CENTRES OF EXCELLENCE
FAULT CALCULATIONS IN
POWER SYSTEMS
PROF. ARINDAM GHOSH
School of Engineering Systems
Queensland University of Technology
Brisbane, Queensland
Course Notes
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 i
© Queensland University of Technology, 2010
No part of this material may be reproduced without permission. For enquiries and requests to access
resources, contact the API University Representative on the Australian Power Institute website:
www.api.edu.au  Collaborative Power Engineering Centres of Excellence.
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 ii
Table of Contents
Introduction: Setting the Scene 1
Assumed Knowledge 1
Objectives 1
Teaching and Learning Approaches 2
Module Resources 2
Course Notes 2
Presentation Packs 2
Activities 2
Acknowledgment 2
Author/s and Contact Details 3
1. Fault in an AC Circuit 5
2. Synchronous Machine Model 7
2.1 Short Circuit on an Unloaded Synchronous Generator 12
3. Symmetrical Faults in a Power System 15
3.1. Calculation of Fault Current using Impedance Diagram 15
3.2. Calculation of Fault Current using Z
bus
Matrix 17
4. Symmetrical Components 21
4.1. Symmetrical Component Transformation 21
4.2. Real and Reactive Power 25
4.3. Orthogonal Transformation 26
5. Sequence Circuits for Loads 29
5.1. Sequence Circuit for a YConnected Load 29
5.2. Sequence Circuit for a AConnected Load 30
6. Sequence Circuits for Synchronous Generator 35
7. Sequence Circuits for Symmetrical Transmission Line 37
8. Sequence Circuits for Transformers 41
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 iii
8.1. YY Connected Transformer 41
8.2 AA Connected Transformer 43
8.3 YA Connected Transformer 44
9. Sequence Networks 47
10. Unsymmetrical Faults 49
10.1 SingleLinetoGround Fault 49
10.2 LinetoLine Fault 52
10.3 DoubleLinetoGround Fault 55
10.4 Fault Current Computation using Sequence Networks 59
Conclusions 68
References 68
INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 1
INTRODUCTION: SETTING THE SCENE
Short circuits occur in power system due to various reasons like, equipment failure, lightning strikes,
falling of branches or trees on the transmission lines, switching surges, insulation failures and other
electrical or mechanical causes. All these are collectively called faults in power systems. A fault
usually results in high current flowing through the lines and if adequate protection is not taken, may
result in damages in the power apparatus. In this module, we shall discuss the effects of both
symmetrical faults and unsymmetrical on the system. Here the term symmetrical fault refers to those
conditions in which all three phases of a power system are grounded at the same point. For this
reason the symmetrical faults sometimes are also called threelinetoground (3LG) faults. The
unsymmetrical faults are of three types. These are:
 Singlelinetoground (1LG) fault
 Linetoline (LL) fault
 Doublelinetoground (2LG) fault
We shall first discuss the behavior of electrical circuits and synchronous generators under faulted
condition. We shall proceed to calculate fault currents in a network under balanced fault condition.
Following this, we shall discuss symmetrical components and how a power network can be modeled
for unbalanced operation. Finally we shall discuss unsymmetrical fault current calculations.
ASSUMED KNOWLEDGE
It is assumed that you will have a basic knowledge of:
 Basic threephase circuits and phasor calculations
 Synchronous generators
 Power systems representation and impedance diagrams
 Y
bus
formulation
OBJECTIVES
On completion of this module you should be able to:
1. Compute fault currents for symmetrical faults.
2. Compute fault currents for unsymmetrical faults.
3. Compute and analyze circuits in terms of symmetrical components.
4. Use concepts learned in designing protective devices.
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 2
TEACHING AND LEARNING APPROACHES
This module is best taught through a combination of:
 Group lectures presented by the instructor using the PowerPoint Slides which are part of the
module material,
 Group lecture discussions coordinated by the instructor,
 Individual study of the notes provided to review lectures and learn details required to perform
activities,
 Performing individually fault calculations using calculators, and
 Performing individually simulation studies to analyze different types of faults.
A set of presentation packs and activities are available in addition to the course notes as a suite of
resources for this module. These are listed below and can be downloaded by visiting www.api.edu.au
– Collaborative Power Engineering Centres of Excellence.
MODULE RESOURCES
COURSE NOTES
 Fault Calculations in Power Systems
PRESENTATION PACKS
 Symmetrical Faults (2 hrs)
 Symmetrical Faults and Symmetrical Components (2 hrs)
 Sequences Circuits of Loads, Generator and Line (2 hrs)
 Sequence Circuits of Transformers and Sequence Networks (2 hrs)
 Unsymmetrical Fault Current Calculations. (2 hrs)
 Fault Current Calculation Examples (2 hrs)
ACTI VI TIES
 Tutorial: Fault Calculations  Problem Set (3 hrs)
 Practical: Overcurrent Protection Coordination (1 hr)
 Fault Calculations  PSCAD Simulation Exercise (3 hrs)
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The author wishes to thank Dr. Manjula Dewadasa for his help in preparing the simulation example.
Also, this material has been developed with the support of API.
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 3
AUTHOR/S AND CONTACT DETAILS
Prof. Arindam Ghosh
Professor in Power Engineering
School of Engineering Systems
Queensland University of Technology
Brisbane, Queensland
Email: a.ghosh@qut.edu.au
COURSE NOTES
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 5
1. FAULT IN AN AC CIRCUIT
Consider the singlephase circuit of Fig. 1 where V
s
= 240 V (rms), the system frequency is 50 Hz, R =
0.864 O, L = 11 mH (eL = 3.46 O) and the load is RL comprising of an 8.64 O resistor and a 49.5 mH
inductor (eL = 15.55 O). The current phasor when the switch S is open is given by
° ÷ Z = ÷ =
+
= 43 . 63 29 . 11 10 . 10 05 . 5
01 . 19 504 . 9
240
j
j
I A
This means that the current has a peak value of (11.29×\2 =) 15.97 A.
We shall now use the switch S to simulate a short circuit across the load. When the switch is closed,
the fault current is given by
° ÷ Z = ÷ =
+
= 98 . 75 23 . 67 29 65 30 16
46 . 3 864 . 0
240
. j .
j
I A
This implies that the fault current has a peak value of (67.23×\2 =) 95.17 A. The current (i) waveform
is shown in Fig. 2. Even though the steady state fault current is about 6 times the unfaulted load
current, the peak of the transient current is around 125 A, i.e., over 10 times higher than the nominal
current. The peak current depends on the time of inception of the fault that is unpredictable.
We shall now discuss model of synchronous machine and how it can be represented in fault studies.
Fig. 1. A singlephase circuit in which a source supplies a load through a source impedance.
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 6
Fig. 2. The current waveform of the circuit of Fig. 5 before and after the closing of the switch S.
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 7
2. SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE MODEL
The schematic diagram of a synchronous generator is shown in Fig. 3. This contains three stator
windings that are spatially distributed. It is assumed that the windings are wyeconnected. The
winding currents are denoted by i
a
, i
b
and i
c
. The rotor contains the field winding the current through
which is denoted by i
f
. The field winding is aligned with the socalled direct (d) axis. We also define a
quadrature (q) axis that leads the daxis by 90°. The angle between the daxis and the aphase of the
stator winding is denoted by θ
d
.
Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of a synchronous generator.
Let the selfinductance of the stator windings be denoted by L
aa
, L
bb,
L
cc
such that
cc bb aa s
L L L L = = =
(1)
and the mutual inductance between the windings be denoted as
ca bc ab s
L L L M = = = ÷
(2)
The mutual inductances between the field coil and the stator windings vary as a function of θ
d
and are
given by
d f af
M L u cos =
(3)
( ) ° ÷ = 120 cos
d f bf
M L u
(4)
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 8
( ) ° + = 120 cos
d f cf
M L u
(5)
The selfinductance of the field coil is denoted by L
ff
.
The flux linkage equations are then given by
( )
f af c b s a s f af c ca b ab a aa a
i L i i M i L i L i L i L i L + + ÷ = + + + = ì
(6)
( )
f bf c a s b s b
i L i i M i L + + ÷ = ì
(7)
( )
f af b a s c s c
i L i i M i L + + ÷ = ì
(8)
f ff c cf b bf a af f
i L i L i L i L + + + = ì
(9)
For balanced operation we have
0 = + +
c b a
i i i
Hence, the flux linkage equations for the stator windings (6) to (8) can be modified as
( )
f af a s s a
i L i M L + + = ì
(10)
( )
f bf b s s b
i L i M L + + = ì
(11)
( )
f cf c s s c
i L i M L + + = ì
(12)
For steady state operation we can assume
constant = =
f f
I i
(13)
Also assuming that the rotor rotates at synchronous speed ω
s
, we obtain the following two equations
dt
d
d
s
u
e =
(14)
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 9
0 d s d
t u e u + =
(15)
where θ
d0
is the initial position of the field winding with respect to the phasea of the stator winding
at time t = 0. The mutual inductance of the field winding with all the three stator windings will vary as
a function of θ
d
, i.e.,
( )
0
cos
d s f af
t M L u e + =
(16)
( ) ° ÷ + = 120 cos
0 d s f bf
t M L u e
(17)
( ) ° + + = 120 cos
0 d s f cf
t M L u e
(18)
Substituting (13) and (16) to (18) in (10) to (12) we get
( ) ( )
0
cos
d s f f a s s a
t I M i M L u e ì + + + =
(19)
( ) ( ) ° ÷ + + + = 120 cos
0 d s f f b s s b
t I M i M L u e ì
(20)
( ) ( ) ° + + + + = 120 cos
0 d s f f c s s c
t I M i M L u e ì
(21)
Since we assume balanced operation, we need to treat only one phase. Let the armature resistance of
the generator be R. The generator terminal voltage is given by
dt
d
Ri
a
a a
ì
v ÷ ÷ =
(22)
where the negative sign is used for generating mode of operation in which the current leaves the
terminal. Substituting (19) in (22) we get
( ) ( )
0
sin
d s s f f
a
s s a a
t I M
dt
di
M L Ri u e e v + + + ÷ ÷ =
(23)
The last term of (23) is the internal emf e
a
that is given by
( )
0
sin   2
d s i a
t E e u e + =
(24)
where the rms magnitude E
i
 is proportional to the field current
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 10
2
f f s
i
I M
E
e
=
(25)
Since θ
d0
is the position of the daxis at time t = 0, we define the position of the qaxis at that instant
as
° ÷ = 90
0 d
u o
(26)
Therefore (15) can be rewritten as
° + + = 90 o e u t
s d
(27)
Substituting (26) in (24) we get
( ) o e + = t E e
s i a
cos   2
(28)
Replacing the last term of (23) by the internal emf e
a
, we get
( )
a
a
s s a a
e
dt
di
M L Ri + + ÷ ÷ = v
(29)
The equivalent circuit of a synchronous generator is shown in Fig. 4. Let the current i
a
lag the internal
emf e
a
by θ
a
. The stator currents are then
( )
a s a a
t I i u o e ÷ + = cos   2
(30)
( ) ° ÷ ÷ + = 120 cos   2
a s a b
t I i u o e
(31)
( ) ° + ÷ + = 120 cos   2
a s a c
t I i u o e
(32)
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 11
Fig. 4. Threephase equivalent circuit of a synchronous generator.
The singlephase equivalent circuit of the generator is shown in Fig. 5. The phase angle θ
a
between e
a
and i
a
is rather difficult to measure under load as e
a
is the no load voltage. To avoid this, we define
the phase angle between v
a
and i
a
to be θ. We assume that ea leads v
a
by δ. Therefore we can write
o u u ÷ =
a
(33)
Then the voltages and currents shown in Fig. 5 are given as
t V
s a a
e v cos 2 =
(34)
) cos( 2 o e + = t E e
s i a
(35)
) cos( 2 u e ÷ = t I i
s a a
(36)
Equations (34) to (36) imply that
u o ÷ Z = Z = ° Z =
a a i a a a
I I E E V V and , 0
(37)
From Fig. 5, we define the synchronous impedance as
( )
s s s d d
M L j R jX R Z + + = + = e
(38)
Then the terminal voltage equation can be written as
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 12
( )
a d a a
I jX R E V + + =
(39)
In general, the resistance R is negligible compared to the daxis reactance. Therefore the machine can
be represented by the classical voltage behind a reactance model. For a cylindrical rotor machine, the
daxis reactance is equal to the qaxis reactance. This is usually called the synchronous reactance X
s
.
Therefore (39) can be modified as
a d a a s a a
I jX E I jX E V + = + =
(40)
Fig. 5. Singlephase equivalent circuit of a synchronous generator.
2.1 SHORT CIRCUI T ON AN UNLOADED SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR
Fig. 6 shows a typical response of the armature current when a threephase symmetrical short circuit
occurs at the terminals of an unloaded synchronous generator. It is assumed that there is no dc offset
in the armature current. From a high initial value, the magnitude of the current decreases
exponentially. This is due to the fact that the machine reactance changes due to the effect of
armature reaction. When a short circuit occurs, the flux linking the stator and the rotor cannot
change instantaneously due to the eddy currents flowing in the rotor and damper circuits. These eddy
currents oppose the change. The reactance due to the armature reaction is small during the initial
phase. The eddy current in the damper circuit decays first, followed by the decay of the eddy current
in the field circuit. Then the armature reaction gets to establish.
Fig. 6. Armature current of a synchronous generator as a short circuit occurs at its terminals.
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 13
The instantaneous expression for the fault current shown in Fig. 6 is given by
( ) ( ) o e +
(
(
¸
(
¸
+


.

\

÷
'
+


.

\

'
÷
' '
=
' ÷ ' ' ÷
t
X
e
X X
e
X X
V t i
s
d
T t
d d
T t
d d
t f
d d
sin
1 1 1 1 1
2
(41)
where V
t
is the magnitude of the terminal voltage, and
d
X ' ' is the direct axis subtransient reactance
d
X' is the direct axis transient reactance
d
X is the direct axis synchronous reactance
with
d d d
X X X < ' < ' ' . The time constants are
d
T ' ' is the direct axis subtransient time constant
d
T' is the direct axis transient time constant
In the expression of (41), we have neglected the effect of the armature resistance. Let us assume that
the fault occurs at time t = 0. Then the rms value of the initial current is
( )
d
t
f f
X
V
I I
' '
= ' ' = 0
(42)
which is called the subtransient fault current. The duration of the subtransient current is dictated by
the time constant T
d
ª. As the time progresses and T
d
ª < t < T
d
', the first exponential term of (41) will
start decaying and will eventually vanish. However since t is still nearly equal to zero, we have the
following rms value of the current
d
t
f
X
V
I
'
= '
(43)
This is called the transient fault current. Now as the time progress further and the second exponential
term also decays, we get the following rms value of the current for the sinusoidal steady state
d
t
f
X
V
I =
(44)
In addition to the ac, the fault currents will also contain the dc offset. Note that a symmetrical fault
occurs when three different phases are in three different locations in the ac cycle. Therefore the dc
offsets in the three phases are different. The maximum value of the dc offset is given by
A
T t
f dc
e I i
÷
' ' = 2
max
(45)
where T
A
is the armature time constant.
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 15
3. SYMMETRICAL FAULTS IN A POWER SYSTEM
3.1. CALCULATI ON OF FAULT CURRENT USING I MPEDANCE DI AGRAM
Let us first illustrate the calculation of the fault current using the impedance diagram with the help of
the following examples.
Example 1
Consider the power system of Fig. 7 in which a synchronous generator supplies a
synchronous motor. The motor is operating at rated voltage and rated MVA while
drawing a load current at a power factor of 0.9 (lagging) when a three phase
symmetrical short circuit occurs at its terminals. We shall calculate the fault current
that flow from both the generator and the motor.
We shall choose a base of 50 MVA, 20 kV in the circuit of the generator. Then the
motor synchronous reactance is given by
4 . 0
25
50
2 . 0 = × = ' '
m
X per unit
Also the base impedance in the circuit of the transmission line is
12 . 87
50
66
2
= =
base
Z O
Fig.7. A generator supplying a motor load though a transmission line.
Therefore the impedance of the transmission line is
1148 . 0
12 . 87
10
j j X
line
= = per unit.
The impedance diagram for the circuit is shown in Fig. 8 in which the switch S indicates
the fault.
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 16
Example 1
Fig. 8. Impedance diagram of the circuit of Fig. 7.
Before the fault, when the switch S is open, the motor draws a load at rated voltage
and rated MVA with 0.9 lagging power factor. Therefore
( ) 4359 . 0 9 . 0 9 . 0 cos 1
1
j I
L
÷ = ÷ Z =
÷
per unit
Let us assume the voltage across the terminal A and B is 1.0 per unit when the fault
occurs. Then the subtransient voltages of the motor and the generator are
36 . 0 8256 . 0 4 . 0 0 . 1 j I j E
L m
÷ = × ÷ = ' ' per unit
4633 . 0 2244 . 1 5148 . 0 0 . 1 j I j E
L g
+ = × + = ' ' per unit
Hence, the subtransient fault currents, when the switch S closes, fed by the motor and
the generator are
0641 . 2 9 . 0
4 . 0
j
j
E
I
m
m
÷ ÷ =
' '
= ' ' per unit
3784 . 2 9 . 0
5148 . 0
j
j
E
I
g
g
÷ =
' '
= ' ' per unit
and the total current flowing to the fault is
4425 . 4 j I I I
m g f
÷ = ' ' + ' ' = ' ' per unit
Note that the base current in the circuit of the motor is
8 . 1603
18 3
10 50
3
=
×
×
=
base
I A
Therefore while the load current was 1603.8 A, the fault current is 7124.7 A.
We shall now solve the above problem differently.
Example 2
The Thevenin impedance at the circuit between the terminals A and B of the circuit of
Fig. 8 is the parallel combination of the impedances j0.4 and j0.5148. This is then given
as
2251 . 0
5148 . 0 4 . 0
5148 . 0 4 . 0
j j Z
th
=
+
×
= per unit
Since voltage at the motor terminals before the fault is 1.0 per unit, the fault current is
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 17
Example 2
4425 . 4
0 . 1
j
Z
I
th
f
÷ = = ' ' per unit
If we neglect the prefault current flowing through the circuit, then fault current fed by
the motor and the generator can be determined using the current divider principle,
i.e.,
5 . 2 5148 . 0
9148 . 0
0
j j
j
I
I
f
m
÷ = ×
' '
= ' ' per unit
9425 . 1 4 . 0
9148 . 0
0
j j
j
I
I
f
g
÷ = ×
' '
= ' ' per unit
If, on the other hand, the prefault current is not neglected, then the fault current
supplied by the motor and the generator are
0641 . 2 9 . 0
0
j I I I
L m m
÷ ÷ = ÷ ' ' = ' ' per unit
3784 . 2 9 . 0
0
j I I I
L g g
÷ = + ' ' = ' ' per unit
3.2. CALCULATI ON OF FAULT CURRENT USING Z
BUS
MATRIX
Consider the circuit of Fig. 9 (a), the impedance diagram of which is drawn in Fig. 9 (b). We assume
that a symmetrical fault has occurred in bus4 such that it is now connected to the reference bus. Let
us assume that the prefault voltage at this bus is V
f
. To denote that bus4 is short circuit, we add two
voltage sources V
f
and ÷ V
f
together in series between bus4 and the reference bus. This is shown in
Fig. 9 (c). Also note that the subtransient fault current Iª
f
flows from bus4 to the reference bus. This
implies that a current that is equal to ÷ Iª
f
is injected into bus4. This current, which is due to the
source ÷ V
f
will flow through the various branches of the network and will cause a change in the bus
voltages. Assuming that the two sources and V
f
are short circuited, ÷ V
f
is the only source left in the
network that injects a current ÷ Iª
f
into bus4. The voltages of the different nodes that are caused by
the voltage ÷ V
f
and the current ÷ Iª
f
are then given by
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 18
(a) (b)
(c)
Fig.9. (a) Singleline diagram of a simple power network, (b) its impedance diagram and (c) the equivalent network depicting
a symmetrical fault at bus4.
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
' ' ÷
=
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
A
A
A
f
bus
f
I
Z
V
V
V
V
0
0
0
3
2
1
(46)
where the prefix A indicates the changes in the bus voltages due to the current ÷ Iª
f
.
From the fourth row of (14) we can write
f f
I Z V ' ' =
44
(47)
Combining (46) and (47) we get
3 , 2 , 1 ,
44
4
4
= ÷ = ' ' ÷ = A i V
Z
Z
I Z V
f
i
f i i
(48)
We further assume that the system is unloaded before the fault occurs and that the magnitude and
phase angles of all the generator internal emfs are the same. Then there will be no current circulating
anywhere in the network and the bus voltages of all the nodes before the fault will be same and
equal to V
f
. Then the new altered bus voltages due to the fault will be given from (48) by
4 , , 1 , 1
44
4
=


.

\

÷ = A + = i V
Z
Z
V V V
f
i
i f i
(49)
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 19
Example 3
Let us consider following parameters, in per unit, for the impedance diagram of Fig. 9
(b)
Z
11
= Z
22
= j0.25, Z
12
= j0.2, Z
13
= j0.25, Z
23
= Z
34
= j0.4 and Z
24
= j0.5
Then Y
bus
is then given as
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷
÷
÷
=
5 . 4 5 . 2 2 0
5 . 2 9 5 . 2 4
2 5 . 2 5 . 13 5
0 4 5 13
j Y
bus
per unit
Inverting the Y
bus
matrix, we get the Z
bus
matrix as
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
3926 0 1974 0 1367 0 1133 . 0
1974 0 2565 0 1236 0 1264 0
1367 0 1236 0 1531 0 0969 0
0.1133 1264 0 0969 0 1531 0
. . .
. . . .
. . . .
. . .
j Z
bus
per unit
Let us now assume that the internal voltages of both the generators are equal to
1.0Z0°. Then the current injected in both bus1 and 2 will be given by 1.0/j0.25 = ÷ j4.0
per unit. Now the altered bus voltages for a symmetrical fault in bus4 are given from
(49) as
7114 . 0
3926 . 0
1133 . 0
1
1
= ÷ = V per unit
6518 . 0
3926 . 0
1367 . 0
1
2
= ÷ = V per unit
4972 . 0
3926 . 0
1974 . 0
1
3
= ÷ = V per unit
0
3926 . 0
3926 . 0
1
4
= ÷ = V per unit
Also since the Thevenin impedance looking into the network at bus4 is Z
44
, the
subtransient fault current flowing from bus4 is
5471 . 2
3926 . 0
1
j
j
I
f
÷ = = ' ' per unit
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 21
4. SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS
An unbalanced threephase system can be resolved into three balanced systems in the sinusoidal
steady state. This method of resolving an unbalanced system into three balanced phasor system has
been proposed by C. L. Fortescue. This method is called resolving symmetrical components of the
original phasors or simply symmetrical components. In this section we shall discuss symmetrical
components transformation and then will present how unbalanced components like Y or A
connected loads, transformers, generators and transmission lines can be resolved into symmetrical
components. We can then combine all these components together to form what are called sequence
networks.
A system of three unbalanced phasors can be resolved in the following three symmetrical
components:
 Positive Sequence: A balanced threephase system with the same phase sequence as the original
sequence.
 Negative sequence: A balanced threephase system with the opposite phase sequence as the
original sequence.
 Zero Sequence: Three phasors that are equal in magnitude and phase.
Fig. 10 depicts a set of three unbalanced phasors that are resolved into the three sequence
components mentioned above. In this the original set of three phasors are denoted by V
a
, V
b
and V
c
,
while their positive, negative and zero sequence components are denoted by the subscripts 1, 2 and 0
respectively. This implies that the positive, negative and zero sequence components of phasea are
denoted by V
a1
, V
a2
and V
a0
respectively. Note that just like the voltage phasors given in Fig. 10, we
can also resolve three unbalanced current phasors into three symmetrical components.
Fig. 10. Representation of (a) an unbalanced network, its (b) positive sequence, (c) negative sequence and (d) zero
sequence.
4.1. SYMMETRICAL COMPONENT TRANSFORMATI ON
Before we discuss the symmetrical component transformation, let us first define the aoperator as
2
3
2
1
0
120
j e a
j
+ ÷ = =
(50)
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 22
Note that for the above operator the following relations hold
on so and
1
2
3
2
1
2 240 360 600 5
120 360 480 4
360 3
240 2
0 0 0
0 0 0
0
0
a e e e a
a e e e a
e a
a j e a
j j j
j j j
j
j
= = =
= = =
= =
= ÷ ÷ = =

(51)
Also note that we have
0
2
3
2
1
2
3
2
1
1 1
2
= ÷ ÷ + ÷ = + + j j a a
(52)
Using the aoperator we can write from Fig. 10 (b)
1 1 1
2
1
and
a c a b
aV V V a V = =
(53)
Similarly from Fig. 10 (c) we get
2
2
2 2 2
and
a c a b
V a V aV V = =
(54)
Finally from Fig. 10 (d) we get
0 0 0 c b a
V V V = =
(55)
The symmetrical component transformation matrix is given by
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
c
b
a
a
a
a
V
V
V
a a
a a
V
V
V
2
2
2
1
0
1
1
1 1 1
3
1
(56)
Defining the vectors V
a012
and V
abc
as
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
c
b
a
abc
a
a
a
a
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V ,
2
1
0
012
we can write (56) as
abc a
CV V =
012
(57)
where C is the symmetrical component transformation matrix and is given by
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 23
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
a a
a a C
2
2
1
1
1 1 1
3
1
(58)
The original phasor components can also be obtained from the inverse symmetrical component
transformation, i.e.,
012
1
a abc
V C V
÷
=
(59)
Inverting the matrix C given in (58) and combining with (59) we get
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
2
1
0
1
2
1
0
2
2
1
1
1 1 1
a
a
a
a
a
a
c
b
a
V
V
V
C
V
V
V
a a
a a
V
V
V
(60)
From (60) we can write
2 1 0 a a a a
V V V V + + =
(61)
2 1 0 2 1
2
0 b b b a a a b
V V V aV V a V V + + = + + =
(62)
2 1 0 2
2
1 0 c c c a a a c
V V V V a aV V V + + = + + =
(63)
Finally, if we define a set of unbalanced current phasors as I
abc
and their symmetrical components as
I
a012
, we can then define
012
1
012
a abc
abc a
I C I
CI I
÷
=
=
(64)
Example 4
Let us consider a set of balanced voltages given in per unit by
° Z = ° ÷ Z = = 120 0 . 1 and 120 0 . 1 , 0 . 1
c b a
V V V
These imply
a V a V
c b
= = and
2
Then from (56) we get
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 24
Example 4
( ) 0 1
3
1
2
0
= + + = a a V
a
( ) pu 0 . 1 1
3
1
3 3
1
= + + = a a V
a
( ) 0 1
3
1
2 4
2
= + + = a a V
a
We then see that for a balanced system the zero and negative sequence voltages are
zero. Also the positive sequence voltage is the same as the original system, i.e.,
c c b b a a
V V V V V V = = =
1 1 1
and ,
All the quantities given in this example are in per unit.
Example 5
Let us now consider the following set of three unbalanced voltages
° Z = ° ÷ Z = = 120 9 . 0 and 110 2 . 1 , 0 . 1
c b a
V V V
Resolving those using (56), we have
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
° Z
° Z
° ÷ Z
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+ ÷
+
+
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
° Z
° ÷ Z
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
72 . 147 0873 . 0
87 . 3 0296 . 1
16 . 68 1250 . 0
0466 . 0 0738 . 0
0695 . 0 0273 . 1
1161 . 0 0465 . 0
120 9 . 0
110 2 . 1
0 . 1
1
1
1 1 1
3
1
2
2
2
1
0
j
j
j
a a
a a
V
V
V
a
a
a
Therefore we have
° ÷ Z = = = 16 . 68 125 . 0
0 0 0 c b a
V V V
° Z = ° ÷ Z = 87 . 123 0296 . 1 , 13 . 116 0296 . 1
1 1 c b
V V
° Z = ° Z = 72 . 27 0973 . 0 , 72 . 267 0873 . 0
2 2 c b
V V
Furthermore note that
0 . 1
2 1 0
= + + =
a a a a
V V V V
° ÷ Z = + + = 110 2 . 1
2 1 0 b b b b
V V V V
° Z = + + = 120 9 . 0
2 1 0 c c c c
V V V V
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 25
4.2. REAL AND REACTI VE POWER
The threephase power in the original unbalanced system is given by

= + + = +
abc
T
abc c c b b a a abc abc
I V I V I V I V jQ P
* * *
(65)
where I

is the complex conjugate of the vector I. Now from (59) and (64) we get
  ÷ ÷
= +
012
1
012 a
T T
a abc abc
I C C V jQ P
(66)
Noting that
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
 ÷ ÷
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
3
1
C C
T
we can write (66) as
( )
  
+ + = +
2 2 1 1 0 0
3
a a a a a a abc abc
I V I V I V jQ P
(67)
Thus the complex power is three times the summation of the complex power of the three
phase sequences.
Example 6
Let us consider the voltages given in Example 5. Let us further assume that
these voltages are linetoneutral voltages and they supply a balanced Y
connected load whose per phase impedance is Z
Y
= 0.2 + j0.8 per unit. Then the
per unit currents in the three phases are
° ÷ Z = = 96 . 75 2127 . 1
Y
a
a
Z
V
I pu
° Z = = 04 . 174 4552 . 1
Y
b
b
Z
V
I pu
° Z = = 04 . 44 0914 . 1
Y
c
c
Z
V
I pu
Then the real and reactive power consumed by the load is given by
( ) ( )
pu 9559 . 0
96 . 75 cos 0914 . 1 9 . 0 4552 . 1 2 . 1 2127 . 1 0 . 1
=
° × × + × + × =
abc
P
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 26
Example 6
( ) ( )
pu 8235 . 3
96 . 75 sin 0914 . 1 9 . 0 4552 . 1 2 . 1 2127 . 1 0 . 1
=
° × × + × + × =
abc
Q
Now using the transformation (64) we get
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
° Z
° ÷ Z
° ÷ Z
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
÷
÷ ÷
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
75 . 71 1058 . 0
10 . 72 2486 . 1
12 . 144 1516 . 0
1005 . 0 0331 . 0
1881 . 1 3839 . 0
0889 . 0 1229 . 0
2
1
0
j
j
j
I
I
I
a
a
a
pu
From the results given in Example 5 and from the above values we can compute
the zero sequence complex power as
0552 . 0 0138 . 0 3
0 0 0 0
j I V jQ P
a a
+ = = +

pu
The positive sequence complex power is
7415 . 3 9354 . 0 3
1 1 1 1
j I V jQ P
a a
+ = = +

pu
Finally the negative sequence complex power is
0269 . 0 0067 . 0 3
2 2 2 2
j I V jQ P
a a
+ = = +

pu
Adding the three complex powers together we get the total complex power
consumed by the load as
( ) ( ) 8235 . 3 9559 . 0
2 1 0 2 1 0
j Q Q Q j P P P jQ P
abc abc
+ = + + + + + = + pu
4.3. ORTHOGONAL TRANSFORMATI ON
Instead of the transformation matrix given in (58), let us instead use the transformation
matrix
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
a a
a a C
2
2
1
1
1 1 1
3
1
(68)
The inverse of the above matrix is
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
÷
2
2 1
1
1
1 1 1
3
1
a a
a a C
(69)
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 27
Note from (68) and (69) that C
÷1
= (C
T
)

. We can therefore state C(C
T
)

= I
3
, where I
3
is (3×3)
identity matrix. Therefore the transformation matrices given in (68) and (69) are orthogonal.
Now since
( )
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
= =

 ÷ ÷
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
1
C C C C
T T
we can write from (66)
  
+ + = +
2 2 1 1 0 0 a a a a a a abc abc
I V I V I V jQ P
(70)
This implies that real and reactive powers are directly obtained by the polar multiplication
voltage and current of the symmetrical component voltage and conjugate of currents. The
factor 3 is absent using this transformation, unlike that given in (67).
We shall now discuss how different elements of a power system are represented in terms of their
sequence components. In fact we shall show that each element is represented by three equivalent
circuits, one for each symmetrical component sequence.
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 29
5. SEQUENCE CIRCUITS FOR LOADS
In this section we shall construct sequence circuits for both Y and Aconnected loads separately.
5.1. SEQUENCE CIRCUI T FOR A YCONNECTED LOAD
Consider the balanced Yconnected load that is shown in Fig. 11. The neutral point (n) of the windings
are grounded through an impedance Z
n
. The load in each phase is denoted by Z
Y
. Let us consider
phasea of the load. The voltage between line and ground is denoted by V
a
, the linetoneutral
voltage is denoted by V
an
and voltage between the neutral and ground is denoted by V
n
. The neutral
current is then
( ) ( )
0 2 2 2 1 1 1 0
3 3
a c b a c b a a
c b a n
I I I I I I I I
I I I I
= + + + + + + =
+ + =
(71)
Therefore there will not be any positive or negative sequence current flowing out of the neutral
point.
Fig. 11. Schematic diagram of a balanced Yconnected load.
The voltage drop between the neutral and ground is
0
3
a n n
I Z V =
(72)
Now
0
3
a n an n an a
I Z V V V V + = + =
(73)
We can write similar expression for the other two phases. We can therefore write
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
1
1
1
3
0 a n
c
b
a
Y
n
n
n
cn
bn
an
c
b
a
I Z
I
I
I
Z
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
(74)
Premultiplying both sides of the above equation by the matrix C and using (58) we get
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 30
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+ =
1
1
1
3
0 012 012
C I Z I Z V
a n a Y a
(75)
Now since
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
0
0
1
1
1
1
C
We get from (75)
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
0
0 3
0
2
1
0
2
1
0 a
n
a
a
a
Y
a
a
a
I
Z
I
I
I
Z
V
V
V
(76)
We then find that the zero, positive and negative sequence voltages only depend on their respective
sequence component currents. The sequence component equivalent circuits are shown in Fig. 12.
While the positive and negative sequence impedances are both equal to Z
Y
, the zero sequence
impedance is equal to
n Y
Z Z Z 3
0
+ =
(77)
If the neutral is grounded directly (i.e., Z
n
= 0), then Z
0
= Z
Y
. On the other hand, if the neutral is kept
floating (i.e., Z
n
= ·), then there will not be any zero sequence current flowing in the circuit at all.
Fig. 12. Sequence circuits of Yconnected load: (a) positive, (b) negative and (c) zero sequence.
5.2. SEQUENCE CIRCUI T FOR A ACONNECTED LOAD
Consider the balanced Aconnected load shown in Fig. 13 in which the load in each phase is denoted
by Z
A
. The linetoline voltages are given by
ca ca
bc bc
ab ab
I Z V
I Z V
I Z V
A
A
A
=
=
=
(78)
Adding these three voltages we get
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 31
( )
ca bc ab ca bc ab
I I I Z V V V + + = + +
A
(79)
Denoting the zero sequence component V
ab
, V
bc
and V
ca
as V
ab0
and that of I
ab
, I
bc
and I
ca
as I
ab0
we can
rewrite (79) as
0 0 ab ab
I Z V
A
=
(80)
Fig. 13. Schematic diagram of a balanced Aconnected load.
Again since
0 = ÷ + ÷ + ÷ = + +
a c c b b a ca bc ab
V V V V V V V V V
we find from (80) that V
ab0
= I
ab0
= 0. Hence a Aconnected load with no mutual coupling does not
have any zero sequence circulating current. Note that the positive and negative sequence impedance
for this load will be equal to Z
A
.
Example 7
Consider the circuit shown in Fig. 14 in which a Aconnected load is connected in
parallel with a Yconnected load. The neutral point of the Yconnected load is
grounded through an impedance. Applying Kirchoff’s current law at the point P in the
circuit we get
( )
Y
n
c b a
Y
Y
n a c a b a
a
Z
V
V V
Z
V
Z Z
Z
V V
Z
V V
Z
V V
I
÷ + ÷


.

\

+ =
÷
+
÷
+
÷
=
A A
A A
1 1 2
The above expression can be written in terms of the vector V
abc
as
 
Y
n
abc a
Y
a
Z
V
V
Z
V
Z Z
I ÷ ÷


.

\

+ =
A A
1 1 1
1 1 3
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 32
Example 7
Fig. 14. Parallel connection of balanced A and Yconnected loads.
Since the load is balanced we can write
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷


.

\

+ =
A A
1
1
1
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 3
Y
n
abc abc
Y
abc
Z
V
V
Z
V
Z Z
I
Premultiplying both sides of the above expression by the transformation matrix C we
get
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷


.

\

+ =
÷
A A
1
1
1
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 3
012
1
012 012
C
Z
V
V C C
Z
V
Z Z
I
Y
n
a a
Y
a
Now since
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 3
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1
1
C C
we get
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷ ÷


.

\

+ =
A A
0
0
1
3 1 3
0 012 012
Y
n
a a
Y
a
Z
V
V
Z
V
Z Z
I
Separating the three components, we can write from the above equation
1 1
1 3
a
Y
a
V
Z Z
I


.

\

+ =
A
2 2
1 3
a
Y
a
V
Z Z
I


.

\

+ =
A
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 33
Example 7
n
Y
a
Y
a
V
Z
V
Z
I
1 1
0 0
÷ =
Suppose now if we convert the Aconnected load into an equivalent Y, then the
composite load will be a parallel combination of two Yconnected circuits ÷ one with
an impedance of Z
Y
and the other with an impedance of Z
A
/3. Therefore the positive
and the negative sequence impedances are given by the parallel combination of these
two impedances. The positive and negative sequence impedance is then given by
3
3
A
A
+ Z Z
Z Z
Y
Y
Now refer to Fig. 14. The voltage V
n
is given by
( )
0
3
aY n cY bY aY n n
I Z I I I Z V = + + =
From Fig. 14 we can also write I
a
= I
aA
+ I
aY
. Therefore
cY bY aY bc ca ab bc ca ab
cY bY aY c b a c b a
I I I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I I
+ + + ÷ + ÷ + ÷ =
+ + + + + = + +
A A A A A A
A A A
This implies that I
a0
= I
aY0
and hence V
n
= 3Z
n
I
a0
. We can then rewrite the zero sequence
current expression as
n Y
a
a
Z Z
V
I
3
0
0
+
=
It can be seen that the Z
A
term is absent from the zero sequence impedance.
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 35
6. SEQUENCE CIRCUITS FOR SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR
The threephase equivalent circuit of a synchronous generator is shown in Fig. 15, where the neutral
point grounded through a reactor with impedance Z
n
. The neutral current is then given by
c b a n
I I I I + + =
(81)
Fig. 15. Equivalent circuit of a synchronous generator with grounded neutral.
The derivation of Section 1 assumes balanced operation which implies I
a
+ I
b
+ I
c
= 0. As per (81) this
assumption is not valid any more. Therefore with respect to this figure we can write for phasea
voltage as
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
an c b a s a s s
an c b s a s an
E I I I M j I M j L j R
E I I M j I L j R V
+ + + + + + ÷ =
+ + + + ÷ =
e e e
e e
(82)
Similar expressions can also be written for the other two phases. We therefore have
( )  
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+ + ÷ =
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
cn
bn
an
c
b
a
s
c
b
a
s s
cn
bn
an
E
E
E
I
I
I
M j
I
I
I
M L j R
V
V
V
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1
e e
(83)
Premultiplying both sides of (83) by the transformation matrix C we get
( )  
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+ + ÷ =
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
2
1
0
2
1
0
1
2
1
0
2
1
0
1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1
an
an
an
a
a
a
s
a
a
a
s s
an
an
an
E
E
E
I
I
I
C C M j
I
I
I
M L j R
V
V
V
e e
(84)
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 36
Since the synchronous generator is operated to supply only balanced voltages we can assume that
E
an0
= E
an2
= 0 and E
an1
= E
an
. We can therefore modify (84) as
( )  
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+ + ÷ =
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
0
0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 3
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
1
0
an
a
a
a
s
a
a
a
s s
an
an
an
E
I
I
I
M j
I
I
I
M L j R
V
V
V
e e
(85)
We can separate the terms of (85) as
( )  
0 0 0 0
2
a g a s s an
I Z I M L j R V ÷ = ÷ + ÷ = e
(86)
( )  
1 1 1 1 a an an a s s an
I Z E E I M L j R V ÷ = + + + ÷ = e
(87)
( )  
2 2 2 2 a a s s an
I Z I M L j R V ÷ = + + ÷ = e
(88)
Furthermore we have seen for a Yconnected load that V
a1
= V
an1
, V
a2
= V
an2
since the neutral current
does not affect these voltages. However V
a0
= V
an0
+ V
n
. Also we know that V
n
= ÷ 3Z
n
I
a0
. We
can therefore rewrite (86) as
( )
0 0 0 0 0
3
a a n g a
I Z I Z Z V ÷ = + ÷ =
(89)
The sequence diagrams for a synchronous generator are shown in Fig. 16.
Fig. 16. Sequence circuits of synchronous generator: (a) positive, (b) negative and (c) zero sequence.
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 37
7. SEQUENCE CIRCUITS FOR SYMMETRICAL TRANSMISSION LINE
The schematic diagram of a transmission line is shown in Fig. 17. In this diagram the self impedance of
the three phases are denoted by Z
aa
, Z
bb
and Z
cc
while that of the neutral wire is denoted by Z
nn
. Let us
assume that the self impedances of the conductors to be the same, i.e.,
cc bb aa
Z Z Z = =
Since the transmission line is assumed to be symmetric, we further assume that the mutual
inductances between the conductors are the same and so are the mutual inductances between the
conductors and the neutral, i.e.,
ca bc ab
Z Z Z = =
cn bn an
Z Z Z = =
The directions of the currents flowing through the lines are indicated in Fig. 17 and the voltages
between the different conductors are as indicated.
Fig. 17. Lumped parameter representation of a symmetrical transmission line.
Applying Kirchoff’s voltage law we get
n n n a a a n n n a a a an
V V V V V V V
' ' ' ' ' ' ' '
÷ + = + + =
(90)
Again
( )
n an c b ab a aa a a
I Z I I Z I Z V + + + =
'
(91)
( )
c b a an a nn n n
I I I Z I Z V + + + =
'
(92)
Substituting (91) and (02) in (90) we get
( ) ( )( ) ( )
n nn an c b an ab a an aa n a an
I Z Z I I Z Z I Z Z V V ÷ + + ÷ + ÷ = ÷
' '
(93)
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 38
Since the neutral provides a return path for the currents I
a
, I
b
and I
c
, we can write
( )
c b a n
I I I I + + ÷ =
(94)
Therefore substituting (94) in (93) we get the following equation for phasea of the circuit
( ) ( )( )
c b an nn ab a an nn aa n a an
I I Z Z Z I Z Z Z V V + ÷ + + ÷ + = ÷
' '
2 2
(95)
Denoting
an nn ab m an nn aa s
Z Z Z Z Z Z Z 2 Z and 2 ÷ + = ÷ + =
(7.46) can be rewritten as
( )
c b m a s n a an
I I Z I Z V V + + = ÷
' '
(96)
Since (96) does not explicitly include the neutral conductor we can define the voltage drop across the
phasea conductor as
n a an a a
V V V
' ' '
÷ =
(97)
Combining (96) and (97) we get
( )
c b m a s a a
I I Z I Z V + + =
'
(98)
Similar expression can also be written for the other two phases. We therefore get
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
'
'
'
c
b
a
s m m
m s m
m m s
c c
b b
a a
I
I
I
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
V
V
V
(99)
Premultiplying both sides of (99) by the transformation matrix C we get
012
1
012 a
s m m
m s m
m m s
a a
I C
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
C V
÷
'
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(100)
Now
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) (
(
(
¸
(
¸
+ + + + +
+ + + + +
÷ ÷ +
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
m s m s m s
m s m s m s
m s m s m s
s m m
m s m
m m s
s m m
m s m
m m s
Z a Z a Z a aZ Z Z
Z a aZ Z a Z a Z Z
Z Z Z Z Z Z
a a
a a
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
C
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
1 1 2
1 1 2
2
1
1
1 1 1
2 2
2 2
2
2 1
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 39
Hence
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷
+
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+ + + + +
+ + + + +
÷ ÷ +
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
m s
m s
m s
m s m s m s
m s m s m s
m s m s m s
s m m
m s m
m m s
Z Z
Z Z
Z Z
Z a Z a Z a aZ Z Z
Z a aZ Z a Z a Z Z
Z Z Z Z Z Z
a a
a a C
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
C
3 3 0 0
0 3 3 0
0 0 6 3
3
1
1 1 2
1 1 2
2
1
1
1 1 1
3
1
2 2
2 2
2
2 1
Therefore from (100) we get
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷
+
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
'
'
'
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
a
a
a
m s
m s
m s
a a
a a
a a
I
I
I
Z Z
Z Z
Z Z
V
V
V
(101)
The positive, negative and zero sequence equivalent circuits of the transmission line are shown in Fig.
18 where the sequence impedances are
ab aa m s
Z Z Z Z Z Z ÷ = ÷ = =
2 1
an nn ab aa m s
Z Z Z Z Z Z Z 6 3 2 2
0
÷ + + = + =
Fig. 18. Sequence circuits of symmetrical transmission line: (a) positive, (b) negative and (c) zero sequence.
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 41
8. SEQUENCE CIRCUITS FOR TRANSFORMERS
In this section we shall discuss the sequence circuits of transformers. As we have seen earlier that the
sequence circuits are different for Y and Aconnected loads, the sequence circuits are also different
for Y and A connected transformers. We shall therefore treat different transformer connections
separately.
8.1. YY CONNECTED TRANSFORMER
Fig. 19 shows the schematic diagram of a YY connected transformer in which both the neutrals are
grounded. The primary and secondary side quantities are denoted by subscripts in uppercase letters
and lowercase letters respectively. The turns ratio of the transformer is given by o = N
1
:N
2
.
The voltage of phasea of the primary side is
0
3
A N AN N AN A
I Z V V V V + = + =
Fig. 19. Schematic diagram of a grounded neutral YY connected transformer.
Expanding V
A
and V
AN
in terms of their positive, negative and zero sequence components, the above
equation can be rewritten as
0 2 1 0 2 1 0
3
A N AN AN AN A A A
I Z V V V V V V + + + = + +
(102)
Noting that the direction of the neutral current I
n
is opposite to that of I
N
, we can write an equation
similar to that of (102) for the secondary side as
0 2 1 0 2 1 0
3
a n an an an a a a
I Z V V V V V V ÷ + + = + +
(103)
Now since the turns ratio of the transformer is o = N
1
:N
2
we can write
o
o
AN
an
an
AN
V
V
V
V
N
N
= ¬ = =
2
1
A a a A
I I I N I N o = ¬ =
2 1
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 42
Substituting in (103) we get
( )
0 2 1 0 2 1 0
3
1
A n AN AN AN a a a
I Z V V V V V V o
o
÷ + + = + +
Multiplying both sides of the above equation by o results in
( )
0
2
2 1 0 2 1 0
3
A n AN AN AN a a a
I Z V V V V V V o o ÷ + + = + +
(104)
Finally combining (102) with (104) we get
( ) ( )
0
2
2 1 0 2 1 0
3
A n N A A A a a a
I Z Z V V V V V V o o + ÷ + + = + +
(105)
Separating out the positive, negative and zero sequence components we can write
1 1
2
1
1 A a a
V V
N
N
V = = o
(106)
2 2
2
1
2 A a a
V V
N
N
V = = o
(107)
( )  
0
2
2 1 0 0
2
1
0
3
A n N A a a
I Z N N Z V V
N
N
V + ÷ = = o
(108)
From (106) and (107) we see that the positive and negative sequence relations are the same as that
we have used for representing transformer circuits used in impedance diagram of Fig. 9. Hence the
positive and negative sequence impedances are the same as the transformer leakage impedance Z.
The zero sequence equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 20. The total zero sequence impedance is given
by
( )
n N
Z N N Z Z Z
2
2 1 0
3 3 + + =
(109)
Fig. 20. Zero sequence equivalent circuit of grounded neutral YY connected transformer.
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 43
The zero sequence diagram of the grounded neutral YY connected transformer is shown in Fig. 21 (a)
in which the impedance Z
0
is as given in (109). If both the neutrals are solidly grounded, i.e., Z
n
= Z
N
=
0, then Z
0
is equal to Z. The single line diagram is still the same as that shown in Fig. 21 (a). If however
one of the two neutrals or both neutrals are ungrounded, then we have either Z
n
= · or Z
N
= · or
both. The zero sequence diagram is then as shown in Fig. 21 (b) where the value of Z
0
will depend on
the neutral which is kept ungrounded.
Fig. 21. Zero sequence diagram of (a) grounded neutral and (b) ungrounded neutral YY connected transformer.
8.2 AA CONNECTED TRANSFORMER
The schematic diagram of a AA connected transformer is shown in Fig. 22. From this circuit we have
2 1 2 1 0 2 1 0 AB AB B B B A A A
B A AB
V V V V V V V V
V V V
+ = ÷ ÷ ÷ + + =
÷ =
(110)
Fig. 22. Schematic diagram of a AA connected transformer.
Again
ab ab AB
V V
N
N
V o = =
2
1
Therefore from (110) we get
( )
2 1 2 1 ab ab AB AB AB
V V V V V + = + = o
(111)
The sequence components of the linetoline voltage V
AB
can be written in terms of the sequence
components of the linetoneutral voltage as
° Z = 30 3
1 1 AN AB
V V
(112)
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 44
° ÷ Z = 30 3
2 2 AN AB
V V
(113)
Therefore combining (111)(113) we get
( ) ° ÷ Z + ° Z = ° ÷ Z + ° Z 30 3 30 3 30 3 30 3
2 1 2 1 an an AN AN
V V V V o
(114)
Hence we get
2 2 1 1
and
an AN an AN
V V V V o o = =
(115)
Thus the positive and negative sequence equivalent circuits are represented by a series impedance
that is equal to the leakage impedance of the transformer. Since the Aconnected winding does not
provide any path for the zero sequence current to flow we have
0
0 0
= =
a A
I I
However the zero sequence current can sometimes circulate within the A windings. We can then
draw the zero sequence equivalent circuit as shown in Fig. 23.
Fig. 23. Zero sequence diagram of AA connected transformer.
8.3 YA CONNECTED TRANSFORMER
The schematic diagram of a YA connected transformer is shown in Fig. 24. It is assumed that the Y
connected side is grounded with the impedance Z
N
. Even though the zero sequence current in the
primary Yconnected side has a path to the ground, the zero sequence current flowing in the A
connected secondary winding has no path to flow in the line. Hence we have I
a0
= 0. However the
circulating zero sequence current in the A winding magnetically balances the zero sequence current
of the primary winding.
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 45
Fig. 24. Schematic diagram of a YA connected transformer.
The voltage in phasea of both sides of the transformer is related by
ab ab AN
V V
N
N
V o = =
2
1
Also we know that
N AN A
V V V + =
We therefore have
( )
0 2 1 0
0 2 1 0 2 1 0
3
3
A N ab ab ab
A N AN AN AN A A A
I Z V V V
I Z V V V V V V
+ + + =
+ + + = + +
o
(116)
Separating zero, positive and negative sequence components we can write
0 3
0 0 0
= = ÷
ab A N A
V I Z V o
(117)
° Z = = 30 3
1 1 1 a ab A
V V V o o
(118)
° ÷ Z = = 30 3
2 2 2 a ab A
V V V o o
(119)
The positive sequence equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 25 (a). The negative sequence circuit is the
same as that of the positive sequence circuit except for the phase shift in the induced emf. This is
shown in Fig. 25 (b). The zero sequence equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 25 (c) where Z
0
= Z + 3Z
N
.
Note that the primary and the secondary sides are not connected and hence there is an open circuit
between them. However since the zero sequence current flows through primary windings, a return
path is provided through the ground. If however, the neutral in the primary side is not grounded, i.e.,
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 46
Z
N
= ·, then the zero sequence current cannot flow in the primary side as well. The sequence diagram
is then as shown in Fig. 25 (d) where Z
0
= Z.
Fig. 25. Sequence diagram of a YA connected transformer: (a) positive sequence, (b) negative sequence, (c) zero sequence
with grounded Yconnection and (d) zero sequence with ungrounded Yconnection.
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 47
9. SEQUENCE NETWORKS
The sequence circuits developed in the previous sections are combined to form the sequence
networks. The sequence networks for the positive, negative and zero sequences are formed
separately by combining the sequence circuits of all the individual elements. Certain assumptions are
made while forming the sequence networks. These are listed below.
 Apart from synchronous machines, the network is made of static elements.
 The voltage drop caused by the current in a particular sequence depends only on the impedance
of that part of the network.
 The positive and negative sequence impedances are equal for all static circuit components, while
the zero sequence component need not be the same as them. Furthermore subtransient positive
and negative sequence impedances of a synchronous machine are equal.
 Voltage sources are connected to the positive sequence circuits of the rotating machines.
 No positive or negative sequence current flows between neutral and ground.
Example 8
Let us consider the network shown in Fig 26. The values of the various reactances are
not important here and hence, are not given in this figure. However various points of
the circuit are denoted by the letters A to G. This has been done to identify the
impedances of various circuit elements. For example, the leakage reactance of the
transformer T
1
is placed between the points A and B and that of transformer T
2
is
placed between D and E.
Fig. 26. Singleline diagram of a 3machine power system.
The positive sequence network is shown in Fig. 27. The negative sequence diagram,
shown in Fig. 28, is almost identical to the positive sequence diagram except that the
voltage sources are absent in this circuit. The zero sequence network is shown in Fig.
29. The neutral point of generator G
1
is grounded. Hence a path from point A to the
ground is provided through the zero sequence reactance of the generator. The primary
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 48
Example 8
side of the transformer T
1
is Aconnected and hence there is discontinuity in the circuit
after point A. Similar connections are also made for generator G
2
and transformer T
2
.
The transmission line impedances are placed between the points B÷C, C÷D and C÷F.
The secondary side of transformer T
3
is ungrounded and hence there is a break in the
circuit after the point F. However the primary side of T
3
is grounded and so is the
neutral point of generator G
3
. Hence the zero sequence components of these two
apparatus are connected to the ground.
Fig.27. Positive sequence network of the power system of Fig. 26.
Fig. 28. Negative sequence network of the power system of Fig. 26.
Fig. 29. Zero sequence network of the power system of Fig. 26.
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 49
10. UNSYMMETRICAL FAULTS
The sequence circuits and the sequence networks developed in the previously will now be used for
finding out fault current during unsymmetrical faults. For the calculation of fault currents, we shall
make the following assumptions:
 The power system is balanced before the fault occurs such that of the three sequence networks
only the positive sequence network is active. Also as the fault occurs, the sequence networks are
connected only through the fault location.
 The fault current is negligible such that the prefault positive sequence voltages are same at all
nodes and at the fault location.
 All the network resistances and line charging capacitances are negligible.
 All loads are passive except the rotating loads which are represented by synchronous machines.
Based on the assumptions stated above, the faulted network will be as shown in Fig. 30 where the
voltage at the faulted point will be denoted by V
f
and current in the three faulted phases are I
fa
, I
fb
and I
fc
. We shall now discuss how the three sequence networks are connected when the three types
of faults discussed above occur.
Fig. 30. Representation of a faulted segment.
10. 1 SINGLELINETOGROUND FAULT
Let a 1LG fault has occurred at node k of a network. The faulted segment is then as shown in Fig. 31
where it is assumed that phasea has touched the ground through an impedance Z
f
. Since the system
is unloaded before the occurrence of the fault we have
Fig. 31. Representation of 1LG fault.
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 50
0 = =
fc fb
I I
(117)
Also the phasea voltage at the fault point is given by
fa f ka
I Z V =
(118)
From (117) we can write
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
0
0
1
1
1 1 1
3
1
2
2
012
fa
fa
I
a a
a a I
(119)
Solving (119) we get
3
2 1 0
fa
fa fa fa
I
I I I = = =
(120)
This implies that the three sequence currents are in series for the 1LG fault. Let us denote the zero,
positive and negative sequence Thevenin impedance at the faulted point as Z
kk0
, Z
kk1
and Z
kk2
respectively. Also since the Thevenin voltage at the faulted phase is V
f
we get three sequence circuits
that are similar to the ones shown in Fig. 16. We can then write
2 2 2
1 1 1
0 0 0
fa kk ka
fa kk f ka
fa kk ka
I Z V
I Z V V
I Z V
÷ =
÷ =
÷ =
(121)
Then from (120) and (121) we can write
( )
0 2 1 0
2 1 0
fa kk kk kk f
ka ka ka ka
I Z Z Z V
V V V V
+ + ÷ =
+ + =
(122)
Again since
( )
0 2 1 0
3
fa f fa fa fa f fa f ka
I Z I I I Z I Z V = + + = =
we get from (122)
f kk kk kk
f
fa
Z Z Z Z
V
I
3
2 1 0
0
+ + +
=
(123)
The Thevenin equivalent of the sequence network is shown in Fig. 32.
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 51
Fig. 32. Thevenin equivalent of a 1LG fault.
Example 9
A threephase Yconnected synchronous generator is running unloaded with rated
voltage when a 1LG fault occurs at its terminals. The generator is rated 20 kV, 220
MVA, with subsynchronous reactance of 0.2 per unit. Assume that the subtransient
mutual reactance between the windings is 0.025 per unit. The neutral of the generator
is grounded through a 0.05 per unit reactance. The equivalent circuit of the generator
is shown in Fig. 33. We have to find out the negative and zero sequence reactances.
Fig. 33. Unloaded generator of Example 9.
Since the generator is unloaded the internal emfs are
° Z = ° ÷ Z = = 120 0 . 1 120 0 . 1 0 . 1
cn bn an
E E E
Since no current flows in phases b and c, once the fault occurs, we have from Fig. 33
( )
0 . 4
05 . 0 2 . 0
1
j
j
I
fa
÷ =
+
=
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 52
Example 9
Then we also have
2 . 0 ÷ = ÷ =
fa n n
I X V
From Fig. 33 and (83) we get
° Z = + ÷ = + + =
° ÷ Z = ÷ ÷ = + + =
=
72 . 124 0536 . 1 866 . 0 6 . 0 025 . 0
72 . 124 0536 . 1 866 . 0 6 . 0 025 . 0
0
j I j V E V
j I j V E V
V
fa n cn c
fa n bn b
a
Therefore
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
° Z
° ÷ Z =
3 . 0
7 . 0
4 . 0
72 . 124 0536 . 1
72 . 124 0536 . 1
0
012
C V
a
From (87) we can write Z
1
= je(L
s
+ M
s
) = j0.225. Then from Fig. 16 we have
3333 . 1
225 . 0
7 . 0 1
1
1
1
j
j Z
V E
I
a an
fa
÷ =
÷
=
÷
=
Also note from (120) that
2 1 0 fa fa fa
I I I = =
Therefore from Fig. 16 we get
( ) 15 . 0 15 . 0 3 . 0 3
0
0
0
j j Z
I
V
Z
n
a
a
g
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
225 . 0
2
2
2
j
I
V
Z
a
a
= ÷ =
Comparing the above two values with (86) and (88) we find that Z
0
indeed is equal to
je(L
s
÷ 2M
s
) and Z
2
is equal to je(L
s
+ M
s
). Note that we can also calculate the fault
current from (123) as
( )
3333 . 1
05 . 0 3 15 . 0 225 . 0 225 . 0
1
0
j
j
I
fa
÷ =
× + + +
=
10. 2 LI NETOLINE FAULT
The faulted segment for an LL fault is shown in Fig. 34 where it is assumed that the fault has occurred
at node k of the network. In this the phases b and c got shorted through the impedance Z
f
. Since the
system is unloaded before the occurrence of the fault we have
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 53
0 =
fa
I
(124)
Also since phases b and c are shorted we have
fc fb
I I ÷ =
(125)
Therefore from (124) and (125) we have
( )
( )
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷ =
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
=
fb
fb
fb
fb fa
I a a
I a a
I
I C I
2
2
012
0
3
1
0
(126)
We can then summarize from (126)
2 1
0
0
fa fa
fa
I I
I
÷ =
=
(127)
Therefore no zero sequence current is injected into the network at bus k and hence the zero
sequence remains a dead network for an LL fault. The positive and negative sequence currents are
negative of each other.
Fig. 34. Representation of LL fault.
Now from Fig. 34 we get the following expression for the voltage at the faulted point
fb f kc kb
I Z V V = ÷
(128)
Again
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )( )
2 1
2
2
2
1
2
2 2 1 1
2 1 0 2 1 0
ka ka ka ka
kc kb kc kb
kc kc kc kb kb kb kc kb
V V a a V a a V a a
V V V V
V V V V V V V V
÷ ÷ = ÷ + ÷ =
÷ + ÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷ + + = ÷
(129)
Moreover since I
fa0
= I
fb0
= 0 and I
fa1
= ÷ I
fb2
, we can write
( )
1
2
2 1
2
2 1 fa fb fa fb fb fb
I a a aI I a I I I ÷ = + = + =
(130)
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 54
Therefore combining (128)(130) we get
1 2 1 fa f ka ka
I Z V V = ÷
(131)
Equations (128) and (131) indicate that the positive and negative sequence networks are in parallel.
The sequence network is then as shown in Fig. 35. From this network we get
f kk kk
f
fa fa
Z Z Z
V
I I
+ +
= ÷ =
2 1
2 1
(132)
Fig. 35. Thevenin equivalent of an LL fault.
Example 10
Let us consider the same generator as given in Example 9. Assume that the generator is
unloaded when a bolted (Z
f
= 0) short circuit occurs between phases b and c. Then we
get from (125) I
fb
= ÷ I
fc
. Also since the generator is unloaded, we have I
fa
= 0. Therefore
from (83) we get
0 . 1 = =
an an
E V
fb fb bn bn
I j I j E V 225 . 0 120 1 225 . 0 ÷ ° ÷ Z = ÷ =
fb fc cn cn
I j I j E V 225 . 0 120 1 225 . 0 + ° Z = ÷ =
Also since V
bn
= V
cn
, we can combine the above two equations to get
849 . 3
45 . 0
120 1 120 1
÷ =
° Z ÷ ° ÷ Z
= ÷ =
j
I I
fc fb
Then
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷ =
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷ =
2222 . 2
2222 . 2
0
849 . 3
849 . 3
0
012
j
j C I
fa
We can also obtain the above equation from (132) as
2222 . 2
225 . 0 225 . 0
1
2 1
j
j j
I I
fa fa
÷ =
+
= ÷ =
Also since the neutral current I
n
is zero, we can write V
a
= 1.0 and
5 . 0 ÷ = = =
bn c b
V V V
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 55
Example 10
Hence the sequence components of the line voltages are
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷ =
5 . 0
5 . 0
0
5 . 0
5 . 0
0 . 1
012
C V
a
Also note that
5 . 0 225 . 0 0 . 1
1 1
= ÷ =
fa a
I j V
5 . 0 225 . 0
2 2
= ÷ =
fa a
I j V
which are the same as obtained before.
10. 3 DOUBLELINETOGROUND FAULT
The faulted segment for a 2LG fault is shown in Fig. 36 where it is assumed that the fault has occurred
at node k of the network. In this the phases b and c got shorted through the impedance Z
f
to the
ground. Since the system is unloaded before the occurrence of the fault we have the same condition
as (124) for the phasea current. Therefore
( ) ( )
fc fb fa
fc fb fc fb fa fa
I I I
I I I I I I
+ = ¬
+ = + + =
0
0
3
3
1
3
1
(133)
Also the voltages of phases b and c are given by
( )
0
3
fa f c b f kc kb
I Z I I Z V V = + = =
(134)
Therefore
( )
( ) (
(
(
¸
(
¸
+ +
+ +
+
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
kb ka
kb ka
kb ka
kb
kb
ka
ka
V a a V
V a a V
V V
V
V
V
C V
2
2
012
2
3
1
(135)
We thus get the following two equations from (135)
2 1 ka ka
V V =
(136)
kb ka ka ka kb ka ka
V V V V V V V 2 2 3
2 1 0 0
+ + + = + =
(137)
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 56
Substituting (134) and (136) in (137) and rearranging we get
Fig. 36. Representation of 2LG fault.
0 0 2 1
3
fa f ka ka ka
I Z V V V ÷ = =
(138)
Also since I
fa
= 0 we have
0
2 1 0
= + +
fa fa fa
I I I
(139)
The Thevenin equivalent circuit for 2LG fault is shown in Fig. 37. From this figure we get
( ) ( )
f kk kk
f kk kk
kk
f
f kk
l
kk kk
f
fa
Z Z Z
Z Z Z
Z
V
Z Z Z Z
V
I
3
3 3
0 2
0 2
1
0 2 1
1
+ +
+
+
=
+ +
=
(140)
The zero and negative sequence currents can be obtained using the current divider principle as


.

\

+ +
÷ =
f kk kk
kk
fa fa
Z Z Z
Z
I I
3
0 2
2
1 0
(141)


.

\

+ +
+
÷ =
f kk kk
f kk
fa fa
Z Z Z
Z Z
I I
3
3
0 2
0
1 2
(142)
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 57
Fig. 37. Thevenin equivalent of a 2LG fault.
Example 11
Let us consider the same generator as given in Examples 9 and 10. Let us assume that
the generator is operating without any load when a bolted 2LG fault occurs in phases b
and c. The equivalent circuit for this fault is shown in Fig. 38. From this figure we can
write
fc fb n n bn
I j I j V V E 025 . 0 2 . 0 120 1 ÷ = + ° ÷ Z = +
fb fc n n cn
I j I j V V E 025 . 0 2 . 0 120 1 ÷ = + ° Z = +
( )
fc fb n
I I j V + ÷ = 05 . 0
Combining the above three equations we can write the following vectormatrix form
(
¸
(
¸
° Z
° ÷ Z
=
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
(
¸
120 1
120 1
25 . 0 025 . 0
025 . 0 25 . 0
fc
fb
I
I
j
Solving the above equation we get
8182 . 1 849 . 3
8182 . 1 849 . 3
j I
j I
c
b
+ =
+ ÷ =
Hence
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷ =
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+ ÷
+ ÷ =
6162 . 1
8283 . 2
2121 . 1
8182 . 1 849 . 3
8182 . 1 849 . 3
0
012
j
j
j
j
j C i
fa
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 58
Example 11
Fig. 38. Equivalent circuit of the generator in Fig. 8.4 for a 2LG fault in phases b and c.
Note that we can also obtain the above values using (140)(142). Note from Example 9
that
( ) 0 and 3 . 0 05 . 0 3 15 . 0 , 225 . 0
0 2 1
= = × + = = =
f
Z j j Z j Z Z
Then
8283 . 2
525 . 0
3 . 0 225 . 0
225 . 0
0 . 1
1
j
j
j j
j
I
fa
÷ =


.

\
 ×
+
=
6162 . 1
525 . 0
3 . 0
1 2
j
j
j
I I
fa fa
= ÷ =
2121 . 1
525 . 0
225 . 0
1 0
j
j
j
I I
fa fa
= ÷ =
Now the sequence components of the voltages are
3636 . 0 225 . 0 0 . 1
1 1
= × ÷ =
fa a
I j V
3636 . 0 225 . 0
2 2
= × ÷ =
fa a
I j V
3636 . 0 3 . 0
0 0
= × ÷ =
fa a
I j V
Also note from Fig. 38 that
( ) 0909 . 1 0225 . 0 = + + + =
fc fb n an a
I I j V E V
and V
b
= V
c
= 0. Therefore
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 59
Example 11
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
3636 . 0
3636 . 0
3636 . 0
0
0
0909 . 1
012
C V
a
which are the same as obtained before.
10. 4 FAULT CURRENT COMPUTATION USING SEQUENCE NETWORKS
In this section we shall demonstrate the use of sequence networks in the calculation of fault currents
using sequence network through some examples.
Example 12
Consider the network shown in Fig. 39. The system parameters are given below:
Generator G: 50 MVA, 20 kV, X'' = X
1
= X
2
= 20%, X
0
= 7.5%
Motor M: 40 MVA, 20 kV, X'' = X
1
= X
2
= 20%, X
0
= 10%, X
n
= 5%
Transformer T
1
: 50 MVA, 20 kVA/110 kVY, X = 10%
Transformer T
2
: 50 MVA, 20 kVA/110 kVY, X = 10%
Transmission line: X
1
= X
2
= 24.2 O, X
0
= 60.5 O
We shall find the fault current for when a (a) 1LG, (b) LL and (c) 2LG fault occurs at bus
2.
Fig. 39. Radial power system of Example 12.
Let us choose a base in the circuit of the generator. Then the per unit impedances of
the generator are:
075 . 0 , 2 . 0
0 2 1
= = =
G G G
X X X
The per unit impedances of the two transformers are
1 . 0
2 1
= =
T T
X X
The MVA base of the motor is 40, while the base MVA of the total circuit is 50.
Therefore the per unit impedances of the motor are
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 60
Example 12
0625 . 0
40
50
05 . 0 , 125 . 0
40
50
1 . 0 , 25 . 0
40
50
2 . 0
0 2 1
= × = = × = = × = =
n M M M
X X X X
For the transmission line
O = = 242
50
110
2
base
Z
Therefore
25 . 0
242
5 . 60
, 1 . 0
242
2 . 24
0 2 1
= = = = =
L L L
X X X
Let us neglect the phase shift associated with the Y/A transformers. Then the positive,
negative and zero sequence networks are as shown in Figs. 4042.
Fig. 40. Positive sequence network of the power system of Fig. 39.
Fig. 41. Negative sequence network of the power system of Fig. 39.
Fig. 42. Zero sequence network of the power system of Fig. 39.
From Figs. 40 and 41 we get the following Y
bus
matrix for both positive and negative
sequences
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 61
Example 12
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷
÷
= =
14 10 0 0
10 20 10 0
0 10 20 10
0 0 10 15
2 1
j Y Y
bus bus
Inverting the above matrix we get the following Z
bus
matrix
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
= =
1667 . 0 1333 . 0 1000 . 0 0667 . 0
1333 . 0 1867 . 0 1400 . 0 0933 . 0
1000 . 0 1400 . 0 1800 . 0 1200 . 0
0667 . 0 0933 . 0 1200 . 0 1467 . 0
2 1
j Z Z
bus bus
Again from Fig. 42 we get the following Y
bus
matrix for the zero sequence
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷
÷
÷
=
2 . 3 0 0 0
0 14 4 0
0 4 14 0
0 0 0 3333 . 13
0
j Y
bus
Inverting the above matrix we get
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
3125 . 0 0 0 0
0 0778 . 0 0222 . 0 0
0 0222 . 0 0778 . 0 0
0 0 0 075 . 0
0
j Z
bus
Hence for a fault in bus2, we have the following Thevenin impedances
0778 . 0 , 18 . 0
0 2 1
j Z j Z Z = = =
Alternatively we find from Figs. 40 and 42 that
18 . 0 45 . 0 3 . 0
2 1
j j j Z Z
l
= = =
0778 . 0 35 . 0 1 . 0
0
j j j Z
l
= =
(a) SingleLinetoGround Fault: Let a bolted 1LG fault occurs at bus2 when the system
is unloaded with bus voltages being 1.0 per unit. Then from (123) we get
( )
2841 . 2
0778 . 0 18 . 0 2
1
2 1 0
j
j
I I I
fa fa fa
÷ =
+ ×
= = = per unit
Also from (120) we get
8524 . 6 3
0
j I I
fa fa
÷ = = per unit
Furthermore I
fb
= I
fc
= 0. From (121) we get the sequence components of the voltages
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 62
Example 12
as
4111 . 0 18 . 0
5889 . 0 18 . 0 1
1777 . 0 0778 . 0
2 2 2
1 1 2
0 0 2
÷ = ÷ =
= ÷ =
÷ = ÷ =
fa a
fa a
fa a
I j V
I j V
I j V
Therefore the voltages at the faulted bus are
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
° Z
° ÷ Z =
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
11 . 107 9061 . 0
11 . 107 9061 . 0
0
2 2
1 2
0 2
1
a
a
a
c
b
a
V
V
V
C
V
V
V
(b) LinetoLine Fault: For a bolted LL fault, we can write from (132)
7778 . 2
18 . 0 2
1
2 1
j
j
I I
fa fa
÷ =
×
= ÷ = per unit
Then the fault currents are
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷ =
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
8113 . 4
8113 . 4
0 0
2
1
1
fa
fa
fc
fb
fa
I
I C
I
I
I
Finally the sequence components of bus2 voltages are
5 . 0 18 . 0
5 . 0 18 . 0 1
0
2 2 2
1 1 2
0 2
= ÷ =
= ÷ =
=
fa a
fa a
a
I j V
I j V
V
Hence faulted bus voltages are
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷ =
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
5 . 0
5 . 0
0 . 1
2 2
1 2
0 2
1
a
a
a
c
b
a
V
V
V
C
V
V
V
(c)DoubleLinetoGround Fault: Let us assumes that a bolted 2LG fault occurs at bus2.
Then
0543 . 0 0778 . 0 18 . 0 j j j Z
l
eq
= =
Thus from (140) we get the positive sequence current as
2676 . 4
18 . 0
1
1
j
Z j
I
eq
fa
÷ =
+
= per unit
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 63
Example 12
The zero and negative sequence currents are then computed from (141) and (142) as
( )
9797 . 2
0778 . 0 18 . 0
18 . 0
1 0
j
j
j
I I
fa fa
=
+
÷ = per unit
( )
2879 . 1
0778 . 0 18 . 0
0778 . 0
1 2
j
j
j
I I
fa fa
=
+
÷ = per unit
Therefore the fault currents flowing in the line are
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
° Z
° Z =
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
89 . 42 657 . 6
11 . 137 657 . 6
0
2
1
0
1
fa
fa
fa
fc
fb
fa
I
I
I
C
I
I
I
Furthermore the sequence components of bus2 voltages are
2318 . 0 18 . 0
2318 . 0 18 . 0 1
2318 . 0 0778 . 0
2 2 2
1 1 2
0 0 2
= ÷ =
= ÷ =
= ÷ =
fa a
fa a
fa a
I j V
I j V
I j V
Therefore voltages at the faulted bus are
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
0
0
6954 . 0
2 2
1 2
0 2
1
a
a
a
c
b
a
V
V
V
C
V
V
V
Example 13
Let us now assume that a 2LG fault has occurred in bus4 of the system of Example 12
instead of the one in bus2. Therefore
3125 . 0 , 1667 . 0
0 2 1
j X j X X = = =
Also we have
1087 . 0 3125 . 0 1667 . 0 j j j Z
l
eq
= =
Hence
631 . 3
1667 . 0
1
1
j
Z j
I
eq
fa
÷ =
+
= per unit
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 64
Example 13
Moreover
( )
2631 . 1
3125 . 0 1667 . 0
1667 . 0
1 0
j
j
j
I I
fa fa
=
+
÷ = per unit
( )
3678 . 2
3125 . 0 1667 . 0
3125 . 0
1 2
j
j
j
I I
fa fa
=
+
÷ = per unit
Therefore the fault currents flowing in the line are
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
° Z
° Z =
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
04 . 20 5298 . 5
96 . 159 5298 . 5
0
2
1
0
1
fa
fa
fa
fc
fb
fa
I
I
I
C
I
I
I
We shall now compute the currents contributed by the generator and the motor to the
fault. Let us denoted the current flowing to the fault from the generator side by I
g
,
while that flowing from the motor by I
m
. Then from Fig. 40 using the current divider
principle, the positive sequence currents contributed by the two buses are
2103 . 1
75 . 0
25 . 0
1 1
j
j
j
I I
fa ga
÷ = × = per unit
4206 . 2
75 . 0
5 . 0
1 1
j
j
j
I I
fa ma
÷ = × = per unit
Similarly from Fig. 41, the negative sequence currents are given as
7893 . 0
75 . 0
25 . 0
2 2
j
j
j
I I
fa ga
= × = per unit
5786 . 1
75 . 0
5 . 0
2 2
j
j
j
I I
fa ma
= × = per unit
Finally notice from Fig. 42 that the zero sequence current flowing from the generator
to the fault is 0. Then we have
0
0
=
ga
I
2631 . 1
0
j I
ma
= per unit
Therefore the fault currents flowing from the generator side are
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
° Z
° Z
° ÷ Z
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
93 . 6 7445 . 1
07 . 173 7445 . 1
90 4210 . 0
2
1
0
1
ga
ga
ga
gc
gb
ga
I
I
I
C
I
I
I
and those flowing from the motor are
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 65
Example 13
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
° Z
° Z
° Z
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
93 . 25 8512 . 3
07 . 154 8512 . 3
90 4210 . 0
2
1
0
1
ma
ma
ma
mc
mb
ma
I
I
I
C
I
I
I
It can be easily verified that adding I
g
and I
m
we get I
f
given above.
In the above two examples we have neglected the phase shifts of the Y/A transformers. However
according to the American standard, the positive sequence components of the high tension side lead
those of the low tension side by 30°, while the negative sequence behavior is reverse of the positive
sequence behavior. Usually the high tension side of a Y/A transformer is Yconnected. Therefore as
we have seen in Fig. 25, the positive sequence component of Y side leads the positive sequence
component of the A side by 30° while the negative sequence component of Y side lags that of the A
side by 30°. We shall now use this principle to compute the fault current for an unsymmetrical fault.
Example 14
Let us consider the same system as given in Example 12. Since the phase shift does not
alter the zero sequence, the circuit of Fig. 42 remains unchanged. The positive and the
negative sequence circuits must however include the respective phase shifts. These
circuits are redrawn as shown in Figs. 43 and 44.
Note from Figs. 43 and 44 that we have dropped the \3o visàvis that of Fig. 25. This is
because the per unit impedances remain unchanged when referred to the either high
tension or low tension side of an ideal transformer. Therefore the per unit impedances
will also not be altered.
Fig. 43. Positive sequence network of the power system of Fig. 39 including transformer phase shift.
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 66
Example 14
Fig. 44. Negative sequence network of the power system of Fig. 39 including transformer phase shift.
Since the zero sequence remains unaltered, these currents will not change from those
computed in Example 12. Thus
0
0
=
ga
I and 2631 . 1
0
j I
ma
= per unit
Now the positive sequence fault current from the generator I
ga1
, being on the Yside of
the Y/A transformer will lead I
ma1
by 30°. Therefore
° ÷ Z = ° Z × ÷ = 60 2103 . 1 30 1 2103 . 1
1
j I
ga
per unit
4206 . 2
1
j I
ma
÷ = per unit
Finally the negative sequence current I
ga2
will lag I
ma2
by 30°. Hence we have
° Z = ° ÷ Z × = 60 7893 . 0 30 1 7893 . 0
2
j j I
ga
per unit
5786 . 1
2
j I
ma
= per unit
Therefore
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
° Z
° ÷ Z
° ÷ Z
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
04 . 20 0642 . 1
180 9996 . 1
04 . 20 0642 . 1
2
1
0
1
ga
ga
ga
gc
gb
ga
I
I
I
C
I
I
I
Also the fault currents flowing from the motor remain unaltered. Also note that the
currents flowing into the fault remain unchanged. This implies that the phase shift of
the Y/A transformers does not affect the fault currents.
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 67
Example 15
Let us consider the same power system as shown in Fig. 26, the sequence diagrams of
which are given in Figs. 27 to 29. With respect to Fig. 26, let us define the system
parameters as:
Generator G
1
: 200 MVA, 20 kV, Xª = 20%, X
0
= 10%
Generator G
2
: 300 MVA, 18 kV, Xª = 20%, X
0
= 10%
Generator G
3
: 300 MVA, 20 kV, Xª = 25%, X
0
= 15%
Transformer T
1
: 300 MVA, 220Y/22 kV, X = 10%
Transformer T
2
: Three singlephase units each rated 100 MVA, 130Y/25 kV, X
= 10%
Transformer T
3
: 300 MVA, 220/22 kV, X = 10%
Line BC: X
1
= X
2
= 75 O, X
0
= 100 O
Line CD: X
1
= X
2
= 75 O, X
0
= 100 O
Line CF: X
1
= X
2
= 50 O, X
0
= 75 O
Let us choose the circuit of Generator 3 as the base, the base MVA for the circuit is
300. The per unit reactances are then computed as shown below.
Generator G
1
: 3 . 0
200
300
2 . 0 = × = ' ' X , X
0
= 0.15
Generator G
2
: 1312 . 0
22 . 22
18
2 . 0
2
=

.

\

× = ' ' X , X
0
= 0.0656
Generator G
3
: 2 . 0 = ' ' X , X
0
= 0.15
Transformer T
1
: 121 . 0
200
220
1 . 0
2
=

.

\

× = X
Transformer T
2
: 1266 . 0
22 . 22
25
1 . 0
2
=

.

\

× = X
Transformer T
3
: 121 . 0
20
22
1 . 0
2
=

.

\

× = X
Line BC: 5625 . 0
33 . 133
75
2 1
= = = X X , 75 . 0
33 . 133
100
0
= = X
Line CD: 5625 . 0
33 . 133
75
2 1
= = = X X , 75 . 0
33 . 133
100
0
= = X
Line CF: 375 . 0
33 . 133
50
2 1
= = = X X , 5625 . 0
33 . 133
75
0
= = X
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 68
Example 15
Neglecting the phase shifts of Y/A connected transformers and assuming that the
system is unloaded, we shall find the fault current for a 1LG fault at bus1 (point C of
Fig. 26).
From Figs. 27 and 28, we can obtain the positive and negative sequence Thevenin
impedance at point C as (verify)
X
1
= X
2
= j0.2723 per unit
Similarly from Fig. 29, the Thevenin equivalent of the zero sequence impedance is
X
0
= j0.4369 per unit
Therefore from (123) we get
( )
0188 . 1
4369 . 0 2723 . 0 2
1
0
j
j
I
fa
÷ =
+ ×
= per unit
Then the fault current is I
fa
= 3I
fa0
= 3.0565 per unit.
CONCLUSIONS
In this module, the fundamentals of fault calculations are discussed. Throughout the course phasor
techniques are employed for fault calculation assuming that a power system is in its sinusoidal steady
state. This implies that if a fault is allowed to persist, the calculated fault currents will flow to the fault
and the various parts of the network. However, before that can happen, the fault will be interrupted
by protective devices. The rms currents, assuming that a fault is allowed to persist, gives us an
indication of what the maximum current that can flow in that part of the circuit. The instantaneous
current can be anywhere between 1.0 to 1.8 times the calculated phasor current. This gives an
indication of what the rating of the circuit breaker that will withstand this current be. We can also
determine the conductor sizes based on this calculations. Furthermore, the fault current levels are
used for coordination of overcurrent relays in power distribution systems. Thus we find that the
application of fault studies is numerous. Moreover, the symmetrical component analysis presented in
this module can be used to analyze any unbalanced circuit.
REFERENCES
For further reading
[1] J. D. Glover and M. S. Sarma, Power System Analysis and Design, 5
th
Ed., Cengage Learning,
Stamford, CT, 2012.
[2] J. J. Grainger and W. D. Stevenson, Power Stem Analysis, McGrawHill, New York, 1994.
COURSE NOTES: FAULT CALCULATIONS IN POWER SYSTEMS Ghosh, A.
2010 UGSP7_Fault Calculations_Course Notes_Final 2010 69
[3] D. P. Kothari and I. J. Nagrath, Modern Power Systems Analysis, McGrawHill, Boston, 2008.