basins.-16- General A geotechnical profile for each borehole is presented in Figs. 3 and 4. These individual profiles were used to prepare the stratigraphic cross-sections shown in Figs. The main stratum shown in Fig. 3. At the surface. 3 and 4. grey and brownish . at 20 m In boreholes 75-6 and 75-7. The position of the bedrock surface on the E-W profile was estimated from the overburden thickness map for the area (Gwyn and Thibault. 4 for the low elevation holes is a medium to stiff grey. The strength increases with depth so that the "soft zone" is normally about 4 to 6 m thick in the low elevation holes. The clay deposits within each basin have been separated into four main components based on shear strength (soft to very stiff) and appearance as shown on Figs. Significant differences in the physical and chemical characteristics of the clays in these two basins are discussed throughout the text. 1973b). 11 m) This is significant since it suggests either less preconsolidation of the higher elevation clays or significant erosion of sediments from the area of the lower elevation boreholes. located higher elevation. desiccated. brown to grey clay derived by weathering from underlying soft to medium grey clay and silty clay with brown layers. the "soft zone" appears thicker (approx.

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-19-

grey clay and silty clay deposits.

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boreholes 75-6 and 75-7 are underlain by stiff grey clay and silty clay with grey brown layers.

Soil Classification and Index Testing The percentage of clay size ^2um) material in the soils varies from 43 to 932 and averages 831. The soils may be classified, therefore, as slightly silty to silty clays with occasional silty layers. Most of the low clay contents occur near the base of the boreholes as shown on the profiles, however, scattered silt layers do occur in the sequence as may be observed in borehole 75-5 at 4 m depth. The Atterberg limit tests yielded liquid limits in the range of 60 to 84 with an average of about 70 for most of the samples. Occasional values as low as 342 were obtained in silty layers. The plastic limits varied from 19 to 32 and averaged 28. The activity (Ac ) of the soil varies from 0.4 to 0.6 which is low and typical for Leda clays which are composed primarily of inactive clay minerals and rock flour. The water content (uin ) profiles generally follow the same trends as the liquid limit (o^) profiles with con values quite close to the u)fc values yielding an average liquidity index of 0.97 for the whole deposit. For the low elevation holes (Figs. 5 to 9 and 14), the moisture

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.20 - -25 . DEPTH (m) (m) Wp STRENGTH 9 UNCONF. O LAB VANE SALINITY (g/4) C/.. WATER MATTER CONTENT.0 9O 5 10 1-45-l. COMP.5 H L 40 ± 'O H .. SURFACE ELEV.5 1. BH 78-1 (APPROX.) 15 0. * 50m ) .3O.-25 -•H FIGURE 14. SALINITY AND ORGANIC vs DEPTH. STRENGTH.29 - MOISTURE CONTENT [LEV.35 .15 - .) Wn Wf ORGANIC MATTER -50 - 20 40 60 80 100 (kPa) 30 60 (V.

.. BH 78-2 ( APPROX.) ORGANIC MATTER (V.15 - ..10 - \ o ..5 1.65 .30 - MOISTURE ELEV. STRENGTH .50 -.) 0. SALINITY AND ORGANIC MATTER vs DEPTH RELATIONSHIPS. COMP. . DEPTH (m) (m) CONTENT Wn STRENGTH * 0 UNCONF.55 .5 - \ O . LAB 30 VANE (kPo) 60 90 SALINITY (q/JL) 120 (V.70 .0 20 40 60 8O 2 6 . * 75 m ) .60 .-20- l o \ . 25 - FIGURE 15. WATER CONTENT. SURFACE ELEV.

the unconfined compression shear strength values are much lower than the field vane values indicating sample disturbance.5 kN/m 3 at surface to about 16. Field vane tests have been found reliable for measuring in situ strength where the deposit is not heavily over-consolidated (Eden. unconfined compression and laboratory vane tests were run to complete the strength profiles. from 40 kN/m2 to approximately 130 kN/m2 . Ten to twenty revolutions were used to remould the clay. In spite of these problems. Higher values (16. the undisturbed . The laboratory vane strengths recorded in Fig. the undisturbed field vane strength generally shows a gradual increase with depth. Since the material in the Hawkesbury area is generally of medium to stiff consistency (Su . Below the thin crust. 6 and 7.2 kN/m 3 at depth (99 to 103 pcf). 7 and 8 for boreholes 75-3 and 75-4 show similar disturbance although not so great.1 cm x 10. Where strength values were missing and 2-inch tube samples were available. 6 and 11 for boreholes 75-2 and 75-7. the crustal zone could in some cases be clearly defined by the strength profiles as in boreholes 3.25 to 100 kN/m2 ).31 - Wet unit weights for the deposits ranged from about 15.2 cm) vane. slowly torqued by hand. Shear Strength Boreholes 75-2 to 75-5: Most of the strength data shown on the logs for boreholes 75-1 to 75-9 represent in situ undisturbed and remoulded field vane values obtained with a standard 2-inch diameter x 4 inch long (5.. In Figs. 1966).8 kN/m 3 ) at extreme depth on the logs generally reflect the presence of siltier soils.

-32- strengths are probably close to the true field strengths. anisotropy effects have not been considered. In boreholes 75-6 and 75-7 on the upper clay plain. 14 and 15. This individual soil had a liquidity index of 2. It is important to note that some of the tube samples occasionally yielded si l tier clays in which the water content was far in excess of the liquid limit (e. In low elevation boreholes 75-1 to 75-5.g. are close to the 1975 field vane values. the sensitivity shows a definite increase with depth. the sensitivity (by field vane) decreases from about 15 to 30 in the near surface soft zone to values of about 5 to 10 at depth. had it been encountered by the field vane. The highest values of sensitivity generally occur in the soft zone just beneath the crust where values range from 20 to infinity and correlate with the lowest salinities measured. B.H.7 and should have been very sensitive indeed. however. although variable. The increase in remoulded shear strength concurrent with undisturbed shear strength keeps the sensitivity comparatively constant and relatively low (5 to 25) throughout the deposit. with the lowest values (2 to 5 kN/m2 ) observed just below the crust and highest values (12 to 25 kN/m2 ) at the base. a phenomenon compatible with the increasing liquidity index values also shown by these clays. The values of undrained shear strength. . Boreholes 78-1 and 78-2: Twelve unconfined compression tests were run on the 3-inch piston samples from the 1978 boreholes with the results shown in Figs. The remoulded vane strength also increases with depth. 75-7 at 13 m depth).

78-2 shows a strong inverse correlation between . Fig. for the deeper samples. pc .R.) defined as PC * Po are noted next to each curve. then a central. and preconsolidation pressures. determined by a Casagrande construction. 78-1 is ignored. The bow-shaped strength profile shown on Fig.H. Values of over-consolidation ratio (O. P0 . usually. but not always. 19 for B.C. Several of the stress-strain curves presented in Appendix B are rather flat indicating some sample disturbance. 14 and 15. Summary plots of preconsolidation pressure versus depth are given on Figs. The curves strongly suggest that the entire area was unloaded prior to complete consolidation of the clay stratum at some time in the past. 15 is very significant and will be discussed later in relation to the preconsolidation history of the deposit. If the central PC value on B.33 - indicating that the samples are of fairly high quality. 16 and 17 for the two 1978 boreholes in comparison to the corresponding in situ effective stress values. The laboratory vane test values. were consistently too low.H.. under-consolidated zone is not an alternative explanation. also plotted on Figs. Consolidation Consolidation curves for the twelve samples tested are presented in Appendix C along with estimated values of in situ effective stress. then both figures indicate that the Hawkesbury Leda clay is preconsolidated at the top and bottom and essentially normally consolidated at the centre relative to the in situ effective stress values. Since the piezometers indicate close to hydrostatic conditions at the site (next section).

3 m -15- -20- -25- P c (not corrected for sample disturbance) •30- FIGURE 16.. HAWKESBURY.34 - O Q. . ~ 50. Uul STRESS. kPa 100 200 300 (m) 400 LEGENO -5 - Su (BH 75-2 Si 75-3) (FIELD VANE) o—o pc (BH 78-1) -10- SURF. PRECONSOLIDATION PRESSURE . ELEV. BOREHOLE 78-1 . EFFECTIVE STRESS AND UNDRAINED SHEAR STRENGTH VERSUS DEPTH.

ELEV. PRECONSOLIDATION PRESSURE.35 - O CL UJ (m) 100 STRESS.5 - Su (BH 75-7) (FIELD VANE) o—o -10- pc (BH 78-2) SURF. HAWKESBURY.. ~ 74. . EFFECTIVE STRESS AND UNDRAINED SHEAR STRENGTH VERSUS DEPTH. BOREHOLE 78-2. kPa 200 300 LEGENO 400 .7 m -15- -20- -25- -30- FIGURE 17.

5 OVER-CONSOLIDATION RATIO 2. CONSOLIDATION TEST RESULTS.10 - a • REBOUNDED TO a * 10 kPa o 1 * 1500 kPa .36 - DEPTH (m) 5 VOID RATIO e 1..0 1. BH 78-1 .0 l ___ 2 3 O -sJ .20 - FIGURE 18.

5 1 1 OVER-CONSOLIDATION RATIO 2.20 - FIGURE 19. BH 78-2 . .0 A .37 - DEPTH (m) 5 a VOID RATIO e 1. CONSOLIDATION TEST RESULTS..0 1.10 - l\ li \r1 V INITIAL 0 •REBOUNDED TO o " 10 kPa \\ * AT a * 1500 kPa O .

021. possibly by erosion. a volume decrease due to consolidation by a previous load is indeed responsible for the preconsolidation. 20 and 21. prevented preconsolidation in the central portion of the clay layer..38 - over-consolidation ratio and natural or initial moisture content. 78-1 is more difficult to interpret since the preconsolidation at surface is accompanied by an increase in moisture content.H. The lower summer readings probably reflect surface drying as expressed by the brown crust at both sites. there is a small downward flow under a gradient of 0. 22. The plots of effective stress versus depth shown on Figs. Water Conditions The five sets of piezometer readings for borings 78-1 and 78-2 are plotted on Figs. 18 for B. and that unloading. At boring 78-2 on the higher clay plain there is a slight upward flow under a gradient of 0. At boring 78-1 on the lower clay plain. 78-2. 16 and 17 have been calculated using measured unit weights and in situ pore pressures for May 1979. 1979 is illustrated by the summary plot on Fig.9 m. Fig. The shallow piezometer (3 m) in each hole recorded a fairly low water level until November when both rose to an equilibrium depth of 0. This correlation strongly suggests that.H. respectively.047. . The groundwater flow regime on May 19. The lower three piezometers in each hole had stabilized by August 1978 and remained essentially constant to May 1979.8 or 0. Such a phenomenon is suggestive of significant cementation bonding that would create a preconsolidation state without volumetric compression. at B.

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021 upwards For purposes of illustration. k is assumed to be constant with depth. the upper and lower clay plains.41 - Discussion Using the piezometric data given on Fig. 78-2. The assumptions used for the calculations are as follows: 1) Permeability. so that an estimate of flow time is strictly for purposes of illustration. of course. the present-day gradients are assumed to apply over the past 9000 years. i * 0. Initial pore pressures must have been positive followed by some negative pore pressures during unloading by erosion. 3) Time for flow . 78-1. respectively. are believed to have emerged some 9600 and 9000 years before present. 22. n * 642 * 0. 2) Porosity.0467 downwards B. n is assumed to be constant at 64% for seepage velocity calculations.H.64 The in situ porosity values vary from about 67X at surface to 621 at depth. For purposes of simplicity. This. a series of seepage calculations may be carried out to establish a possible travel distance of leachate waters. For purposes of simplicity.315 cm/yr This value corresponds to an average of those calculated from the consolidation test results which ranged from l O" 7 to l O"9 cm/sec. i s 0. 4) Present gradients: B.9000 years As discussed in the QUATERNARY GEOLOGY section. . is very unlikely..H. k s l O"8 cm/sec * 0.

42 - rt [EZOMETRIC 8-2 r^ BOREHOLE ——' ILEVEL TER r 1 M01J :r ^ DEPTH (m) ELEV. . k F 1 1 le 3 n3 i i GD O (s.E C) g~ O CO ^ os E i——* LU ) 35 S) —— u u•J ^ s 3 ^ ^ uT C3 Cs* U^ 0J f OJ c3 r ut c-T —————————— CD C"-) U1 P-J C3 OJ or LU D O U. UJ l H LU in "' i— O P- to CM o to CM o CO cr OD o to CD el (T * " r** O LO vo vo O LO LO LO O ^ IO to LU QC CD LU ^ > S (T 0 0 -J HX LU ill i 9———1 MO" ———^ Id < LU t— LU LU -J 1 M LU *i^i: S^ *" rLU O S!g —i— ^l^: .ji ^j """"""1 !? ® ^~ n~ H z C3 l '^ X Q..

Much more work could be done on these calculations. and subsequent transport of fluids by both convection and long term diffusion. The resultant salinity.43 - 5) Darcy flow equation applies Average linearized seepage velocity..1 m in B. In other words. water from the clay mass drained towards both the top and bottom. vs .H. Using these figures. it is calculated that pore water would have moved a distance downwards of 2. These flow distances are minimal compared to the clay thickness at each site and suggest little convective leaching. Nevertheless. it seems inappropriate for this report.ki T n. One can then speculate as to the original soil conditions that first created the load and then were removed by erosion. 23 and 24 for the lower and upper clay plains. the preconsolidation profiles may be used to illustrate the approximate load removed by erosion. therefore. The preconsolidation profiles shown in Figs. section must consider the combined effects of consolidation-drainage during loading. The lower and upper .H. The lower drainage boundary below the clay deposits was only approximately located by the exploration program carried out. however. This is a highly simplified assumption if applied to chemical migration since 9000 years of diffusion is very significant for low gradient situations. 78-1 and upwards a distance of 0.9 m in B. respectively. rebound swelling during erosion. The results of such a thought process are shown on Figs. 78-2. 16 and 17 indicate that consolidation took place under conditions of top and bottom drainage. should have been fairly Interpretation of the geochemical profiles in the next constant throughout the clay deposit and typical of the salinity of the central portion.

4 kN/m 3 10 ASSUMED UPPER DRAINAGE BOUNDARY PRESENT SURFACE ELEV.ASSUMED DRAINAGE BOUNDARY CONSOL FIGURE 23. . STRESS-DEPTH RELATIONSHIPS AND POST .DEPOSITIONAL EROSION (BH78-I) LOWER CLAY PLAIN POSSIBLE .. kPa 100 200 300 400 500 SUGGESTED ORIGINAL DEPOSITIONAL SURFACE 20 * 9. LU O IN SITU av y' s 6 kN/m 3 -30 -40 T.44 - STRESS.50 m -10 av FOR 100% CONSOL. UNDER ORIGINAL LOAD ERODED 20 m sand l m clay c/) at. LU -20 Q.

kPa 100 200 300 400 500 20 SUGGESTED ORIGINAL DEPOSITIONAL SURFACE 10 ASSUMED UPPER DRAINAGE BOUNDARY J lUNUMKY l 170 kPa ERODED 7.DEPOSITIONAL EROSION (BH 78-2) UPPER CLAY PLAIN .5 m clay PRESENT SURFACE ELEV.45 - STRESS. UNDER ORIGINAL LOAD .5 m sand 6.. STRESS-DEPTH RELATIONSHIPS AND POSSIBLE POST .-20 o. ~ 75 m -10 en LU OS av FOR 100% CONSOL. O LU -30 ASSUMED LOWER DRAINAGE BOUNDARY -40 FIGURE 24.

Since both sets of pc values indicate upward drainage and marked near surface preconsolidation. This amount of erosion compares "reasonably well" with the possible range of 18 to 33 m of erosion based on residual deposits of sands on the lower clay plain as discussed under Fluvial Erosion. 24 indicates erosion of soil having a total potential effective stress at the present surface of some 170 kPa. it is inferred that surface sands existed at both sites. The speculative scheme shown on Fig. Although other schemes could be suggested. For this case it is assumed that the surface sands were deltaic deposits and hence submerged most of the time prior to erosion.5 m of clay along with a water table 5 m below original surface as shown.46 - drainage boundaries shown on the figures are assumed to be consolidated and are located to fit the shape of the preconsolidation versus depth profiles for boreholes 78-1 and 78-2.. The scheme shown on Fig. 23 indicates removal by erosion of 20 m of submerged sand and l m of clay. This would be satisfied by erosion of 7.5 m of sand and 6. . the shape of the present pc profile strongly suggests that considerable clay has been eroded off the upper clay plain.

illite/mica. Clay Mineralogy3 Oxidized Crust As mentioned previously. plagioclase feldspar. The several aspects of the mineralogical study are detailed under separate headings below starting with the thin oxidized crust at the surface. a strong o Fig. yet does expand to 17 A with glycolation after Mg saturation. . vermiculite and small amounts of smectite.. 25 provides a typical x-ray diffraction trace of < 2 ym material from the chlorite and amphibole. This percentage probably includes some of the expandable vermiculite/smectite. The expandable material appears to be a low charge vermiculite or a vermiculite/smectite. potassium feldspar. o 15. Trace amounts of heavy minerals are also present. In the 'natural 1 trace. Vermiculite comprises 13 to 202J of the <2 ym fraction in samples taken from the crust based on glycol retention analyses.47 - MINERALOGY Qualitative Mineralogy Analysis of the x-ray diffraction data indicates that all samples studied in the Hawkesbury Leda clay deposits contain quartz. oxidized crust. and this has caused significant changes in the clay mineralogy.7 A upon glycolation is produced by this smectite. in addition to illite/mica. the top l m ± of clay has been weathered. chlorite. amphibole. It is apparent that. there is a significant percentage of vermiculite and an expandable or swelling clay.2 A (1. It does not expand o with glycolation after K saturation.52 nm) peak that expands to 16.

<2fJLm MATERIAL .15 i " NATURAL' K SAT'D AIR DRIED GLYCOLATED Mg 6 DEGREES 28 8 10 SAT'D 12 —— 14 FIGURE 25.f A CHLORITE/ l VERMICULITE A 15.8 m (2. (CENTRIFUGE ORIENTED).48 - SWELLING CLAY HAWKESBURY SAMPLE 75-2-1 DEPTH 0. X-RAY DIFFRACTION PATTERN OF SAMPLE 75-2 HAWKESBURY..2/1 r\ ILLITE X MICA 10.) GREY CLAY OXIDIZED ALONG FISSURES / 16.5 FT. .

26. expanding their interlayer spacings to a uniform 14 A. probably the oxidation of Fe-chlorite. 27 and 28. This would decrease the 10 A reflection and intensify the 14 A peak. Clay Mineralogy. Magnesium saturation generally decreases the intensity of the 10 A peak and enhances the 14 A peak. slightly asymmetrical 10 X peak. The origin of the micaceous minerals forming this peak would include both illites from the underlying Ordovician sediments and micas from the Canadian Shield to the north. The illite/mica component produces a strong. Their increased proportion in the crust is due to weathering.-49- Only small amounts of the vermiculite and vermiculite/smectite are present in the bulk of the deposit at depth. Fe-chlorite is frequently the second most abundant clay mineral in these clay deposits. No distinction is made between the illites and micas. It is possible that the Mg is homoioni zing frayed edges and weathered mica/illite particles. produces a 14 A peak and weaker 7 A peak. Vermiculite. Since vermiculite will collapse to 10 /l after . Edge weathering of the illite/mica component could also be a minor source of vermiculite. Deposit Below Crust Five representative x-ray diffraction traces of oriented ^ym material are provided in Figs. These figures and the hundreds of x-ray traces actually run indicate that the same mineral suite occurs in all samples. present in varying amounts. Mg** homoionization of the vermiculite itself would also contribute to a better defined 14 A peak. o o o o o o It produces weak 14 A peaks and strong o 7 A peaks that remain unaltered after K saturation.

. AIR DRIED (ADPO) AND GLYCOLATED (GPO ) ) . . HAWKESBURY.18 NATURAL* NATURAL AOPO GPO — AOPO •— GPO DEGREES 28 B 10 12 14 8 DEGREES 26 IO 12 14 FIGURE 26. (CENTRIFUGE ORIENTED.15 7.13 \ CHLORITE 7.50 - CHLORITE/ VERMICULITE SAMPLE 75-2-1 GREY CLAY DEPTH 16m CHLORITE/ VERMICULITE 14.7 SAMPLE 75-2-13 BROWN CLAY DEPTH 19.2m (63 FT.5 (53 FT.) ILLITE/ MICA 10. X-RAY DIFFRACTION PATTERNS OF <2/JLm MATERIAL FROM SAMPLES 75-2-11 AND 75-2-13.) 14.

X-RAY DIFFRACTION PATTERNS OF <2fJL^T\ MATERIAL FROM SAMPLES 75-7-13 AND 75-7-19. .13 NATURAL" TNATURAL" DEGREES 26 8 IO 12 14 DEGREES 28 8 10 12 14 FIGURE 27.4 ILLITE/ MICA 10..51 - SAMPLE 75-7-13 DEPTH 19 2 m (63 FT) GREY CLAY CHLORITE/ VERMICULITE 14. HAWKESBURY (CENTRIFUGE ORIENTED .2 SAMPLE 75-7-19 DEPTH 28.4m (93 FT.) GREY CLAY CHLORITE 718 CHLORITE 7. AIR DRIED (ADPO) AND GLYCOLATED (GPO) ).

.19 "NATURAL" K SAT'D AIR DRIED GLYCOLATED Mg SAT'D DEGREES 8 28 lO 12. X-RAY DIFFRACTION PATTERN OF FROM SAMPLE 75-5-7. 14 FIGURE 28. HAWKESBURY.52 - HAWKESBURY SAMPLE 75-5-7 DEPTH 10m ( 33 FT. ( CENTRIFUGE ORIENTED ) MATERIAL .) GREY CLAY SWELLING CLAY CHLORITE 7.

. the fraction in which the expandable minerals are concentrated. Of the non-clay components in the clay size fraction. It should be noted that the apparent proportion 1) the reflected of swelling clay tends to be exaggerated because: o intensity becomes much greater at low values of 20. except perhaps the permeability. In most samples there is an expandable clay mineral.53 - K saturation. Its presence is clear on all traces in Figs. Mineralogy of flon-clay Components Figs. Some samples. a decrease in the relative intensity of the 14 A peak in the K saturated trace as compared to the Mg saturated trace is used to establish the presence of vermiculite. appear to contain a trace of montmorillonite. 26 to 28 will confirm this. quartz. No greater differences were observed between the brown and grey clays than was observed between all grey clay samples. However. only amphibole produces a peak between 140 and 20 20. these expandable minerals are present in very small amounts and are of minor importance to the engineering properties. and 3) glycolation will also slightly increase the reflected intensity at low 20. Examination of the four x-ray traces of <2ym grey clay provided in Figs. previously identified as a low charge vermiculite or vermiculite/smectite. 26 to 28.58 A. o Fig. such as 75-7-19 (Fig. feldspars and amphibole. 26 provides a comparison of grey (75-2-11) and brown (75-2-13) clay samples. 29 and 30 illustrate four representative powder pattern . It is apparent on all traces at 8. This material produces a peak or increase in background at 17 to ISA in the natural and Mg saturated glyeol ated traces. 27). 2) the centrifugal sedimentation method of sample preparation enhances the reflections of the very fine clays.

UJ (T OD en 2 o: H UJ o: UJ Q o Q. VDIW X 31ITII frO'OI — . (D CVJ o: UJ D O LL..54 - cr to D CD UJ * < CVJ l IT) UJ O o: o CD o iL.

.55 - cr D CD (fi LU in LJ -i o l i a: o m o (T LL td en Z s* or LU h- UJ O O Q. O ro UJ o: D O u..

it is still clear from the variations in peak heights from trace to trace that the relative percentages of the non-clay minerals do vary between samples as calculated later. The concentrations of extracted Si. 31 and the percentage of amorphous material determined by extrapolation. it is also markedly affected by the grain size distribution. although generally these minerals are not abundant enough or present in large enough crystals to produce clear diffraction peaks.58 A) and the clay minerals illite/mica and chlorite are apparent on all traces.-56- diffraction traces.26 X). The exact form of the amorphous material is unknown. is based on the assumption that amorphous material dissolves at a greater rate than crystalline minerals of similar composition.35 A and 4. used to determine the amount of amorphous constituents. Bearing these restraints in mind.17 to 3. Amorphous Materials o o The selective dissolution technique. o The main peaks for quartz (3. Al and Fe The data for the other seventeen samples An average of ^2% amorphous material was It could are plotted as shown in Fig.21 A). are provided in Appendix F. plagioclase feldspar (3. amphibole (8. Some traces show calcite (3. Once a constant dissolution rate is achieved.26 A).88 A) peaks. potassium feldspar (3. The relative intensity of an x-ray peak is related to the abundance and crystallinity of that particular mineral. and especially the presence of amorphous coatings acting as shields to the x-rays. extraction is stopped.03 A) and dolomite (2. the composition of the mineral itself. However. extracted from the Hawkesbury samples. .

DISSOLUTION RATES OF MINERALS IN HAWKESBURY SAMPLES 75-6-6 AND 75-6-10.5* AMORPHOUS TOTAL 10 Si02 Fe20 3 A1 20 3 2 3 TIME (HOURS) FIGURE 31.57 - SAMPLE 75-6-6 20 o uo CO 10 Fe203 0 A1 203 l0. ..5* AMORPHOUS TOTAL 2 3 TIME (HOURS) SAMPLE 75-6-10 20 o ^ —J O i—i O LU 11. CLAY.

58 Z HUl uj o: UJ O CO en O UJ 8- O UJ 8- (ft UJ -J I o o z o I a: u. UJ z o: o u.. (M l UJ -J 5 CO OJ ro UJ (T D . ui OD UJ o l o- QC D CD 01 UJ * in Q.

Fig. 32.g. it was suspected that the stiff layers in some boreholes (e. 33 illustrates that there is no clear relationship between the percentage amorphous material and either sample depth or elevation. which could have resulted from glacial grinding or previous weathering. the feldspar peaks are generally much more distinct and the clay mineral peaks sharper and more symmetrical. would also contribute to the greater symmetry of the clay peaks. 'Extraction' of the soils by this method certainly produces clearer x-ray diffraction traces. 12) may have contained higher concentrations of amorphous material acting as a cementing agent. borehole 75-8. amorphous material recorded for the Hawkesbury samples is comparable to values for other locations in the Champlain Sea (McKyes et al. Originally. Some of the increased intensity of the clay peaks may be attributable to the better disaggregation. It is possible that the percentages of amorphous material may result as much from the testing procedures and stripping of amorphous rinds from glacially ground rock flour as they do from removal of a potential cementing agent. Haynes. a general coating around the soil particles and/or as an outer phase of the mineral particles. No such correlation was found. following this technique. After treatment. 1975). with lower background noise. Removal of frayed edges. suggesting a general 'cleaning up' of the soil particles as illustrated for oriented traces of sample 75-2-17 on Fig. although there does appear to be a slight increase at lower elevations. 1975. The ]21(. It could be of interest to compare the results of these extraction procedures on Canadian and . Fig. and hence better subsequent orientation.-59- exist as a precipitate at particle contacts.

in CSJ o in CM CO o (S3cJ13W) Hid3Q . m ro LJ cc D O LL UJ in .-60 (S3H13W) NOI1VA313 31VWIXOHddV o in CO o vo o CSJ o Z LJ -l UJ z I ICO O CL UJ O ac o. 9 4 O B ac ** o CL (T O ^ o Z o o: LU o.CVJ •f. 1-4 i Of UJ CO i i i i u) u) m in r-* r** r** r** CO CO IO 00 CO CO u < cc H X UJ O LJ I- o Q. UJ r.

The amount of chlorite and vermiculite tended to decrease with depth. Semi-Quantitative Mineralogy Semi-quantitative mineral percentages for the Hawkesbury clays are provided in Table I along with a list of assumptions used in determining the percentages in Table II. The normal range in abundance for each mineral species throughout unweathered portions of the deposit is summarized below: Mineral Illite/mica Chlorite (estimated) Vermiculite (including vermiculite/smectite) Quartz K feldspar (estimated) Plagioclase feldspar (estimated) Amphibole (estimated) Carbonate Percentage 10 . quartz. to a lesser degree.-61 - Scandinavian sensitive marine clays since the Scandinavian clays have a similar geological origin but generally lack a highly cemented structure. None of the above trends is . The illite/mica and amphibole contents exhibited no distribution trends.46 2-26 3-12 9-28 5-38 4-23 2-10 2-13 These percentages do not include the amorphous materials which generally comprised an average of 125S of the soil solids. increased in relative abundance. while the percentage of feldspars. and.

16 12 .20 16 .14 12 .0 4.9 5 .3 2 .5 4 .7 5 .12 8-12 10 .18 12 .7 7-9 4-6 3-5 8 .7-2 5 9 13 16 19 75.28 20-30 16 .20 6 .11 6 .26 16 .8 .31 27 .16 8 .28 24 .7 5 .8 9.3 19.14 10 .18 14 .23 18 .5 .9 28.18 10 .18 18 .23 6 .10 .14 10 .13 15 .16 6 .14 6 .20 12 .5 7.24 12 .2-1 3 5 9 11 13 17 21 75.14 12 .7 5-7 5-7 4 .6 9.16 10 .18 20 .35 20 .5 4 .18 14 .9 l 5 .21 10 .4 12.13 8-10 9 .18 14 .10 5-7 5 .18 12 .35 25 .14 10 .14 5-9 3 6 .14 12 .9 2 10 .10 8 .9 8 .14 10 .20 20 .20 16 .14 S .2 .20 6 .20 6-12 7-15 10 .20 11 .30 21 .6 7.2 3-5 .24 14 .5 3 .7 5 .30 6-10 11 .35 25-33 25 .12 3 .4 6.16 10 .21 10 .5 18.12 8-12 8-12 5 .6 5-7 5 .17 8 .12 8 .15 12 .2 8 .3 4-6 8 .21 15 -23 15 .2 3-5 3 .22 10 .26 20 .14 8-10 26 .26 25-30 24 .24 22 .17 15 .12 7 .12 9 .12 14 .30 25 .21 20 ..20 8 .31 l PLAGIOCLASE FELDSPAR l CARBONATES t (Measured) AMPHIBOLE X (Estimated) (Measured) (Estimated) (Estlin ted) 4-8 6 .5 6-8 4-6 7 .38 10 .23 5 .33 25 .28 14 .20 12 .20 10 .13 6-10 11 .8 4 .8 2.9 7 .22 23 .14 4-10 10 .8 8 .31 20 .13 12 .9 20 .18 12 .19 11 .6 2 .5 15.10 10 .14 11 .13 .1 8.2 23.20 12 .16 3 8-12 8-10 8 .6 4 .2 14.9 4-6 2 .7 20.2 .18 10-15 12-18 10 .7 14.10 15 .14 10 .14 10 .5 4 .7 5 .28 25 .6 2 .6 7 .2 13.23 10 .20 9 .13 10 .3 .4 4.1 5.18 10 .12 6 .20 15 .18 9 .14 10 .10 3 .2 .25 20 .6 16 .10 8 . 62 .26 25 .35 15 .9 30.20 12 .6 . AMORPHOUS COMPONENT EXCLUDED SAMPLE NO.7 .2 14.6-2 3 6 10 16 75.12 10 .15 10 .10 9 .8 4-6 .2 20.11 11 .20 4 .11 4 .4 5 .16 10 .7 10.16 6-12 10 .23 15 .31 25 .18 NOH-CIAY MINERALS Average Percentage 75.14 15 .8 6-10 10 .7 .15 10 .12 12 .8 6-10 10 .6 7.0 3.10 5 .16 14 .16 12 .2 2 .7 4 .20 4-8 10 .14 12 .5 4 .14 10 .20 14 .7 5 .7 30.30 20 .31 21 .14 2-6 15 .34 38-46 10-20 20-30 20 .15 8 .7 3 .6 .16 10 .21 21 .31 25 .8-2 4 7 8 .3 3 .11 11 .14 12 .9 3 .16 15 .6 6 .15 7 .20 15 .7 5 .5 7 .26 20 .2 10.33 25 .12 9 .17 7 .18 9 .12 6-10 7 .14 7-15 7 .14 6 .3 1.14 10 .25 17 .6 24.2 10 .14 12 .21 9 .18 20 . TABLE I SEMI-QUANTITATIVE MINERALOGY.4-2 6 8 14 20 75.1-2 7 12 14 16 1.18 10 .15 12 .33 28 .28 20 .10 2-4 4 .4 5 .9 6 .8 23.14 9 . OCPTH (•) ILLITE/MICA CHLORITE S (Estimated) VERMICULITE t (Measured) QUARTZ * # POTASS I W FELDSPAR tt tt (Measured) 25-30 27 .12 8 .5 11.5-3 4 5 6 7 10 75.18 7-15 10 .10 3 .17 20 .28 8-14 10 .26 23 .9 6 .15 6-10 9-13 6 .2 .13 10 .18 14 .14 16 .6 17.9 2.5 6-10 6 .8 23.20 12 .16 5-7 7 .6 6 .18 10 .16 18 .20 14 .6 3-5 3 .4 23.20 12 .32 20 .18 13 .4 5 .12 8 .2 8.29 28 .6 6 .5 33 41 47 59 71 45 52 43 53 50 52 50 48 52 57 56 52 59 45 59 44 52 54 64 40 44 47 42 71 49 55 55 53 56 72 63 50 51 55 75.25 15 .2 3 .5 3-5 3 .26 10 .6 4 .24 14 .18 5 .8 2.31 25 .

7.03 A) (10 A) (14 A) l l 3 2 2 l 5. 2.26 A) (3.. Estimation of the amounts of feldspar and chlorite was determined from the powder patterns using the following peak intensity ratios for equal amounts of mineral (Kenney. This percentage can vary from 6 to 10/K depending on the soil. therefore. Quartz K feldspar Na-Ca feldspar Calcite Illite Chlorite (4. all clay mineral components were assumed to have the same degree of orientation so that the above ratios for powder samples apply. The decrease in glycol retention following K saturation is completely attributable to the collapse of vermiculite.19 A) (3. 1967). The illite/mica component of this soil contains 1Q1 K20.63 - TABLE II ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE SEMI-QUANTITATIVE MINERALOGY Item No. In order to provide a rough correction for the contribution of clay sized potassium feldspar to the measured percentage approximately one quarter of the estimated percentage of K feldspar was assumed to be of clay size. The presence of amorphous material equally affects all mineral peak intensities. 1. 4. 3. Assumption Variations in grain size and their effect on the x-ray peak intensity have been ignored.25 A) (3. 6. . the recorded percentage of vermiculite includes some of the expandable clays identified on the oriented x-ray diffraction traces. For oriented x-ray traces.

used in estimating relative mineral percentages. selection of the correct internal standard. 34 and 35. Fluctuations in composition. In other words. the amorphous constituents will produce a higher and more irregular background. are compounded by the presence of amorphous material. it should be noted that. even more difficult.64 - particularly distinct nor apparent in all boreholes. No significant differences are . The greatest orientation of particles is seen in sample 75-2-2 in Figs.. there are many problems in determining the percentages of the individual minerals present. a random fabric typical of Champlain Sea clays is observed. Further discussion of the carbonate distribution may be found in the GEOCHEMISTRY section. the standard problems of variation in chemical composition. between samples will Furthermore. etc. it has to be assumed that it will affect all intensities equally. particularly in iron content. The photographs generally show numerous voids and no strongly developed particle orientation. grain size factors. Finally. and any pattern or distribution appears to be largely the result of increasing grain size with depth in some boreholes. greatly affect comparative peak heights. This material will affect the reflected x-ray intensity. 34 to 39 photographically illustrate the fabric of vertical and horizontal fracture surfaces of four samples. making accurate measurements of peak heights. In Champlain Sea clays. in multi-minerallic systems. Scanning Electron Microscopy Figs. and since it is not known where it is distributed.

HORIZONTAL FACE/ SAMPLE 75-2-2 (X10000) FIGURE 35. VERTICAL FACE/ SAMPLE 75-2-2 (X10000) .65 - FIGURE 34..

. FIGURE 36. HORIZONTAL FACE/ SAMPLE 75-2-17 (X10000) FIGURE 37. VERTICAL FACE/ SAMPLE 75-2-17 (X10000) . 66 .

VERTICAL FACE/ SAMPLE 75-6-3 (X10000) FIGURE 39.. HORIZONTAL FACE/ SAMPLE 75-6-16 (X10000) .67 - FIGURE 38.

34. No attempt has been made to separate foreign clastic carbonate from planktonic carbonate actually living in the saline Champlain Sea. 5 to 13 inclusive. There seems to be no particular correlation of percent carbonate with the other chemical test results. Some may consist only of precipitated pyrite crystals. Carbonates The carbonate contents of the deposits vary from about 2 to 10/6 with most values between 4 and 6ft. possibly of bacterial origin (Haynes and Quigley. 37 and 39). The pH data may be found on the borehole logs in Figs. These materials are believed to result from the cementing of sand and silt grains by pyrite precipitated after deposition. The values are somewhat erratic although there seems to be a general tendency to decrease with depth in most of the five holes tested. 40 to 42 are photomicrographs of dark grey cemented layers and irregular 'inclusions' discovered in various samples. 1978).68 - discernible between the fabrics observed in the surface samples (75-2-2 and 75-6-3 in Figs. 43 to 47 inclusive. 36. GEOCHEMISTRY The results of the chemical testing are presented in Figs. the particles exhibit pyrite crystal shapes and framboid-1ike Structures. 35 and 38) and samples near the base of the boreholes (Sa 75-2-17 and 75-6-16 in Figs. Figs. . As is apparent from the micrographs..

FRAMBOID-LIKE STRUCTURES .-69 - 400X 25p 2000X 10000X FIGURE 40. HAWKESBURY. CEMENTED INCLUSION/ SAMPLE 75-7-7.

HAWKESBURY (NOTE: PYRITE CRYSTALS) .70 - 1000X l Oy 4000X FIGURE 41. CEMENTED LAYER/ SAMPLE 75-2-9..

71 - 40X 2.. HAWKESBURY .5 mm 1000X lOy FIGURE 42. CEMENTED MATERIAL/ SAMPLE 75-1-16.

5. shape to the salinity profiles. J. In the lower level boreholes 75-1. 5 and 8.5 probably reflecting H adsorbed on some of the exchange sites of the clay minerals within the weathered crust. In the lower elevation boreholes 75-1. The salinities in boreholes 75-7 and 78-2 (Figs.6 through the bulk of the deposit with scattered values slightly higher and lower. Porewater Cations The porewater cation analyses identify Na as the predominant cation throughout the deposit. The corresponding Mg profiles also •H- .. Salinity The values of total salinity expressed in grams/litre.72 - 2H The pH values tabulated on the borehole logs vary from about 7. K and Ca are present in approximately equal amounts at a lower concentration.1. 8 and 78-1 the salinity generally increases with depth from about l or 2 g/*. a maximum value of about 4 g/Z being reached at 10 m depth.5 to 8. 2. at surface to maximum values of 7 to 15 g/ Z at 15 to 20 m depth depending on the hole. Near surface.J. j. 2. Nad equivalent. were obtained by conductivity measurements. Iron was not present in detectable amounts. the pH decreases to values as low as 6. These values seem typical of Leda clay deposits. Na values vary from 1500 to 9600 ppm and form profiles with depth very similar in 1. 46 and 15) on the upper clay plain are significantly lower. with Mg generally second in abundance.

respectively. Discussion In all boreholes.. and tabulated in Table E-3. however. the porewater salinity is high enough to maintain a fairly high remoulded shear strength. Organic Matter Measured values of organic carbon are plotted versus depth on Figs. 46). This was the only hole in which this relationship occurred. l.88% organics compared to T. however. Mg 4.73 - follow the salinity profile trends at concentrations of 75 to greater than 600 ppm.L are much lower relative to the K and Ca was measured at a concentration of only 8 ppm at the base of the hole. ^ L concentrations. observed in the lower X L. all values are significantly lower as is the total salinity. the cation profiles continue to follow the trend of the salinity profile. shows clearly that the upper elevation clays contain an average of Q. Some Mg scatter may be noted in Fig.1 X of the soil solids. A comparison of the two holes. 43 for borehole 75-1. The values vary from about Q.82% to 1. 14 and 15 for boreholes 78-1 and 78-2. The K* and Ca** values vary from about 25 to nearly 200 ppm and likewise follow the trends of the salinity curves. The Mg elevation boreholes. well below values for K and Ca (Fig. In borehole 75-7. and thus seem typical of Leda clay (Quigley. 1980). In fact. however.04% for the lower elevation clays. Torrance (1975) reports a significant increase in remoulded shear strength when the porewater salinity of test samples was increased to values of l to 3 gA from .

IU ..74 - g -T- QC D CD C/) UJ N o - Q -J O 8- 5 UJ I u o UJ zct IU < o i to N 8-J o UJ o: o m UJ CD I o: D O LJL Q.

-75- GC CO UJ m D < o 2 UJ u I (J o UJ o l (M in UJ o I cr o OD UJ UJ D O (T u. .

t — ~ Z x cc UJ D O .9 o s* UJ (T D CD UJ o —— o o——o l 1 H Q -J O O 2 UJ I o o UJ o in in -j O UJ UJ (T O OD I in i*" i/* I H 0.. x ^ o.76 - l.

.77 - -1 Q: D GQ CO UJ ^ f < Q s . UJ o o (M o o . Z -J a5 l-l- LU T O O LU O in O I -l O UJ o: o m LU I o: o u. x o M (O CM LU H 0.

78 - cr in D CD LU LJ o LJ O GO l If) 1^LU -J I O O LU QC O CD I D O U.. LJ cc .

crystallization and ion diffusion (Faure. fabric and porewater chemistry is presented in the final Summary. A further discussion of sensitivity as a function of soil composition. The del equation is as follows: . Consequently. Since hydrogen (^H) and oxygen-!6 ( 160) are lighter than deuterium (D E 2H) and oxgyen-18 ( 180). and further less significant increases when the salinity was increased up to 20 g/fc. POREWATER ISOTOPES Introduction Differences in the mass of atoms composing molecules influence some of their thermodynamic properties. melting. condensation. The isotopic compositions of oxygen and hydrogen are reported as per mil differences in the 18OX 160 and 2H/^ ratios of a test sample relative to the ratio defined by analysis of Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW). The ^"^O molecule has a higher vapour pressure than 2H2 O and therefore during evaporation is it preferentially removed from a water surface. the water molecule ^2^0 will behave slightly differently than 2H2^ 80 in terms of evaporation. 0. the vapour over the oceans is enriched in ^0 and 'H relative to ' 80 and 2H while the remaining ocean is 180 and 2H enriched relative to 160 and 1 H. The measured vane sensitivities of 5 to 25 seem compatible with the relatively high salinities of l to 15 g/Z measured in the bulk of the clay specimens. 79 ..34 g/H. 1977).

6^H values are interpreted in a similar way. fresh water has more negative 6 180 and 62H values than salt water since temperature and vapour pressure differences cause isotopic fractionation during evaporation (Faure.x 10 18 'H . is also more negative than In addition to this. 1977). 1977). then the 6 value would reduce to zero..l x 1000 If the sample was standard mean ocean water. Colder water. the ratio of ^H : l H was about l : 10 1 from which the tritium unit (T. Before nuclear bomb contamination. including water found in higher latitudes. Negative values of 6^0 indicate water containing a relative excess of light oxygen and positive values indicate water containing an excess of heavy oxygen.^V^JsMOn" ( 1807 160)sHOW x 1000 or 6 180 * '( 18*V 160)samp1( ( 1807 160) SMOW . The amount of tritium (^H) in ground water increased dramatically following atmospheric. The presence of tritium in ground water may therefore be used as a tracer to follow recent (25 year) subsurface flow regimes (Faure. atomic bomb testing between 1954 and 1963. Generally. warmer water.) was defined as follows: T.U.80 - 6 180 = ~( 18lV 160) sample .U. 6^0 and 6^H also appear to be positively correlated with salinity so that ' 80 and ^H analyses may provide insights into depositional salinity and temperature of Leda clay deposits. * r.

Interpretation has been done by the authors of this report assisted generously by a review by Messrs.73. since. The'tritium plot shows more tritium near surface than at depth with similar values for both the upper and lower elevation clays.11 0700 in borehole 78-2. 48. 1972). If these contours are extrapolated into Canada. deuterium and tritium analyses reported herein were carried out for the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources by Dr. 49) gives P approximate contours of 6^H for present day meteoritic water (Lawrence and Taylor.64 to . The 62 H ranges from . .. Results The oxygen.9 to -9. Fritz and Desaulniers. Discussion Interpretation of the 618 0 and 62 H values was more difficult than expected. as they vary with depth. University of Waterloo.81 - Pre-bomb values are actually 5 to 20 and measured values of T.10 to . 62H and tritium values.5 0700 in borehole 78-1 and . Pore water 6' 80 ranges from .4 07oo in borehole 78-1 compared to a range of .U. specifically for the Hawkesbury project.5 to -78^00 in borehole 78-2. at first glance these values appear representative of present day meteoritic water. A map of the United States (Fig. should not fall below zero. Peter Fritz at the University of Waterloo.73. although they occasionally appear to do so because of statistical errors in the counting techniques. The 6^0. are shown in Fig.

E LU —' Q CM o in CM O ro CO r— TJ O . Z LU. o co P-j or ^ CO O CM 8 o CM *o x CO CC LU iT CO VO o* LU Q o o r* o ' en OJ O X O CO ""•o O CO 25 S Si IT) or CO LL. LU O.82 - CM i CO CO r*. -J O LU hz 13 O o Q LU r* o O z: Z) LU CX x a CO l l •f o I CO LU O) ^ -M r-* i LU -J LU LU Of. O QQ II CO " 2 3 t..

*^ HAWKESBURY. 1969) . ONTARIO -25 -20-15 -15 -10 FIGURE 50. CONTOURS FOR 5 2 H AND 6 18 0 (BRACKETS) OF PRESENT DAY METEORITIC WATER (Lawrence and Taylor..5) •30(-5) FIGURE 49. 1972) DASHED LINE* EXTRAPOLATED CONTOUR. WORLD MAP SHOWING APPROXIMATE 6 18 0 CONTOURS IN 0 X 00 SMOW OF ANNUAL PRESENT-DAY PRECIPITATION (Dansgaard and Tauber.83 - •50C-7. MAP OF UNITED STATES SHOWING APPROX.

Emiliani (1966) also . Dansgaard and Tauber (1969) also found that 6 180 of present day rain water (averaged over a 2 to 10 year period) was -10 0700 for a latitude of 500 N (Fig. does not seem feasible in light of the high salinities found in the porewater samples. and is representative of. however. 1969). present day meteoritic water. the low tritium levels found at depth (Fig. although the 6l 80 values at shallower depths which are subject to water movement may represent present day meteoritic water. Therefore. Glacier ice from Greenland has been found to have a 6^ 80 value of between -20 and -30 0700 . and . Furthermore. it appears that the pore water in the Hawkesbury samples is in equilibrium with. These values are similar to those obtained for the Hawkesbury samples. Based on these findings.11 0X00 S 180 for the -80 0X00 62H contour. In search of another explanation. This.-84- 62H values of between -70 and -80 0ybo would be found in the Ottawa area. the values at depth probably do not. This explanation is improbable since the 6^ 80 values are too high to solely reflect glacial water. This gives an approximate value of -lO 0^ 6 180 for the -70^ 6 2H contour. 6 2H = 8 6 180 * 10.and these closely resemble values measured on the Hawkesbury samples. 48) seem to indicate little influence of present day water below about 15 or 20 m. 50). Using these same contours Lawrence and Taylor (1972) have calculated 6 180 values using Craig's (1961) equation. and -17 04o has been estimated as the mean 6^ 80 estimate for the Laurentide ice sheet (Dansgaard and Tauber. especially for borehole 78-2. the possibility that the pore water is actually glacial meltwater was examined since the area is believed to have been a meltwater channel after the draining of the Champlain Sea.

Lowering of the salinity by meltwater lowers the 6^ 80 and if the line in Fig. it is possible that the Hawkesbury pore water reflects clay deposition in a less saline. Epstein and Mayeda (1953) plotted the 6^ 80 of ocean water samples off the west coast of North America. 1969. These samples were taken from currents diluted with fresh meltwater.O. the 6 180 . Since the Hawkesbury samples are far below the Pleistocene ocean value of * l and since 5^0 varies positively with salinity and temperature. Present day ocean water has a 5^ 80 of zero and during glacial times the 6^0 Of the oceans was about one (Dansgaard and Tauber. Shackleton and Opdyke. 51 is extrapolated to a 6 180 of between -9 and .20 corresponds well to values found for glacial ice and also to the value found for present day snow and ice at Trail. B.-85- estimated the 6^ 80 of glacial meltwater at about . 1953). colder sea than the open ocean.11 0^0 . To these values (Fig.C. and again the salinity profiles indicate significant amounts of Nad remaining in the porewater. Since the clays were deposited under marine conditions..None of tne 6^ 80 values in the Hawkesbury samples are within the -15 to -30 range. 51) a regression line was added which indicates that at salinity . a salinity of between 15 0700 and 20 0700 is indicated. This value of . representing the type of contaminant entering the ocean currents (Epstein and Mayeda.20 0700. The addition of glacial meltwater to the Champlain Sea would lower the salinity and the 5^0 values of the water. it seems that the pore water at depth could still represent the depositional marine environment. 1973).15 0^0 . Clay deposition in the Hawkesbury area may therefore have occurred in moderately saline water (S ~ 15 to 20 0700) .

86 - CVJ o o CM o o UJ CO in O CO ui "2 Of..X *o ea CO CO OQ CQ CO UJ aa a* i o ^ i ara in 33 UJ i— CO ui r. 5CO X f* UJ —J UJ CO i CO a o: z uj CO in o i co O CO CO K3 -J UJ UJ LUX UJ (T CQU.O CVJ i O. \ . *f~ CO 5™ O h. Z 51 CO *o CO CO o Q. in CO CO Z 3 CD Of UJ o in CM A1INPVS CVJ o in .

1969).. Fig. The corresponding calculated 6^ 80 values for the sea water in which the fauna actually lived are also plotted in Fig. Subsequent 6' 80 studies on carbonate shells. 52. This is the salinity range actually measured on deeper samples from the lower clay plain (BH 75-1 to 5 and 78-1). however. 53 adapted from Hi 11aire-Mareel (1979) shows a relationship between 6 IR and salinity for modern day arctic waters and a similar I00 18 relationship for Champlain Sea waters. The constant 6 180 versus depth obtained from this investigation is. Subsequently a reduction in salinity to S^OQ occurred as crustal uplift reduced exchange with the open ocean and meltwater resulted in large additions of fresh water (Elson. Elson (1969) speaks of an initial cold phase in the Champlain Sea with salinities of over 26 ^QQ. assumed to represent redistribution of pore water as a result of soft clay consolidation. The values of 60 obtained on the Hawkesbury samples cannot at present be used to infer depositional salinity because of excessive porewater migration. 87 - diluted with glacial meltwater. Hillaire-Marcel (1979) finds 6180 values in fauna from Champlain Sea sediments from -10 07oo pDB near surface to about 0 0700 at 35 m depth as shown on Fig. It should be borne in mind that soft clay consolidation with top and bottom drainage should distribute pore waters characteristic of the central zone throughout the entire clay stratum as discussed under GEOTECHNIQUE. should enable these salinity * . A constant 618 0 versus depth is therefore not surprising. These 6180 plots reflect the probable temporal variation in salinity in the Champlain Sea. therefore. 52 (lower curve).

.. o l 0 l-S *. 1979. FIG. m S'8 O Voo SMOW -10 l i l l l 5 l l --10 --20 --30 \ \ \ (B) --50 --40 \ OXYGEN-18 vs DEPTH (A) S' 8 O (B) EST'D FOR CHAMPLAIN ISOTOPIC SEA DEPTH.-60 (A) DEPTH.MARCEL.88 - S'8 O Voo PDB -10 -5 _l . vs MEAN DEPTH FOR PRINCIPAL FOSSIL GROUPS CORRESPONDING COMPOSITION OF SEA WATER (FROM HILLAIRE . 213 ) .o .m FIGURE 52.-50 .

FIG. 215 8 224 ) . RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SALINITY AND OXYGEN-18 OF PRESENT-DAY ARCTIC WATERS AND PREDICTED RELATIONSHIP FOR CHAMPLAIN SEA WATER ( HILLAIRE ..x 2 20 6 .x 5 o Z K Z W) 15 D O 4 g 10 CHAMPLAIN SEA VALUES FOR MELTWATER FROM ALFRED .89 - 35 VALUES FOR OPEN ARCTIC BASINS 30 8 25 ARCTIC WATERS .WEGENER GLACIER O -25 A -20 -15 S'8 O Voo S MO W -10 -5 FIGURE 53. 1979.MARCEL .

54.b) The small but definite differences in 5^0 and 6 H that do exist between the upper and lower level clays are illustrated in Fig. Finally. bearing in mind the many complicating water movement factors such as consolidation. rebound.-90- estimates to be made. It appears significant that the lower organic matter in the upper level clays corresponds to lower values that probably reflect less saline conditions. less saline environment of deposition. leaching. etc. diffusion. extra cold. high level sea in the area of BH 78-2 while the lower level area of BH 78-1 was still ice covered. Nevertheless. less saline. This would seem possible since there are bedrock controls on ice location that could have created an older. 55 for the upper and lower level clays. . this discussion of the measured porewater salinities and estimated paleosalinities is essentially consistent with the study results of Wagner (1970) and Cronin (1977a. The lower d&l values in BH 78-2 may indicate a cooler. maximum in BH 78-1 tend to support this concept. The salinity f values of 5 g/t maximum in BH 78-2 compared to 20 g/2. 6 180 and organic matter are compared in Fig.

RELATIONSHIP OF 6 2 H TO 6 180 FROM HAWKESBURY LEDA CLAY (NUMBERS INDICATE SAMPLES TESTED AND DEPTH RELATIVE TO SURFACE AS SHOWN ON BOREHOLE LOGS) . .91 - -78 -76 -74 * '' 12 ' v ^ \ ' i ..i / ' BOREHOLE 78-2 ^ -72 " 8 CM z 40 -70 -68 -66 \ . ' i \ j 5| 1 1 1 1 i i BOREHOLE 78-1 -64 f \3 X i -' V i 1 l -7 -8 -9 -10 618 0 o/ oo -11 -12 FIGURE 54.

1 1.9 1. 1 0. . S'80 AND ORGANIC MATTER vs ELEVATION. CLAY PLAIN \ 60 to ac h- UJ UJ *.7 1 ORGANICS. O.92 - 6 180 80 -7 i -8 i -9 0700 SHOW -10 -11 i -12 i 0.50 O ^ LU X BH 78-1 LOWER CLAY PLAIN \ 30 g 40 o.0 1. \o \ 20 10 FIGURE 55. Of.2 70 BH 78-2 UPPER . HAWKESBURY AREA LEDA CLAYS FROM UPPER AND LOWER CLAY PLAINS.8 1 0..

LU D O .. i:-: z u. in O l x ? !P IT) E'5g > u.93 - -z. Q OQ LU -J in . LU O o CVJ LO CSJ o CO o: u. u O -l i*2i d vo 3 o: u l- d O) •o X t/J f- *3- ^ i -i g -u 5 (f) -i LU Z H O (T < CL LU i— O C\J - 5 LU CO o00 CO 00 - g -j q U z QO a o: ~ x-ir z a. CO R-l CO CO 3 CO CVJ o O - -I *—i iz LU CO — -J ^ 00 (D if) Q.

—* evi . CD (T . lVO " i o 01 . CO o CO ID a. 94 - x UJ o /f ~CO K d O) •o (/l s 3 UJ CO O •l™ o x Q.*ac aa ac. Ul a LO LO O OJ LO CNJ O CO LJ CE D . l Ld O co CO oo - O LJ CD (T LO o i.. LO- ^Qs s" UJ ^ z S 3 ^x u CO ^~ LJ -l Q LJ ™~ LJ LO CO t x J t Q LJ LO ^ -J 13 — t. o O..

1977a. pp. Late Quaternary marine submergence of Quebec. 1969. 1965. and Tauber. Glacier oxygen-18 content and Pleistocene ocean temperatures.-95- REFERENCES Allison. Isotopic paleotemperatures. Quantitative gasometric determination of calcite and dolomite using Chittick apparatus. 31.8-17. pp. 23. W.520-529. H.. 154. Cronin. Quaternary Research. pp. An evaluation of the field vane test in sensitive clay. 1961. H. of Canada Spec. Engineering studies of Leda clay. Quebec). Science.. 1964.E. 166. 1962. 194. Organic Carbon.M. C. ASTM. W.A. Eng. Late-Wisconsin marine environments of the Champlain Valley (New York. Dreimanis. Emiliani. pp. Geogr. Montr. Publ. W.200-217. . pp.. Wise. 6th Int'l. A comparison of laboratory results with in-situ properties of Leda clay. Isotopic variations in meteoritic waters. ASTM Spec. Tech. Legget. 1966.. ^.. American Society of Agronomy Inc.B. Procedures for Testing Soils. Eden. Cronin. 1966. pp. 7^..107-122. Proc.247-258.499-502. 399. Publ. Elson.A..851-856. Spec. Science.1367-1378. Science. Madison. J. Geographie Physique et Quaternaire. edited by C.. Rev. pp. Craig. C. Crawford. In Soils in Canada.. T. T. Royal Soc. Conf.238-253.M. and Eden.B. 1969. pp. American Society for Testing Materials.. Dansgaard. 3. Soil Meen. In Methods of Soil Analysis.F. pp. C. 1966. A. Champlain Seas formainifera and ostracoda: a systematic snf paleoecological synthesis.. Fdn. edited by R. Publ. Black.31-35... 1961. 133. 32.. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology. 1977b.1702-1703. Crawford. pp.. I. Tech. pp.

Martin.909. 165 p. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences.C. Rept. 1975. southern Ontario. Prelim.P. S. Mineralogy and bonding of Leda clay at four sites. Jr. France. 1978.E.. Soil Testing for Engineers. August 16.H. 131 p.. pp. Quaternary geology of the Alexandria area. ^4. Prelim. Oslo Geotechnical Conf. 15.464-465. 19. Gwyn. 2 volumes.1377-1393.. J.E. Paris. Kenney. 1951.. Faure. Principles of Isotope Geology. and Lohse. The influence of mineral composition on the residual strength of natural soils.160-164. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope systematics in weathering profiles.. T. Framboids in Champlain Sea sediments. and Thibault.E.. R..H. Lawrence. pp. Ontario Division of Mines. H. Universite Pierre et Marie Curie. H. Haynes.M. and Quigley. 36. 1979. Drift thickness of the Hawkesbury Lachute area. Proc. southern Ontario. Wiley and Sons Ltd. to Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Prelim. Map P. Haynes.906. Proc. Toronto.R. M.J. Variation of 0^ content of waters from natural sources. 1973.. Gwyn.. Ontario Division of Mines. 1967. C. Hi 11aire-Marcel. 1976. Q. Gwyn. and Thibault. Ontario... Published Doctorat d'etat thesis. 1977.. J. Q. Q.M. Map P.. Map P. 1953. Ontario Division of Mines.213-214. pp. R. T.M. 1955. Lambe. Quaternary geology of the Hawkesbury Lachute area. Cosmochim. Les mers post-glaciaires du Quebec: quelques aspects. University of Western Ontario. 1973a. J. Ethylene glycol retention by clays. New York. John Wiley. Acta.T. Science Society of America. 1973b. Geochim. 1972. Soil .H. Haynes.96 - Epstein. Geochim. Hawkesbury. J. R. T.W. U pp. Mineralogy and physico-chemistry of Leda clay from deep boreholes. J.123-129. Acta.Se.. Cosmochim.J. J.. G. and Quigley.J. southern Ontario. and Mayeda. pp. 1976.. thesis.1010. and Taylor.

Quigley. pp. Amorphous coatings on particles of sensitive clay soils. to Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. P.. 104 p. Canadian Geotechnical Journal.. preconsolidation and isotope analyses on Leda clay from deep boreholes. pp. pp. 1979. . mineralogy and geochemistry of Canadian soft soils: a geotechnical perspective.105-126.511-520. 40 p. and Bohdanowicz. pp. Pedoll. Note sur une methode de determination des mineraux amorphes dans certains sols hydroxydes tropicaux. and La Rochelle. (5. Ontario. July 24.. Sethi. P. 1980. and Opdyke. Sethi.. 1970. V7. 1975.. Quigley. R. A. 22. 3^ pp. A.J... Hawkesbury. Clays and Clay Minerals. Yong. Shackleton.N. J. Geological Survey of Canada Bull. J. Rept.. Significance of amorphous material relative to sensitivity in some Champlain clays. R..39-55.261-285.427-434. 181. Canadian Geotechnical Journal. On the role of chemistry in the development and behaviour of the sensitive marine clays of Canada and Scandinavia. Canadian Geotechnical Journal.M. oxygen isotope temperatures and ice volumes on a l O5 year and l O6 year scale. R. 1979. pp. R.J.. N. Orstom ser.K. and Yong. 1973. Quaternary Research. Oxygen isotope and paleomagnetic stratigraphy of equatorial Pacific core v-28-238. 1968. F.N. JJ5.97 - McKyes. A.M.. 12. 1979. piezometric water conditions. Faunas of the Pleistocene Champlain Sea. Torrance. E. Cah. Geology. Segal in.326-335. Supplementary research..E. Wagner. 1974..

.98 - APPENDIX A TESTING PROCEDURES FOR GEOTECHNICAL. GEOCHEMICAL AND MINERAL ANALYSES Figure A-l .

Tests were concentrated in the crustal zone where no field vane data were provided for the 1975 borings.99 - APPENDIX A TESTING PROCEDURES The testing procedures used in all phases of the research program are briefly outlined below. this report. 6 and 78-1 and 2.5 in. all plotting has been done in SI units. diameter by 4 in. in height was used to test the middle six inches of the two foot long shelby samples. Geotechnical Testing Methods 1. 2.5 in. high samples and a strain rate of 15S per minute. Unconfined Compression Tests Samples for boreholes 78-1 and 2 were tested in unconfined compression.. using 2 in. It was assumed that this area of the sample would be the least disturbed. A vane measuring 0.been deleted from . in diameter and 0. Earlier tests run on the 2-inch diameter tube samples from the 1975 boreholes have . Laboratory Vane Testa Undisturbed and remoulded laboratory vane strengths were obtained for selected samples from boreholes 75-3. Although several of the procedures and sizes are expressed in Imperial units. 4. See ASTM (1964) or Lambe (1951) for further details of the testing procedures.

5. A further series of tests were run on the 3-inch tube samples from the two 1978 borings. 9m. as described by Dreimanis (1962). 4. 19 m. The pH was determined for samples from boreholes 75-1. 3. hydrometer analyses only were used in the present study. 7 and 8 using a gasometric technique and the Chittick apparatus. 4. See Lambe (1951) for further procedural details. *j. 2. at depths of 2 m. Geochemical Testing Methods The geochemical testing consisted of pH determinations.TOO - 3. 8. 4. Index Testa The standard procedures for Atterberg limits.5 m and 31 m.1 tsf. Carbonate contents were obtained on samples from boreholes 75-1. Since the soils were very fine grained. carbonate measurements. *j. l. 16. 7 and 8 simultaneously with the general engineering index testing. Each sample underwent a loading sequence of O. porewater analyses and organic matter analyses.5 m.. 5. with increments applied every 24 hours. 6. then shaken and allowed to come to equilibrium overnight in an airtight bottle before being tested. grain size analysis. 2. Consolidation Testa Standard. 4. l and 0. It was measured by a Fisher pH meter on a soil : water slurry (ratio of l : 2) The soil : water mixture was accurately measured. and wet and dry unit weights are available in ASTM (1964) and Lambe (1951). and the results from these latter tests are emphasized in the report. 2. . fixed ring consolidation tests were run on six samples from borehole 75-2. 19.

in a stainless steel cylinder under a pressure of 480 kN/m2 (5 tsf). Mg. The liquid draining from the outlet tube was collected in a closed container and tested within 2 to 3 days. The soil suspension was then centrifuged to obtain a suspension of less than 2 ym sized particles. 1965). Attempts were made to measure S by turbidimeter. Initial Sample Preparation Of each 100 gram. carbonate determination and quartz analysis.101 - Porewater analyses were conducted on boreholes 75-1. The organic matter determinations were carried out using the modified Walkley Black method (Allison.. The less than 2 ym suspension was then divided into four parts and treated further . K. approximately one half was air dried for powder patterns. The concentrations of Ca. for 6 to 8 hours. whole soil. in terms of g/A Nad equivalent. 5. The rest of the sample was dispersed in distilled water. 7 and 8. Each sample was centrifuge fractionated three or four times to ensure collection of all the important clay sized material. The pore water was obtained by squeezing an 'undisturbed 1 sample. The total salinity of the pore water. supply sample. using an ultrasonic probe. but the volume of pore water was inadequate for this type of testing. Basically the method involves aqueous potassium dichromate oxidation of organics followed by ammonium ferrous sulphate titration to assess the amount of dichromate used. was determined by conductivity measurements. Na and Fe were measured by a Pye Unicam SP101 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. 2. Mineralogical Testing Methods 1..

000 rpm for 10 minutes. were prepared by sprinkling air dried.5 N Mgd2 or KC1 were passed through the sample. the suspension was concentrated as in (b) and then air dried for glycol retention analysis d) the fourth aliquot was K saturated by l N KC1. the K saturated clay sized suspension was subsequently concentrated and air dried for glycol retention analysis. one of the washings lasting overnight. for use in x-ray identification of clay minerals b) the less than 2 ym particles in a second aliquot were concentrated into a paste by centrifuging at 10. The mineral identifications were carried out in the Materials Science Laboratory using a General Electric XRD-5. excess Mgd2 was removed by washing with 0. the sediment was used for K20 analysis and is referred to as untreated material c) a third aliquot was Mg saturated by five washings of !NMgCl2.102 - as follows: a) an aliquot of the suspension was reserved for the preparation of oriented samples. CuKa radiation. in the natural (distilled water dispersed). Oriented samples of clay sized material were prepared by centrifuging the < 2 \im size clay suspension onto a porous ceramic plate creating a uniform cake of centrifuge oriented material on the surface of the plate. The oriented samples were x-rayed from 140 to 20 29. a l 0 beam slit. for identification of the non-clay minerals. 2.001NMgCl2 and distilled water. utilizing nickel filtered. using the procedure described in (c). Qualitative Mineral Identification Powder pattern samples. . To Mg or K saturate the samples. followed by 5 ml of distilled water to remove excess salts.. Powder samples were x-rayed from 320 to 20 20 to obtain the main non-clay mineral peaks. and a scan speed of 20 2e per minute. 5 ml of 0. gently crushed soil onto the surface of a freshly lacquered glass slide.

At least two standard curves were prepared for each borehole. The percentages of quartz obtained by this method for the Hawkesbury samples must be considered approximate.26 A quartz peak was then measured for the soil samples and for the pure quartz powder. 3. 6 and 8% by weight quartz. 2. vi) The intensity of the 4. ground to less than 200 mesh. 2. . since the variations in intensity due to both grain size and amorphous material have been ignored. v) The powders were then pressed into discs for x-ray diffraction analysis. ii) Sub-samples were then taken from the oven dried soil. The final weight of soil plus ground quartz was 5 to 10 grams. and the results expressed as the ratio. Oven dried less than 200 mesh sized quartz was added to the sample to make up O. A-l. as illustrated in Fig. 4. A disc of 1002 ground quartz was also prepared. both air dried and ethylene glycolated. iv) In addition to a 02 quartz added sample. was oven dried. Semi-Quantitative Procedures Quartz: The percentage of quartz was determined by a method of incremental additions as outlined below: i) Approximately 50 grams of whole soil. U.26 A o vi i) The intensity ratios for the O.. 6 and 82 quartz added samples were plotted versus 1 quartz added. must be prepared for each determination. 4.103 - K* saturated and Mg** saturated states. iii) The mixture was then ground by an automatic mortar and pestle for 5 hours to ensure complete mixing. below 102 quartz added.26 A samPle *4. at least three other 1 quartz mixtures. The percentage of quartz for the sample was determined from this plot.

o . The percentage of illite/mica in the soil was then calculated from the measured KgO. as measured by x-ray fluorescence. This percentage was selected because of the strength of the 10 A mica peaks yielded by the clay fraction and also the presence of abundant mica in the silt fraction of the soils. Pressed discs of air dried. The weight of glycol retained by the clay was determined and expressed as mg glycol per g soil. untreated clay size material and a pure mica standard were both analyzed for K by x-ray fluorescence in the Materials Science Laboratory and the percentage of K20 in the soil computed from the comparative peak intensities. it was assumed that the illite/mica contained l OX K20. After 12 hours.104 - Vermiculite: The percentage of vermiculite was determined using the difference in glycol retention between Mg and K saturated clay size material (Martin. Approximately 0. 1955). replaced under vacuum and reweighed every 4 hours until two successive readings were within 0. The percentage of vermiculite was then calculated assuming that vermiculite has a glycol retention capacity of 150 mg/g.003 g of each other. ground. the samples were weighed.2 g (accurately weighed) of K and Mg saturated clay were each saturated with glycol. assuming a 1^0 content for the soil illite/mica. The decrease in glycol retention between the Mg and K saturated clay was attributed to the loss of surface area resulting from the collapse of the vermiculite by K to illite.. and then placed under vacuum for 12 hours in an ethylene glycol saturated environment. At this site. Illite/Mica: The amount of illite/mica in the clay size fraction was determined from the percentage of K20.

The quartz and illite/mica peaks were used as reference peaks or internal standards since they had been quantitatively assessed by the techniques already described. iii) Decant the supernatant into a 100 ml flask. The procedure is outlined below: i) Weigh 0. This solution contains dissolved Al and Si.. the percentage of carbonate in the soil was determined by gasometric techniques (Dreimanis. Other Minerals: The percentages of chlorite. iv) Centrifuge at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes and decant the supernatant into the 100 ml flask. This solution will contain dissolved Fe. amphibole. using the ratios suggested by Kenney (1967). ii) Add 50 ml of 8 N HC1. 31 or Appendix F to determine the percentage of amorphous material extracted. .5 N NaOH to the soil. 1962). and shake for 30 minutes. Centrifuge at 2000 rpm for 10 minutes. 4. plagioclase feldspar and potassium feldspar were estimated by comparative peak heights. vi i) Repeat procedure using alternate acid and alkaline washings until a constant concentration of Al. Make up to the mark with distilled water.105 - Carbonate: As discussed earlier. shake for 30 minutes.5 g of air dried. Al and Si. slightly crushed soil into a plastic centrifuge bottle. and centrifuge at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes. v) Add 50 ml of 0. Resulting data are plotted as in Fig. Add 40 ml of distilled water to the soil and shake briefly. Si and Fe is extracted. Removal of Amorphous Material Eighteen samples were selected for removal of amorphous material using a modification of Segalen's (1968) technique. vi) Decant the supernatant into a plastic 100 ml volumetric flask and make up to the mark with distilled water. The ion concentrations must be determined separately for each hour of treatment and each of the dissolving solutions.

The sputtering and electron microscopy were carried out in the research laboratories of the Dentistry Faculty. were x-rayed from 320 to 20 29 to assess the effect of the extraction treatments on the soil mineralogy. Prior to examination. the concentrations of extracted Al.106 - viii) After the extraction procedure is completed. The University of Western Ontario. the entire specimen was coated with gold-palladium by sputtering. Scanning Electron Microscopy The samples for SEM examination were slowly air dried over several weeks and then fractured to provide fresh horizontal and vertical faces for examination. respectively. wash the soil with distilled water until a neutral pH is measured in the soil suspension. . and the sample then embedded in epoxy on a specimen holder. The treated soil samples.. and oriented untreated samples. For this investigation. Si and Fe were measured using the Geotechnical Laboratory's Pye Unicam SP101 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer with nitrous oxide/acetylene and air/acetylene flames. ix) Immediately orient the soil suspension onto a porous ceramic plate for x-ray diffraction analysis of the treated soil. The fresh faces were cleaned of loose particles by a jet of air.

. •X (O If A 75-7-9 m 75-7-16 CVJ 0-10- CN4 0'09- 0*08- OO6- OO5- 004- O03- OO2- 001- 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 O Quartz in sample o/ /o Quartz added 2 4 6 FIGURE A-l DETERMINATION OF BY ADDITIONS PERCENTAGE OF QUARTZ .107 - LJ o: M I- Cfl K (O LU (T D Q.

.108 - APPENDIX B UNCONFINED COMPRESSION TEST RESULTS Boreholes 78-1 and 2 Boreholes 75-1. 5 and 7 Table B-l Figures B-l and B-2 . 2.

These strength data are also plotted versus depth on the logs on Figs.. Stress-strain curves are presented for the twelve unconfined compression tests run on the 1978 samples on Figs. 14 and 15 along with laboratory vane tests. Stress-strain curves presented in our 1976 report have been deleted.109 - APPENDIX B UNCONFINED COMPRESSION TESTS The results of eighteen unconfined compression tests run on the 2 inch diameter samples from the 1975 boreholes are given in Table B-l and on the borehole logs for these holes. B-l and B-2. .

0 1.0 2.9 25.25 2.6 16.5 4.no - TABLE B-l SUMMARY OF UNCONFINED COMPRESSION TEST RESULTS Sampl e No..4 21.16 33.25 2.0 4.25 1.01 31.5 6.0 5.2 20.22 42.2 4.1 6.6 2.5 30.0 5.49 43.20 30.25 1.75 3.2 2.99 14.7 1.5 11.04 39.5 5.94 28.4 4.7 9.5 24.7 4.75 5.36 61.45 36.78 28.75 4.3 6.96 29.3 31.18 47.0 2.4 4.64 72.76 .30 33.7 3.26 40.3 15. 75-1-2 1-3 75-2-2 2-4 2-7 2-11 2-15 2-17 2-21 75-5-2 5-3 75-7-2 7-3 7-4 7-8 7-11 7-14 7-17 Depth (m) Shear Stress kM/m2 Maximum Strain at Failur * 2.57 63.

STRESS-STRAIN CURVES FOR PISTON SAMPLES/ BH 78-l/ HAWKESBURY .in HAWKESBURY. BH 78-1 OL 19 CO CO o: Hco CO CO O o o o FIGURE B-l..

6 m m m m 9.3 12. 10 12 STRESS-STRAIN CURVES FOR PISTON SAMPLES/ BH 78-2/ HAWKESBURY . FIGURE B-2. 31 (Sa #3) 46 STRAIN.4 18.5 24.4 m 3. BH 78-2 6.112 - HAWKESBURY.0 m o) n " 68. e..5X (Sa #5) * 73.

78-2 and 75-2 Table C-l Figures C-l to C-10 ..113 - APPENDIX C CONSOLIDATION TEST RESULTS Boreholes 78-1.

All curves illustrate the characteristic S-shape typical of Leda clay. Six additional e-log p curves are presented for the 2 inch tube samples from borehole 75-2 on Figs.114 - APPENDIX C CONSOLIDATION TEST RESULTS The twelve void ratio versus log pressure curves obtained on high quality 3 inch tube samples from boreholes 78-1 and 78-2 are given on Figs. Table* C-1 contains the results of a series of specific gravity values used in calculation of void ratios for the consolidation plots. In spite of their small size and probable sample disturbance. the consolidation . C-1 to C-6 inclusive. Values of p0 estimated from the piezometric and unit weight data are plotted along with pc values estimated by Casagrande construction. curves look quite reasonable. C-7 to C-9 inclusive..

76 2.5 23.74 2.75 IB 2B 3B 46 SB 6B 78-2 IB 3B .9 18.8 9.74 2.2 9.74 2..3 Specific Gravity 2.75 2.6 13.75 2.75 2.115 - TABLE C-l SPECIFIC GRAVITY Borehole 78-1 Sampl e Depth (m) 4.6 3.0 27.

kPa 1000 10000 2. 4.7 S 1.75 m AND 9. .R. Sa 2B.6 i 1.0 BH 78-1.62.5 10 100 1000 LOG PRESSURE..5 BH 78-1. CONSOLIDATION CURVES FOR BH 78-1.o 0.0 O.5 O i. kPa 10000 FIGURE C-l.1.0 0. Sa IB. " 3.116 - 2.75 m Pc P0 " 143 kPa 39 kPa 2.5 3 1.5 10 100 LOG PRESSURE.R.5 2.65 m DEPTH.C.65 m Pc * 105 kPa PO .C. 9. 4.4 kPa O. HAWKESBURY PROJECT .

0 BH 78-1. CONSOLIDATION CURVES FOR BH .R.87 kPa O.9 m P c -180 kPa PO . Sa 48. 13.117 - 2.5 - 0. kPa 10000 FIGURE C-2.2. 18.5 ra DEPTH/ HAWKESBURY PROJECT . Sa 3B.25 2 M O o 1. 1000 LOG PRESSURE.5 10 100 . 13.148 kPa P0 * 118 kPa O. .5 10 100 LOG PRESSURE.0 BH 78-1. * 1..5 m Pc .C.1 1.C.0 0.9 m AND 18.5 2.78-1.R. kPa 1000 10000 2.

149 kPa O.0 0. .0 BH 78-1.5 2.5 1.C.R.6 m Pc " 321 kPa P0 .0 e0 . 23.5 10 100 LOG PRESSURE.1. Sa 6B.6 m DEPTH* HAWKESBURY PROJECT .1. kPa 10000 FIGURE C-3. 27. .230 kPa P0 .R.8 S Q O 1.0 V ** 0.1 m PC .5 L-l 10 100 1000 LOG PRESSURE. Sa SB.C.689 BH 78-1. kPa 1000 10000 2.179 kPa O.1.55 o i a •"* o 1. CONSOLIDATION CURVES FOR BH 78-1/ 23.1 ra AND 27.118 - 2..

0 1.C.C.5 10 100 LOG PRESSURE.3 m Pc .o 0.R.R.3m DEPTH. Sa IB.5 41 O m 0.119 BH 78-2.2 m AND 6.0 BH 78-2.2m 2. kPa 1000 10000 2. 3.96 kPa PO . CONSOLIDATION CURVES FOR BH 78-2.48 kPa O.0 PC PO " 96 kPa 32 kPa O.5 i o O m i i.5 10 100 LOG PRESSURE. * 2. Sa 2B.6 * 1. * 2. 3.. 6. HAWKESBURY PROJECT . kPa 1000 10000 FIGURE C-A.

UO* J t 2. 1000 LOG PRESSURE.3 m PC * 96 kPa PQ .5 1. kPa 10000 FIGURE C-5.96 kPa PO . * 1.0 0.C.5 O i i.C.4 m DEPTH* HAWKESBURY PROJECT . Sa 38.0 BH 78-2.120 - 2.5 1.88 kPa O.R.0 ——. Sa 48. CONSOLIDATION CURVES FOR BH 78-2/ 9.1.i i BH 78-2. .1 1.o o.3 m AND 12.R..s 10 100 LOG PRESSURE.5 10 100 .4 m Pc .64 kPa O. 12. 9.5 CQ .C. kPa 1000 10000 2.

0 O.1.121 BH 78-2.' 18. kPa 1000 10000 2.158 kPa O.C. 18. 24.6 Pc . kPa 1000 10000 FIGURE C-6. Sa 88.668 BH 78-2.0 e0 .0 0. Sa 68.R. * 1.5 10 100 LOG PRESSURE..4 o 1.5 i 1.9 41 1.5 - 10 100 LOG PRESSURE.306 kPa PO .5 i O o o o 1. CONSOLIDATION CURVES FOR BH 78-2.6 m DEPTH/ HAWKESBURY PROJECT .4 ra PC P0 172 kPa 122 kPa 2.C.4 m AND 24.R. * 1.0 0.

rf l j .. ^ vo t* fc r1 f 1 CM rm t3o*coi*.f "^ -S~ VOIDO RATI PRESSURE CURVES CTESTNIAIOSNO L D T O THEISREVIOFTERNY UWEST N ONTARIO SOIROBAMEL CHANTLOICRSY ^ - 4 —— ^ ^ y/ x s i a.I 1. TONS/ FT.(Ow*^m*M — X X j oat ea 00 OliVtl aiOA CM M Uf\ J* 8 HAWKESBURY LEOA CLAY PROJECT u.0 s -^-——-1 — ~~ —————' ^ •**"L ^ *s^ s^ . SO.A P* O ir o Q M Z x l\ va i** t f a? ^ / l O ——^——i ^^^^ ^s *s^ 2 Ul S ^ PCURVES RES URE TEST OATION ITY WESTERN OF IICSROTAROBAL Y M QC * 0 ————i ^fc ONTARIO J *jT f r~7^t ^^"T' —^——j' /^^~ i 1 l 1 /~ S s -^^ 1*^~ *^ ^* ^^ ^ ^ l i f VO at CCNSOLI RATI VOIDO - THE UNIVERS C SOIL MECHAK l l-\ OI19U QIOA j vi. x m ST: S ^au PRES URE S O. CO •i '1 .122 M 10 100 HAyKESMMV LEOA PROJECT CLAY i * •A 1.

CliVcJ OIOA .SQ. **^* 1^^ VOID RATIO PRESSURE CURVES CTESTOTAIOSNO L D I N OF UNIVERSITY WESTERN THE ONTARIO 2— '^ 1 l M^BMMM* MESOITAHAROBAL C NOILCRSY -i s 'f f 1 l ' 0 x 00 r*..123 - 1 10 IOO \ Z HAUKCSBURV LEOA CLAY PROJECT IT. . \\ XttAVftrw^OcnoOp-ia m ^m ^^•-^.o 5*— -i 1 l /* ii —Li" Z VOIDO RATI - CC. s o* ** t * ? z A i i f 0 o PCURVES RES URE OATION TEST ONTARIO Ul K WESTE OFRN Y IT Ut IICSROTAROBAL Y ac ut w 2L- -*f Is S ^Jr~^**" X j ^—- ~~~~ ^^* ^^ ^ s l— *.0 } ^ / s^.ii ^ ^"^ PRES URE ^ * 01 1.MSOLI THE C UNIVERS SOIL MECHAh r l j - . .F TONS/ ae . 5 0 CM o HAUKESBURY LEOA CLAY PROJECT * N 3 z o " ^ W 2 ^ o ut ut l: o X j6.••oeoo OI1VH QIOA Ml 8 ut r*.

0 ^ i: 1 t "f yP- 1 J~# y ^J*1 ^^ y s -**^ ^ * -t s .———.ONS .7T.———.———.———.124 "m 1 10 100 5 3 HAUKESBURV LEDA CLAY PROJECT M Jt J.———.———.* S s B ^s ***HJ *~ in P- 1 at 8 O \f ac III V L in Ul VOI-DO RATI PRESSURE CURVES COTESTNOTAIOSN L D I THEISREVIOFTY UWESTERN N ONTARIO SOIAHCLMEABORNTILCORSY ae ".———.———.o 1* n / f 1 x X ^^ ^r^- --^ ^*^ s^ ^^ J 7 f f VO j* 1 * 4 cor* f l *o irt wn ra *— / / / j a 0* 49 f* *0 dodd OI1VU GIOA .1 1. TF Z- * rii ' -2 ^ P. - o 58 1 4 1 j 11 en oiivu aioA •t c*i in 1 8.———.———.8 HAUKESBURY 3! LEDA PROJECT CUY W -I a* j* j* -IS "^ s •^ VI Ir o x^ f ' ' * w o u -)^ i————j f j J •*i.———. P^ 1 SQ.———.——.———..———.———. w 2 c?i" ** * V PRESSURE •••i^MW V SB* VOID RATIO PRESSURE CURVES CTESTOTAIOSNO L D I N UOF THETISREVIWESTERNY N ONTARIO SOIAHCAMEL BOR NTOILCRSY 0.

.10 kN/m3 8 m erosion of drained sand at .20 kN/m 3 30 35 FIGURE C-10.125 - STRESS. kPa 100 200 300 400 500 K MEASURED PRECONSOLIDATION PRESSURE AP s 160 kPa at boundary 25 CALC EFFECTIVE STRESS (HYDROSTATIC) ^ASSUMED DRAINAGE BOUNDARY 16 m erosion of submerged sand at Y 1 .. MEASURED PRECONSOLIDATION AND CALCULATED INSITU EFFECTIVE STRESS (HYDROSTATIC) VERSUS DEPTH FOR BOREHOLE 75-2.

.126 - APPENDIX D TABULATIONS OF GEOTECHNICAL DATA (Tables D-l to D-19) .

*^ 4J 01 01 ... o ae o CQ 5 u uiCMcnooaoutcMCM^ooaoot toinr^tn^-ootmcO'— ct^r OO CM V CO to 00 00 (4 a ID < o | J^ cn*r. ...* a u u^ u^ 355SSSSSSSS^SSSSSi2^ o o * CM l o 00 .— cocotnknocsir-roao r^utocMrxtoocncnsor^r^ ^ututuir^r^cocnr^*— m*r * VO CO *O CM (O i UJ jr 4J S 4J 01 U.127 - CM l Ut VI " ** 01 Ml UJ o tx.. cMut(*tct(O(*tf— ut m oo ao (*t r^otornior^^or^^cfiut^ Ut Ut r*.....c S 4J O.. 4^ M 01 TJ ......... o CQ 0 b S CM M vo ^ CM ^r *fr cncMcncncMcocMUtCMUicMCO^cteOf— coct C^ Ot ^^ ^^ CO Ut OV ^F CO OO ^^ Cft tO Ut Ol ^^ C^ OO •o 01 i s S 01 i.. u. ininututinututinwtututiA oootaomrooofoaomoocoao r-CNjCNjco^^ruicnvovor^ri.

r-x oo u? cocovovooicMCMr— oo CM r^o i Q UJ a I 5 00 ft CO CO 00 C*l 00 co^r Ct 00 ft O *** "" .128 - CO ISt i— t— *— t— UJ O UJ k o co f* co f^ in f* F~ ft oo ^m ft ft in C3 in co vo co vocMtocMcnoicMininvoininvooor^coo^ in CO M UJ > u .Jtf o r* CM in f*. o o co vo r* co t** co f* co vo ui co *~ *^ en f~ CM in r^* en ^f* vo co co *BW CM en C3 ^^ 10 co *^ co in in in r** vo ^r* ^^ f* vo CD en co vO ^* ft 1 S JC Q * 8 ^ ininoinoinoinouiotnoinoinotn S l Ul O UJ K O (Q t— CM vn in in 10 p— o* 01 en f— o CM *— f— co f— m > UJ a vo *n r-*..

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- 132 -

TABLE D-1 3

INDEX TESTS/ BOREHOLE 75-1

Sample

Depth (Ft)

"n (X) 51.8 72.3 73.2 68.0 61.3 56.3 55.2 56.1

wl (X) 58.9 75.0 82.0 84.3 66.4 59.5 60.7 70.5

"P (X) 23.4 26.2 26.5 23.7 25.15 26.1 27.7 31.0

pH

*s

Ywet (pcf)

Ydry (pcf) 57.64 57.0 59.8 61.7 66.1 68.2 66.6

< 2ym (X) 86 80 89 85 81 88 82 75

\
.41 .61 .60 .71 .5 .37 .4 .52

1-2A 1 -4A 1 -6A 1-8A 1-lOA 1-12A 1-14A 1-1 6A

5.3 15.8 25.8 35.8 45.8 55.8 65.8 75.8

7.2 8.3 8.4 8.1 9.4 9.0 8.9 8.5

2.819 2.771 2.819 2.856 2.812 2.80 2.815 2.802

99.32 98.74 100.54 99.57 103.35 105.8 103.9

TABLE D-14
Sample Depth (Ft) 2.8 10.4 20.3 30.3 40.3 50.3 60.3 70.3 80.3 90.3 100.3 "n (X) 47.7 70.12 77.01 66.6 68.55 67.55 63.57 62.6 56.47 57.37 60.83 wl (X) 71.1 67.6 60.5 76.3 70.0 64.8 65.1 65.7 61.0 59.2 66.0

INDEX TESTS, BOREHOLE 75-2
"P (X) 25.0 22.0 26.8 27.9 30.3 30.7 28.4 28.9 26.5 27.0 28.0 6.6 7.7 8.1 2.839 2.813 2.840 PH GS Ywet (pcf) 98.68 98.38 98.92 98.68 98.80 99.17 100.41 101.32 102.98 106.26 102.17 Ydry < 2ym (pcf) (X) 66.8 57.83 55.9 59.44 58.44 59.19 61.39 62.31 65.82 67.52 63.52 86 84 78 80 91 91 82 95 89 83 93

X
.53 .54 .43 .60 .43 .37 .44 .38 .39 .38 .40

2-1A 2'-3A 2-5A 2-7A 2-9A 2-11 A 2-13A 2-1 5A 2-17A 2-19A 2-21A

8.35 2.822 8.6 8.4 8.4 8.5 8.3 8.7 8.4 2.783 2.788 2.715 2.801 2.75 2.759 2.758

Mt - "p l <Z\^m

pcf x 0.157 "

kN/m1

9 55.8 22.6 74.793 2.1 98.07 72.50 .00 7.ISA 7-16A 7-17A 7-18A 7-19A 2.85 68.8 49.3 8.7 29.5 u* (X) 65.50 66.65 7.8 27.5 8.56 109.82 7.3 32.65 7.40 56.8 8.9 72.8 7.29 60.86 58.56 6.0 65.8 57.39 .4 2.1 70.8 75.6 2.8 47.6 2.8 42.55 .65 7.5 58.8 92.29 .5 66.4 102.46 .8 56.7 28.36 .55 28.8 72.46 72.8 72.757 2.5 66.840 2.7 2.8 32.82 7.89 57.76 97.35 97.44 .8 27.26 . BOREHOLE 75-7 WP PH GS < 2\m (X) 75 88 86 89 90 92 76 95 87 88 93 93 90 73 82 61 52 .02 66.33 .823 2.2 34.2 27.2 64.0 49.5 2.7 2.8 31.42 .7 59.8 17.6 56.4 47.8 32.80 103.65 96.0 7.96 103.24 .809 2.7 67.8 wn (X) 32.9 57.5 8.31 .08 98.56 108.76 100.69 24.8 42.8 29.7 61.8 82.2 2.29 on 31.9 67.4 2.8 47.9 55.0 71.82 107.8 37.64 55.6 58.2 97..4 29.7 7.6 47.1 27.3 8.8 12.9 29.35 Ydry (pcf) 84.843 2.8 87.53 99.47 102.6 28.801 2.42 .6 8.742 2.799 2.35 76.44 AC .0 7.765 2.2 wl (X) 51.7 69.2 TABLE D-16 Sample Depth (Ft) 7-1A 7-2A 7-3A 7-4A 7-5A 7-7A 7-9A 7-10A 7-11A 7-12A 7-1 3A 7-14A 7.8 67.3 57.23 106.3 48.2 8.8 50.4 "P (X) 30.0 47.0 25.0 58.03 86.8 un (X) 38.43 .7 31.62 74.59 99.85 6.8 22.7 70.4 44.8 77.86 99.2 97.6 50.7 62.42 .844 2.784 2.8 6.45 .8 17.83 114.8 2.5 64.29 .6 18.6 64.9 67.71 103.59 60.7 26.90 103.9 26.844 2.1 8.4 59.65 8.23 64.758 2.2 50.62 106.80 103.8 52.0 28.8 64.2 74.0 80.0 19.24 .1 27.13 72.1 INDEX TESTS.24 .8 32.783 Ywet (pcf) 116.45 .5 70.8 62.9 7.79 7.58 70.0 63.95 113.21 .89 103.8 12.79 28.803 2.40 .6 8.4 61.5 7.8 66.8 64.62 57.8 7.2 PH GS Ywet (pcf) Ydry < 2\an AC (pcf) (X) 85 89 43 88 90 93 90 85 77 54 .2 29.21 59.07 82.8 42.133 TABLE D-15 INDEX TESTS* BOREHOLE 75-5 Sample Depth (Ft) 5-1A 5-2A 5-3A 5-4A 5-5A 5-6A 5-7A 5-8A 5-9A 5-10A 2.4 37.2 29.45 7.6 51.08 55.0 50.6 76.42 .4 2.82 7.6 68.45 .9 2.45 .

2 WP (X) 24.8 48.3 62.27 < 2um AC (X) 87 75 70 87 72 91 87 85 91 93 76 .3 57.81 2.51 .49 .5 23.41 .2 64.9 61.29 Ydry (pcf) 69.8 56.74 45. BOREHOLE 75-9 Sample Depth (Ft) un (X) 46.47 54.1 52.42 .35 102.24 69.0 2.8 87.5 53.05 31.42 .8 78.68 104.0 59.5 32.2 62.8 67.8 78.4 56.0 22.87 30.44 93.134 - TABLE D-17 INDEX TESTS.8 27.7 52.24 61.04 64.9 66.06 46.1 TABLE 0-18 INDEX TESTS.3 55.4 54.7 31.7 27.0 wl (X) UP (X) GS AC < 2um (X) 9-3 9-11 9-18 9-56 8 36 66 271 55.7 30.32 101.0 76.53 .2 29. BOREHOLE 75-8 Sample Depth (Ft) "n (X) 49.8 22.2 68.15 21.96 66.4 59.0 62.85 .77 2.39 .7 PH GS Ywet (pcf) 103.39 55.9 57.35 .16 60.07 106.42 8-1A 8-2A 8-3A 8-5A 8-7B 8-9A 8-11 A 8-1 2A 8-1 38 8-14A 8-1 5A 17.9 wt (X) 60.1 26.86 103.3 82.5 63.8 27.76 56.46 .8 72.83 93.27 63.3 .41 101.46 64.43 .9 28.05 72.8 67.2 26.23 99..83 2.9 7.35 .7 52.45 87 78 74 84 .44 .35 101.7 75.8 7.8 37.9 8.

. 6 AND 8 Depth (Feet) Borehole and Sample 75-4-2 4-6 4-8 4-14 4-20 % <Z\m 8 28 38 68 98 84 78 85 92 69 75-5-3 13 84 75-6-2 6-3 6-6 6-10 6-16 8 13 28 48 78 83 80 85 84 42 75-8-4 33 80 .135 - TABLE D-19 ADDITIONAL GRAIN SIZE DATA BOREHOLES 75-4. 5.

.136 - APPENDIX E TABULATIONS OF GEOCHEMICAL DATA Calcite and Dolomite Salinity and Porewater Cations Organic Matter Tables E-l to E-3 .

0 2.0 5.0 3.8 1.0 4.0 2.0 2.0 3.0 Calcite 1 2.0 6.0 4.0 .0 10.4 2.0 2.0 6.8 2.0 5.3 1.3 2.0 3.0 2.0 4.7 0.0 8.5 0 0.0 4.5 0.0 10.0 4.0 10.0 6.0 2.0 6.3 1.1 2.0 7..0 4.0 6.5 7.0 2.0 8.4 3.137 - TABLE E-l Total Carbonate 1 13.0 4.4 1.6 75-1-2 4 6 7 8 10 12 14 16 5-2 3 4 5-C 5-0 6 7 9 10 6-2 3 6 10 16 7-2 4 5 9 13 16 17 19 8-1 2 4 5 7 9 12 13 14 9-3 11 18 56 75-2-1 3 5 7 9 10 11 13 15 17 19 21 2.0 4.6 2.8 75-4-2 6 8 14 20 5.0 2.0 0.0 2.0 5.0 0.0 3.0 9.0 4.0 4.0 8.0 0.0 3.0 8.0 3.0 2.0 5.0 2.0 5.0 2.0 6.0 2.0 75-3-4 10 4.0 10.0 3.2 1.0 7.0 1.5 2.5 2.4 2.0 3.0 CARBONATE CONTENTS BY CHITTICK ANALYSIS Sample Calcite * 6.0 9.7 1.0 3.0 4.8 4.0 5.0 2.0 7.0 3.2 6.0 0.0 4.6 6.0 4.0 7.8 1.6 5.0 0.0 7.0 0.2(?) 4.5 5.9 5.6 Sample Total Carbonate 1 6.0 4.3 1.2 2.8 2.3 4.0 1.8 1.3 2.0 0.0 2.0 6.1 1.0 11.0 3.0 4.0 6.7 2.0 2.

5 62.5 45 50 100 157 105 177 30 30 42 37 47 48 60 65 55 26 25 25 26 20 20 20 14 17 48 50 76 72 96 210 170 200 Mg 80 450 530 230 290 280 200 130 80 175 400 630 570 600 140 120 140 137 150 150 180 215 165 27 60 90 80 60 40 26 14 10 155 155 275 305 335 600 550 550 (g/*) 1.7 9.1 1.75 8.5 15.7 0.-138 - TABLE E-2 SALINITY AND POREWATER CATIONS BOREHOLES 1.25 2.8 6.0 4.0 14.1 3.5 61 75 72.2.75 6.25 15.5.95 3.25 9.0 1.5 2.0 2.0 7.8 11.5 5.5 7.0 6.1 4.5 75 62.75 3.25 13.55 4.5 77.0 15. 7 AND 8 Sampl e 75-1-2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 75-2-2 5 11 15 17 21 75-5-2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 75-7-2 4 7 9 11 13 15 18 19 75-8-1 3 4 7 9 12 13 15 Total Salinity Porewater Cations (ppm) Na 4950 5850 6100 6750 6450 4650 5650 4500 4400 6800 9600 8600 8100 1500 1500 2300 2300 3250 3300 3450 4750 4200 780 1380 1770 2000 1825 1620 1290 930 590 1750 2500 3250 5400 5200 6600 5000 5085 K 15 40 50 65 68.5 4.5 12.0 5850 .0 15.4 1.6 5.75 9.5 89 67.0 10.8 7.5 17 48 91 124 112 154 45 51 52 60 71 79 98 108 91 15 28 45 48 45 45 40 31 26 47 50 69 91 100 125 120 130 Ca 50 57.0 5.075 5.0 1.9 4.

9612 1.7425 78-2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Average of two tests using Modified Walkley Black Organic Carbon method on < 250 pm fraction.1574 1.9898 0.0605 0. 78-1 Sampl e No.8198 0. U.9202 0.9168 0.0904 0.8494 0. (Tests by Maxine Kingston.0614 0. Geography.W. Dept.9256 1 .O.8799 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Organic Matter W 1.) .139 - TABLE E-3 ORGANIC MAHER* Borehole No.8225 0.8366 0..

140 - APPENDIX F ANALYSES OF FLUID EXTRACTS AFTER SELECTIVE DISSOLUTION TREATMENT Tables F-l and F-2 Figures F-l to F-9 For a description of the modified Segal en extraction method used.. see Appendix A .

0(?) 13.5 24.9 7.4 11.0 12.5 15.4 17.1 23.0 12.0 - ~ 3.141 - TABLE F-l AMORPHOUS EXTRACTIONS.0 12.3. All values are approximate since they are rate-time dependent.4.6 8..5 .8 9.9 Amorphous Si02 W Amorphous Fe203 W Amorphous A1 203 W Total Amorphous W 13.5 .7 14.3. HAWKESBURY Sampl e Depth (m) 1.4 12.8 23.5 11.7 14.0 13.9.8 23.0 11. .0 -14.5 ~ 5.0 10.5 ~ 2.8 2.0 *See Figs.5 10.0 3.2 14.9 12.2 10.7 30.5 75-1-2 7 12 16 75-2-3 9 11 17 21 75-6-2 6 10 16 75-8-2 4 7 13 .5 11.5 14. F-l to F-9 for data points and extrapolated curves used to calculate amorphous materials extracted.5 .

22 14.76 15.724 .91 16.89 15.781 5.367 1.187 2.593 .377 2.231 2.73 1.40 14.615 1.626 .348 .200 2.54(?) 2.063 .834 2.158 1.64 7.48 8.70 8.703 .395 .264 2.485 4.228 .513 .412 .376 .235 1.306 2.24 6.99 1.362 .602 1.558 .173 5.717 1.686 1.756 3.286 2.334 .727 1.17 21.164 7.96 18.142 - TABLE F-2 AMORPHOUS EXTRACTIONS IN ORDER COMPLETED Fe203 W 2.569 2.264 Si02 W 3.642 .023 10.645 .544 .12 Sample Time (Mrs) 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 l W 9.50 14.35 12.620 4.548 .63 4.936 . E W 9.01 13.984 ' .873 .52 16.237 2.759 .36 18.515 .442 .54 10.334 .919 2.246 2.011 5.137 8.784 1.186 A1 203 W 2.37 16.589 1.979 .347 3.48 12.461 .329 2.423 1.529 .596 1.164 .284 .93 4.195 3.714 Cum.941 .743 1.305 .235 1.233 6.519 .845 1.. .661 .975 .295 1.418 .061 2.398 8.99 12.493 .70 8.706 .044 .202 8.50 17.31 17..473 .543 2.794 .272 2.631 .984 .51 15.062 .533 .503 2.507 .256 1.15 15.164 75-2-3 75-2-9 75-2-11 75-2-17 75-2-21 75-8-2 75-8-4 /Contd.397 6.766 .198 .884 1.139 1.57 20.497 3.07 16.321 .766 .99 4.499 .567 .241 .200 3.426 .623 .56 23.663 3.791 .71 3.228 .75 17.78 11.312 .208 2.81 1.571 .08 19.339 .683 .48 18.302 .791 1.410 2.212 2.689 1.310 .868 .059 .645 .724 .476 .00 18.99 14.187 2.

082 2.264 1.283 .23 2.016 .85 18.989 3.43 7.186 2.269 4.22 1.562 .684 .294 2.246 2.557 .679 2.28 7.89 12.651 .07 11.173 1.182 1.487 .251 1.336 .118 1.56 1.385 .919 .362 .24 1.498 .189 2.527 1.454 1.77 10.311 2.784 .696 .35 9.567 .46 17.279 1.033 .98 19.529 .047 9.858 .432 1.406 2.18 14.74 14.59 14.685 4.336 S102 W 4.252 .167 2.843 7. .35 13.138 2.191 .227 .223 .312 .925 4.049 7.6 4.302 .401 .186 .688 1.00 8.897 .145 2.141 . l W 9.406 .645 .41 16.118 .491 .680 .273 .39 8.609 1.181 3.418 .149 2.620 Z W 9.284 .248 A1 203 W 2.642 .27 1.932 .204 Cum.497 .378 .653 1..284 .012 8.294 2.733 .812 .487 .88 75-8-7 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 75-8-13 75-6-2 75-6-6 75-6-10 75-6-16 75-1-2 /Contd.78 16.485 2.264 .302 .620 4.555 .073 4.04 14.804 1.567 1.141 .302 2.227 1.471 3.948 8.941 .374 1.89 4.60 12.27 12.072 .00 16.134 .005 .92 14.599 3.620 3.941 .45 15.439 1.923 .523 1.835 .684 .461 1.491 .278 .772 1.55 13.962 .283 .971 .68 14.96 16.620 .473 .599 3.346 1.306 7.039 .793 .143 - TABLE F-2 (CONTD) Sample Time (Mrs) Fe203 (X) 3.35 14.134 .200 2.246 2.57 1.50 19.44 15.98 12.139 3.161 .139 1.31 17.23 1.454 .23 17.81 7.68 16.791 .

570 .334 .99 13.90 11.208 8.727 r (X) 7..69 14.877 .321 .24 17.253 . l (X) 7.105 .604 .492 2.224 1.997 .217 i A1 203 W 1.824 .481 1.340 .749 .144 - TABLE F-2 (CONTD) Sample Time (Hrs) FC203 W 2.05 2.366 1.245 11.42 19.235 4.529 .002 .501 2.295 2.283 .974 .88 16.510 .727 .227 Cum.07 18.338 4.923 1.194 1.359 1.246 .283 S102 W 4.895 4.20 8.382 1.312 .34 16.176 .278 2.783 .49 11.310 2.03 75-1-7 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 75-1-12 75-1-16 .155 .35 1.641 4.08 21.097 1.727 6.731 2.223 2.292 .472 1.64 12.

.145 - 4 TIME (HOURS) 5 4 TIME (HOURS) FIGURE F-l 5 TIME-RATE OF DISSOLUTION CURVES FOR AMORPHOUS DETERMINATIONS/ HAWKESBURY SAMPLES .

.146 - TIME (HOURS) 30 19* AMORPHOUS ? 20 CO CO o 10 BH 75-2 SA #17 45 TIME (HOURS) FIGURE F-2 TIME-RATE OF DISSOLUTION CURVES FOR AMORPHOUS DETERMINATIONS/ HAWKESBURY SAMPLES .

147 - TIME (HOURS) 4 TIME (HOURS) FIGURE F-3 5 TIME-RATE OF DISSOLUTION CURVES FOR AMORPHOUS DETERMINATIONS/ HAWKESBURY SAMPLES ..

. FIGURE F-4 TIME-RATE OF DISSOLUTION CURVES FOR AMORPHOUS DETERMINATIONS/ HAWKESBURY SAMPLES ..148 - o CO CO 4 TIME (HOURS) 5 o O CO CO Ul 4 5 TIME (HOURS) .

149 - 30 o to to 4 TIME (HOURS) 5 o to to TIME (HOURS) FIGURE F-5 TIME-RATE OF DISSOLUTION CURVES FOR AMORPHOUS DETERMINATIONS. HAWKESBURY SAMPLES ..

- 150 -

30

TOTAL

TIME (HOURS)

P 20o to (/l

TOTAL

TIME (HOURS) FIGURE F-6 TIME-RATE OF DISSOLUTION CURVES FOR AMORPHOUS DETERMINATIONS/ HAWKESBURY SAMPLES

- 151 -

30

4 TIME (HOURS)

5

o co
CO l—l

o

4 TIME (HOURS) FIGURE F-7

5

TIME-RATE OF DISSOLUTION CURVES FOR AMORPHOUS DETERMINATIONS, HAWKESBURY SAMPLES

- 152 -

30

Q 20 CO CO

o

4 TIME (HOURS)

o
CO CO

FIGURE F-8

TIME-RATE OF DISSOLUTION CURVES FOR AMORPHOUS DETERMINATIONS/ HAWKESBURY SAMPLES

- 153 -

30 INSUFFICIENT DATA POINTS 20
CO CO

o
10 BH 75-1 SA #7 l l 345 TIME (HOURS)

FIGURE F-9

TIME-RATE OF DISSOLUTION CURVES FOR AMORPHOUS DETERMINATIONS, HAWKESBURY SAMPLES

.154 - APPENDIX G 1978 FIELD INVESTIGATIONS Borehole locations Borehole logs of sample and piezometer locations Records of piezometer readings Table G-l Figures G-l to G-3 .

34 0.37 1.48 0.83 1.76 0.52 0.43 1.33 0.88 1..86 1.22 1.30 0.80 1.31 1.19 2.62 1.16 0.65 1.07 1.46 0. .83 1.67 0.58 1.37 1.64 0. (Ottawa) July 78 to May 1979.92 0.76 0.37 0.155 - TABLE G-l RECORD OF PIEZOMETER READINGS* Date of Reading Piezometer Borehole No.40 1.70 1.82 Depth to water level below surface (metres) Original readings in feet by Golder Assoc.46 0.52 0.86 1.29 2.70 1.07 0.94 1. Colour Depth 78-7-20 78-8-17 78-10-26 78-11-23 79-5-19 (m) 78-1 Red Black Yellow White 78-2 Red Black Yellow White 28 18 9 3 28 18 9 3 2.67 0.55 0. Ltd.

BH 78-2 SEE FIGURE 2 FOR REGIONAL PLAN . BH 78- FIGURE G-lb DETAILED SITE PLAN .156 - "X. CALEDONIA SPRINGS FIGURE G-la DETAILED SITE PLAN..

OHO* M M OF BOREHOLES 1 AND 2 (1978) 1978 DATUM MWTKATION TOT MAtMtCH *tl*MT I4OI*. P!M 1: o j S ift w *.2 4 i i ^ 40.p RH ^ X •^B 20. * PH - P. R CO S)HOWM L. b OCftCftl'TtOM I J k.O ^ L t" x P.1 SAMPIC* H M C K ^ 8 O •ON.TY 4O. ct H O l* MM M i ! l 5t * Mft lCFTH (PT) OnCJNPTION j | t 1 4 >2 M i i l m I (PT o. f^ n k 2 h 2 u *! K V M 0 *J x . .O GHBY 0IUTY Cl^kY. SAMPLE LOCATIONS. Monte 78.0 ^ X 3TJ*.. AY* B SCATTKWBO WITH TftACC* Or VkACK OMOANIC W MATBMlAI. BOREHOLES 78-1 HAWKESBURY PROJECT. OHO** W M.H 4 P..M f s Ij 800 ^ KM 80. Montl 78- •AMPl .y MATWIAC H M. S S •l.0 ADAPTED FROM GOLDER PH ORIGINAL S PH x X DATA •i. b • MD or HOUI i i VCHTtCAl SCALC ' r - * iM TO O rr (ORIGINALLY ) Golder Associates vmTICAt MALI iM. AND 78-2.0 JL KM ? H ^r ^ GMVY SIL. o * wwu: JWftV flfrWQWM GHOST) | ^ ^ ^ ^ *JOS f —~ r r.Toiorr (ORIGINALLY) FIGURE G-2.H z ^ * i o tt i ^ * m 6O.O CLAY.N O 60. O OMVY •(•OWN SlkTT CUAV r \.157 - RECORD LOCATION 14* r*v* MMM OATI SAMPlCM MAMMCft WCMMT I4O L* .0 it f 1 ~ - P. 3j i 52 OKOUMO suvmc O. ' OCCASIOMAU MBO BHOWM ' LAY** AMD i T HACK or •LACK OWttAMIC . JULY M TO 13 8 MN. . ^ 20. OCCAVIOWAl.

1 INSTALLATION OCTAILS PIEZOMETER No. ^ / \ii " ^j sf s j PICZOMETCft B ~^EJUACK) *s s f NATIVE ————i OACKPIUL.'•''T 31. TO lo PT.9 EMO OP HOUfi 1 VERTICAL i IN.A:JTlC TUB IKK.v.. 1379 Q GRANULAR FILL DATUM . BACKFICL. (FT) STRATIGRAPHY PROPtU S" ^/' / x 54 INSTALLATION OCTAILS '•'li 6ROUMO SURFACII A O. PL. H CLCV. ' / PtCZOMCTTH C (YBLLOVi/) ^ 2 U U h W f GRKY SluTY CUAY. ^/ s ' S a O o t i ^ (0 OK BLACK ORCiAMlC MATEniAL. RK O BROWM LAYER AMD TRACE OF BLACK OHGAUIC MATERIAL. HAWKESBURY/ ONTARIO (Work by Golder Assoc.lv t s/ CRVIO) / / 91.) .. i c———t M ATI VK ——-——* BACKFILL PIIZOMCTCV D - / (WHITE) 1 ^ ^ ^ 6Pt PIEZOMETER O -* (WHITE) / ' WATIVK ———* s BACKFILL. 2. S CKIU OP HOL. OCCAUIQNAU s U J FIErOMCTCR C ~ (YELLO\Ay) i x s Pl.ev.-:. i B CAVCO MATCRIAL PIEZOMETER No.... ———- 7" s D 0 J -l ' s ' M ATI VE ———— * BACK ri WU D J 0 J 0 neo RKOVWM LAYU K SCATTCRKO ^ y IJ O I VJ 0 (L ^ . (1978) LOCATION SM flfw* | CCUCNT SCAL INSTALLATION OAT C 0 MNTONITC SCAL JULY II .MPTM 25 ( rr ) STRATIGRAPHY PROPILI E iX 2 *3 II li s ?. ..O* 6ROUMO SURFACE —r f" L f } 7r" 1 ——— o.158 - RECORD OF PIEZOMETER INSTALLATIONS 1 4L 2. : -. K v^ lil I WITH TKACB'l NATIVE ———t BACKFILL 4 Q CO f PICZOMCTCR b — C&LACK) s li sf ' r t (3ACKPIUI.. Q 6RCY BROWM SILTY CUAY (WEATHERED V CRUST) —————— -. ff f / f X.13 .————— 6. A STIC ———— "'yi 'fa '/v*- H- . ' M ATI VC ——-—.. S y st •' . FIGURE G-3 PIEZOMETER LAYOUT IN BOREHOLES 78-1 AND 78-2. ac t. SCAL C Golder Associates ORAWN ** ^ i*fc * CMCCKCO . ^f r * / / / /'/ / '/ Tf •' s ^ :^. h f) U ^ GWCY SILTY CCAY. o CROUMO -5*1 R FACE GRKV 8ROVVM SILTY CUAY (WCATHEREO CRUST) /* \ 1 6ROUMO SURFACE 7 NATIVE BACK FI M... ' t .:. OCCASIONAL. S KIU'^OMGTER 4RCO) A ~ w.

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