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Q. 1. What are the different types of fibers depending on refractive index profile?

OR What are the differences between step index and graded index fibers? Ans. Depending on refractive index profile, there are two types of fibers (a) Step index fiber (b) Graded index fiber (a) Step index fiber : In the step index fiber, the refractive index of the core is uniform throughout and undergoes an abrupt or step change at the core-cladding boundary. The refractive index profile is defined as:

The light rays that propagate through the fiber are in the form of meridional rays which will cross the fiber axis during every reflection at the core boundary and propagate in zigzag manner. Step index fiber can be single mode step index fiber or multimode sp index fiber. Graded index fiber : Graded index fibers do not have a constant refractive index in the core but a decreasing core index n (r) with radial distance from maximum value of at the axis to a constant value n2 beyond the core radius in cladding. The refractive index profile is given as:

The light rays propagating through it are in the form of skey rays or helical rays which will not cross the fiber axis at any time and propagate around the fiber axis in a helical or spiral manner. Graded index fibers are sometimes referred to as inhomogeneous core fibers. Q 2. What are single mode and multimode fibers? OR What are the differences between single mode and multimode fibers?

Ans. SINGLE MODE FIBERS: Single mode fibers have a small core and only one pathway of light. The difference between the refractive indices of the core and the cladding is very small. With only a single wavelength of light passing through its core,, single mode realigns the light towards the center of the core instead of bounding it off the edge of the core. Single mode fiber allows for a higher capacity to transmit information because it can retain the fidelity of each light pulse over longer distances and it exhibits no dispersion caused by multiple modes. Single mode fiber also enjoys lower fiber attenuation than multimode fiber. But single mode fibers also have disadvantages. The smaller core diameter makes coupling light into the core more difficult. Fabrication of single mode fibers is very difficult and so the fiber is expensive. According to fiber refractive index profile single mode fiber is called Single mode step index fiber.

Therefore all light rays take approximately the same time to travel the length of the fiber. light is propagated down the fiber through reflection. MULTIMODE FIBERS Multimode fibers have a large core diameter that is much larger than the wavelength of light transmitted. In this type of fiber. . The core diameter of this fiber ranges from 5am to 10pm. The light rays that strike the core/cladding interface at an angle greater than the critical angle are propagated down the core in a zigzag fashion. As the light rays propagate down the fiber. Light rays that strike the core/cladding interface at an angle less than the critical angle enter the cladding and are lost. Multimode fiber may be categorized as (1) Multimode step index fiber (ii) Multimode graded index fiber (I) Multimode Step index fiber Multimode step index fibers are similar to the single mode step index fibers except the center core is much larger with multimode configuration.Single mode step Index fiber Single mode step index fiber has a central core that is significantly smaller in diameter than any of the multimode fiber. the core diameter and relative refractive index difference are larger than in single mode fiber. With this large core diameter there are many paths through which light can travel. This type of fiber has a large light to fiber aperture and allows more light to enter the fiber. Because the refractive index decreases with distance from the center. All rays follow approximately the same amount of time to travel the length of the fiber. (ii) Multimode graded index fiber The multimode graded index fiber is an improvement on the multimode step index fiber. Due to this light rays travelling down fiber have a tendency to spread out. the rays travelling in the outer most area of the fiber travel a greater distance than the rays travelling near the center. It allows large number of modes for the light rays travelling through it. the light rays travelling farthest from the center propagate at a higher velocity. Multimode graded index fibers have non-uniform refractive index. Light rays propagate down this type of fiber through refraction rather than reflection. This fiber has maximum density at the center which gradually decreases towards the outer edge. In multimode fibers. Light rays that enter the fiber either propagate down the core or are reflected only few times. which results in large difference in propagation times. Light rays take different paths down the fiber.

3. Disadvantages (i) It is difficult to couple light into and out of the fiber as the central core is very small. Disadvantages (i) The bandwidth and the information transfer rate in this fiber is less than other type of fibers. Single Mode Fibers Advantages (i) Single mode fibers have minimum dispersion as all rays propagating down the fiber take approximately the same time to travel down the fiber. Disadvantages Light can’t be easily coupled into this fiber than multimode step index fiber. Multimode fibers are classified as: (i) Multimode step index fiber (ii) Multimode graded index fiber.Q. 5. It determines the maximum repeater less separation between the transmitter and the receiver. (I) Multimode step index fiber Advantages (i) It is easier to couple light into and out of multimode step index fibers because they have a relatively large source to fiber aperture. What is signal attenuation in an optical fiber ? What is the unit of attenuation? Ans. Whereas single mode fibers must be excited with laser diodes Disadvantages (z) Multimode fibers suffer from intermodal dispersion Q 4 What are the advantages and disadvantages of different types of single mode and multimode fibers? Ans. . (II) Multimode graded index fiber Advantages (i) Light can be easily coupled into this fiber than single mode step index fiber. It is also known as fiber loss or signal loss in an optical fiber. (ii) Intermodal dispersion is less than in multimode step index fiber. Q. (ii) Multimode step index fiber suffers from intermodal dispersion. (ii) These fibers are expensive and difficult to manufacture. Signal attenuation in an optical fiber is defined as the decrease in light power during light propagation along an optical fiber. (ii) Wider bandwidths and higher information transmission rates are possible with single mode fibers. Advantages (i) The larger core diameter of multimode fiber makes it easier to launch optical power into the fiber and facilitate the connecting together of similar fibers.relatively in expensive and simple to manufacture. What are the advantages and disadvantages of multimode fibers over single mode fibers? Ans. It results in a reduction of power of light wave as it travels down the optical fiber. (ii) Light can be launched into a multimode fiber using a light emitting diode source. (ii) Multimode step index fibers are .

These intrinsic losses are mostly insignificant in a wide region where fiber can operate but these inhibit the extension of fiber systems towards ultraviolet as well as infrared regions. Q. copper and OH ions in glass material. These impurities are incorporated during the fabrication process and it is very hard to eliminate. If an optical fiber were absolutely pure. explain in detail basic attenuation mechaniems. 6. (ii) Bending losses : (Radiative losses) . (a) Intrinsic absorption Intrinsic absorption is caused by basic fiber material properties. (b) Extrinsic absorption : Extrinsic absorption is caused by the presence of impurities in fiber like iron. Water in silica glass forms a silicon hydroxyl (Si—OH) band. Extrinsic absorption also occurs when hydroxyl ions (OH-) are introduced into the fiber. with no imperfections or impurities. Extrinsic absorption is caused by the electronic transition of these metal ions from one energy level to another. the power of light wave decreases exponentially with distance. Various types of losses in optical fiber cable are: (i) Absorption losses (ii) Bending losses (iii) Scattering losses (I) Absorption losses : (Material Absorption losses) The composition of the material and the fabrication process of the fiber gives rise to material absorption. This results in the mechanism where optical power transmitted is lost as heat in the waveguide. Intrinsic absorption results from electronic absorption bands in ultra violet region and from atomic vibration bands in the near infrared region. Explain various types of losses in optical fiber cable.Due to attenuation. chromium. then all absorption would be intrinsic. Absorption occurs when a photon interacts with an electron in the valence band and excites it to higher energy level. Ans. These harmonic increases extrinsic absorption at 1383nxn. However. 1250 nm and 950 run. This band has a fundamental absorption at 2700 run. cobalt. The material absorption is of two types: (a) Intrinsic absorption (b) Extrinsic absorption. Intrinsic absorption is very strong in the short wavelength ultraviolet portion of electromagnetic spectrum. the harmonics or overtones of the fundamental absorption occur in the region of operation. also known as attenuation coefficient or attenuation rate. OR With the help of suitable diagrams.

resulting in power loss. What do you mean by Dispersion? Ans.Bending losses occur whenever an optical fiber undergoes a bend of finite radius of curvature. Although light travels along straight segment of a fiber. Fig.g. condition of total internal reflection is not met and a portion of the beam will be refracted and will leak out of the core. Whenever an optical fiber cable is bent. (iii) Scattering losses Scattering losses are due to microscopic variations in the material density from compositional fluctuations and from structural defects occurring during manufacture. 7. Even very small changes in the values of the core refractive index will be seen by a travelling beam as an optical obstacle and this obstacle will change the direction of original beam. Fibers can be subject to two types of bends. Molecular density is not uniform since glass is made up of several oxides such as Ge02. Si02 and P205. then the ray of light forms a propagation angle that is more than critical angle when it strikes the fiber. These may have different radii over small sections and are distributed randomly over the length of the fiber. such bends occur when a fiber cable turns a corner. Microbends do not have regular shapes or distributions along the fiber. It . (a) Macro bending losses (b) Micro bending losses (a) Macro bending losses : Micro bends are the bends having radii that are large compared to the fiber diameter e. the light is directed out of the core then attenuation occurs. (b) Microbending losses: Microbending loss is caused by the micro deformation of the fiber axis. The beam that initially travels at the critical propagation angle changes its angle of propagation after reflection at these imperfections. Since some light will pass out of the core. The dispersion leads to the degradation of the signal quality at the output end. Rayleigh scattering accounts for about 96 percent of attenuation in optical fiber. So. It is the time distortion of an optical signal that results from many discrete wavelength components travelling at different rates. light beam meets these imperfections and gets deflected. there are mainly two types of bending losses. however. Due to this total internal reflection is not achieved in bent fiber. If the light is scattered at an angle that does not support forward travel. Some portion of the light beam escapes from the core of the fiber and the power of the light at its receiving end is less than the power of the light emitted into the fiber from a light source. This is one of the major causes of total attenuation that light experiences while propagating through an optical fiber. shows mechanism of micro bending losses. Dispersion: “Spreading of optical pulses as they travel down the fiber” is known as dispersion. no attenuation occurs. so. This effect will inhibit attainment of the condition of total internal reflection at core-cladding boundary. Q. If the scattered light maintains an angle that supports forward travel within the core.

Intermodal dispersion limi4s both the bandwidth as well as the distance. 8. It limits both the bandwidth and the distance that information can be transmitted. The amount of pulse spreading caused by material dispersion per length is given by: . This type of dispersion occurs due to the fact that the light inside the fiber propagates in different modes. The dispersion leads to the degradation of the signal. It is also known as chromatic dispersion. (1) Intermodal Dispersion (ii) Intermodal Dispersion (iii) Polarization Mode Dispersion (i) Intermodal Dispersion Pulse widening caused by the mode structure of a light beam inside the fiber is called inter modal (modal) dispersion. Quality at the output end due to overlapping of the pulses. So. An information carrying light pulse contains different wavelengths because a light source radiates light of a spectral width. The maximum pulse broadening arising from intermodal dispersion is the difference between the travel time Tmax of the higher order mode and the travel time Tmin of the fundamental mode (ii) Intramodal dispersion It is a pulse spreading that occurs within single mode fiber. Ans Dispersion the broadening of the signal pulse width due to dependence of the refractive index of the material of the fiber on the wavelength of the carrier is called dispersion. Chromatic dispersion consists of two mechanisms: (a) Material Dispersion (b) Wave guide Dispersion (a) Material Dispersion: It is the pulse spreading due to dispersive properties of the material. Material dispersion is caused by the wavelength dependence of the silica’s refractive index. OR What do you mean by dispersions ? Explain different dispersion mechanisms. So. It mainly occurs in multimode fibers. Explain in detail chromatic dispersion in single mode fibers. The higher order modes travel a longer distance and arrive at the receiver end later than the lower order modes. In a fiber three distinct types of dispersions are observed (i) Inter modal dispersion (ii) Intra modal dispersion (iii) Polarization mode dispersion. Q. What are dispersion units? OR Discuss signal degradation in optical fibers. the components of the pulse with different wavelengths will travel within the fiber at different velocities and will arrive at the fiber end at different times. causing the spread of the pulse. Thus one mode travels more slowly than another mode.spreads the output pulse in the time domain and changes its shape so that it may merge into the succeeding or previous pulses. It is caused by the dependence of the optical properties on wavelength. intermodal dispersion is a result of different values of the group delay for each individual mode at a single frequency. There are three kinds of dispersion mechanisms in the fiber.

It mainly occurs in multimode fibers. The autocarrelation function of is (t) is related to spectral density Ss(F) by Wiener-Khinchin theorem. If only + ye frequencies are considered by changing the lower limit of integration to zeros. Both portions propagate at different velocities. 9. The spectral density of shot noise is constant and is given by . Pulse widening caused by the mode structure of light beam inside the fiber is called intermodal (modal) dispersion. one sided spectral density becomes Nosie variance is obtained by setting r = 0 in equation (1). An information carrying light pulse after entering in a single mode fiber is distributed between the core and cladding. Dispersion per unit time is given by: Intermodal dispersion is the sum of material and waveguide dispersion. Q.nm. the pulse will spread because light is confined within the structure having different refractive indexes.(b) Waveguide Dispersion: Waveguide dispersion is most significant in single mode fibers. Ans. . Its major portion travels within the core. Dispersion units Modal dispersion in an optical fiber is specified by the characteristics pulse spread per kilometer length in the units of ns/km as it is independent of the Iinewidth of the source. The amount of pulse spreading caused by waveguide. the rest within the cladding. where Ss(F) is two sided spectral density +ve and -ye frequencies are included in above = n (I). Intermodal dispersion occurs because each mode travels a different distance over the same time span as shown in Fig. where angle brackets denote an ensemble average over and fluctuations. Material and waveguide dispersion depend on the source line width. Since core and cladding have different refractive indexes. so these are expressed as ns/km. Explain the mechanism of intermodal dispersion in multimode step index fiber.

= Root mean square value of noise current induced by shot noise. dark current ‘d also generates shot noise. Pulse spreading caused by a change of fiber polarization properties is called PMD. What is Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) ? What are the causes of polarization mode dispersion? Ans.where.where = effective noise bandwidth of receives. Mechanical stresses and external environmental . . relative refractive index difference between the core and the cladding. Q. This equation represents the maximum pulse broadening in time due to intermodal dispersion in multimode step index fiber. Its contribution is included by replacing where. It occurs in single mode fibers when fibers are not cylindrical symmetrical Single mode fibers support one mode which consists of two orthogonal polarization modes Ideally the core of an optical fiber has an index of refraction that is uniform over the entire cross-section. 10. Since. If we consider current fluctuations and include total transfer for two HT (F). PMD is a serious limitation for fiber optic communication systems operating 40Gb/s per channel.

Rayleigh scattering is a fundamental loss mechanism arising from microscopic fluctuations in density. (ii) Extrinsic Factors: Extrinsic factors are those that induce birefringence after manufacture. elliptical cladding. the fiber drawing process can induce some asymmetry that cause birefringence. The beam will be refracted into cladding layer as shown in Fig.effects can cause slight changes in the core of the fiber which causes a change in index of eraction. the particle will scatter the light in another direction and affect the total internal reflection at the boundary of core-cladding. internal stresses etc. For optical fibers. Write a Note on Rayleigh scattering loss in optical fibers. wavelength. It varies from fiber to fiber because of the randomness of the underlying geometric stress irregularities. Ans. causing dispersion of optical pulse. It is a dominant loss in low absorption window between the ultraviolet and infrared absorption tails. Cabling of fiber after manufacture can cause stresses that induce birefringence. there may be some in homogeneities or imperfections in the core layer Due to in homogeneity. light beam propagating at an angle close to or more than critic angle will hit the obstacle and bend its direction because of scattering. It also occurs due to seasonal heating and cooling of optical fiber. This can cause one of orthogonal modes to travel faster than the other. compressive and tensile forces when fiber is bent and shear forces when fiber is twisted. Q.r. OR Describe linear scattering losses in optical fibers with regard to (i) Rayleigh scattering (ii) Mie scattering. If there is any impurity particle in the path of light in the core. Ans. 12. it is reflected ml different directions which is called light scattering. GVD is responsible for dispersive broadening of pulses as well as for the group velocity mismatch of different waves in parametric nonlinear interactions. These external forces can be radial compressive forces when fiber lies against each other. Causes of PMD In single mode fiber. Birefringence occurs when external forces act on the fiber. PMD is random. The basic units are S /m. Birefringence arises due to intrinsic and extrinsic non homogeneity of fiber core diameter. (i) Intrinsic Factors: Intrinsic factors are those that are present in the fiber during manufacturing stage It can include elliptical core. 11. When light strikes an object. This can be calculated as This is usually specified with units of ps/nmkm. scattering occurs in the core or cladding. During manufacturing of fiber. due to impurity particle. the group velocity dispersion usually defined as a derivative w. In the optical fiber. . Write a note on group velocity dispersion. Group Velocity Dispersion: GVD is the phenomenon that the group velocity of light in a transparent medium depends on the optical frequency or wavelength The group velocity dispersion is the group delay dispersion per unit length. The birefringence which causes PMD is due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. When the fiber material are prepared. GVD causes a short pulse of light to spread in time as a result of different frequency components of pulse travelling at different velocities Q.t. so PMD is the result of birefringence which is the difference in refractive indices along perpendicular axis in the fiber.

The in homogeneity can resu1 into variation of refractive index and the variation c refractive index may be such that the particular location with large refraction index will act as an obstacle and cause scattering loss. The in homogeneities can be minimized by reducing imperfection during glass manufacturing process and by carefully controlled extrusion and coating on the fiber. Non linear scattering cause disproportionate attenuation at high optical power levels. The frequency shift is maximum in backward direction reducing to zero in forward direction making SBS a mainly backward process. The scattering occurring due to such in homogeneities is mainly in forward direction and this type of scattering is known as Mie scattering. Mie scattering can cause considerable power loss. Depending on the fiber material. This causes the transfer of optical power from one mode either in forward or backward direction to the same or other modes at a different frequency. design and manufacture. Q. 13. Rayleigh scattering coefficient. This type of loss is called Rayleigh scattering loss. It is given by The transmission loss factor or transmissivity of the fiber TL is related to Rayleigh scattering coefficient by: Mie Scattering: Linear scattering occur at in homogeneities which are comparable to in size with the guided wavelength. The important types of non linear scattering within optical fibers are (i) Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) (ii) Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) (I) Stimulated Briilouin Scattering (SBS) Stimulated Brillouin scattering is the modulation of light through thermal vibrations within the fiber Modulation frequency for the scattered light separates the incident light into upper and lower side bands. Explain stimulated Brillouim and Raman scattering in optical fibers and indicate the ways in which they can be avoided in optical fiber communication. When the size of scattering in homogeneities is greater than the scattered intensity has an angular dependence and can be quite large. OR Explain Non linear scattering mechanisms in optical fibers. This produces an optical frequency shift which varies with scattering angle because the frequency of the sound wave varies with acoustic wavelength. The optical power level at which Brillouin scattering becomes significant in a single mode fiber is given by an empirical formula. Ans. Rayleigh scattering loss occurs whenever a light wave travels through a medium having scattering objects smaller than a wavelength. The threshold power level B is given by . The incident photon produces a photon of acoustic frequency as well as a scattered photon.

Cross Phase Modulation (XPM) and Four Wave Mixing (FWM). Q. SRS occurs in both the forward and backward direction in the optical fiber and has an optical power threshold of up to three orders of magnitude higher than the Brillouin threshold in a particular fiber. An optical effect is called non linear if its parameters depend on light intensity (power) Non lenear effects depend on the transmission length The longer the fiber. (ii) Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) generates a high frequency optical phonon in the scattering process and is similar to SBS except that acoustic phonon is generated in SBS rather than optical phonon. There are two main non linear categories. The phase modulation due to intensity dependent refractive index induces various non linear effects such as Self Phase Modulation (SPM). It includes self phase modulation (SPM). So the stimulated Raman scattering is an interaction between the light wave and the vibration modes of silica molecules. It is due to the power dependency of the refractive index of . (iii) SBS effect decreases with increase in speed because of the signal broadening affect of the modulation. no.In current systems SBS has not been much of the problem for the following reasons: (i) Direct modulation of the transmit laser’s injections current produces a chirp and broadens the signal. SRS generates scattered light at a wavelength larger than that of the incident light. 14. the higher power from optical amplifier and long transmission distances make it no longer negligible in modern optical communication systems. This non linearity produces a carrier induced phase modulation of the propagating signal which is called optical kerr effect. (ii) Non linear effect due to intensity dependent variations in the refractive index in a fiber. This significantly reduces the effect of SBS. Cross Phase Modulation (XPM) and Four Wave Mixing (FWM) It is also known as optical kerr effect. the more the light interacts with the fiber material and the greater the non linear effects But if the power decreases while light travels along the fiber. (i) Non linear scattering process which stimulated Raman are scattering and stimulated Brillouin scattering. (iii) In remote pumping of an erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) through a separate fiber. the effects of non linearity diminish. But SBS can be a major problem in three situations. 13. (i) In long distance systems where the span between amplifiers is great and the bit rate low. (ii) Intensity dependent non linear effects (Optical kerr effect) The refractive index of silica fiber is weakly dependent on optical intensity and is given. (i) Non linear scattering processes: Refer Q. by: The non-linearity in the refractive index is known as kerr non-linearity. Although refractive index is a very weak function of signal power. Self Phase Modulation (SPM) : SPM converts optical power fluctuations in a propagating light wave to phase fluctuations in the same light wave. (ii) The SBS effect is less in 1300 nm systems than 1550 nm systems due to the higher attenuation of the fiber. (ii) In WDM systems (upto 10 Gbps) where the spectral width of the signal is very normal. Describe Non linear optical effects Ans.

SPM creates a frequency chirp which is a gradual shift in frequency over the whole direction of a pulse Fig. shows self phase modulation. the non linear phase shift of the signal at center wavelength 1. the leading edge of the pulse causes the refractive index of the fiber to rise.therefore the frequency spectrum of the pulse are broadened. Due to the Kerr effect. These red and blue shifts introduce a frequency chirp on each edge which interacts with the fiber’s dispersion to broaden the pulse. is given b The first term is responsible for SPM and the second term is for CPM. When the optical signal is time varying such as an intensity modulated signal time varying non linear phase shift results in a broadened spectrum of the optical signal.the fiber core. each changing the refractive index as the optical power varies. resulting in blue shift. The falling edge of the pulse decreases the refractive index of the fiber causing a red shift. Changes in phase amount to changes in frequency . Increasing the fiber effective area will reduce XPM and all other fiber non-linearity. In a multi channel system. Unlike SPM. This is called cross phase modulation because it acts between multiple signals rather than within a single signal. There a difference between the refractive indexes at the leading edge at the trailing edge and in the middle. the non linear phase shift is dependent on its own pulse shape. two pulses travel down the fiber. Cross Phase Modulation (XPM) : When there are multiple signals at different wavelengths in the same fiber Kerr effect caused by one signal can result in phase modulation of the other signal. they will introduce distortion into the other pulse through XPM. In XPM. . This changes the phase of light waves that makes up the pulse. At different points within a single pulse of light in the fiber the refractive index of glass is different. The non linear phase shift is given by Since. the refractive index of the glass experienced by a light pulse varies. it is called self phase modulation (SPM). fiber dispersion has little impact on XPM. The dependence of the refractive index on optical intensity causes a non linear phase shift while propagating through an optical fiber. As the optical pulse travels down the fiber. The relative transmission distance for two pulses in different channels to collide with each other is called walk off distance Lw. If these pulses happen to overlap.

the FWM effect increases exponentially. as signal power increases.3. Third order distortion mechanisms generate third order harmonics in systems with one channel. (ii) Convert the perform into a fiber. Fiber connectors are classified into two broad categories: the butt connector and the Expanded beam connector.3. FWM occurs when two or more signals propagate in the same direction in the same fiber. In the expanded beam connector.2.1. FWM effect is non linear with signal power i. Fiber splice: it is a permanent or semi-permanent joint between two fibers. This collimates the light emerging from transmitter fiber to be focused on to the core of the receiving fiber. In the butt connectors two fiber ends are aligned in such a way that the fiber core axis coincide and are then butted to each other. Splices are of two types : midspan splice in which two cables are connected and pigtail splice in which there is a connector at one end of the fiber and other end is free for splicing to a cable. These cross products cause the most problems since they often fall near or on top of the desired signals.generated waves have different group velocities which destroys the phase matching of the interacting waves and decreases the efficiency at which power is transferred to new generated frequencies Q.8 john m senior .5.7. It is caused by the non linear nature of the refractive index of the optical fiber itself.3. These signals mix to produce new signals at wavelengths which are spaced at the same intervals as the mixing signals. What is fiber splice and fiber connector? Ans. FWM effect increases as channel spacing is reduced. A signal at frequency mixes with a signal at frequency to produce two new signals one at frequency and other at . 17. Connectors are used to link fiber cable with the transmitter or the receiver. Fiber splice is used in situations where frequent connection and disconnection is not needed.Four waves Mixing (FWM) FWM is a third order non linearity in optical fibers. Good connector should have following requirements: (i) Low coupling losses (ii) Ease of assembly (iii) Low environmental sensitivity (iv) Low cost (v) Reliable construction (vi) Ease of connection Q.e. The effect can also occur between three and more signals. The FWM effect is similar to inter modulation distortion in electrical systems. lenses are used on the ends of the fibers. In multichannel systems. 16. 15. the signal waves and the . What are the different steps for fabrication of tele communication grade silica fibers? Ans. It is used to create long optical links. Fiber Connector: It is a detachable connection between two fibers. third order mechanisms generate third order harmonics and a number of cross products. As the dispersion varies with wavelength. Fabrication of tele communication grade silica fibers involve two steps (i) Make a cylindrical perform with a desired refractive index profile. Q. NUMERICALS PROBLEMS & Example 3. What are the main requirements of a good connector? Ans. It also depends on fiber dispersion. 3.

Ans. modes propagating in the fiber when it is operating at a wavelength of Problem 3. The fiber has a numerical aperture of 0. . Calculate Transmission loss factor and Rayleigh scattering coefficient for a fiber having following parameters. Calculate the refractive indices of the core and the cladding materials of an optical fiber whose NA = 0. Rayleigh scattering coefficient Problem 2. A graded index fiber has a core with a parabolic refractive index profile which has a diameter of .01.35 and A = 0.2. Estimate the number of guided .Problem 1.

Calculate the cut off number and number of modes supported by the step index fiber with n1 = 1. Problem 5.46 and 4.Problem 4.53.5 respectively with the relative index difference being 0.5 and with a core radius of 50gm operating at 1550 nm. .25%. n2 = 1. Determine the cut off wavelength for a step index fiber to exhibit single mode operation when the core refractive index and radius are 1.

3 Ans. Calculate the diameter of the fiber core of relative refractive index difference is 10%.5. No. how many modes will it have? Ans.Problem 6. core refractive index n1 = 1. Normalized cut off frequency. of modes propagation is 1100 and wavelength of operation is 1. Consier a fiber with diameter operated at 1550 mm. If this fiber is Problem 7.5 . n1 = 1.