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Amendments to US Constitution

Amdt Ratified 1. 2. 3. 1791 1791 1791 Provision Freedom of speech, press, assembly, religion and right to petition Right to keep and bear arms as part of a “well-regulated Militia” Prohibits quartering of soldiers during peacetime (During wartime – as prescribed by law) Prohibits “unreasonable searches and seizures” without warrants  Protects against double jeopardy or self-incrimination  Forbids trial for major crimes without indictment by Grand Jury  Prohibits deprivation of life, liberty, or property without “due process of law”  Guarantees “just compensation” for private property taken for public use (eminent domain)     Right to a speedy and public trial Right to a trial by a jury in criminal cases Right to be informed of nature of accusation Right to confront witnesses against him and to secure witnesses in his favor  Right to have defense in trial Right to trial by jury in civil cases (> $20) Prohibits excessive bails, fines, and “cruel or unusual punishments” Other rights, not listed in Constitution, are “retained by people” and protected Powers not delegated to US government are reserved to states or people Citizens of a state or foreign country may not take another state to court  Separate ballots to elect President and Vice President  If no one gets the plurality of votes - House elects President by ballot (from 3 top persons) - Senate elects Vice President by ballot (from 2 top persons)  Qualifications for Vice President are the same as for President  Abolishes slavery  Congress has power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation  Defines citizenship (all people born or naturalized are citizens of US and the state where they reside)  Forbids states deny citizens their rights without “due process of law” US or states can’t deprive citizens of suffrage because of race, color, or pervious condition of servitude. ≈ Time for Ratification 2 years 2 years 2 years

4. 5.

1791 1791

2 years 2 years

6.

1791

2 years

7. 8. 9.

1791 1791 1791

2 years 2 years 2 years

10. 11. 12.

1791 1798 1804

2 years 11 months 6 months

13.

1865

10 months

14.

1868

2 years

15.

1870

11 months

5 months 4 years 9 months 24.5 years 10 months 13 months 14 months 11 months 21. 1967 1. 23. 19. 20. 18.5 years 26. 1933 1951 1961 9. 27.5 years 25.16. but not in congressional Voting rights can’t be restricted by US or any state by poll tax or other tax (true for federal elections only)   Vice President becomes President if Presidents can’t carry out his duties President nominated Vice President 3. 1964 1. 17. 22. 1913 1913 1919 1920 1933 Permits a federal income tax without apportionment among the states Provides for direct elections of Senators Prohibits making or selling liquor Women have right to vote  New President and Vice President take office on 20 January at noon (before March 4)  New Senators and Representatives take office on 3 January at noon  Eliminates “lame duck” sessions (Congressmen lost elections shall not stay in office till March of the following year) Repeals 18th amendment (14 years of “dry law”) President may serve only 2 terms (10 years at most) Citizens of Washington. 1971 1992 Provides citizens 18 years or older right to vote Congressional pay raises can’t take effect until after an election 3 months 203 years . DC may vote in presidential elections.