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Soap = sodium salts (RCOO-Na+) / potassium salts (RCOO-K+) of longchain fatty acids Alkalis react with fatty acids –> soap Fatty acids = animal fats or vegetable oils Soap preparation: hydrolysing fats or oils under alkaline condition Saponification – alkaline hydrolysis Saponification process – boiling fats / oils with concentrated sodium hydroxide solution or concentrated potassium hydroxide solution to produce glycerol + salts of fatty acids (soap)

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Saponification steps: 1. Hydrolysis of fats / oils –> glycerol + fatty acids. 2. Neutralisation of fatty acids + concentrated alkali –> soap + water Overall equation: Fats / oils + alkali –> glycerol + soap Sodium chloride – reduces the solubility of soap in water Solid soap + unsaturated oil (sunflower oil / olive oil) Uses: shaving cream

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Liquid soap saturated oils (coconut oil) Uses: bathing purposes

Sodium hydroxide + Potassium hydroxide

Soap or detergent is added to water. Detergent preparation: 2 processes – 1. 3. Other type of detergents: 1. 4. 2.  Cleansing action of soap and detergent  Soap and detergent are surfactants. 2.    Neutralisation: sulphonic acid neutralised with sodium hydroxide to form detergent (water molecule is formed). Surfactants are organic compounds that lower the surface tension of a liquid. Anion soap consists of carboxylate ion (hydrophilic = soluble in water) and long hydrocarbon tail (hydrophobic = soluble in grease /oils). Water molecule is removed. Hydrophilic part of the anion dissolves in water. . Sulphonation. Non-ionic detergent (car washing detergent). Anion detergent consists of sulphate ion / sulphonate ion (hydrophilic = soluable in water) and long hydrocarbon tail (hydrophobic = soluble in grease / oils). Hydrophobic part dissolves in grease. Anionic detergent (dishwashing liquid detergent). Surfactants act as emulsifiers and foaming agents. Cationic detergent (hair conditioner). 3.    The action process 1. 2. This has lower the surface tension of water and increases the wetting ability of water. Scrubbing helps to pull the grease free and break the grease into small droplets. 5.Detergent    Detergent = sodium salt of sulphonic acid Alkalis react with sulphonic acid –> detergent Common detergent: sodium alkyl sulphate & sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate. Neutralisation. Sulphonation: Petroleum fraction (long chain hydrocarbon compounds) converted into sulphonic acid with the present of concentration sulphuric acid.

Rinsing helps to remove these droplets. lipase & . Form soluble form scum) Soap is nonbiodegradable Example protease Control foaming in detergent Silicones cleaner. It is because therepulsion between negative charges on the surface. 7. 8. substances = calcium or magnesium salts (do not form scum) Soft water (do Soap is effective not contain calcium & magnesium ion) Acidic water (contain Form insoluble long-chain fatty Detergent is effective cleaner. These droplets do not coagulate and redeposit on the surface of the cloth. The effectiveness of the cleansing action of soap and detergent Condition Hard water (contain calcium & magnesium ion) Soap Form an insoluble precipitate = soap soap scum causes wastage of soap) Detergent Detergent is effective cleaner. scum (formation of Form soluble hydrogen ion) acids (reduces the for cleaning) Environment Soap is biodegradable Additives in detergent Additives Biological enzyme Foam control agent Function amount of soap used substances (Do not Remove protein stains Amylase. Foam produces to float the emulsion.6. 9. Detergent is effective cleaner. The droplets are suspended in water forming an emulsion.

Builder Filler Enhance the surfactant Sodium phosphate efficiency Make the solid detergent dry and enable the liquid detergent to be poured easily Sodium silicate Fragrance Optical brightener Add fragrance Add brightness by convert UV radiation to blue light and whiteness Fluorescent dye Stabilising agent Suspension agent Lower the production Silicones of foam Prevent the dirt particles removed from redepositing onto cleaned fabrics Sodium carboxymethylcellulose Whitening agent Bleach stains Sodium hypochlorite .

Electrical conductivity. Alkanes Alkenes . Comparing (Similarities and Differences) Properties of Alkanes and Alkenes Physical Properties Physical state Physical state changes Same with alkanes. melting points (number of carbon atoms per molecule increases). Density Low densities (number Same with alkanes. Low boiling points and Same with alkanes. from gas to liquid when going down the series. of carbon atom per Same with alkanes. Boiling points and melting points Do not conduct electricity at any state.1.

Solubility in water Chemical Properties Reactivity Combustion Insoluble in water (soluble in organic solvent) Alkanes Alkenes (Substitution reaction) (Addition reaction) Unreactive Burn in air and produce yellow sooty flame. Reaction with bromine solution Reaction with acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution 2. Decolourise purple acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution.(no isomer) 2 3 Methane Ethane Propane Butane2methylpropane Pentane2methylbutane2.2Structure name No reaction. Same with alkanes. Reactive Burn in air and produce yellow and sootier flame compare to alkanes.molecule increases). Isomerism in alkanes Molecular formula Number of isomers CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 . Decolourise brown bromine solution.(no isomer) . No reaction.(no isomer) . . Isomerism Isomerism – phenomenon that two or more molecules are found to have the same molecular formula but different structural formulae.

hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Name of alcohol Methanol Ethanol 1-ol Butanol / Butan-1. – OH. General formula: CnH2n + 1OH  Where n = 1. The functional group in alcohols is hydroxyl group.(no isomer) 3 Ethene Propene But-1-eneBut-2ene2methylpropene C5H10 5 Pent-1-enePent-2ene2-methylbut-1ene 3-methylbut-1-ene 2-methylbut-2-ene Structure name Non-Hydrocarbon – Alcohol 1.C3H7OH .dimethylpropane Isomerism in alkenes Molecular formula Number of isomers C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 .C5H11OH Molecular formula of alcohol CH3OH C2H5OH Propanol / Propan. 2.C4H9OH ol Pentanol / Pentan.(no isomer) . Alcohols are non-hydrocarbons which contain carbon. 3 … (n = number of carbon) 2. 3.

Chemical properties of alcohol  Combustion of alcohol Complete combustion of alcohol.C10H21OH ol 4.    5.C9H19OH ol Decanol / Decan-1. Physical properties of alcohol Name Molecular Melting Boiling Physical state formula Methanol CH3OH Ethanol C2H3OH Propanol C3H5OH Butanol C4H7OH Pentanol C5H9OH  C8H17OH point (°C) -97 -117 -127 -90 -79 point (°C) 65 78 97 118 138 at 25°C Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Solubility in water – all members in alcohol are very soluble in water (miscible with water). C2H5OH + 3O2 –> 2CO2 + 3H2O (Alcohol burns with clean blue flames. Therefore.C6H13OH ol Heptanol / Heptan. Alcohol burns plenty of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water. it is a clean fuel as it does not pollute the air. Colour and Smell – alcohols are colourless liquid and have sharp smell. Volatility – all alcohols are highly volatile. Boiling and melting points – all alcohols in general have low boiling points (78°C).C7H15OH 1-ol Octanol / Octan-1ol Nonanol / Nonan-1. This reaction releases a lot of heat.) Other example: 2C3H7OH + 9O2 –> 6CO2 + 8H2O .1-ol Hexanol / Hexan-1.

It results in the formation of a C=C double bond. fiber). varnishes. H2SO4. a) Ethanol vapour is passed over a heated catalyst such asaluminium oxide. General formula: CnH2n+1COOH  Where n = 0. pumice stone or porous pot. rubbing alcohol). Other example: C3H7OH + 2[O] –> C2H5COOH + H2O  Removal of water (Dehydration) Alcohol can change to alkene by removal of water molecules (dehydration). The functional group in alcohols is carboxyl group. unglazed porcelain chips. 2. clean fuel. Oxidation of ethanol In the laboratory. CnH2n+1OH –> CnH2n + H2O C2H5OH –> C2H4 + H2O Two methods are being used to carry out a dehydration in the laboratory. Other example: C3H7OH –> C3H6 + H2O 6. Alcohol as a source of medical product (antiseptics for skin disinfection. thinners. perfumes). b) Ethanol is heated under reflux at 180°C with excess concentrated sulphuric acid. – COOH. . vinegar. 3. two common oxidising agents are used for the oxidation of ethanol which are acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution (orange to green) and acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution (purple to colourless). 3 … (n = number of carbon) 2. toiletries. Misuse and Abuse    Depressant drug Alcoholic drinks Addictive drug Non-Hydrocarbon – Carboxylic Acids 1. Carboxylic acids are non-hydrocarbons which contain carbon. 1. explosives. 7. alternative fuel). Uses of Alcohol     Alcohol as a solvent (cosmetics. Alcohol as a source of chemicals (polymer. C2H5OH + 2[O] –> CH3COOH + H2O Ethanol oxidised to ethanoic acid (a member of the homologous series of carboxylic acids – will be discussed in Part 6). hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Alcohol as a fuel (fuel for racing car.

Preparation of carboxylic acid  Oxidation of an alcohol The oxidation of ethanol is used to prepare ethanoic acid. This is due to the presence of carboxyl group in carboxylic acid. Physical properties of carboxylic acid CH3COOH 118 C2H5COOH 141 164 Solubility in water – generally in carboxylic acid (the less than four carbon atoms) arevery soluble in water and ionise partially to form weak . 5.    Smell – carboxylic acid (< 10 carbon) are colourless and pungent smell. C2H5OH + 2[O] –> CH3COOH + H2O . Density of carboxylic acid – density of carboxylic acid increases due to the increases in the number of carbon atoms in a molecule. Boiling points – all carboxylic acid in general have relatively high boiling points than the corresponding alkanes. Carboxylic acid (>10 carbons) are wax-like solids.Name of carboxylic Molecular formula of acids Methanoic acid(Formic acid) Ethanoic acid(Acetic acid) Propanoic acid Butanoic acid Name Methanoic acid(Formic acid) Ethanoic acid(Acetic acid) Propanoic acid Butanoic acid C3H7COH  alcohol HCOOH CH3COOH C2H5COOH C3H7COH Molecularformula Boiling point (°C) HCOOH 101 4.

+ H+ Ethanoic acid turns moist blue litmus paper red. Au) 2CH3COOH + Zn –> Zn(CH3COO)2 + H2 In this reaction. zinc carbonate). propanol. Hg. a colourless solution (magnesium ethanoate) is formed. Pb. magnesium carbonate.  Reaction with bases acid neutralises alkalis (sodium hydroxide).  Reaction with alcohols (Esterification) Ethanoic acid reacts with alcohol (ethanol. butanol) CH3CO-OH + H-OC4H9 –> CH3COOC4H9 + H2O (Concentrated H2SO4 is a . a salt (calcium ethanoate). Chemical properties of carboxylic acid  Acid properties Ethanoic acid is a weak monoprotic acid that ionises partially in water (produce a low concentration of hydrogen ions). CH3COOH + NaOH –> CH3COONa + H2O In this reaction. CH3COOH <–> CH3COO. Mg.  Reaction with metals Ethanoic acid reacts with reactive metals (copper and metals below it in the reactivity series cannot react with ethanoic acid). Cu. 2CH3COOH + CaCO3 –> Ca(CH3COO)2 + CO2 + H2O In this reaction. carbon dioxide and water are formed. Fe. Al. 2CH3COOH + Mg –> Mg(CH3COO)2 + H2 In this reaction. Sn. a salt (sodium ethanoate) and water are formed.Carried out by refluxing* ethanol with an oxidising agent [acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution – orange colour turns to green / acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution – purple colour turns to colourless] * reflux = upright Liebig condense to prevent the loss of a volatile liquid by vaporisation. 6. Na. (K.  Reaction with carbonates Ethanoic acid reacts with metal carbonates (calcium carbonate. Zn. a colourless solution (zinc ethanoate) is formed.

Uses of Carboxylic Acid  Carboxylic acid (methanoic acid and ethanoic acid) is used to coagulate latex.catalyst) In this reaction. Ethanoic acid is used to make polyvinvyl acetate which is used to make plastics and emulsion paints. Vinegar (dilute 4% of ethanoic acid) is used as preservative and flavouring. Butanoic acid is used to produce ester (artificial flavouring). 7. an ester (colourless sweet-smelling liquid) (butyl ethanoate) and water are formed. Benzoic acid is used as food preservative.     .

hydrogen. Reaction to form polymer: additional polymerisation (one of the double bond in isoprene becomes single bond) 4. Natural polymer: Carbohydrates (polysaccharides) (starch. C3H8 or 2-methylbuta-1. glycogen and cellulose)     General formula: Cx(H2O)y with the ratio of H:O = 2:1 Carbohydrates have cyclic structure. 2.H2O) Extracted from the latex of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) which the tree originates from Brazil. Natural polymer: Natural rubber     6. oxygen and nitrogen (some have sulphur. 7. Same charge of rubber molecules repels each other. and proteins)  3. Coagulation process of latex . and polypropene) natural polymers (natural rubber.3-diene. Monomer: glucose (C6H12H6) Reaction to form polymer: condensation reaction (.Polymers 1.H2O) Protein consists of carbon. Structure of rubber molecule   Latex is colloid (35% rubber particles and 65% water). Polymer can be classified into two groups:  synthetic polymers / man-made polymers (polythene. phosphorus and other elements) Monomer: amino acids Amino acids have two functional group which are carboxyl group (-COOH) and amino group(-NH2) Reaction to form polymer: condensation reaction (. artificial silk. This prevent rubber from coagulate. starch. cellulose. Monomer: isoprene. A molecule of rubber contains 5000 isoprene units. Rubber particle contains rubber molecules which are wrapped by a layer of negatively-charged protein membrane. Polymer – many small units (monomers) joining together to formed large molecule. Natural polymer: Protein (polypeptide)     5. PVC – polyvinyl chloride.

Prevent coagulation process of latex The following are latex coagulation prevention method: 1. Alkaline / Basic solution is added to the latex. decompose – above 200°C.The process for the coagulation of latex is summarised as: 1. Coagulation process occurs in slower pace due to the bacteria (microorganism) action which produce acid) 9. Methods:  heating natural rubber with sulphur at 140°C using zinc oxide as catalyst or . 2.from ammonia solution. Properties of natural rubber   elastic cannot withstand heat (become sticky and soft – above 50°C. 2. benzene. Vulcanisation of rubber Vulcanisation – process of hardening rubber and increases rubber elasticity by heating it withsulphur or sulphur compounds. hard and brittle – cooled) easily oxidised (present of C=C) insoluble in water (due to the long hydrocarbon chains) soluble in organic solvent (propanone. Latex is exposed to air without adding acid (duration – overnight). Acid (H+) can neutralise the negatively-charged protein membrane. 3. petrol etc. Example: ammonia (NH3). Natural coagulation process of latex For the natural coagulation of latex: 1. Rubber molecules combine with one another (coagulation). Rubber molecules (polymers) are set free 4. 10. The rubber molecules will collide after the protein membrane is broken. suphuric acid and hydrochloric acid. 8.)    11. 2. Positively-charged hydrogen ion / H+ produced by bacteria can be neutralised by negatively-charged hydroxide ion / OH. methanoic acid. Example of acid: formic acid.

vulcanised rubber is more elastics and stronger.  This also reduces the number of carbon-carbon double bonds in rubber molecules. ozone. dipping natural rubber in a solution of disulphur dichloride (S2Cl2) in methylbenzene. Resistant to Resistant to heat heat Oxidation Resistant to oxidation Easily oxidised by (reduction of number of oxygen. 13. Comparison between the properties of vulcanised rubber and unvulcanised rubber Properties Double bonds Melting point Elasticity Vulcanised rubber sulphur cross-links) High (presence of sulphur) More elastic (sulphur cross-links prevents the polymer chain or rubber from slipping past. 12.  This increases the molecular size and the intermolecular forces of attraction between rubber molecules. vulcanised rubber is more resistant to heat (does not become soft and sticky when hot). Therefore. Therefore. Strength and Strong and hard hardness (depends on degree of vulcanisation) Weak and soft (polymer chain of rubber will break when rubber is over stretched. Therefore. Properties of vulcanisation of rubber  The sulphur atoms are added to double bonds in the natural rubber molecules to formdisulphide linkages (-C-S-S-C-) / sulphur crosslinks between the long polymer chains. vulcanised rubber is more resistant to oxygen. sunlight and other chemicals. UV light Poor resistant to heat Less elastics Unvulcanised rubber double bonds Low Decreases (formation of More number of .

Tooth decay. diabetes and obesity Example Side effect Increase the cardiovascular diseases vegetables risk of Draws the water out Salted . Retards the growth of microorganisms. R & D of rubber     double bonds per rubber molecules) RRIM – Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia MRB – Malaysian Rubber Board Rubber Technology Centre Various local higher institutions of learning Food Additives Food additive = a natural / synthetic substance that is added to food to      prevent spoilage extend food storage life improve food appearance improve food taste improve food texture A. Sugar Draws the water out Fruit jam of the cells of microorganisms. Preservatives Function:   slow down / prevent the growth of microorganisms / bacteria / fungi extend food storage life Example: Preservatives Functions Salt of the cells of microorganisms.double bonds per rubber (presence of many molecule) 14.

Benzoic acid / Slows down the sodium benzoate Sulphur dioxide growth of microorganisms. Alternative ways: freezing and refrigeration Food Additives B. Sodium nitrite Slows down the / sodium nitrate growth of microorganisms.Retards the growth of microorganisms. Stabilise red colour in meats. Slows down the growth of microorganisms. Vinegar Inhibits the growth of microorganisms. Antioxidant Function:  Pickled cucumber Sausage Carcinogenic Tomato sauce Grape juice Asthma and allergies prevent oxidation (causes rancid fats and brown fruits) Examples: Antioxidant Vitamin E Functions Prevent oils from turns rancid Vitamin C Preserve the colour formation of nitrosamines Sodium citrate Stop rancidity in fats Ice-cream Example Side effect Palm oil & No sunflower oil Fruit juice No meat of fruit juice and the & cured .

oils and oilBHT (Butylated containing foods hydroxytoluene) Margarine Carcinogenic & cereal .BHA (Butylated Retard rancidity in hydroxyanisole) fats.