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Powers of Congress

(Article I, section 8) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Taxing Borrowing Regulation of Commerce Naturalization and Bankruptcy Money and Standards Punishing Counterfeiters Roads and Post Offices Patents and Copyright Lower Courts to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises to borrow money through selling US treasury bonds to regulate interstate and foreign trade to establish rules of naturalization and laws of bankruptcy to coin money, to regulate its value, to set standard weights and measures (of time, distance) to punish those who copy US money ($5,000 fine and 15-year imprisonment) to establish post offices and roads (highways, railways, waterways, airways) to secure exclusive right of authors and inventors (copyright is valid for author’s life + 70 years, inventions are protected for 14-20 years) to set up all federal courts and decide what cases they will hear to define and punish piracies and felonies on the high seas, to punish violations of international law to declare war to raise and support Army, to appropriate money for its support only for 2-year intervals to provide and maintain a Navy (and an Air Force – 1947) to set the rules for the military (Uniform Code of Military Justice – 1950) to call the National Guard into federal service (President can do it too) to organize, arm, and discipline the National Guard according to the same rules, which are set for the regular armed services to exercise exclusive legislation over DC (10 m2, now 69 m2) and over other federal forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards etc. to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing power, and all other powers vested in US government

10 Punishment for Piracy . 11 Declaration of War . 12 The Army . 13 Creation of a Navy . 14 Regulation of Armed Forces . 15 The Militia (the National . Guard) 16 How the Militia is Organized . 17 Creation of the District of . Columbia 18 The Elastic Clause .

. 3. 2. section 9) 1. no ex post facto law not to take Capitation (a tax on person). 8. it couldn’t levy a tax on slaves per person (16th amdt – 1913) not to lay taxes on goods exported from the country or a state (but it can tax imports) not to give preferences to any states or ports in terms of commerce not to take money from the Treasury without authorized appropriations (periodical publishing of public money expenditures) not to grant titles of nobility. 4. Duties and Imposts War . 5.C. Slavery Habeas Corpus Special Bills Direct Taxes Export Taxes Interstate Commerce Treasury Withdrawals Titles of Nobility not to prohibit importation of slaves (“such Persons”) till 1808. except in cases of rebellion or invasion not to pass a Bill of Attainder (punishment without a trial). 6. section 10) 1. Treaties and Coinage not to enter into any treaty. 3. but may tax such importations ($10 each) not to suspend the privilege of the Writ of H.Powers Denied to Congress (Article I. Officials can’t get money form foreign governments Powers Denied to the States (Article I. 7. alliance or confederation not to coin money not to issue Bills of Credit not to pass a Bill of Attainder not to pass ex post facto laws not to grant titles of nobility not to lay any taxes on imports or exports (except inspection laws) not to lay duty of tonnage (tax on ships) not to keep troops or warships during peacetime not to make a compact with another state or foreign nation not to engage in war 2.