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APPENDIX B
Answer Key
Answers to Collaborative Questions can be found on the website.
determine if the control and experimental groups are likely to be different from each other because of the single variable that is different between the two groups. This provides an objective way to accept or reject a hypothesis.

Chapter 1
Concept Checks
Figure 1.4 It benefits humans in many different ways. Discoveries in biology are important in the fields of medicine, research, agriculture, biotechnology, and many other disciplines. Most of the medicines we take were developed by biologists. Figure 1.6 It would be at the population level. Figure 1.8 In monkeys, the tail has been modified to grasp onto things, such as tree branches. In skunks, the tail is modified with a bright stripe; the tail can stick up and act as a warning signal to potential predators. In cattle, the tail has long hairs and is used to swat insects. Many more examples are possible. Figure 1.9 Natural selection is the process that causes evolution to happen. Figure 1.11 A tree of life suggests that all living organisms evolved from a single ancestor by vertical evolution with mutation. A web of life assumes that both vertical evolution with mutation and horizontal gene transfer were important mechanisms in the evolution of new species. Figure 1.13 Taxonomy helps us to appreciate the unity and diversity of life. Organisms that are closely related evolutionarily are placed in smaller groups. Figure 1.14 The genome stores the information to make an organism’s proteins. In and of itself, the genome is merely DNA. The traits of cells and organisms are largely determined by the structures and functions of the hundreds or thousands of different proteins they make. Figure 1.17 Discovery-based science does not require a preconceived hypothesis in order to carry out an experiment. Figure 1.18 A researcher can compare the results in the experimental group and control group to determine if a single variable is causing a particular outcome in the experimental group. Figure 1.19 After the CF gene was identified by discovery-based science, researchers realized that the CF gene was similar to other genes that encoded proteins that were already known to be transporters. This provided an important clue that the CF gene also encodes a transporter protein.

Test Yourself
1. d 2. a 3. c 4. c 5. d 6. b 7. d 8. d 9. a 10. b

Conceptual Questions
1. Cells and organization—All living organisms consist of cells; organisms maintain an internal order that is separated from the environment. • Energy use and metabolism—All living organisms acquire energy from the environment and use that energy to maintain their internal order. An organism’s chemical reactions are collectively known as metabolism. • Response to environmental changes—Living organisms respond to environmental changes. These responses are adaptations. • Regulation and homeostasis—Living organisms maintain relatively stable internal conditions, homeostasis. • Growth and development—Growth produces more or larger cells; development produces organisms with a defined set of characteristics. • Reproduction—To sustain life, organisms must produce others like themselves; the genetic material maintains continuity over the generations. • Biological evolution—Populations of organisms change over the course of many generations. 2. The unity among different species occurs because modern species have evolved from a group of related ancestors. Some of the traits in those ancestors are also found in modern species and thereby unites them. The diversity is due to the variety of environments on the Earth. Each species has evolved to occupy its own unique environment. For every species, many traits are evolutionary adaptations to survival in a specific environment. For this reason, evolution also promotes diversity. 3. Domains and kingdoms are very diverse, being composed of hundreds of thousands or even millions of different species. The least-diverse groups are genera and species. A species is composed of just one type of organism, and a genus is typically composed of several or several dozen different species, though some genera are quite large.

APPENDIX B

Feature Investigation Questions
1. In discovery-based science, a researcher does not need to have a preconceived hypothesis. Experimentation is conducted in the hope that it may have practical applications or may provide new information that will lead to a hypothesis. By comparison, hypothesis testing occurs when a researcher forms a hypothesis that makes certain predictions. Experiments are conducted to see if those predictions are correct. In this way, the hypothesis may be accepted or rejected. 2. This strategy may be described as a five-stage process: 1. Observations are made regarding natural phenomena. 2. These observations lead to a hypothesis that tries to explain the phenomena. A useful hypothesis is one that is testable because it makes specific predictions. 3. Experimentation is conducted to determine if the predictions are correct. 4. The data from the experiment are analyzed. 5. The hypothesis is accepted or rejected. 3. In an ideal experiment, the control and experimental groups differ by only one factor. Biologists apply statistical analyses to their data to

Chapter 2
Concept Checks
Figure 2.4 An energy shell is a region outside the nucleus of an atom occupied by electrons of a given energy level. More than one orbital can be found within an electron shell. An orbital may be spherical or dumbbell-shaped and contains up to two electrons. Figure 2.9 The octet rule states that atoms are stable when they have eight electrons in their outermost shell. Oxygen has six electrons in its outer shell. When two oxygen atoms share two pairs of electrons, each atom has eight electrons in its outer shell, at least part of the time. Figure 2.11 Strand separation requires energy, because the DNA strands are held together by a large number of hydrogen bonds. Although each hydrogen bond is weak, collectively the vast number of such bonds in a molecule of DNA adds up to a considerable strength. Figure 2.17 The oil would be in the center of the soap micelles. Figure 2.19 Due to the colligative properties of water, the solutes in blood lower its freezing point. Human blood, for example, freezes at a temperature that is about half a degree Celsius lower than that of pure water.

A-2

Anfinsen was testing the hypothesis that the information necessary for determining the three-dimensional shape of a protein is contained within the protein itself. Others assumed that protein folding was determined somehow by the ribosome. Many scientists assumed that protein folding was directed by some cellular factor. Figure 4. e 8. b Conceptual Questions 1. gene expression 3. 2. the phospholipids would form a layer at the interface between the water and oil. 2. 98%. structure.24 Yes. Enantiomers have different spatial relationships that are mirror images of each other.19 If the primary structure of Protein 1 were altered in some way. Within limits. alpha particles. The opposite strand must be the mirror image of the first strand. Chapter 3 Concept Checks Figure 3. Hydrophilic: “Water-loving”—generally.1 You would use transmission electron microscopy.mpo PDF Merge and Split Unregistered Version . one isomer of a pair may have biological functions. Both substances essentially allow the polypeptide chain to unfold. 2. in which a molecule of water is added to the molecule being broken down. b 5. 3. The strong attraction between two oppositely charged atoms forms an ionic bond. Fats containing saturated fatty acids have a higher melting point than those containing mostly unsaturated fatty acids. b 3. should be deflected as they pass through the foil. Scientists were aware that atoms contained charged particles. Instead of detecting slight deflection of most alpha particles as they passed through the gold foil. contraction d. For instance. defense.http://www. b Conceptual Questions 1. resulting in a kink in the structure. Rutherford suggested that since most of the alpha particles passed unimpeded through the gold foil.3 The primary advantage is that it gives an image of the 3-D surface of a material. most likely alter the secondary and tertiary structures of Protein 1. when he reacted ammonia and cyanic acid and got a compound that formed crystals.11 Hydrogenation is adding hydrogens to double-bonded carbon atoms. Test Yourself 1. Therefore. and G and C.7 Recall from Figure 3. The other methods do not have good enough resolution. Rutherford also proposed that the bouncing back of some of the alpha particles indicated that most of the positively charged particles were concentrated in a compact area. Anfinsen discovered that the protein refolded into its proper three-dimensional shape and became functional again. changing them from unsaturated to saturated. and the other may not. bonds within molecules can rotate and thereby change the shape of a molecule. e 4. in turn. c 9. it is possible that the precise fit between Proteins 1 and 2 would be lost and that the two proteins would lose the ability to interact. Figure 3. 3. Rutherford was testing the hypothesis that atoms are composed of positive charges evenly distributed throughout the atom. Figure 3. most of the volume of atoms is empty space. c 6. Covalent bonds are bonds in which atoms share electrons. if [H ] oil. this would. This causes them to be solid at room temperature. The urea disrupts hydrogen bonds and ionic interactions that are necessary for protein folding. pH 8. As seen in this figure. of the alpha particles passed directly through the gold foil without deflection. and unsaturated fatty acids are usually liquids at room temperature. This is important because it is the shape of a molecule that determines. b 3. A much smaller percentage either deflected or bounced back from the gold foil. b 2. b 8. consequently. they are quite distinctive looking. Feature Investigation Questions 1. whereas unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double (CwC) bonds. saturated fats tend to be solids at room temperatures. The mercaptoethanol disrupted the SiS bonds that also form between certain amino acids of the same polypeptide chains. Because [H ][OH ] always equals 10 10 8 M (i.simpopdf. he already knew what urea crystals looked like. Nucleic acids—information storage. the distinctive look of the crystals made him realize that he had synthesized urea. Figure 3. Test Yourself 1. b 7. a. The change in shape is often part of the mechanism by which signals are sent within and between cells. Because many chemical reactions in biology depend upon the actions of enzymes. Carbohydrates—energy storage and structural support b. the majority. Feature Investigation Questions 1. Anfinsen removed the urea and mercaptoethanol from the protein solution by size-exclusion chromatography. APPENDIX B . such as two carbon atoms. which are positively charged nuclei of helium atoms. Lipids—energy storage and components of cellular membranes c. which are often highly specific for the spatial arrangement of atoms in a molecule. There are two major types of isomers: structural and stereoisomers. Thus. because pairs can form only between A and T. A hydrogen bond is a weak polar covalent bond that forms when a hydrogen atom from one polar molecule becomes electrically attracted to an electronegative atom. Therefore. because this organelle is primarily responsible for synthesizing proteins. resulting in the formation of monomers. These results were counter to the hypothesized model. the shape of one or both molecules may change as a consequence. d 9. This demonstrated that the protein could refold into the functional conformation. Hydrophobic: “Water-fearing”—molecules that are not attracted to water molecules. protein folding could not occur spontaneously. d 5. Figure 3. one less than the number of amino acids in the polypeptide Figure 3.0). e 7. A-3 14 M.6 One reason is that the binding of a molecule to an enzyme depends on the spatial arrangements of the atoms in that molecule. The double bonds in unsaturated fatty acids alters their shape. resulting from random electrical forces generated by the changing distributions of electrons in the outer shells of nearby atoms. if a portion of the first strand is AATGCA. A nonpolar covalent bond is one between two atoms of similar electronegativities. one may bind very tightly to an enzyme while the other may not be recognized at all. the chemical characteristics of the amino acids that make up a protein will determine the three-dimensional shape. meaning some other molecule in the cytoplasm. The van der Waal forces are temporary. In other words. b 4. the opposite strand along that region would be TTACGT. Based on this model of the structure of the atom. Therefore. in part. Proteins—many functions. when two molecules do interact through such forces as hydrogen bonds. the ability of that molecule to interact with other molecules. transport. Many believed that the positive charges and mass were evenly distributed throughout the atom. 2.21 It is 10 6 M. Saturated fatty acids are saturated with hydrogen and have only single (CiC) bonds. and therefore. 3. including enzymes.5 that the reverse of a dehydration reaction is called a hydrolysis reaction. weak bonds.com APPENDIX B Figure 2. e 6. Also.e. e 10. due to the presence of positive charges spread throughout the gold foil. Figure 3.1 Due to the fact that he had earlier purified urea from urine and then formed urea crystals. b 10. Isomers are two structures with an identical molecular formula but with different structures and arrangements of atoms within the molecule. disrupting the three-dimensional shape. then [OH ] must be 10 6 M. Saturated fatty acids are unkinked and are better able to stack tightly together.. ions and molecules that contain polar covalent bonds will dissolve in water and are said to be hydrophilic. b 2.15 71.12 The phospholipids would be oriented such that their polar regions dissolved in the water layer and the nonpolar regions dissolved in the Chapter 4 Concept Checks Figure 4. Figure 3. After removing the urea and mercaptoethanol. This was important because the solution contained only the protein and lacked any other cellular material that could possibly assist in protein folding.